WorldWideScience

Sample records for areas by point of view

  1. Teaching mathematics online in the European Area of Higher Education: an instructor's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Angel A.; Steegmann, Cristina; Huertas, Antonia; Martinez, M. Jesus; Simosa, J.

    2011-03-01

    This article first discusses how information technologies are changing the way knowledge is delivered at universities worldwide. Then, the article reviews some of the most popular learning management systems available today and some of the most useful online resources in the areas of Mathematics and Statistics. After that, some long-term experiences regarding the teaching of online courses in those areas at the Open University of Catalonia are discussed. Finally, the article presents the results of a large-scale survey performed in Spain that aims to reflect instructors' opinions and feelings about potential benefits and challenges of teaching mathematics online, as well as the role of emergent technologies in the context of the European Area of Higher Education. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature as an additional reference point, one based on our long-term experience in a large-scale online environment, for discussions involving mathematical e-learning.

  2. Tracking Point of View in Narrative

    CERN Document Server

    Wiebe, J M

    1994-01-01

    Third-person fictional narrative text is composed not only of passages that objectively narrate events, but also of passages that present characters' thoughts, perceptions, and inner states. Such passages take a character's ``psychological point of view''. A language understander must determine the current psychological point of view in order to distinguish the beliefs of the characters from the facts of the story, to correctly attribute beliefs and other attitudes to their sources, and to understand the discourse relations among sentences. Tracking the psychological point of view is not a trivial problem, because many sentences are not explicitly marked for point of view, and whether the point of view of a sentence is objective or that of a character (and if the latter, which character it is) often depends on the context in which the sentence appears. Tracking the psychological point of view is the problem addressed in this work. The approach is to seek, by extensive examinations of naturally-occurring narra...

  3. Analysis of Ankara urban area from human bioclimatologic point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Türkoğlu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  4. Evaluation of Recreational Areas in Reservoir Serie of Belgrad Forest From Forest Management Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Mehmet; Destan, Sinan

    2010-01-01

     ã€€The aim of this study was to implement a developed and tested methodology to determine the function of forest recreation, which can be useful for forest management and planning. In the study, structural components that are effective in evaluation of categories and types of seven recreational areas (Bentler, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Irmak, Kirazlıbent, Kömürcübent, Neşetsuyu and M.Akif Ersoy) in The Bentler Planning Unit of Belgrad Forest were rendered into a measurable situation and digitized. O...

  5. The educator's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengo De Vargas, M E

    1993-03-01

    Education is considered as an important means of promoting social change, and within this context how population issues can be integrated into development planning and educational practices is discussed. Education is expected to have an impact in future years, and is a necessary means of creating awareness of population-related problems; education for all is a human right. New approaches to population education must include teacher training and creation of awareness about population issues that respect cultural identity and free choice and do not influence customs and values that would run counter to the society. Educators have an ethical responsibility to address issues of population and human life; when seeking outside expertise, the nation should not be "carried away by the pressures of financial agencies which respond to foreign interests." For instance, the psychosocial dynamics and practice of sexual intercourse in Central America are different from those in North America or Europe. Sexual education must be based on sound scientific approaches, but must also include ethical values. Population education must use a holistic, intersectoral approach. Nations have human, natural, and economic resources, which must have a balanced influence. Human development involves being both the object and planner of development. Pope John Paul II noted that development must include the biological, the psychosocial, and the spiritual and reach all men. Human rights must be guaranteed. In addition to equality for women everyone has the right to dignity, education, employment, health, housing, and leisure. Quality of life is a part of human development, and is achieved through a balance between man, his environment, and resources, and liberty and peace. Educational strategies involve macro planning for placement and number of schools and teachers, and decentralizing educational services in order to reach rural areas. Formal and informal education is required. Adult education is

  6. Extralaryngeal Terminal Division of the Inferior Laryngeal Nerve: Anatomical Classification by a Surgical Point of View

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    Emin Gurleyik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complete anatomic knowledge including all variations of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN is mandatory for thyroid surgeon. Extralaryngeal terminal division (ETD of the ILN has significant importance for the safety of thyroidectomy. Material and Methods. Surgical dissection of 200 ILNs was performed on 100 cases. The presence of ETD of the nerve was determined intraoperatively. We propose by a surgical point of view a regional (segmental classification of ETD of the ILN along its cervical course. Results. ETD has been observed in 54/200 nerves (27%. Great majority are bifurcated nerves (trifurcation 2%. Four types of ETD are classified. In type 1 (arterial; 46.3%, ETD has occurred near inferior thyroid artery (ITA. In type 2 (postarterial; 31.5%, division has been found on postarterial segment. In type 3 (prelaryngeal; 11%, division has been located very close to laryngeal entry point. In type 4 (prearterial; 11%, ETD has occurred before the nerve crossing the ITA. Conclusions. ETD of the ILN is a common anatomical variation. The bifurcation occurs in the ILN at various distances from laryngeal entry point. The classification increasing surgeons’ awareness may help to simplify identification and exposure of terminal branches. Preservation of both extralaryngeal terminal branches of the ILN has paramount importance for the safety of thyroid operations.

  7. Irradiation: Consumers' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various potential reactions of consumers to irradiated foods are enumerated, with consideration being given to significant factors that will influence acceptance such as accentuation of freshness, just sufficient information (since the consumer wants a few reassuring facts, not too many technical details and a good reason to buy the product), assurance of safety, taste and appearance of the products, assurance of correct treatment under product conditions that will ensure the expected benefit, and indication of the expiry date (to ensure that shelf life used up in new transportation and distribution shcedules is clear to the consumer), assurance that the nutritional value has not been affected, competitive pricing - particularly where the handler has benefited from part of the shelf life extension, and information as to the benefits to the economy (lower food spoilage). Some steps taken in Canada to promote the technology and its acceptance by consumers were: adoption of the Codex Standard and Recommended Code of Practice, assurance of proper industry performance, and a decision to develop an appropriate symbol to designate irradiated food in a clearly recognisable manner, without unduly antagonizing the consumer. The Consumer's Association has acted to allay consumers' fears by supplying information to all media and by providing speakers at Seminars. It is now the task of industry to use ''marketing experts'' to further the education and selling process, and to tell the facts in simple concise terms. (author)

  8. The economy point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeder reactors give our country a chance to become independent of the importation of energy raw materials for the production of electricity. This security is gained at the cost of heavier capital investments than for the light water reactor version, more expenses for research and development, and a higher cost for one kWh. This article presents elements of comparison as a function of several assumptions

  9. A point's point of view of stringy geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of a 'point' is essential to describe the topology of spacetime. Despite this, a point probably does not play a particularly distinguished role in any intrinsic formulation of string theory. We discuss one way to try to determine the notion of a point from a worldsheet point of view. The derived category description of D-branes is the key tool. The case of a flop is analyzed and Π-stability in this context is tied in to some ideas of Bridgeland. Monodromy associated to the flop is also computed via Π-stability and shown to be consistent with previous conjectures. (author)

  10. Introduction: another point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Rix, Jonathan; Walsh, Christopher; Parry, John,; Kumrai, Rajni

    2010-01-01

    About the book: What are the experiences of children and young people? How can we think about the challenges they face? What systems and practices can support them? How can we develop greater equality, participation and inclusion across diverse settings? This second edition of Equality, Participation and Inclusion 1: Diverse Perspectives is the first of two Readers aimed at people with an interest in issues of equality, participation and inclusion for children and young people. This fir...

  11. The Software Point of View

    CERN Multimedia

    Bentvelsen, Stan

    Physics was meant to be the topic of the LUND workshop, but it was software that dominated throughout the week. ATLAS' new software proves a tough nut to crack. Many presented physics analyses were repetitions of the Physics TDR, using (or trying to use) the new software. The main purpose was to demonstrate that results were invariant with new software. Hard to prove since the 'new software' is not yet completed. Nevertheless the so far existing sofware is massively experimented with throughout the entire ATLAS community. So what does this "new software" really mean? The answer depends strongly on the person who deals with this question. The scope varies between "migrating from Fortran77 to C++" and "learn Object Oriented approach" to "implementing services and algorithms in Athena" or "feeding detector description in FADS". Clearly the new software primarily involves migrating from the old Fortran code to C++ with its object oriententation paradigm. Occasionaly there was a hint that this migration is not c...

  12. Fast Breeder Development: EDF's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents EDF's views and contributions to fast breeder development and to the French SFR trilateral program. Utility requirements are first outlined, based on the approach followed for the EPR reactor. R and D contributions are presented in the areas of core physics, safety, technology innovations, materials, deployment and fuel cycle scenarios. The paper also deals with some of the issues of the 2020 French prototype as seen by EDF.

  13. Features of Point Clouds Synthesized from Multi-View ALOS/PRISM Data and Comparisons with LiDAR Data in Forested Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenjian; Ranson, Kenneth Jon; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR waveform data from airborne LiDAR scanners (ALS) e.g. the Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) havebeen successfully used for estimation of forest height and biomass at local scales and have become the preferredremote sensing dataset. However, regional and global applications are limited by the cost of the airborne LiDARdata acquisition and there are no available spaceborne LiDAR systems. Some researchers have demonstrated thepotential for mapping forest height using aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery with very high spatial resolutions.For stereo imageswith global coverage but coarse resolution newanalysis methods need to be used. Unlike mostresearch based on digital surface models, this study concentrated on analyzing the features of point cloud datagenerated from stereo imagery. The synthesizing of point cloud data from multi-view stereo imagery increasedthe point density of the data. The point cloud data over forested areas were analyzed and compared to small footprintLiDAR data and large-footprint LiDAR waveform data. The results showed that the synthesized point clouddata from ALOSPRISM triplets produce vertical distributions similar to LiDAR data and detected the verticalstructure of sparse and non-closed forests at 30mresolution. For dense forest canopies, the canopy could be capturedbut the ground surface could not be seen, so surface elevations from other sourceswould be needed to calculatethe height of the canopy. A canopy height map with 30 m pixels was produced by subtracting nationalelevation dataset (NED) fromthe averaged elevation of synthesized point clouds,which exhibited spatial featuresof roads, forest edges and patches. The linear regression showed that the canopy height map had a good correlationwith RH50 of LVIS data with a slope of 1.04 and R2 of 0.74 indicating that the canopy height derived fromPRISM triplets can be used to estimate forest biomass at 30 m resolution.

  14. Suicide from a Holistic Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Suicide has been honoured and respected in the eastern culture, especially in Japan with the famous tradition of Hara-kiri, or seppuku, while in most western societies suicide has been seen negatively and many contemporary physicians tend to consider suicide the most self-destructive and evil thing a human being can do and something that should be avoided at all cost. Religions also have different viewpoints on suicide, but from a philosophical point of view we believe that considering the ch...

  15. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

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    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  16. Economic and market feasibility analysis, by the point of view of gas and electrical companies, for replacement of the electric powered showers by the natural gas powered showers in ABC Paulista area; Analise da viabilidade economica e do mercado, do ponto de vista das concessionarias de gas e de energia eletrica, pela substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por gas natural, na area do ABC paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callari, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda. (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of an exchange of energy for heating residential water should be seen, by the point of view of the concessionaires, as a single market and exclusionary, in which the development of new customers by the concessionaire of electric energy directly involves the development of these non-customers for the distributor of natural gas. The study shows that, under the terms of concession of electricity, the loss of any part of the markets, current and expansion would be attractive only if the natural gas concessionaire could pass part of their earnings with customers users of electric showers that change their profile to the gas heaters, for electrical distribution. Under the terms of the concession to natural gas, the condition of massive investments replacement of electric showers and absorption of growth and expansion entrant with customers, increase the turnover to allow the search of a mechanism for transferring part of that revenue to absorb also customers of electricity. Thus, both the concessionaire of electricity preserve their revenue and, in turn, the concessionaire of natural gas would have an effective gain of revenue for the absorption of the customers of electric showers. (author.

  17. STUDY REGARDING THE QUALITY OF THE TRUE AND FAIR VIEW SUPPLIED BY THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FROM FINANCIAL AUDITOR’S POINT OF VIEW

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    Matis Dumitru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “true and fair view” is a very subjective one , which didn’t find yet the definition general accepted and in this way we can’t say that there are relevant instruments for measuring the level of the fidelity reflected in the financial statements. The financial audit plays an important role for delimitating the true and fair view supplied by the financial statements and despite the fact that the financial auditors are consciences that there isn’t a mathematical formula or other kind of formula through which could be possible to measure the level of the fidelity and the true and fair view of the financial statement, they consider that they have the possibility to identify the situations in which the financial statements didn’t present the reality true and fair, using the professional though to determine the level of the financial statements to give a true and fair view We have made an empirical survey which permits us to analyze the quality of the true and fair view supplied by the financial statements from the point of view of the financial auditor, without having the pretentious of using all the significant aspects.

  18. Games, Montage and the First Person Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsche, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Games, Montage and the First Person Point of View By Michael Nitsche LCC – Georgia Tech Executive Abstract Montage of moving images is an effect present in games. To investigate this effect we look at the use of the first person point of view (POV) in montage elements controlled by the player. The focus of the analysis lies on montage that combines gameplay and visualization. The interactive control that generates a reference between player and player-character ...

  19. Dental CT in the planning of surgery. Role in the oromaxillofacial area from the dentist's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental computer assisted tomography (Dental CT) represents a valuable addition to the diagnostic spectrum for planning oral and maxillofacial surgery. High resolution CT and specially designed computer software allow representation of the jaws in different planes that are easy to match. They further allow the display of very small structures relevant to oral surgical interventions and reveal their spatial relationship in three dimensions. Thus, communication between dentists and radiologists may be intensified and supported by usage of modern telecommunication systems. Dental CT is indicated, when clinical and conventional radiological techniques will not allow exact interpretation of the situation. It is modern oral implantology that primarily benefits from computer software enabling the assessment of surgical sites in the presurgical phase. Such planning was not yet possible using two dimensional radiographic techniques. The dental-implantological part expects from radiography sharply defined contours of the external bony contours and the mandibular canal, exactly defined relation between slices and planes, no distortion in the orthoradial planes, tools for reliable measurements of distances, angles and volumes, possibility to transmit pictures electronically or on hardcopy without loss of quality. (orig.)

  20. Whose point-of-view is it anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2011-03-01

    Shared virtual worlds such as Second Life privilege a single point-of-view, namely that of the user. When logged into Second Life a user sees the virtual world from a default viewpoint, which is from slightly above and behind the user's avatar (the user's alter ego 'in-world.') This point-of-view is as if the user were viewing his or her avatar using a camera floating a few feet behind it. In fact it is possible to set the view to as if you were seeing the world through the eyes of your avatar or you can even move the camera completely independent of your avatar. A change in point-of-view, means, more than just a different camera point-of-view. The practice of using multiple avatars requires a transformation of identity and personality. When a user 'enacts' the identity of a particular avatar, their 'real' personality is masked by the assumed personality. The technology of virtual worlds permits both a change of point-of -view and also facilitates a change in identity. Does this cause any psychological distress? Or is the ability to be someone else and see a world (a game, a virtual world) through a different set of eyes somehow liberating and even beneficial?

  1. EPR: the electricians' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives the French and German electricians point of view about the technical solutions retained in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) project for the choice of systems, components and safety standards according to their respective experience. Standardisation, availability, unit power and cycle cost are the main factors that determine the cost of the project. The new requests of French and German safety authorities have determined the fundamental choices for safety systems, nuclear auxiliary systems, external aggression protections and prevention of severe accidents in agreement with the solutions retained for existing reactors. The main differences in the conception of the existing N4 french reactor and the Konvoi German reactor are listed as an example and compared to the solutions retained for the common EPR project. The standardisation policy adopted for the EPR project will lead in 1997 to the redaction of a preliminary safety and functional specificities report necessary to start the authorization procedure for a first realisation. (J.S.). 1 tab

  2. Habitability from a microbial point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s μm to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s μm - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

  3. Entertainment costs from the corporate income tax point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Veselá, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the current legislation concerning the entertainment costs which are treated as tax non-deductible expenses in the Czech Republic. Further, this thesis compares these costs with promotion and sponsorship costs which are frequently interchanged in practice. After evaluation of the existing legislation in this area, I focus on the question whether these expenses should be treated as non-deductible expenses from the tax point of view while I base my opinion ...

  4. The poetic nature of non-religious Spirituality: A point of view by Jean Paul Sartre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Villas Boas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine some theories of non-religious spirituality in light of the growing phenomenon of those individuals who declared themselves as having "no religion" by Brazilian religious census conducted in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The intention here is to identify how the poetic question presents itself as the fundamental element of these proposals about spirituality for authors, since beauty is part of the spiritual quest, as in: Viktor Frankl and existential religiosity grounded in the search for meaning in life; Marià Corbí and his non-religious or secular spirituality; Robert Solomon and his spirituality for skeptics, and André Comte-Sponville and his atheistic spirituality, or spirituality without God. From there, we then present the perception of spirituality in the poetry of the thought of Jean Paul Sartre, primarily in his work “what is Literature?”

  5. Lasers, microwave tubes, and accelerators: a unified point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many practical devices of technical interest rely for their operation on the coherent interaction between harmonic electromagnetic fields and ensembles of charged particles, constrained to move in orbits or trajectories by electric or magnetic fields. These have in many cases been studied by different communities of physicists and engineers, and different points of view have emerged. Some relatively recent developments, such as the gyrotron and free electron laser have features in common with lasers, microwave tubes, and particle accelerators. Some of these devices will be examined in an informal way from several different view points, with emphasis on a physical rather than mathematical description. (author)

  6. Quality evaluation of the dental service rendered by a private university: the users’ point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmênia de Araújo Soares Nuto; Keline Portela da Silva; Guerda Portela Câmara; Eveline Silva Nobre

    2005-01-01

    The user’s satisfaction must be the main goal of all health services. Through the evaluation of the patients’ satisfaction, data regarding their expectations can be obtained, the service’s failures can be detected and solution for improvements can be made. This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the satisfaction of the users of the Fortaleza University Dentistry Course. In this research, a process evaluation was accomplished emphasizing the characteristics related to th...

  7. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  8. A point of view about identification of irradiated foods by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles and conditions required for using electron spin resonance (ESR) in identifying irradiated foods are first put forth. After a literature review, examples of irradiated cereals and French prunes are described in order to derive general conclusions concerning the future of ESR in this field

  9. Naval gunnery from user's point of view

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    Capt. A.H.F. Hunt

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pointed out that although Internal Ballistics forms only one part of the whole problem, if this subject were neglected, the guns would not fire straight nor to the correct range, and however skilful the men and however complicated the fire control machinery, it would not be possible to hit the target. The scientific study of Internal Ballistics was therefore, of the greatest importance

  10. Free points of view by Academicians on the environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first set of contributions deals with climate evolutions. The authors (all members of the French Academie des Sciences) address the greenhouse effect explanation, its measurement and its consequences in France, the question whether there is a climate change due to human activities, the effect of global warming on our everyday life, the existence of important temperature changes and extreme climatic events in the past, and the credibility of mathematical models for the prediction of possible climate changes and of their consequences. A second set deals with the environment and oceans. The authors address sea level rise and its consequences for some low coastal regions and for France, and sea water acidification. A third set of articles deals with the environment and energies. The authors address the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in France, the benefits and drawbacks of the use of bio-fuels mixed with fossil fuels, the share of wind energy in France, the perspective of the use of oil and natural gas in Europe, the perspectives of carbon capture and storage, the development of the photovoltaic sector in France. The next set of contributions deals with the environment, demography, water, food and health. The authors address the consequences of demographic evolutions, the impact of population increase on water shortage and on environment degradation, the issue of water shortage in France during the next decades and the possible consequences for the French food industry, and the possible impacts of problems related to climate change on health. A last article deals with the environment and biodiversity. It discusses the possible impacts of environmental changes on biodiversity, and the facts already noticed in France

  11. Efficiency of guns from the technical point of view

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    G. Baranski

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available From the engineering point of view, a gun or machine gun is a heat engine very similar to a Diesel or petrol engine. It has to do work when-operated by a soldier. A fuel is burnt, namely the propellant, and certain power (energy per unit time is obtained, namely the kinetic energy of the projectile for each interval of rounds fired.

  12. Research of the Rock Art from the point of view of geography: the neolithic painting of the Mediterranean area of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Cruz Berrocal, María

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rock art of the Mediterranean Arch (which includes what are conventionally called Levantine Rock Art, Schematic Rock Art and Macroschematic Rock Art, among other styles, designated as part of the Human Heritage in 1997, is studied from the point of view of the Archaeology of Landscape. The information sources used were field work, cartographic analysis and analysis in GIS, besides two Rock Art Archives: the UNESCO Document and the Corpus of Levantine Cave Painting (Corpus de Pintura Rupestre Levantina. The initial hypothesis was that this rock art was involved in the process of neolithisation of the Eastern part of Iberia, of which it is a symptom and a result, and it must be understood as an element of landscape construction. If this is true, it would have a concrete distribution in the form of locational patterns. Through statistical procedures and heuristical approaches, it has been demonstrated that there is a structure of the neolithic landscape, defined by rock art, which is possible to interpret functional and economically.

    Se estudia el arte rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo (que incluye a los convencionalmente conocidos como Arte Levantino, Arte Esquemático y Arte Macroesquemático, entre otros estilos, nombrado Patrimonio de la Humanidad en 1998, desde el punto de vista de su localización. Las fuentes de información utilizadas fueron trabajo de campo, revisión cartográfica y análisis en Sistema de Información Geográfica, además de dos archivos de arte rupestre: el Expediente UNESCO y el Corpus de Pintura Rupestre Levantina. La hipótesis inicial fue que este arte rupestre se imbrica en el proceso de neolitización del Levante peninsular, del que es síntoma y resultado, y debe entenderse como un elemento de construcción paisajística, de lo que se deduce que ha de presentar una distribución determinable en forma de patrones locacionales. Por medio tanto de contrastes y descripciones estadísticas como de

  13. Editorial - Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an overview of the citation rate of Wikipedia since its launch in 2004. It is worth noting that since its inception Wikipedia, the free international multi-lingual encyclopedia, has been subject to criticism (Fasoldt, 2004; Orlowski, 2005; Lipczynska, 2005. Wikipedia as a popular web resource appears in response to every keyword search on Google. One way to test the popularity of a web resource is to use citation analysis method to predict to what extend it is cited by scientific papers. This study tries to identify and quantify the number of citations to Wikipedia in the papers indexed by the ISI Web of Science, studying the citation behavior of authors who have published papers in journals indexed by this database. Another simple search was conducted in order to analyze the number of citations to Britannica in the Cited Work=(Britannica* AND Cited Year=(2004-2009. The result showed that Britannica was cited only 10 times by 10 different subject areas and only in English language documents. The data show that Wikipedia is cited 26 times more than Britannica. Although, the credibility and reliability of content of Wikipedia as an authoritative reference source was widely criticized (e.g., Lih, 2004; Andrew et al., 2005; Korfiatis, Poulos, & Bokos, 2006, it is cited more than Britannica. The significance of Wikipedia from a citation analysis point of view goes well beyond open access and enhanced opportunities for citation.

  14. A Point of View on Ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounoud, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    Explores contradictions arising from Piaget's transposition of the phylogenetic problem of the appearance of new forms to the ontogeny of knowledge. Discussion focuses on development as the organization of contents by preformed structures, on early development as a succession of representational organizations, and on concepts of structure and…

  15. Regulatory point of view of SAT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I present the regulatory system for monitoring operator training and check competency of operator personnel in Hungary and the effects of SAT to the regulatory framework/practice related to recruitment, training and authorisation of operating personnel. Also I introduce an application to manage the initial and refreshing training to regulatory bodies. (author)

  16. Food Safety. Commodity Science Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald I. Zalewski; Skawinska, Eulalia

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses "food safety" and 'food quality' from the position of commodity and food science rather than economy. The various descriptions of both terms in literature are reviewed in connection with customer/supplier ability to evaluate food safety and quality by examination of various characteristics. Food safety has been described as opposite to food risk. Differences in perception of food risk by customer, producer/supplier and official agencies are discussed in this paper. The obj...

  17. Another point of view on proportional navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Duflos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportional navigation is one of the most popular and one of the most used of the guidance laws. But the way it is studied is always the same: the acceleration needed to reach a known target is derived or analyzed. This way of studying guidance laws is called “the direct problem” by the authors. On the contrary, the problem considered here is to find, from the knowledge of a part of the trajectory of a maneuvering object, the target of this object. The authors call this way of studying guidance laws “the inverse problem”.

  18. Ecstasy from a physiological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Björkqvist

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of man is one of today's most rapidly advancing sciences. There is no reason for not utilizing these methodologies of research and the knowledge already gained when studying ecstasy and other similar religious phenomena. Drugs have been used in all parts of the world as an ecstasy technique. Since mental states and physiological correlates always accompany each other, it is obvious that the human mind can be affected by external means, for instance by drugs. But the opposite is also true; mental changes affect the body, as they do in the case of psychosomatic diseases. Ecstasy is often described as an extremely joyful experience; this pleasure must necessarily also have a physiological basis. It is of course too early to say anything for certain, but the discovery of pleasure centres in the brain might offer an explanation. It is not far-fetched to suggest that when a person experiences euphoric ecstasy, it might, in some way or other, be connected with a cerebral pleasure center. Can it be, for example, that religious ecstasy is attained only by some mechanism triggering off changes in the balance of the transmitter substances? Or is it reached only via a change in the hormonal balance, or only by a slowing down of the brain waves, or is a pleasure centre activated? When a person is using an ecstasy technique, he usually does so within a religious tradition. When he reaches an experience, a traditional interpretation of it already exists.

  19. Emergent gravity: From statistical point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Near the event horizon of a black hole, the effective theory is two dimensional conformal theory. Here we show that the holographic modes characterising this underlying conformal symmetry and the basic definition of entropy $S$ in statistical mechanics lead the equipartition law of energy. We also show that $S$ is proportional to the gravity action which suggests the emergent nature of gravity. This is further bolstered by expressing the generalised Smarr formula as a thermodynamic relation, ...

  20. Disability and the Moral Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)

  1. Seismic Progressive Collapse: Qualitative Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wibowo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is a catastrophic structural phenomenon that can occur because of human-made and natural hazards. In progressive collapse mechanism, a single local failure may cause a significant deformation which then may lead to collapse of a structure. The current practices in progressive collapse analysis and design method generally focus on preventing progressive collapse due to abnormal gravity and blast loads. Progressive collapse behaviour of structures due to earthquake loads has not received as much attention. This paper presents a brief overview of the current state-of-knowledge, insights, and issues related to progressive collapse behaviour of structures caused by earthquake loading.

  2. Entanglement: a topological point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Dong

    2010-01-01

    In recent model studies of 2-qubit systems, the surprising phenomenon of entanglement sudden death has been observed. Sudden birth and even oscillations of entanglement have also been seen. Transitions between these types of behavior and the expected exponential decay of entanglement as a function of physical parameters are also possible. We give a topological classification of the curves that represent evolutions of the quantum system into four categories, and show that the various behaviors of the entanglement correspond to these categories. Hence the transition from exponential decay to sudden death is a topological one. It corresponds to a change in the intersection of the dynamical manifold determined by the physical model with the manifold of separable states. Markovian dynamics nearly always leads to monotonic entanglement evolution, but non-Markovian evolution can show oscillatory behaviors. We illustrate the general concepts with a visualizable model.

  3. Reversibility: An Engineer's Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversibility is the most consistent option in a democratic country. However reversibility may also have several drawbacks which must be identified and mitigated. Reversibility of a geological repository is a relatively new idea in France. The 1991 law dedicated to nuclear waste management considered reversibility as a possible option. Fifteen years later, the 2006 law mandated that a deep repository must be reversible and that the exact content of this notion should be defined by a new law to be discussed by the Parliament in 2015. Reversibility was not a concern put forward by engineers. It clearly originated from a societal demand sponsored and formulated by the Parliament. Since 1991, the exact meaning of this mandate progressively became more precise. In the early days, reversibility meant the technical and financial capability to retrieve the wastes from the repository, at least for some period of time after being emplaced. Progressively, a broader definition, suggested by Andra, was accepted: reversibility also means that a disposal facility should be operated in such a way that a stepwise decision-making process is possible. At each step, society must be able to decide to proceed to the next step, to pause or to reverse a step. Several benefits can be expected from a reversible repository. Some technical safety concerns may be only recognised after waste emplacement. Radioactive wastes may become a resource whose recoverability is desirable. Regulations may change, alternative waste treatment or better disposal techniques may be developed, or the need to modify a component of the facility may arise. Looking back at how chemical or domestic wastes were managed some 50 years ago easily underscores that it is not unreasonable to hope for significant advances in the future. For scientists and engineers, reversibility proves to have several other merits. To design and build a good repository, time is needed. The operator of a mine or of an oil field knows that

  4. Cognitive Therapys from Rumi’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is a general name of interventions used to resolve emotional conflicts, support and sustain the improvement of mental health. Relationship is one of the most important factors of regenerative effect in psychotherapy. Understanding the client is crucial to help the client understand the psychotherapy and psychotherapist. Thus, in order to be effective in psychotherapeutic interventions, it is neccessary to use the language by considering the client’s believes, culture, religion and background. Comprehending and using of psychotherapy only from the Western point of view could reduce the efficacy of psychotherapy. Although, it is common that people working in mental health area learn and use the techniques of authorities lived in West, our culture is considerably wealthy of thoughts and aspects that can be used in psychotherapy. Raised on the lands that have extremely rich cultural heritage, as psychotherapists, we think that it is our responsibility to integrate modern psychotherapy with cultural heritage when learning, practicing and teaching the practice of psychotherapy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of being able to use the philosophy of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi whose masterpieces involve psychotherapeutic elements yet are not well understood and who has been an inspration to the trends in psychotherapy which are currently described as third generation trends

  5. Microscopic foundations of some doubly even Ru and Pd nuclei by the point of view of interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article, we suggested the most appropriate Hamiltonian that is needed for present calculations of nuclei at the onset of the deformed region by the view of interacting boson model (IBM-2). B(E2) transition probabilities and mixing ratios of some doubly even Ru and Pd nuclei were calculated. The results were compared with the previous experimental and theoretical data and it is observed that they are in good agreement

  6. The temperatures of Giordano Bruno crater observed by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment: Application of an effective field of view model for a point-based data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.-P.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Paige, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Point based planetary datasets are typically stored as discrete records that represent an infinitesimal location on the target body. Instrumental effects and spacecraft motion during integration time can cause single points to inadequately represent the total area on the target that contributes to an observation. Production of mapped data products from these data for scientific analysis proceeds by binning points onto rectangular grids. Empty bins occur where data coverage is insufficient relative to grid resolution, a common problem at high latitudes in cylindrical projections, and remedial interpolation can lead to high uncertainty areas and artifacts in maps. To address such issues and make better use of available data, we present a method to calculate the ground-projected effective field of view (EFOV) for point-based datasets, using knowledge of instrumental characteristics and observation geometry. We apply this approach to data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, a visible to far-infrared multispectral radiometer which acquires radiometric measurements of reflected visible and emitted infrared radiation of the Moon in 9 spectral channels between 0.35 and 400 μm. Analysis of gridded radiance from crater Giordano Bruno, a 22 km diameter rayed crater, is used to demonstrate our gridding procedure. Diviner data, with such processing, reveals details of the surface that are seen in the high-resolution LRO Camera NAC images. Brightness temperatures and anisothermality observed in Diviner's IR channels show the thermophysical properties of the crater ejecta to be very heterogeneous indicative of minimal mechanical disruption by micrometeoroid impacts consistent with a very young (homogenized over time. This heterogeneity has implications for crater-count studies as regions of high anisothermality are characterized by large blocks of material and lower crater densities.

  7. Ethical point of view in design

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonen, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The thesis studies ethical problems in design, shows how to design according to ethical principles, and thus offers understanding of the concept. Products are designed according to the ethical design principles out of trash material. The topic of the thesis was chosen because of the unethical phenomena in the field of design mostly due to striving for economic growth. The problems and solutions are presented according to the stages of product life cycle from ecological, social and cultura...

  8. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; E. Jaroszkiewicz; Jelińska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologicall...

  9. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them.

  10. Primordial nucleosynthesis: A cosmological point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, G. J. [University of Notre Dame, Center for Astrophysics/JINA, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA and Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kajino, T.; Yamazaki, D. [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791, Korea and Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-09

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the test-ing ground upon which all cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the first few minutes of cosmic expansion and in particular during the important radiation-dominated epoch. These lectures review the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We will then review the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measure-ments are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we summarize the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field.

  11. My point of view - a diabetic story

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, T; King, F.

    2010-01-01

    A portrait of ex-ballerina, Fiona King, as she recovered from surgery to remove part of her heel. Through the extensive use of home movies the film follows her attempts to rebuild her life, learn to become mobile again and pass on the lessons she has learned coping with diabetes.

  12. STARTUP DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGIC POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    ZOPUNYAN Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses different strategies of the startup development. The author considers such phases of the startup development as pre-startup, launch, post-startup. The author analyzes factors that affect startup development. The paper presents conclusions about key elements of startup's strategic development.

  13. Myeloid Sarcoma: The Clinician's Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malagola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid Sarcoma may occur in patients with an acute or chronic myeloproliferative disorder as well as de novo, with no apparent sign or symptom of concomitant haematological disease. The patients are preferentially young male and the site of disease localization may vary from central nervous system to pleura and thorax, with a common involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. The disease often shows chromosomal rearrangements, involving chromosomes 7, 8 and 3 and sometimes a complex karyotype (more than 3 abnormalities is detected at diagnosis. The prognosis of this disease is dismal and only high-dose chemotherapy with autologous or allogeneic stem cells transplantation (auto or allo-SCT may be potentially curative. In the absence of definitive elements that can define the prognosis of extra-medullary localization of “standard risk” AML, Clinicians should pursue the collection of data from different Centres and design of homogeneous treatment strategies, that could integrate standard chemotherapy with specific approaches, such as radiotherapy, transplant procedures or, in selected cases (such as those displaying molecular abnormalities involving protein tyrosine-kinases, molecularly targeted therapies.

  14. Imaging from an orthopaedic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paradigm of coping with sometimes gross pathology, while having some small and at first sight insignificant lesions demands for accurate radiological detection and orthopaedic treatment makes it interesting and challenging to be involved in the treatment of professional athletes. In the diagnostic process we differentiate between acute, posttraumatic and overuse injuries. We must realize the importance of reproducible routine X-rays as a first step in the diagnostic process. In case of additional diagnostics, appropriate consultation between the orthopaedic surgeon and the radiologist is essential in order to determine the best strategy

  15. Myth from a Psychological Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Yahyazade

    2013-01-01

    One of the most mysterious phenomena in the world that engage the human's curious mind for long time is to discover the unknown world of myth. Believes and costumes of every nation is like a very strong and big tree. That has rooted in myth and their result has appeared in art and literature; and now we can understand the importance of myth. In this study we have tried to consider myth and theory's about collective subcontinent and dream and to make clear relationship be literature's notion w...

  16. Points of view on lactose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Hambræus, Leif

    2001-01-01

    In this issue of Scand J Nutr (pp 154-176) nine articles are published from the meeting Lactose intolerance revisited, February 1-2,2001, Stockholm, Sweden. Some further subjects of special interest were discussed during the meeting, and are reviewed in this short article.

  17. Thermal stratifications. An industrial point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PWR's, mechanical damages (cracks) have been detected at the internal faces of steam generator feedwater piping when thermal stratification occurs. This paper reports some studies of flows under operating conditions leading to of a stable stratified flow. Two geometries corresponding to different mock-up studied at EDF and CEA have been investigated. Numerical simulations have been performed with the code ESTET. Good agreement is observed on the mean temperature but it seems that the present modelling of the temperature variance fails to reproduce correctly the fluctuating phenomena It appears that with a stably stratified flow, wall conduction should be taken into account. It lead us to create a new numerical tool (SYRTHES) to compute the thermal field inside the wall, and the thermal coupling between the fluid and the solid at the interface. Some industrial examples illustrating the use of such a numerical tool are briefly presented. (author). 12 refs., 13 figs

  18. Decidability from a Numerical Point of View

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratschan, Stefan

    Springer, 2016 - (Kotsireas, I.; Rump, S.; Yao, C.). XVI-XVI ISBN 978-3-319-32858-4. ISSN 0302-9743. [MACIS 2015. International Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Computer and Information Sciences /6./. 11.11.2015-13.11.2015, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14484S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Prosocial behaviour of students from teachers point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Mervar, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with prosocial behaviour of primary school children observed from teachers’ point of view. Teachers are viewed as significant factor in the socialization process of children with their working methods and personality enhancing children’s social experiences. Nowadays, teachers should focus not only on teaching, but on educating their students as well. Youth violence and aggressive behaviour should not be tolerated; prosocial behaviour of children therefore needs to be ...

  20. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH (TWO POINTS OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  1. Characteristic classes of transitive Lie algebroids. Categorical point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, A S

    2011-01-01

    The talk was done at the International Conference "Analysis, Topology and Applications", Harbin, China, 23.08.2011. Transitive Lie algebroids have specific properties that allow to look at the transitive Lie algebroid as an element of the object of a homotopy functor. Roughly speaking each transitive Lie algebroids can be described as a vector bundle over the tangent bundle of the manifold which is endowed with additional structures. Therefore transitive Lie algebroids admits a construction of inverse image generated by a smooth mapping of smooth manifolds. The intention of my talk is to use a homotopy classification of transitive Lie algebroids due to K.Mackenzie (2005) and on this basis to construct a classifying space. The realization of the intention allows to describe characteristic classes of transitive Lie algebroids form the point of view a natural transformation of functors similar to the classical abstract characteristic classes for vector bundles and to compare them with that derived from the Chern...

  2. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  3. Information Theory Point of View on Stochastic Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic networks represent very important subject of research because they have been found in almost all branches of modern science, including also sociology and economy. We provide a information theory point of view, mostly based on its nonextensive version, on their most characteristic properties illustrating it with some examples. (author)

  4. Mathematical Definitions of Point, Line and Area Symbols in Cartography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenzhan; ZHONG Yexun; PENG Yueying; ZHENG Hongbo

    2003-01-01

    The line cartographic symbol located on the boundary and the point cartographic symbol located by single point are the main body and stress of the map. The cartographic symbols are divided into point, line and area symbol in cartography and traditional educational books, but up to now there is only qualitative description about the three kinds of symbols, there are not the mathematical definitions of point, line and area symbols. This paper tries to solve the problem. The authors propose the mathematical definition about point,line and area cartographic symbol according to the theory of topology and expound their dependence relation.

  5. [Care provided by nursing students in a neonatal intensive care unit from the mother's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, S T; do Valle, E R; Simões, S M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the perspective of mothers regarding the care given by academics of nursing to their newborn in a neonatal intensive therapy unit. This is a qualitative research based on a phenomenological approach which has as its philosophical framework the thought of Martin Heidegger expressed in his book Being and Time. The data used in the investigation were interviews given by ten mothers who had their newborns in a neonatal intensive therapy unit of a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The interpretation of the data collected revealed that mothers viewed the nursing academics as solicitous beings regarding the care given to their newborns. They also acknowledged that these students were engaged in the assistance given and concerned with what was being done and to whom it was being done. PMID:12098862

  6. The new demands by patients in the modern era of total joint arthroplasty : a point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J Bohannon

    2008-01-01

    Historians have the opportunity of viewing events, people, and their epoch through an aperture in time. With retrospective clarity, change and the forces effecting change can be appropriately categorized, emphasized, and interpreted. Sociologists see change in a forward-focused manner. When we examine our patients today, it is clear our current patients having total joint arthroplasty are different from those in years past. The sociologic influences effecting this change are many and include the revolutionary explosion of, access to, and dissemination of information; increased wealth, life activity expectation, and life expectancy; and an aging workforce. Concurrent with these forces registering change in our patient population is an erosion in respect for professionalism and vertically oriented authoritarian structure throughout society. Our patients are citizens of our modern age. Our public has come to expect miracles in medicine as the norm, yet these miracles are not without inherent risk. The trap implicit in allowing an incompletely informed populace to drive the decisions we make may be bridged by a more complete understanding of who our patients are and what their needs include. This discussion attempts to offer some insight into the forces at play. It focuses on how the changes in society, population, and technology have affected patients' knowledge and attitude toward medicine and what our response as physicians should be. PMID:18196387

  7. Images of HTGR fuel cycle and view points important

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR)s and very high temperature reactor (VHTR)s, capable of supplying nuclear heat of about 1000 deg. C, and then generating electricity and hydrogen with high efficiency, are now very highly evaluated as next generation nuclear system from view points of energy security and global environment. Technologies for their fuel cycles, typically 'recycle' or 'once-through' are already or being available. Such HTGRs and their fuel cycles, however, are necessary to be internationally and carefully designed and managed from view points of nuclear non-proliferation, etc., because of graphite-moderated system and expected dispersed instalment in global scale, and here 'Regional fuel centres' differentiating such fuel cycles are proposed. And now is the timing for start of such international measures. (author)

  8. The New Demands by Patients in the Modern Era of Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, J. Bohannon

    2008-01-01

    Historians have the opportunity of viewing events, people, and their epoch through an aperture in time. With retrospective clarity, change and the forces effecting change can be appropriately categorized, emphasized, and interpreted. Sociologists see change in a forward-focused manner. When we examine our patients today, it is clear our current patients having total joint arthroplasty are different from those in years past. The sociologic influences effecting this change are many and include ...

  9. KEY FACTORS IN PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT : Employee point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the thesis, the author reviews measure the key factors in performance management. Furthermore, the main focus of this research will base on literature and as well as across the different in organizations. The thesis con-fines, its research to the Key factors in Performance Management according to an employee point of view in any organization. The fundamentals of how employees and organizations need to relate each other to achieve high employee performance management and or...

  10. Differences in the interpretation of the GLP requirements by OECD monitoring authorities: the point of view from the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowing, Raymond K

    2008-01-01

    The need to harmonise the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP), their application and their monitoring has always been a preoccupation of the authorities. This can be seen by the very early publication of the set of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) documents, the training of the national inspectors, and the system of joint mutual visits. These aspects are now, for the most part, aligned. However, often the expectations of the inspectors and the interpretation behind the text are different and sometimes even opposite. In Sanofi-Aventis there is an almost unique position having 12 research and development sites in 7 different countries, all performing phases of studies which can be used by any of the other sites and all inspected by monitoring authorities (MAs) of the OECD GLP system. As with most international pharmaceutical companies a large majority of studies are multisite and even multicountry. This paper illustrates some of the challenges which are encountered when a global system of high quality is established to satisfy all the expectations of the multiple MAs, with particular reference to the diversity of origins of the requirements, specific guidance documents on GLP, question and answer sessions on GLP interpretations, annex requirements on specific areas (21 CFR Part 11, veterinary legislation etc.) and conference presentations by MAs. It is important to realize that even though there might be interpretations that the industry has some difficulty in understanding, the objective of this paper is not to complain or to criticize one or other of the MAs. Rather, the objective is to try to be constructive and to show where there are differences so that industry and the MAs can work together to establish systems which possess the level of quality necessary to ensure the safety of patients and the marketing of efficient products. PMID:19352003

  11. Mapping availability of sea view for potential building development areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Sonmez, Fizyon

    2015-07-01

    Scenic attraction can be regarded as one of the most important factors for recreation- and/or tourism-oriented landscape planning and management processes. Sea view is generally one of the most predominant scenery components of coastal landscapes. Therefore, presence and degree of its availability contribute to scenic attraction of residential development sites. This attribute of the environment can be quantified by GIS-based visibility analyses that rely on multiple viewshed calculations, during which observation and/or target locations are taken as variables. The main aim of this paper is to analyze availability of sea view for currently undeveloped (i.e., non-built-up) areas in an urbanized coast in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Four study sites (sites 1-4) of varying geomorphological and built-up features, located approximately 40 km south of the city of Mersin, were taken into consideration. Multiple viewshed analyses were performed using a high-resolution terrain model and 541, 533, 540, and 532 observation points for the sites, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Impact of topography and built-up features on sea visibility was discussed in the light of visibility information classified as percentage visibility of the sea surface available from each of the sites. PMID:26050064

  12. Point of view filming and the elicitation interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jonathan; Gormley, Gerard J

    2016-08-01

    Face-to-face interviews are a fundamental research tool in qualitative research. Whilst this form of data collection can provide many valuable insights, it can often fall short of providing a complete picture of a research subject's experiences. Point of view (PoV) interviewing is an elicitation technique used in the social sciences as a means of enriching data obtained from research interviews. Recording research subjects' first person perspectives, for example by wearing digital video glasses, can afford deeper insights into their experiences. PoV interviewing can promote making visible the unverbalizable and does not rely as much on memory as the traditional interview. The use of such relatively inexpensive technology is gaining interest in health profession educational research and pedagogy, such as dynamic simulation-based learning and research activities. In this interview, Dr Gerry Gormley (a medical education researcher) talks to Dr Jonathan Skinner (an anthropologist with an interest in PoV interviewing), exploring some of the many crossover implications with PoV interviewing for medical education research and practice. PMID:27438056

  13. CO2 capture and sequestration: the association's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives an overview of the opinion of the FNE (France Nature Environnement), a French association involved in the protection of the environment, about the idea of developing technologies enabling the capturing and sequestrating of carbon dioxide. It outlines that industries are considering such technologies as the adequate solution as they would allow a development of activities while limiting greenhouse gas releases. But the FNE has an opposite point of view; advantages and limitations of this technology are thus discussed (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions but with an increase of energy consumption, industrial hazards, mobilization of large financial resources). The principles under which such technologies could be used and financed in some specific situations and under precise conditions are then discussed. Notably, it stresses the importance of a limitation of public financing, of participation and communication, of judicial guarantees

  14. Special relativity from observer's mathematics point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy

    2015-09-01

    When we create mathematical models for quantum theory of light we assume that the mathematical apparatus used in modeling, at least the simplest mathematical apparatus, is infallible. In particular, this relates to the use of "infinitely small" and "infinitely large" quantities in arithmetic and the use of Newton - Cauchy definitions of a limit and derivative in analysis. We believe that is where the main problem lies in contemporary study of nature. We have introduced a new concept of Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Observer's Mathematics creates new arithmetic, algebra, geometry, topology, analysis and logic which do not contain the concept of continuum, but locally coincide with the standard fields. We use Einstein special relativity principles and get the analogue of classical Lorentz transformation. This work considers this transformation from Observer's Mathematics point of view.

  15. Center-to-limb variation of the area covered by magnetic bright points in the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The quiet Sun magnetic fields produce ubiquitous bright points (BPs) that cover a significant fraction of the solar surface. Their contribution to the total solar irradiance (TSI) is so-far unknown. AIMS: To measure the center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the fraction of solar surface covered by quiet Sun magnetic bright points. The fraction is referred to as 'fraction of covered surface', or FCS. METHODS: Counting of the area covered by BPs in G-band images obtained at various heliocentric angles with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma. Through restoration, the images are close to the diffraction limit of the instrument (~0.1 arcsec). RESULTS: The FCS is largest at disk center (~1 %), and then drops down to become 0.2 % at 'mu'= 0.3 (with 'mu' the cosine of the heliocentric angle. The relationship has large scatter, which we evaluate comparing different subfields within our FOVs. We work out a toy-model to describe the observed CLV, which considers the BPs to be depressions in the mean solar ...

  16. Delineation of wetland areas from high resolution WorldView-2 data by object-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various classification methods are available that can be used to delineate land cover types. Object-based is one of such methods for delineating the land cover from satellite imageries. This paper focuses on the digital image processing aspects of discriminating wetland areas via object-based method using high resolution satellite multispectral WorldView-2 image data taken over part of Penang Island region. This research is an attempt to improve the wetland area delineation in conjunction with a range of classification techniques which can be applied to satellite data with high spatial and spectral resolution such as World View 2. The intent is to determine a suitable approach to delineate and map these wetland areas more appropriately. There are common parameters to take into account that are pivotal in object-based method which are the spatial resolution and the range of spectral channels of the imaging sensor system. The preliminary results of the study showed object-based analysis is capable of delineating wetland region of interest with an accuracy that is acceptable to the required tolerance for land cover classification

  17. Reflections on the artist interview and the conservator's point of view by example of Ger van Elk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stigter

    2012-01-01

    Ger van Elk is regarded as a conceptual artist, although the relationship between the material execution and the concept contributes significantly to the final work of art. He creates painterly or sculptural artworks and installations in which photography, film and video are incorporated in an uncon

  18. A internação de adolescentes pela lente dos tribunais Adolescent internment by the court's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Minahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua entrada em vigor, o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente sofre sistemáticas críticas no debate público não havendo, entretanto, no campo da doutrina especializada e da jurisprudência efetivos esforços para uma compreensão do alcance da lei e de seus princípios sobretudo quando o tema é a imposição de medidas de internação a adolescentes autores de infração penal. Este texto procura demonstrar a feição homogênea e estável da jurisprudência brasileira nos Tribunais Estaduais nessa matéria à luz dos principais argumentos utilizados como fundamentação das decisões em sede recursal. Alguns resultados da pesquisa "Responsabilidade e garantias ao adolescente autor de ato infracional: uma proposta de revisão do ECA em seus 18 anos de vigência" apoiada pela Secretaria de Assuntos Legislativos do Ministério da Justiça, ilustram as dificuldades de mplementação dos preceitos legais, possibilitando refletir se é a textura aberta da lei o que vem favorecendo a persistência de argumentos extrajurídicos e ideológicos em sua interpretação.Since its approval, The Child and Adolescent Act has been attacked for several critics in the public debate. However neither the specialized dogmatic nor jurisprudence have presented effective efforts to the comprehension of the law or its principles, especially related to internment measures applied to young offenders. the text shows the homogeneous appearance of the brazilian jurisprudence into the State Courts, according to the most used arguments by the decisions. some results from the "Responsibility and Guarantees to young offender: a revision proposal for the child and adolescent act in 18 years of existence" research illustrate these difficulties to implement the legislation, avoiding the consideration regarding the open texture of the law as a possible cause for the persistence of extralegal and ideological arguments on its interpretation.

  19. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EATING FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAI, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third, ...

  20. Muon sites in Ce(Ru,Rh)2Al10 investigated by using Density Functional Theory from the view point of electronic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical investigations on muon sites in Ce-based Kondo semiconductors, Ce(Ru,Rh)2Al10 were carried out by using the Density Functional Theory. From the view point of simple electrostatic potential calculations, we found all the previously reported muon sites, suggested by different groups (Kambe S et al. 2010 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79 053708 and Khalyavin D D et al., 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 100405(R)), can be possibly chosen as muon stopping sites. We also investigated the changes in the potential of the Rh-doped case. We discovered that the electronic potential around the nearest Ru atom to the substituted Rh atom is affected and the potential becomes asymmetric around the nearest Ru ion. Although big changes in hyperfine fields at muon sites have been reported (Guo H et al. 2013 Phys. Rev. B 88 115206), the muon positions estimated from the potential calculations do not change much

  1. Etiology of cicatricial alopecias: a basic science point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a short summary of our current knowledge of cicatricial alopecia disease pathogenesis and the hypothetical disease mechanisms that may be involved in scarring alopecia development. Several forms of scarring alopecia likely involve targeted cytotoxic action against hair follicle cells mediated by a folliculocentric inflammation. However, the specific nature of the inflammatory interference in hair follicle growth is open to question. A popular hypothesis of lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecia development involves autoimmune targeting of hair follicle-specific self-antigens, although there is no direct evidence in support of such a view. Alternative hypotheses focus on defects in sebaceous gland function, destruction of hair follicle stem cells, and interference in the communication between hair follicle mesenchyme and epithelium. Many questions arise from these hypotheses, and addressing them with a systematic research approach may enable significant advances in understanding cicatricial alopecia etiology. PMID:18715290

  2. R and R: The ASN Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    after closure such as ventilation, sensors and gallery retaining structures, for example. 6) D uring the whole reversibility period, provisions have to be implemented in order to ensure that the necessary and useful information is collected, stored and accessible (on the package itself and on the conditions of its emplacement). Moreover, provisions for knowledge transfer related to reversibility management will have to be defined for the commissioning of the facility. 7) If the law on reversibility includes provisions on retrievability of the waste packages: - funding of the retrieval would have to be specified; - facilities have to be designed to store the packages and to re-condition them safely. From the safety point of view, retrievability can provide a possibility to retrieve a package already put in place and to re-condition it, should an anomaly be seen on it. But ASN stresses that before any retrieval is performed, an analysis of the risks in terms of radiation protection and safety during operation and in the long term as compared to awaited benefits will have to be performed. Reversibility is a complex issue which has to be shared socially and politically and which deserves to be thoroughly addressed. We consider that the flexibility and margin introduced by the reversibility principle, except major technical evolution not identified today, will decrease with time, in particular because of the evolution of the packages and of the facility with time

  3. Radiographic imaging of calcaneal fractures - the surgeons view point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a detailed description of calcaneal fractures, which are underestimated and neglected despite their relatively high frequency. In association with significant anatomic destruction of the calcaneus they lead to unsatisfactory results of fracture treatment. Radiographic features of a healthy calcaneal bone together with pathomechanism and radiographic attributes of most common fracture types are presented. The prognostic role of the posterior talo-calcaneal joint and extraarticular anatomy of the calcaneus are emphasized. Special attention is directed to the methods of calcaneal imaging, especially the most valuable in the authors opinion - lateral radiographic view and computed tomography. Other commonly used views: axial, antero-posterior or Broden, are also described, with explanation why they are rarely recommended. The widely used standard classification system for calcaneal fractures introduced by Sanders, based on computed tomography is presented. Correct x-ray imaging is the basis for further diagnostic workup and treatment, giving also valuable prognostic information. The orthopedic surgeon, who undertakes the difficult task of treating the broken calcaneus receives thorough information about bone damage, which helps to realize the consequences of injury and of possible negligence. According to the authors experience, problems discussed in this paper are rarely fully appreciated by radiologists and orthopedic surgeons resulting in, often, catastrophic consequences. (author)

  4. Reflections on Cosmology: an Outsider's Point of View

    CERN Document Server

    Toloza, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Some of the assumptions of cosmology, as based on the simplest version of General Relativity, are discussed. It is argued that by slight modi?cations of standard gravitation theory, our notion of the sources of gravity {the right hand side of Einstein's equations{, could be something radically di?erent from what is usually expected. One example is exhibited to prove the point, and some consequences are discussed.

  5. Logistics engineering education from the point of view environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Ágota

    2010-05-01

    -the-art, reliable, automated mechatronics-material flow system with its single control engineering system provides the academic staff with up-to-date research facilities, and enables the students to study sophisticated equipment and systems that could also operate under industrial conditions, thus offering knowledge that can be efficiently utilised in the industry after graduation. The laboratory measurements of the programme in logistics engineering are performed in this laboratory, and they are supplemented by the theoretical and practical measurements in the ‘Robotic Technology Assembly Laboratory', the ‘Power Electronics Laboratory', the ‘Mechatronics Laboratory', the ‘CAD/CAM Laboratory' and the ‘Acoustics and Product Laboratory'. The bodies of knowledge connected with environment protection and sustainable development can be grouped around three large topic areas. In environmental economics the objective is to present the corporate-organisational aspects of environmental management. Putting environmental management in the focal point, the objective of the programme is to impart knowledge that can be utilised in practice which can be used to shift the relation between the organisation and its environment in the direction of sustainability. The tools include environmental controlling, environmental marketing and various solutions of environmental performance evaluation. The second large topic area is globalization and its logistic aspects. In the field of global logistics the following knowledge carries special weight: logistic challenges in a globalised world; the concept of global logistics, its conditions and effects; delayed manufacture, assembly, packaging; the economic investigation of delayed assembly; globalised purchase and distribution in logistics; the logistic features of the globalised production supply/distribution chain; meta-logistics systems; logistics-related EU harmonisation issues; the effect of e-commerce on the global logistic system; logistic

  6. Cancer Theory from Systems Biology Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaowei; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ao, Ping

    In our previous work, we have proposed a novel cancer theory, endogenous network theory, to understand mechanism underlying cancer genesis and development. Recently, we apply this theory to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A core endogenous network of hepatocyte was established by integrating the current understanding of hepatocyte at molecular level. Quantitative description of the endogenous network consisted of a set of stochastic differential equations which could generate many local attractors with obvious or non-obvious biological functions. By comparing with clinical observation and experimental data, the results showed that two robust attractors from the model reproduced the main known features of normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte respectively at both modular and molecular level. In light of our theory, the genesis and progression of cancer is viewed as transition from normal attractor to HCC attractor. A set of new insights on understanding cancer genesis and progression, and on strategies for cancer prevention, cure, and care were provided.

  7. Study on the documents of Java in Siku Quanshu; Historical knowledge and historians’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurni Wahyu Wuryandari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissertation discusses various documents on Java collected in Siku Quanshu (Complete Library of Four Treasures. The documents used as the sources of this study are the ones with complete pictures and strong narration on Javanese recorded from Han Dynasty (206 bc–220 ad to Ming Dynasty (1364–1644 in order to reveal what kind of historical knowledge or historical information is delivered by Chinese historians in general and what kind of point of view is used by historians to deliver the notes about Java. Through analytical reading, the readers will find that historians paid attention to three issues: the relationship between China and Java, the condition of Javanese kingdoms and their culture, and the Java land natural resources. People of China regard their country as an ancient country with long history of remarkable civilization which located in the centre of the world. The awareness of how important is their country, indirectly influences the historians’ points of views. The texts analyzed indirectly prove that some areas on Java are culturally left behind and the countries beyond China, including Java, are the barbaric ones obliging their people to submit or pay tributes to the Kingdoms of China.

  8. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Alonso-Sanz, Ramon; van Dessel, Wesley; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Ilachinski, Andrew; Jones, Jeff; Kayem, Anne V D M; Martinez, Genaro J; de Oliveira, Pedro; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Schubert, Theresa; Sloot, Peter; Strano, Emanuele; Yang, Xin-She

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorways networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of fourteen geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, UK, USA. For each geographical entity we represented major urban areas by oat flakes and inoculated the slime mould in a capital. After slime mould spanned all urban areas with a network of its protoplasmic tubes we extracted a generalised Physarum graph from the network and compared the graphs with an abstract motorway graph using most common measures. The measures employed are the number of independent cycles, cohesion, shortest paths lengths, diameter, the Harary index and the Randic index. We obtained a series of intriguing results, and found that the slime mould approximates best of all the motorway graphs of Belgium, Canada and China, and that for all entities studied the best match between Physarum and ...

  9. Cyclodextrin-assisted enantioseparation of warfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin by capillary electrophoresis studied from the analytical and thermodynamic points of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Paweł Mateusz; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2016-07-15

    In this work cyclodextrin-assisted enantioseparation of warfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin by CE has been studied from the analytical and thermodynamic points of view. The role of cyclodextrin concentration and temperature has been analyzed in reference to three different analytical parameters, corresponding to selectivity, resolution and resolution/analysis time ratio. The optimal conditions for enantioseparation have been found, they have been selected on the basis of critical difference in electrophoretic mobility and possibly short analysis time. The values of complexation percentage have also been calculated, to provide a link between the state of complexation equilibrium and the effectiveness of enantioseparation. In the optimal conditions the difference in complexation degree between enantiomers reaches 2.5% and 7.3% for warfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin, respectively. At each temperature the highest enantioresolution is observed when the average complexation degree is close to 50%. In each case complexation is exothermic and driven by some enthalpically favorable process. 10-hydroxywarfarin exerts the stronger affinity to cyclodextrin and the stronger stereoselective effect. The presented results may be helpful in optimization and understanding of chiral separations by CE. PMID:27160739

  10. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETOĞLU

    2008-01-01

    qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

  11. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  12. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  13. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  14. Faults--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Folds--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  16. Bathymetry--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  17. Bathymetry Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  18. Bathymetry Hillshade Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  19. Contours--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Contours Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file...

  1. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  2. Folds--Offshore of Tomales Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  3. Faults--Offshore of Tomales Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Folds--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Faults--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  6. Formative Assessment: Revisiting the Territory from the Point of View of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    This research documented the know-how of five elementary-school teachers regarding formative assessment, working from their point of view on the question. Group interviews gave them the opportunity to negotiate their "ways of doing things," by revisiting and elaborating upon assessment episodes that had been previously identified on classroom…

  7. Response to the Point of View of Gregory B. Pauly, David M. Hillis, and David C. Cannatella, by the Anuran Subcommittee of the SSAR/HL/ASIH Scientific and Standard English Names List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Darrel R.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III

    2009-01-01

    The Point of View by Gregory Pauly, David Hillis, and David Cannatella misrepresents the motives and activities of the anuran subcommittee of the Scientific and Standard English Names Committee, contains a number of misleading statements, omits evidence and references to critical literature that have already rejected or superseded their positions, and cloaks the limitations of their nomenclatural approach in ambiguous language. Their Point of View is not about promoting transparency in the process of constructing the English Names list, assuring that its taxonomy is adequately reviewed, or promoting nomenclatural stability in any global sense. Rather, their Point of View focuses in large part on a single publication, The Amphibian Tree of Life, which is formally unrelated to the Standard English Names List, and promotes an approach to nomenclature mistakenly asserted by them to be compatible with both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and one of its competitors, the PhyloCode.

  8. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B

    1990-01-01

    This work argues that doubts concerning the reliability of demographic information in Mexico from censuses and other sources should prompt a search for ways of improving existing data rather than developing new data sources and measurement techniques. The example of labor force data is used to illustrate the achievements of past data collection efforts and to suggest a framework for reconciling statistics from diverse sources and exploiting existing sources more fully. From a practical perspective, it would be difficult to identify a nontraditional source of information, statistical procedure, or conceptual framework for collection of labor force and other demographic data that has not been tried somewhere, at some time. Economists and other social scientists who have analyzed the adequacy of existing data sources have pointed to the financial implications of extensive alterations in them and have suggested new questions to be added to censuses and surveys to fill gaps in information. Studies based on census data have been particularly effective in furthering understanding of the supply of labor in Mexico and the factors affecting behavior of the economically active population. Economic surveys have contributed to analysis of employment in the different sectors and the characteristics of workers in different types of establishments and activities. Surveys, both specialized and multipurpose, have also contributed to knowledge of employment and the labor market, especially in urban areas and in aspects related to migration. To classify the different potential sources of labor force data, 2 tables are presented. The 1st lists continuous, periodic, and sporadic sources of data produced in the public, social, and private sectors. The listing of different data sources suggests the rich potential for combining findings from different sources, e.g., correlating deaths occurring in a certain time period to working age adults with information derived from the census to

  9. Use of Point of View in Literary Works as Teaching and Learning Material

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoshito

    2002-01-01

    Are literary works useful as teaching and learning material in English language education? To answer this question we have to define first what is literary and what is not. This is no easy task at all, but by examining point of view in a novel and a short story we will tackle the question somehow or other here.

  10. Computer Crime and the Law from an Islamic Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-A`Ali, Mansoor

    Information technology is facing waves of laws guarding the interest of people using the Web technology. These laws were derived from the common laws and legislations applied in general crimes. One of these laws is the law of the state is Texas in the United States in 1985. In a world which has more than one billion Muslims, it is time to consider proposing a law that is in line with their teachings. Several calls were also raised in the Islamic countries to establish a law suitable to handle computer crimes which matches the Islamic Shar'iah law. The main question to ask here is how can the Islamic law which was established in the seventh century handle crimes resulting from the use or abuse of the new technology and provide suitable laws for the protection of its computer users. To answer this question our research has analyzed the Adellah () (Shar'iah Evidences of Quraan, Hadith and Imams sayings) that match Texas computer crime law items to verify the outlook of Islam in computer crime. We set out to prove that computer crime with its high technology is not entirely a new type of crime that needs a new Islamic theory and thus is already covered by the general Islamic Shar'iah laws. Based on the available computer crime laws and our understanding of the Quranic verses, we propose to tackle this very difficult area by proposing a computer crime law from an Islamic point of view. We believe this research is the first of its kind and will open the discussion in this important area with the exception of one study which addresses the e-commerce from an Islamic view point.

  11. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Adamatzky; S. Akl; R. Alonso-Sanz; W. van Dessel; Z. Ibrahim; A. Ilachinski; J. Jones; A.V.D.M. Kayem; G.J. Martínez; P. de Oliveira; M. Prokopenko; T. Schubert; P. Sloot; E. Strano; X.-S. Yang

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorway networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of 14 geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, UK

  12. The point of view in the documentary film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Consideringthe controversythat has for decadespermeatedthedocumentary theory, especiallyinrelationto itsdefinition and specificities, any attemptin that directionnowseems tobe in aminefield. I intend toconsiderthe possibilityof a point of viewin thedocumentaryin a debatethatarticulatesthe materiality of theimageandsoundwithsubjectivityregarding the interpretation, using studies from different theoretical traditions in trying.

  13. The CAREM-25 project from the risk point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future use of the nuclear energy for electricity production is considered a possible alternative, mainly taking into account the high environmental impact of the fossil fuel alternatives (greenhouse effect, acid rain). In a worldwide context, however, it is desirable for the new nuclear power plants to be safer than the present ones. To demonstrate the safety level of a nuclear installation, the Risk Analysis (in fact, Probabilistic Safety Analysis) is an adequate tool, as it allows for the risk level quantification. The risk itself is composed of two factors, the first takes into account the probability associated with accidental sequences that release radioactive materials, the second takes into account the amount and consequences of such a release. In the present work, the reduction of both factors is faced, the probability by using simpler safety systems (inherently safe systems), and the consequence by using small power production units, that have, besides, passive mitigation systems and long response times. The work is illustrated with a risk comparison for electricity production via CAREM-25 units, against via a classic design unit (Atucha II). The results are base in Probabilistic Safety Studies performed for both installations. The conclusions show an effective risk reduction (both in probability and in consequence), reaching the point where in no case acute irradiation effects are predicted in the vicinity of the accidented plant. (author)

  14. Points of View and the reconciliation of Identity Oppositions: examples from the Maltese in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammut, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a case study of Maltese migrants to Britain. In the absence of a cohesive community, Maltese migrants to Britain are required to negotiate a new social reality at the individual level. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals can relate to alternative perspectives in different ways (Sammut and Gaskell, 2010. The present study demonstrates that individuals with different points of view negotiate different identities that serve to position them functionally within one or both social realities. Individuals with monological points of view elaborated exclusive identities that positioned them well in a single social setting. Individuals with dialogical points of view elaborated hierarchical identities, holding their own bicultural identities as superior. This had further positioning ramifications. In contrast, individuals with metalogical points of view elaborated non- hierarchical, chameleon or individualistic identities, by which they positioned themselves functionally in both social settings. For metalogical types, belonging to one group meant that one was neither more nor less a member of the other group. These findings thus add a third type to Duveen’s dual- typology of identity strategies in the reconciliation of oppositional categories.

  15. Atypical Face Perception in Autism: A Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Karine; Guy, Jacalyn; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Pagani, Linda; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando

    2015-10-01

    Face perception is the most commonly used visual metric of social perception in autism. However, when found to be atypical, the origin of face perception differences in autism is contentious. One hypothesis proposes that a locally oriented visual analysis, characteristic of individuals with autism, ultimately affects performance on face tasks where a global analysis is optimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by assessing face identity discrimination with synthetic faces presented with and without changes in viewpoint, with the former condition minimizing access to local face attributes used for identity discrimination. Twenty-eight individuals with autism and 30 neurotypical participants performed a face identity discrimination task. Stimuli were synthetic faces extracted from traditional face photographs in both front and 20° side viewpoints, digitized from 37 points to provide a continuous measure of facial geometry. Face identity discrimination thresholds were obtained using a two-alternative, temporal forced choice match-to-sample paradigm. Analyses revealed an interaction between group and condition, with group differences found only for the viewpoint change condition, where performance in the autism group was decreased compared to that of neurotypical participants. The selective decrease in performance for the viewpoint change condition suggests that face identity discrimination in autism is more difficult when access to local cues is minimized, and/or when dependence on integrative analysis is increased. These results lend support to a perceptual contribution of atypical face perception in autism. PMID:25683613

  16. Waste-to-energy: Technical, economic and ecological point of views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overwhelming waste-recycling should be considered more as a psychological than as a technological method to deal with wastes. The best waste disposal systems should actually grant mass or energy recovery from technical, economic and ecological point-of-views. Highest results seem to be granted by waste-to-energy technologies since energy content is the best preserved property after using materials

  17. Dental ethics in a larger context: one point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, the practice of dentistry has been largely transformed from a "calling" into a cog in the ever-expanding "Healthcare Industry". In the process, the distinction between professional ethics and the ethics of commerce has been attenuated and, to a large extent, lost. Today's dentist is faced with an inherent conflict between the pledge of the health professional to hold the patient's interests primary (and above all, to do no harm), and the self-protective commercial principle of caveat emptor. Pressures towards commercialism come from the government and the insurance industry, the increasingly unfavorable ratio between professional fees and the cost of production, and the high cost of dental education. Viewed simplistically, much of dentistry today has an outward form resembling commodity production. Recognizing the substantial forces tending to attenuate ethical standards in our profession may aid us in resisting their encroachments. PMID:18380251

  18. Virtual egocenters as a function of display geometric field of view and eye station point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psotka, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The accurate location of one's virtual egocenter in a geometric space is of critical importance for immersion technologies. This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of field of view (FOV) and observer station points in the perception of the location of one's egocenter (the personal viewpoint) in virtual space. Rivalrous cues to the accurate location of one's egocenter may be one factor involved in simulator sickness. Fourteen subjects viewed an animated 3D model, of the room in which they sat, binocularly, from Eye Station Points (ESP) of either 300 or 800 millimeters. The display was on a 190 by 245 mm monitor, at a resolution of 320 by 200 pixels with 256 colors. They saw four models of the room designed with four geometric field of view (FOVg) conditions of 18, 48, 86, and 140 degrees. They drew the apparent paths of the camera in the room on a bitmap of the room as seen from infinity above. Large differences in the paths of the camera were seen as a function of both FOVg and ESP. Ten of the subjects were then asked to find the position for each display that minimized camera motion. The results fit well with predictions from an equation that took the ratio of human FOV (roughly 180 degrees) to FOVg times the Geometric Eye Point (GEP) of the imager: Zero Station Point = (180/FOVg)*GEP

  19. Marriage and Sexuality from a Psychiatric Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozkurt

    Full Text Available Sexuality, taking on a shape in the interaction of psychological, social, and biological variables, may lose its functionality with the blockage of these components. Sexual dysfunction may be handled as if it is only a symptom being based on the decay of marital relationship in the content of therapy, and sexual dysfunction may be neglected by family and marriage therapists from time to time. Contrarily, sex therapists may show the tendency to handle the problem in aspect of only sexuality. In the relationships of all spouses, thought and emotional intimacy should not be neglected whatever sexual problem they may have. Factors determining happiness such as physical attractiveness, impressiveness, positive and negative attitudes, marriage age, children, socioeconomic conditions, common intentions, and hobbies, sexual life, have attracted the attention of investigators for long time. Most important element among these factors seems to be sexuality. In recent years, researchers have begun to consider interaction between sexuality and marriage much more. Marital life includes food, shelter, togetherness, satisfaction originated from positive marital relationships, sharing role to cause of sexual maturation, acceptance of social role, and responsibility, individual entrepreneurship, and supporting to creativity. Marriage, consisting of spouses completing each other in these fields, is the headstone of social development and maturation. It has been suggested that there is a role of sexual dysfunction in protecting the balance of marital relationships. According to this suggestion, these disorders may prevent any damage to self and conserve the border of ego. Moreover, we may suggest that sexual dysfunction breaks the marital relationship, removes the protective effect on marital balance if we consider the beneficial effects of sexuality in points of intimacy in thought and emotional fields. Sexuality can be only experienced with healthy personality

  20. Fuzzy Epistemology From View Point of Mystical Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Isu imanensi dan transendensi sangat penting dalam pemikiran keagamaan. Salah satu alasan mengapa masalah ini tidak pernah terselesaikan adalah bahwa ia memiliki banyak makna dan muncul dalam konteks yang berbeda. Pandangan yang menekankan imanensi dalam satu konteks mungkin menekankan transendensi pada konteks lain. Arti keduanya pun sangat tergantung pada asumsi metafisik mereka yang biasanya secara tidak sadar menggunakannya. Dua sisi yang saling terkait dan bergantung satu sama lain ini pasti hadir di konsep pikiran, jika hubungan antara Allah dan alam semesta, Realitas dan penampilan, benar-benar untuk dipahami. Karena ketiadaanlah bahwa Allah digambarkan sebagai transenden (tanzīh, dan karena keberadaan sehingga Ia dikenal sebagai imanen (tashbīh. Dua aspek Tuhan, transenden dan imanen diringkaskan oleh Ibn ‘Arabi melalui pendekatan ayat Qur’an (42:11. Pakar sejarah agama, peneliti dan mistikus berpegang pada prinsip ini juga dan meyakini bahwa apa yang disebut sebagai “logika panggilan” memiliki dua sisi fungsi yang berarti. Menurut logika ini, seseorang harus mengklasifikasikan panggilan nabi pada kesatuan atau pluralitas seperti dalam kategorisasi panggilan transenden, imanen atau transenden-imanen, dan akibatnya adalah agama Ilahiah akan diperspesi dari sisi ini pula. “Fuzzy logic” atau logika fuzzy dipahami berdasarkan preposisi yang paradoks dari berbagai penjelasan dan analisa mistis.Kata kunci : Logika fuzzy, Transenden, Imanen, Teologi fuzzy, ParadoxAbstract : The issue of immanence and transcendence is crucial for religious thought. One reason why that is never resolved is that it has so many meanings and turns up in so many different contexts. A view may emphasize immanence in one context and emphasize transcendence in another. What the terms mean depends in part on the metaphysical assumptions, usually unconscious, of those who use them. According to Ibn al-Arabī, these two mutually dependent sides

  1. The Undergraduate Research Experience from a Personal Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaltepe, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    As an undergraduate at Colgate University, I have had many opportunities to get involved with research. I spent the summer after my first year on a project at Colgate that extended into a junior research course and I have also worked at two very different national programs (National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank and the Space Telescope Science Institute). As a result, I have gained research and observing experience at different observatories, including the Foggy Bottom Observatory at Colgate, Lowell Observatory, and the NRAO at Green Bank. From these diverse experiences I have learned a great deal about research in astronomy in general as well as what some aspects of the field are like specifically. For instance, I have learned about quasars, weak gravitational lensing, and HI absorption. I have come to appreciate things about astronomy that one never learns inside of a classroom. By having the chance to try out different types of research, I have gotten a better idea of what areas of research I might like to pursue in the future. These experiences have given me some highly beneficial skills for my future career in research.

  2. Skills renewal in nuclear an industrialist's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global energy needs are increasing and at the same time, the use of fossil fuels for energy is being questioned for several reasons: the possible shortage of resources; the volatility of their prices; the impact of their use on global warming, to name but a few. Focusing on the demand for electricity, forecasts from the World Nuclear Association show a dramatically growing trend and a necessity for massive investments in response to this. Over the 2000-2030 period, the needs for extra electricity generation in Europe are estimated at 660 GW, in North America the forecasted level of needs is 850 GW, in China, it is 1,300 GW. Given the current fossil fuel situation, nuclear energy is undoubtedly part of the answer to the growing demand for electricity generation, along with renewable energies and energy efficiency. In most countries, nuclear power plants were commissioned over a relatively short period (1970-1985). Except maybe in some regions, the Chernobyl accident put this technology on hold for twenty years, meaning that an ageing workforce is now an issue for the nuclear industry. The recruitment of a significant number of engineers is thus necessary, both to launch new nuclear projects and to replace employees about to retire. In France, 40% of all nuclear engineers will retire over the next decade. During this period, around 1,200 engineers per year will be recruited, including 600 per year by EDF (a fourfold increase). In many countries, the recruitment of engineers has remained at a very low level for the past 15 years and consequently education programs have been cut back. Furthermore, teaching positions have not been renewed and only a few qualified individuals remain, most of whom are nearing retirement age. The revival of nuclear education is a key point for the success of the nuclear renaissance. In 2007-2008, the High Commissioner for Atomic Energy conducted a census of existing French nuclear teaching programs. By this time, capacity in France was

  3. [Adaptive radiotherapy in routine: The radiation oncologist's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Petit, A; Sargos, P; Kantor, G; Pouypoudat, C; Saut, O; Zacharatou, C; Antoine, M

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as all processes leading to the modification of a treatment plan on the basis of patient-specific variations observed during the course of a treatment. This concept is currently of particular relevance due to the development of onboard volumetric imaging systems, which allow for daily viewing of variations in both tumour and organs at risk in terms of position, shape or volume. However, its application in routine clinical practice is limited due to the demanding nature of the processes involved (re-delineation and replanning) and increased dependence on available human resources. Even if "online" strategies, based on deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms, could lead to a reduction in both work and calculation time, for the moment their use is limited to the research field due to uncertainties surrounding the validity of results gathered. Other strategies without DIR can be used as "offline" or "hybrid offline-online" strategies that seem to offer a compromise between time consumption and therapeutic gain for the patient. PMID:26337475

  4. Technology learning from the lawmaker's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview over the German energy policy in the area of renewable energy sources. It focuses on the Renewable Energies Act (REA) of April 1, 2000, which has shown to be the main stimulus for the upswing of the market of renewable energies in Germany. One of the key features of the REA is the declining compensation schedule that aims at generating and stimulating learning curve effects. The paper shows the key findings of a report to the German Bundestag on the market and on the cost trend of installations for the use of photovoltaics, wind power, biomass and hydropower. (author)

  5. Sizing up earthquake damage: Differing points of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.; Bolen, A.

    2007-01-01

    When a catastrophic event strikes an urban area, many different professionals hit the ground running. Emergency responders respond, reporters report, and scientists and engineers collect and analyze data. Journalists and scientists may share interest in these events, but they have very different missions. To a journalist, earthquake damage is news. To a scientist or engineer, earthquake damage represents a valuable source of data that can help us understand how strongly the ground shook as well as how particular structures responded to the shaking.

  6. A rotating Michelson interferometer from the co-rotating point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The phase shift induced by a uniform rotation in a Michelson interferometer is re-derived in the geometrical framework of the coordinate-free formalism of general relativity from the co-rotating point of view. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer's speed to the speed of light and further suppressed by the ratio of the length of the interferometer's arms to the radius of rotation. The relation of the effect to gravitational time dilation is discussed.

  7. Institutional system response mechanism towards corruption: a point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.

  8. Multi-points of view semantic enrichment of folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Limpens, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    Cette thèse, au croisement du Web Social et du Web Sémantique, vise à rapprocher folksonomies et représentations structurées de connaissances telles que les thesauri ou les ontologies informatiques. Les folksonomies, résultant de l'usage de plateformes de social tagging, souffrent d'un manque de précision qui les rend difficile à exploiter pour la naviguation. Cette thèse présente notre approche multi-points de vue de l'enrichissement sémantique des folksonomies. L'amorçage est assuré par des...

  9. University studies of Teaching subject for nursery school from combined study students point of view

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the bachelor thesis is to find out the point of view on educated preparation of kindergarten teachers from the point of view of a student who studies combined form. The notion of professional development is defined and the history of teacher's profession is briefly introduced. Then the strategy for teacher education is described and compared with a situation in foreign countries. The personal and professional requests about kindergarten teachers are spefied in the theoretical ...

  10. Deep tissue injury from a bioengineering point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Amit

    2009-04-01

    The phrasing of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) definition of deep tissue injury (DTI) was based on case reports, clinical observations, and experience. Although etiological studies of DTI, primarily related to characterizing biomechanical factors affecting onset and progression, support and strengthen parts of the NPUAP's definition, some recent findings suggest a need to re-evaluate the wording and perhaps refine future definitions of DTI. Application of existing bioengineering research to underlying biological, physical, biomechanical, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the definition of DTI suggests the following: 1) changes in skin color - ie, deviation of the local skin color from the surroundings - may indicate a DTI might be present, but color is not useful for quantifying the severity of injury; 2) the pressure and/or shear definition is inaccurate because it creates an artificial distinction between pressure and shear, which are physically coupled, and because it ignores tensional loads; 3) palpating tissue firmness at the wound site provides limited assessment information because tissue firmness will depend on the point in time along the course of DTI development. Damaged tissues might appear stiffer than surrounding tissues if examined when muscle tissue is locally contracted due to local rigor mortis but at a later stage damage might manifest as tissues that are softer than their surroundings when digestive enzymes start decomposing necrotic tissues; 4) skin temperature changes near the DTI site may reflect inflammatory response, causing local heating, or ischemic perfusion, causing local cooling; and 5) rapid deterioration of DTI is likely occurring due to muscle tissue stiffening at the rigor mortis phase; stiffened tissues abnormally deform adjacent tissues and this effect is amplified if muscles are atrophied. The application of interdisciplinary research may help clinicians and researchers move from evolving jargons

  11. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  12. POINT/CounterPOINT: The View from the Trenches of Education Policy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Ballou; Matthew G. Springer; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R.; Brian M. Stecher; Laura Hamilton; Matthew Pepper

    2012-01-01

    The Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT) was a three-year study testing the hypothesis that rewarding teachers for improved student scores on standardized tests would cause scores to rise. Results, as described in Springer et al. (2010b), did not confirm this hypothesis. In this article we provide additional information on the POINT study that may be of particular interest to researchers contemplating their own studies of similar policies. Our discussion focuses on the policy environment...

  13. Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for floating-point computations, and for this reason, floating-point operators consume a significant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

  14. Basic realizability of the fuel cycle centre from the point of view of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSB (Sachverstaendigen-Kommission fuer Fragen der Sicherung des Brennstoffkreislaufs) concludes that the necessary protection of the fuel cycle centre against interference or other intervention by third persons (sect. 7, sub-section 2, no. 5 Atomic Energy Act) can be warranted by applying the technical means available nowadays and by suitable organizational measures. However, the concept presented by the applicant must and can be improved upon in some major details in the course of the licensing procedure. Thus, the SSB comes to the conclusion that, in principle, the fuel cycle centre from the point of view of protection is realizable. (orig.)

  15. Dark matter as seen from the physical point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnoholovets, Vlodymyr

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the Newton's law of universal gravitation can be derived from first submicroscopic principles inherent in the very nature of real space that is constituted as a tessellattice of primary topological balls. The submicroscopic concept determines the notion of mass in the tessellattice and introduces excitations of space, which appear at the motion of particles (mass particles are determined as local deformations of the tessellattice). These excitations are associated with carriers of the field of inertia. In the universe the gravitation is induced by standing inerton waves of mass objects, which oscillate around the objects with the speed of light. An overlapping of these standing inerton waves generates an elastic interaction between masses bringing them to a formation of clusters in which masses are characterised by both the Newtonian and elastic interaction. It is this elastic interaction that cancels the necessity of introduction of mystical dark matter. At the same time, inertons, carriers ...

  16. Evolution, Learning, and Semiotics from a Peircean Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Michael Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient arguments in favor of a semiotic approach, put forward on various occasions among others by Luis Radford, claims that semiotics is most appropriate to treat the interaction between socio-cultural and objective aspects of knowledge problems. But if we want to take such claims seriously, we have to undertake revisions of our…

  17. The library from the nursing educator's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, E W

    1971-07-01

    Libraries are accessible to faculties of schools of nursing but tend not to be fully utilized by them. The author describes the results of her surveys of nursing literature concerning libraries and one faculty's opinions and knowledge about its school library. Suggestions are made for assisting nurse educators and students to use the library to its fullest extent. PMID:5146768

  18. Aspects of working psychology from the operator's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychological factors which may influence the vigilance of the monitoring personnel in man-machine-systems will be treated. The influence of such factors on the safety standard of the technical systems in nuclear power plants is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Glycolipids from a colloid chemical point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, P H; Rosenfeld, H; Konidala, P; Garamus, V M; He, L; Prange, A; Niemeyer, B

    2006-06-25

    Glycolipids are a group of compounds with a broad range of applications. Two types of glycolipids (alkylpolyglycosides and gangliosides) were examined with regard to their physicochemical properties. Despite their structural differences, they have in common that they are amphiphilic molecules and able to aggregate to form monolayers, bilayers, micelles, lyothropic mesophases or vesicles. The structures of glycolipid micelles were investigated by different experimental techniques in addition to molecular dynamic simulations. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of gangliosides enables a better understanding of their biological functions. Structural features were obtained for the monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2 and GT1b from bovine brain by means of mass spectrometry. Further the aggregation behaviour was determined by small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering experiments. Interaction studies of these compounds were carried out by means of surface plasmon resonance using gangliosides incorporated liposomes. They were used as model membranes that interact with the lectins WGA, RCA and HPA. The interaction of lectins immobilized to a modified silicon surface was investigated by in-situ ellipsometry. PMID:16707183

  20. Race and History: Comments from an Epistemological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The historiography of race is usually framed by two discontinuities: The invention of race by European naturalists and anthropologists, marked by Carl Linnaeus’s Systema naturae (1735); and the demise of racial typologies after WWII in favor of population-based studies of human diversity. This framing serves a similar function as the quotation marks that almost invariably surround the term. “Race” is placed outside of rational discourse as a residue of outdated essentialist and hierarchical thinking. I will throw doubt on this underlying assumption, not in order to re-legitimate race, but in order to understand better why race has been, and continues to be, such a politically powerful and explosive concept. PMID:25684833

  1. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.

    1993-01-01

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and [gamma]-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by [gamma]-rays, [alpha]-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than [gamma]-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate [gamma]-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed.

  2. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.

    1993-02-01

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and {gamma}-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by {gamma}-rays, {alpha}-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than {gamma}-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate {gamma}-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed.

  3. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and γ-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by γ-rays, α-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than γ-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate γ-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed

  4. Ego in Lacan’s and Husserl's Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fathzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Husserl - at least in his third intellectual career - was convinced that subject is placed at the heart of philosophy and philosophy is nothing but egology. This Cartesian character makes Husserl one of the greatest figures of modern thought. But in contemporary period, this central ego and, accompanied with that, the modern thought have been challenged by poststructuralists. Because of their focus on psychoanalysis and their priority to other poststructuralist writings, Lacan's argumeats are significant. In this article, at first, we proceed with the Lacan's central idea against the Cartesian subject, and then by explaining Husserl's thoughts we will see what his defence is. Husserl, by phenomenological reduction of natural attitude inherent in natural sciences (among them psychoanalysis, places phenomenology in a different dimension and prefers it to other sciences. The process of raising empirical ego to transcendental ego supports such defence.

  5. [Pharmaco-economics: a point of view of the mutualities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, D; Simon, I

    1998-05-01

    In Belgium, the mutualities are responsible for their budgets. They are playing an important role in drug pricing and reimbursement procedures. This document aims at explaining our line of arguments for a critical evaluation and the place for a pharmacoeconomic evaluation in the Belgian social security system. The available economic data for each molecule or pathology are essential but insufficient. Economic evaluations could help to reveal the costs and benefits of different uses of medical therapies and could thereby enhance the resources allocation in a health care system. But this science is still in its infancy, and in practice, the methodological quality of this kind of study is often weak. Furthermore it is not easy to transfer those evaluations to the Belgian reimburse systems. The clinical efficacy and the transparency is price setting should remain the two most important criterions to build reimbursement rules in order to ensure right price, rational use of medicine and accessibility for all. PMID:9689875

  6. Tissue engineering of bone: the reconstructive surgeon's point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Kneser, U; Schaefer, D. J.; Polykandriotis, E; Horch, R E

    2007-01-01

    Bone defects represent a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Different types of biomaterials are applied for reconstructive indications and receive rising interest. However, autologous bone grafts are still considered as the gold standard for reconstruction of extended bone defects. The generation of bioartificial bone tissues may help to overcome the problems related to donor site morbidity and size limitations. Tissue engineering is, according to its historic definition, an “interdisciplin...

  7. Habitability on Mars from a Microbial Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Betrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Extraterrestrial habitability is a complex notion. We briefly review what is known about the origin of life on Earth, that is, life based on carbon chemistry and water. We then discuss habitable conditions (past and present) for established life and for the survival of microorganisms. Based on these elements, we propose to use the term habitable only for conditions necessary for the origin of life, the proliferation of life, and the survival of life. Not covered by this term would be conditio...

  8. The Definition of Planet: A Dynamicist's Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Valsecchi, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    It is here argued that the problem of a meaningful defininition of"planet" is best addressed on a dynamical basis; we show that in this way it is possible to obtain a planet definition that is both unambiguous and useful.

  9. Nuclear energy from the point of view of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study refers mainly to an empirical attitude investigation carried out in 1975 and 1976 in a suburb of Cologne. In order to remain up-to-date, new research results have been included in the analysis. The aim of the publication at hand is to deal with the nuclear controversy in its sociological and social-psychological dimensions, and also to elucidate motives and reasons behind the protests against nuclear energy. The report has been written for sociologists, nuclear engineers and scientists, journalists, political decision-finding authorities and interested laymen alike, and is to offer a general orientation in contradicting statements as regards the stance of the population. The central statement of this very detailed investigation is, that the population has a mainly positive attitude towards the construction of a nuclear power plant - even then when antipathy and uneasiness towards a new energy source prevent emotional identification. (orig./HP)

  10. Accelerator driven systems from the radiological safety point of view

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sarkar; Maitreyee Nandy

    2007-02-01

    In the proposed accelerator driven systems (ADS) the possible use of several milliamperes of protons of about 1 GeV incident on high mass targets like the molten lead–bismuth eutectic is anticipated to pose radiological problems that have so far not been encountered by the radiation protection community. Spallation reaction products like high energy gammas, neutrons, muons, pions and several radiotoxic nuclides including Po-210 complicate the situation. In the present paper, we discuss radiation safety measures like bulk shielding, containment of radiation leakage through ducts and penetration and induced activity in the structure to protect radiation workers as well as estimation of sky-shine, soil and ground water activation, release of toxic gases to the environment to protect public as per the stipulations of the regulatory authorities. We recommend the application of the probabilistic safety analysis technique by assessing the probability and criticality of different hazard-initiating events using HAZOP and FMECA.

  11. Diabetic foot syndrome--dermatological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troskot, Nina; Duvancić, Tomislav; Kolić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from diabetic foot syndrome, a condition leading to foot ulceration or even amputation of lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy combined with repetitive trauma to the foot and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in the development of foot ulcers. Other major contributive factors include the effects of callus, increased plantar pressures, and local infections. Patient education concerning their disease has a central role in the prevention of foot ulcers. Ordinary preventive measures taken by the patient include regular self-inspections, appropriate daily hygiene of the feet, appropriate footwear to reduce plantar pressures, and medical pedicure performed by a pedicurist experienced in diabetic foot patients. The importance of callus in diabetic patients has been shown in several studies by high predictability of subsequent ulcer development in patients with plantar calluses. For removing callus, urea based preparations are considered to be the treatment of choice. In case of local bacterial and fungal diabetic foot infections, systemic antibiotic and systemic antimycotic therapy is indicated, respectively. Wound dressings of various types are the mainstay in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers with avoidance of occlusive dressings in infected ulcers. Since the vast majority of ulcers and amputations can be prevented in diabetic patients, proper diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are essential. PMID:23837279

  12. Downsizing from the merging model point of view (preliminary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the four-particle scattering processes with mass transfer, unlike mergers in which mass can only increase, an essential role are played the processes, when the mass of the most massive galaxies can be decreased. Elementary model describing such a process is considered. In this respect, it is supposed to explain the observed phenomenon of ''downsizing'' when with cosmological time the growth of characteristic mass of the heaviest galaxies is followed by its decrease

  13. Quantum Theory from Observer's Mathematics Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work considers the linear (time-dependent) Schrodinger equation, quantum theory of two-slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, and the uncertainty principle in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics, see [1]. Certain theoretical results and communications pertaining to these theorems are also provided.

  14. Implementation of POPBL Seen From the Administational Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon

    2004-01-01

    Based Learning carried out in teams. Once then, when a decision is made to change the educational model towards POPBL, the executives, academic directors, teachers and the supporting staff face the challenge of actually plan it, implement it, make it work and create a steady state situation. The author...

  15. A point of view about the US energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a short analysis of the evolution of the US energy sector and of the challenges and energy problems the US society has to face. The US primary energy consumption per habitant and automotive fuel prices and taxes are compared with those of the other OECD countries. Differences are explained by considering the US energy policy and the 'American way of life'. This analysis gives also some examples of US energy practices which can explain the behaviour of consumers: reduction of electricity tariffs for consumers with low incomes, promotion of electricity produced from renewable energies (financial incentives), enforcement of reforms concerning the deregulation of the electric power market and the restructuring of the electric power industry. Finally, the author questions the compatibility between the increase of competition in the US energy sector with the environmental requirements of the Kyoto agreements. (J.S.)

  16. Dark matter as seen from the physical point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoholovets, Volodymyr

    2011-10-01

    It is shown that the Newton's law of universal gravitation can be derived from first submicroscopic principles inherent in the very nature of real space that is constituted as a tessel-lattice of primary topological balls. The submicroscopic concept determines the notion of mass in the tessel-lattice and introduces excitations of space, which appear at the motion of particles (mass particles are determined as local deformations of the tessel-lattice). These excitations are associated with carriers of the field of inertia. In the universe the gravitation is induced by standing inerton waves of mass objects, which oscillate around the objects with the speed of light. An overlapping of these standing inerton waves generates an elastic interaction between masses bringing them to a formation of clusters in which masses are characterized by both the Newtonian and elastic interaction. It is this elastic interaction that cancels the necessity of introduction of mystical dark matter. At the same time, inertons, carriers of inert properties of objects, can be treated as an analogous of hypothetic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) or axions, which some astronomers try to associated with dark matter particles.

  17. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FROM AN ACCOUNTING POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ungureanu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the developments which tend to relax the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, property information provided by the latter irreplaceable render its use for diagnostic approaches financial foundation. An efficient information system can provide relevant indicators to users based on accurate and real information and financial analysis results are based on a diagnosis of return and risk. The aim of this article is to present primarily the origin and evolution of the rel...

  18. The Konrad safety case: licensee point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of man and environment is the most important principle with regard to radioactive waste disposal. This fundamental principle is reflected in the licensing prerequisites for a repository. Since it is intended to dispose of radioactive waste in deep geological formations in the Federal Republic of Germany, possible releases via the water path must be investigated and assessed in particular with regard to the safety of a repository during the post-closure phase. Thus, respective investigations comprise the radiological long-term effects (radionuclide-specific radiation exposures) as well as the possible pollution of near-surface groundwater by organic and inorganic chemo-toxic substances. (author)

  19. TEVA new cooling system from the point of view electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to ensure that TEVA temperature reservoir discharge cooling Arrocampo the Torrejon-Tajo does not exceed the limit value 30 degree centigrade. To do this, we have installed a cooling system based on a cooling tower to which water is supplied by four main pumps 1100kW.

  20. Pernicious anemia: New insights from a gastroenterological point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Lahner; Bruno Annibale

    2009-01-01

    Pernicious anemia (PA) is a macrocytic anemia that is caused by vitamin B_(12) deficiency, as a result of intrinsic factor deficiency. PA is associated with atrophic body gastritis (ABG), whose diagnosis is based on histological confirmation of gastric body atrophy. Serological markers that suggest oxyntic mucosa damage are increased fasting gastrin and decreased pepsinogen Ⅰ. Without performing Schilling's test,intrinsic factor deficiency may not be proven, and intrinsic factor and parietal cell antibodies are useful surrogate markers of PA, with 73% sensitivity and 100% specificity. PA is mainly considered a disease of the elderly, but younger patients represent about 15% of patients. PA patients may seek medical advice due to symptoms related to anemia, such as weakness and asthenia. Less commonly, the disease is suspected to be caused by dyspepsia. PA is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (40%) and other autoimmune disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (10%), as part of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. PA is the end-stage of ABG. Longstanding Helicobacter pylori infection probably plays a role in many patients with PA, in whom the active infectious process has been gradually replaced by an autoimmune disease that terminates in a burned-out infection and the irreversible destruction of the gastric body mucosa. Human leucocyte antigen-DR genotypes suggest a role for genetic susceptibility in PA. PA patients should be managed by cobalamin replacement treatment and monitoring for onset of iron deficiency. Moreover, they should be advised about possible gastrointestinal long-term consequences, such as gastric cancer and carcinoids.

  1. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  2. Young physicians' competences from different points of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane; Reimann, Ralph

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes a baseline evaluation of medical education focusing on the competences of young physicians. It was conducted in the context of a reform mandated for medical programs at Austrian state universities. The study investigated the goals of medical education (ideal situation) as well as the real situation. Furthermore, learning methods used by medical students were analyzed. A multiple-perspective procedure was applied and questionnaire data from students, graduates, university teachers, and clinical supervisors of young graduates were collected at the University of Graz. A high discrepancy was found between the goals of medical teaching and the educational effectiveness of achieving them. Competences of young physicians were rated to be relatively low -- thereby external ratings were systematically lower than self-ratings by students and graduates. Reading passages from required textbooks is the dominant learning behavior among students. Based on the results, a gap between the ideal and the actual medical competences imparted at university can be identified. With regard to the generally low-rated competences of young physicians, the precondition for practical requirements hardly seems to be optimal. PMID:15369886

  3. Friction in macroscopic thermodynamics: A kinetic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P. S.

    2015-12-01

    To provide a solid support to a macroscopic framework developed to explicitly account for friction in thermodynamics, a kinetic description of frictional dissipation is developed. Using either a dissipative Fokker-Planck equation for Brownian motion or a Boltzmann equation with a friction-force term added, it is shown that both approaches lead to the emergence of the macroscopic thermodynamic relations that state the first and second laws with friction. The analysis is directly applied to the problem of determining the minimum amount of heating generated by memory erasure, known in computer science as Landauer's bound, and leads to a better understanding of the energetics behind the latter. A generalisation of Boltzmann's H theorem to include friction explicitly is also recovered, and the thermodynamics of granular rotators acted by a frictional torque and of radio-frequency (RF) current drive of fusion plasmas, in which collisional drag is present, are addressed as well. Various physics results are revisited employing the first and second laws with friction that have been derived from the appropriate dissipative kinetic equations, lower bounds for entropy production rates being derived both for granular rotators and for RF current drive.

  4. Heritage, Memory and Education: a Museological Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo de Mello Vasconcellos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflection on the relationship between heritage, memory and the educational aspect of museums. For this purpose, it analyzes the development of a museological project carried out between 2006 and 2010 in a school with low-income students, aged between 4 and 6 years old, located near the Museum of Ar chaeology and Ethnologyat the University of São Paulo. This project was inspired by the principles of social inclusion and a participatory methodology was used. It counted on the development of different strategies including specific workshops conducted in the school and in the Museum. These strategies generated positive results that led the children to appreciate their local heritage. They also demonstrated that inclusive education projects reinforce ties between museums and poor communities as well as improve self-esteem issues and promote notions of belonging.

  5. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mariza Hildebrandt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state,called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapygroup in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all.The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the containedinformation in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. Onfirst thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in themoment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring atherapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematicshows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mentalsick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed bythe sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities ofintervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people.

  6. Test and acceptance from the AE point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power industry has undergone the transition from utilizing construction engineers for startup activities to utilizing test engineers who are responsible for the preparation or execution of a formal test program. This has come about because testing has been given sufficient importance to justify those participating within the industry to establish it as a specialty phase apart from engineering/design and construction. Presently testing is being conducted by those organizations that have either engineered and/or constructed the unit which may be a position of conflict in regards to unbiased test. The tester (third party) concept promotes the repetition, independence, and expertise of a test organization responsible to the utility for certifying that each system has been tested to the design criteria established by others. A move to this concept should result in better generating stations with higher availability because it has been completely tested by an organization with this sole contractual responsibility. The AE, NSSS, and utility would all benefit with possibly no additional costs incurred

  7. Thin Film Substrates from the Raman spectroscopy point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparov, Lev; Jegorel, Theo; Loetgering, Lars; Middey, Srimanta; Chakhalian, Jak

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated ten standard single crystal substrates of complex oxides on the account of their applicability in the Raman spectroscopy based thin film research. In this study we suggest a spectra normalization procedure that utilises a comparison of the substrate's Raman spectra to those of well-established Raman reference materials. We demonstrate that MgO, LaGaO3, (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT), DyScO3, YAlO3, and LaAlO3 can be of potential use for a Raman based thin film research. At the same time TiO2 (rutile), NdGaO3, SrLaAlO4, and SrTiO3 single crystals exhibit multiple phonon modes accompanied by strong Raman background that substantially hinder the Raman based thin film experiments. L.G. acknowledges the support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grants DMR-0805073, DMR-0958349, Office of Naval Research award N00014-06-1-0133 and the UNF Terry Presidential Professorship. J. C. was supported by DOD-ARO under Grant No. 0402-172.

  8. [Drug interchangeability: clinical approach and consumer's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumel, Davi; Nishioka, Sérgio de Andrade; Santos, Adélia Aparecida Marçal dos

    2006-10-01

    The rational construction of an essential drug list, considering the patient's need, drug safety, availability and the best cost-benefit ratio, is based on drug safety, efficacy and quality. However, in daily practice, the prescriber's decision is mostly influenced by drug effectiveness, following criteria that increase adherence to the treatment, such as relative drug toxicity, convenience, cost and prescriber's experience. In addition, frequent launching of new molecules for the same therapeutic indication, together with wide publicity targeting prescribers, interferes with the decision-making process. Similarly, the bonuses offered by the industry for over-the-counter drug sales interfere with the consumer's choice. The confrontation between known human biological variability and the knowledge that there is no absolute similarity between drugs of the same therapeutic class, or even generic drugs, has an impact on the prescriber's drug list, which should include the concept of first and second choice drugs. Prescribers' unfamiliarity with these subjects is a determinant factor for irrational drug use: a public health issue. The objective of this study was to introduce to drug prescribers information that can help them building up a rational drug list for their patients, based on the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) experience of drug regulation. PMID:17301916

  9. Multi-View Point Clouds Registration without Feature Extraction for Use in Reverse Engineering of CAD Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaoping; Xiong Youlun

    2001-01-01

    For reverse engineering a CAD model, it is necessary to integrate measured points from several views of an object into a common reference frame. Given a rough initial alignment of point cloud in different views with point-normal method, further refinement is achieved by using an improved iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Compared with other methods used for multi-view registration, this approach is automatic because no geometric feature, such as line, plane or sphere needs to be extracted from the original point cloud manually. A good initial alignment can be acquired automatically and the registration accuracy and efficiency is proven better than the normal point-point ICP algorithm both experimentally and theoretically.

  10. A swedish dose passport - contractors point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Atom is situated in Vasteras approximately 100 km west from Stockholm. The company is owned by BNFL. The two largest divisions are the Nuclear Fuel Operations and The Global Reactor Services division. The Nuclear fuel operations manufacture fuel for BWR and PWR reactors. The raw material used is Uranium hexafluoride, which is converted to Uranium dioxide powder through wet AUC-process. The concession is 600 tonnes of UO2, per year. Last year the production. was approximately 900 fuel elements. There is also a control rod production line within the fuel factory. Last year the production of control rods was approximately 160. The Global Reactor Services Division performs tests on different types of equipments used in nuclear power plants. In addition there is also a well-established service structure that provides a wide range of field services, for instance sipping of fuel elements. The total amount of people working in Vasteras is currently around 800. The majority of those, work at the fuel factory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the somewhat awkward situation for our employees when working as external personnel on German nuclear installations. Our Swedish personnel are currently using German dose passports. Since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 this is in contradiction to the EU-directives. Hence, Westinghouse Atom has applied for a license for the use of Swedish dose passports in Germany. The amount of people performing service jobs in Germany is approximately 80 persons. (authors)

  11. Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors:A surgical point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anton Stift; Josef Friedl; Michael Gnant; Friedrich Herbst; Raimund Jakesz; Etienne Wenzl

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors are uncommon stromal tumors of the intestinal tract. Their histological appearance is similar to that of other gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report two cases and performed an analysis of the literature by comparing our findings with the available case reports in the medical literature.METHODS: Two patients were admitted with abdominal tumor masses. One occurred in the stomach with large multiple liver metastases and the second originated in Meckel's diverticulum. The latter site has never been reported previously. Both patients underwent surgery. In one patient gastrectomy, right liver resection and colon transversum resection were performed to achieve aggressive tumor debulking. In the other patient the tumor bearing diverticulum was removed.RESULTS: Postoperative recovery of both patients was uneventful. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopy revealed the diagnosis of a gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor. The patient with the tumor in Meckel's diverticulum died 6 mo after surgery because of pneumonia. The patient with liver metastases have been alive 13 years after initial tumor diagnosis and 7 years after surgery with no evidence of tumor progression. In light of our results, we performed a thorough comparison with available literature reports.CONCLUSION: Radical surgical resection of gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors seems to be the only available curative approach to date, and long term survival is possible even in large metastasized tumors.ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe thank Christine Brostjan, PhD for critical review of the manuscript.

  12. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FROM AN ACCOUNTING POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ungureanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the developments which tend to relax the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, property information provided by the latter irreplaceable render its use for diagnostic approaches financial foundation. An efficient information system can provide relevant indicators to users based on accurate and real information and financial analysis results are based on a diagnosis of return and risk. The aim of this article is to present primarily the origin and evolution of the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, and the fundamental role which accounting holds, through the information it produces, into analysts’ work. The used research method is the bibliographic one, being studied timely books and articles of the domain. Literature does not provide concrete answers to this problem, resolutions being expected especially from practitioners.

  13. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.

  14. Main post-accident management stakes: IRSN's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Off site management of a radiological crisis covers two phases which need to be clearly distinguished even if there are links between them: emergency phase and recovery phase (also called late or post-accident phase). The presentation will deal with the latter, rather neglected up until recently, but conveying special attention from now on in France and at the international level. It is clear now that the long term management of a radiological or nuclear crisis cannot be reduced to merely site decontamination. Actually, environmental decontamination considerations would be only one amongst other essential economical, social, health, psychological, cultural, and symbolical concerns. This is why off site management of a radiological crisis requires innovative governance, in order to challenge such a complexity. This need for challenge led IRSN to have on the go technical developments and new governance modes reflection. 1) Technical developments: they deal with implementing an organisation, a set of methods, a platform of technical tools which would allow the stakeholders to carry out efficiently their mission during the recovery phase. For example, countermeasures for agricultural and urban rehabilitation are developed within the framework of the 6. PCRDT EURANOS programme. Teams from several countries are involved in common elaboration of rehabilitation strategies based on the best available knowledge. Besides this, simple operational decision aiding tools for the stakeholders (local administration, elected representatives, professional agricultural groups, etc.) are currently developed by IRSN within the framework of the nuclear post-accident exercises. IRSN is also involved in doctrinal reflections about the respective roles of radioactive measurements in the environment and radiological consequences calculation during emergency and recovery phases. Criteria for emergency countermeasures withdrawal are also currently under

  15. $QCD_{4}$ From a Five-Dimensional Point of View

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, L; Baulieu, Laurent; Zwanziger, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We propose a 5-dimensional definition for the physical 4D-Yang-Mills theory. The fifth dimension corresponds to the Monte-Carlo time of numerical simulations of QCD_4. The 5-dimensional theory is a well-defined topological quantum field theory that can be renormalized at any given finite order of perturbation theory. The relation to non-perturbative physics is obtained by expressing the theory on a lattice, a la Wilson. The new fields that must be introduced in the context of a topological Yang-Mills theory have a simple lattice expression. We present a 5-dimensional critical limit for physical correlation functions and for dynamical auto-correlations, which allows new Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the time-step in lattice units given by $\\e = g_0^{-13/11}$ in pure gluodynamics. The gauge-fixing in five dimensions is such that no Gribov ambiguity occurs. The weight is strictly positive, because all ghost fields have parabolic propagators and yield trivial determinants. We indicate how our 5-dimensional descr...

  16. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  17. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  18. Ethics in Sport: Socio - Political Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. S CHNEIDER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport is a natural medium for bringing together people of different backgrounds throughout the world. If grounded in ethics and if participants follow the rules and cooperate, sport can be a conduit for world harmony (Sport great for human bonding, 2010.A s international relationships are developed through sport, those relationships can help support larger global endeavors in pursuit of a better world. If international sport based relationships are grounded in Mill’s utilitarianism that calls for actions re sulting in the most long - term happiness for the most amount of people (Mill, 1863/1969 those relationships are well positioned to transition to the domain of governmental politics, where meaningful attempts to resolve large world issues can be addressed, under the same utilitarian premise. In pursuit of a better world, identifying common groundamong the many differences held by people throughout the world is a magnanimous challenge. Beauchamp’s (1982 practical suggestion that common sense, habits, and pas t experience are most helpful when attempting to select actions that will determine long - term happiness. Moving beyond sport and transferring the application of Beauchamp’s practical utilitarian approach to larger global conflicts, can help guide governmen ts as they engage in the necessary politics, to move toward improving global problems in the interest of world harmony.

  19. Spatial orientation of cross-sectional images of coronary arteries: point of view in intracoronary imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thim Troels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In studies where cross-sectional images of coronary arteries obtained with different imaging modalities are compared, the importance of correct co-localization and matching of images along the coronary artery longitudinal axis is obvious. However, it appears neglected that correct spatial orientation of the cross-sectional plane may not be obtainable just by rotating the images to ensure co-localization of identifiable landmarks such as sidebranches. A cross-section has two sides, one facing proximally and the other distally, and pairs of images reconstructed corresponding to these opposite points of view are mirror images of each other and not superimposable. This may be difficult if not impossible to recognize and unrecognized it will give rise to flawed results in the development and validation of imaging technologies aimed at plaque characterization (tissue mapping. We determined the imagined point of view for three commercially available intracoronary imaging systems used by invasive cardiologists and illustrate its importance in imaging modality validation. Methods and Results We made an asymmetric phantom and investigated it with two different intravascular ultrasound (IVUS systems and one optical coherence tomography (OCT system. The asymmetry of the phantom allowed determination of the spatial orientation of the cross-sectional images. On all tested systems, an observer should imagine herself/himself standing proximal to the cross-section when looking at the intravascular images. Conclusions The tested intracoronary imaging modalities displayed cross-sectional images with a spatial orientation corresponding to a proximal point of view. Knowledge of the spatial orientation is mandatory when comparing and validating different imaging modalities aimed at plaque characterization.

  20. Understanding the Miocene-Pliocene - The Mediterranean Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, D.; Marzocchi, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Flecker, R.; Hilgen, F. J.; Meijer, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    During the Miocene-Pliocene the Mediterranean region experienced major changes in paleogeography. Today, its only connection to the global ocean is the Strait of Gibraltar. This restricted nature causes the Mediterranean basin to react more sensitive to climatic and tectonic related phenomena than the global ocean: Not just eustatic sea-level and regional river run-off, but also gateway tectonics and connectivity between sub-basins are leaving an enhanced fingerprint in its geological record. To understand its evolution, it is crucial to understand how these different effects are coupled. The Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record of the Mediterranean alternates in composition and colour. Around the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary the most extreme changes occur in the Mediterranean Sea: About 6% of the salt in the global ocean got deposited in the Mediterranean Region, forming an approximately 2km thick salt layer, which is still present today. This extreme event is named the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33Ma). Before (and also after) the MSC, the sedimentary record demonstrates "marl dominated" alternations with variations in organic content (e.g. higher organic content = sapropel). During the MSC these change to mainly "evaporite (e.g. gypsum or halite) dominated" alternations, but also to brackish Black Sea-type of deposits towards the end of the crisis. Due to its relative short geological time span, the period before, during and after the MSC is ideal to study these extreme changes in sedimentation. We are investigating these couplings and evolutions in a box/budget model. With such a model we can study the responses to basin water exchange dynamics under the effect of different regional and global climatic and tectonic forcings, to predict the evolution of basin properties (e.g. salinity). By doing so we can isolate certain climatic and tectonic effects, to better understand their individual contribution, their interaction, but also the consequences due to

  1. Problem solving and writing I: The point of view of physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Barojas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this first paper, of a series of two, we relate the skills of problem solving and writing referring to two types of systems, those called physical and those concerning human learning. Then, the notion of semiotic representation registers is connected to the building of learning cycles. All these elements serve to propose a protocol for problem solving that contains four steps of cognitive nature and another one that is metacognitive. This protocol is applied by interpreting in detail the steps of the solution of a physics problem from the point of view of a physicist. Finally, some mplications on science and technology education are discussed.

  2. IS IT IMPORTANT THE ACCOUNTING MODEL USED BY THE ECONOMIC ENTITY IN MAKING DECISIONS BY THE USERS OF THE INFORMATION? POINTS OF VIEW.

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Rus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is vital to stay informed. But why is the information so important? The following will present the role and the importance of accounting information in decision-making regarding economic entity. Is accounting information a want or a need? Can accounting information be interpreted correctly indifferent of the accounting model used? Decisions made by the consumers of accounting information would be the same in terms of using the "cash" or "accrual" method? Based on these questions, ...

  3. IS IT IMPORTANT THE ACCOUNTING MODEL USED BY THE ECONOMIC ENTITY IN MAKING DECISIONS BY THE USERS OF THE INFORMATION? POINTS OF VIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Rus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is vital to stay informed. But why is the information so important? The following will present the role and the importance of accounting information in decision-making regarding economic entity. Is accounting information a want or a need? Can accounting information be interpreted correctly indifferent of the accounting model used? Decisions made by the consumers of accounting information would be the same in terms of using the "cash" or "accrual" method? Based on these questions, this paper presents data as a whole for everyone and from where each consumer of information can extract only the part that they are interested in and which is useful for them. This paper follows the interests of users of accounting information regarding the interest, the need for information and the decisions they may take as a result of the information received, and also of the accounting model used by the entity from which the information is expected. This paper does not include all users of the accounting information that have interest in the economic entity, nor does it take into account all the information that are affected by the use of a model of accounting or the other one of the economic entity, but we can conclude that there are situations in which users ' decisions are influenced by the accounting model used, and others where there is no influence. We can't rule on any model to be the best; it is good that provides useful information showing the true reality of the economic entity.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF PARALLEL MECHANISM BASED ROBOT MANIPULATORS FROM STRUCTURAL POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. JAGDISH M. PRAJAPATI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential merits, the parallel mechanisms are more popular than serial mechanisms based robot manipulators in specific applications. One of the ways of classifying the parallel manipulatorsis according to their platform types and connection between them. Methods for designing different types of parallel manipulators with one or more platforms are presented. The classification of parallel mechanism based manipulators and synthesis of them from structural point of view are presented in this paper. The step by step procedure is presented with help of examples.

  5. Ontogeny and Phylogeny from an Epigenetic Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtrup, Soren

    1984-01-01

    The correlation between ontogeny and phylogeny is analyzed through the discussion of four theories on the reality, history, epigenetic, and ecological aspects of the mechanism of evolution. Also discussed are historical and creative aspects of evolution and three epigenetic mechanisms instantiated in the case of the amphibian embryo. (Author/RH)

  6. Universities: a Geographer’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Yakobson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the XIIIth century the number of universities in Europe has been constantly growing. During the XXth century similar growth was in the countries of the USSR, but its character changed. Until the 1950s universities appeared in big cities on a well-prepared staffing and organizational ground. In the last quarter of the XXth century there were tendencies towards inflation of the higher education, decrease of its prestige and its formalization. In the 1990s and up to the present time, bureaucratization of universities extended so much that it put the system of Russian universities on the edge of survival.

  7. [Identity and aging. A metapsychological point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péruchon, Marion

    2004-06-01

    After having outlined the concept of identity which refers to the psyche and narcissism, the author analyses the normal and pathological defensive mechanisms of the people facing the afflictions of aging. These defensive mechanisms are aimed to the maintain of identity, its consolidation, but can also lead to its self-destruction. PMID:15683975

  8. ECONOMY AND ENVIRONMENT. POINTS OF VIEW AND ACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria CHIVU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of the environment is a direct consequence of history, especially of economic history. The article analyzes the relationship between economy and environment, in order to determine the main causes that led to the ecological crisis. The article argues that despite the close relationship between environment and economy, the economy did not take into account the environmental protection, until there appeared serious environmental impacts. Including the environment in economic thinking led, first, to the application of conventional techniques to economy to try to solve problems. The article also examines some priorities for improving the relationship between economy and environment conducive to move towards a model of sustainable development. The conclusion is that sustainable development is the goal to be achieved. In search of sustainability, companies should play an important role, as in all phases of the life cycle of their products, there are environmental risks and, therefore, they are a major source of environmental degradation of the planet.

  9. TEACHER CANDIDATES’ POINT OF VIEWS ABOUT PORTFOLIO PREPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Ayten Pınar

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at identifying teacher candidates’ perspectives about the process of portfolio (the file of product) preparation. The quantitative data of this study was based on 110 first-year students at the primary school teacher education department (teacher candidates) and the qualitative data was composed of 15 teacher candidates’ semi-structured interviews. As data collection tools, “The Inventory of Portfolio Preparation (PPI)” and semi-structured interview forms were used. The data w...

  10. Risk Assessment from the Ecotoxicological Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    TUTKUN, Engin

    2015-01-01

    People can be exposed to chemicals in the environment in nmerous ways, including inhalation, ingestion and dermal. Toxic chemicals in the environment contributes to the development of acute and chronic diseases and play a key role in burden of chronic diseases. “Risk” can be defined as the probability of an adverse effect of a spesific magnitude. Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA), as a scientific process, targets to identify the quantity of a chemical in the environment, the inherent toxici...

  11. Open Access... from the librarian’s point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Subirats-Coll, Imma; Melinščak-Zlodi, Iva; Pavelić, Damir

    2004-01-01

    1.INTRODUCTION During the last decade of 20th century the dissatisfaction with the current situation in scholarly communication and publication has grown continuously. Although the fast development of information technology has brought the promise of instant and low-barrier access to all kind of information, including scholarly information, the reality was different. The number of online available information has risen, but their prices and subscriptions continued to rise as well. The so-c...

  12. Epilepsy through the ages: An artistic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Rizvi, Syed; Téllez-Zenteno, Jose Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The historical allure of epilepsy transcends academic circles and serves as fascinating critique of the state of the times-its values, judgments, mythos, and people. Immortalized and laid bare in artistic renderings of epilepsy are societal truths, at times both disparately grandiose and grotesque. During the middle ages and Renaissance, the European discourse on epilepsy assumed religious fervor. Epilepsy was considered a demonic machination and its cure an act of divine intercession. A similar theme is found in the artistic depiction of epilepsy from the Inca and Aztec civilizations of that time. After the 19th century drew to a close, the ascendency of empiricism coincided with waning creative interest in epilepsy, with few paintings or pieces to capture insightful perspectives on the illness. In this paper, we review the relationship between art and epilepsy and present two contemporary paintings that convey current western perceptions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26874992

  13. Child supplementary feeding from primiparas’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna de Albuquerque Frota

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate mothers’ knowledge of infant feeding. Methods: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach, developed in a Primary Health Unit located in the city of Maranguape-CE, with 14 first-time mothers of children aged 6 to 24 months, who were receiving complementary feeding and were resident in the District of Tabatinga between the months of July and October 2009, through participant observation and semi-structured interview. After reading, careful description of the interviews and classification of speech, the following categories emerged: complementary feeding and breastfeeding; food offered to children; and determinants of the healthy infant feeding. Results: Although mothers have basics knowledge of how a healthy diet should be, they continued introducing harmful foods to children, showing lack of control over food education. Mothers are aware that feeding the child could be based on nutritious foods; nevertheless, they prefer choosing those that feature ease of supply. Conclusion: The introduction of new foods was performed incorrectly and nutritional quality is inadequate for children. The mother appears in charge of the child development; however, for this process to be successful, she must become conscious of this subject, since a healthy diet directly influences the child’s organism, as it acts in all body systems.

  14. Plant Sucrose Transporters from a Biophysical Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dietmar Geiger

    2011-01-01

    T The majority of higher plants use sucrose as their main mobile carbohydrate. Proton-driven sucrose transporters play a crucial role in cell-to-cell and long-distance distribution of sucrose throughout the plant. A very negative plant membrane potential and the ability of sucrose transporters to accumulate sucrose concentrations of more than 1 M indicate that plants evolved transporters with unique structural and functional features. The knowledge about the transport mechanism and structural/functional domains of these nano-machines is, however, still fragmentary. In this review,the current knowledge about the biophysical properties of plant sucrose transporters is summarized and discussed.

  15. Representation theory a homological algebra point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

      Introducing the representation theory of groups and finite dimensional algebras, this book first studies basic non-commutative ring theory, covering the necessary background of elementary homological algebra and representations of groups to block theory. It further discusses vertices, defect groups, Green and Brauer correspondences and Clifford theory. Whenever possible the statements are presented in a general setting for more general algebras, such as symmetric finite dimensional algebras over a field. Then, abelian and derived categories are introduced in detail and are used to explain stable module categories, as well as derived categories and their main invariants and links between them. Group theoretical applications of these theories are given – such as the structure of blocks of cyclic defect groups – whenever appropriate. Overall, many methods from the representation theory of algebras are introduced. Representation Theory assumes only the most basic knowledge of linear algebra, groups, rings ...

  16. Electromechanics vs. Mechatronics –Points of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Andras

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechatronics–this emerging boundary subject is largely disputed among scientific, business, and engineering collectivities both in the plane of methods and applications, and in the plane of concepts and approaches. From ideas which consider it as a make-up form of electromechanics or deny its scientific emerging character, until apologizing concepts declaring it as a philosophy of intelligent machines engineering of 21st century, a few dozen of concepts and opinions exist in formal and no formal debates among interested collectivities. The paper deals with an overview of these ideas, with pro and contra augments emerged from a particular topic- equipment for mining industry, the latest beneficiary of the topic.

  17. The problems from the public utilities' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives a short review on the development of the primary energy demand of the FRG and analyzes the nuclear fuel market until 1985. With regard to article 86 of the EURATOM treaty, he calls for a civil-law interpretation which enables the industry to offer the economic value of nuclear fuel as a security for loans legally, irreproachably, safely, dependently or independently. (HP/AK)

  18. A POINT OF VIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    AUGUSTO PÉREZ GÓMEZ

    2004-01-01

    This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conc...

  19. Considerations on English synonyms from a semantic point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia BOARCê

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the behaviour of semantic relations in context. We started our research considering G. Leech’s definition according to which synonyms are the result of intuition, on the one hand, but also of social, behavioural and psychological context, on the other. Context becomes very important in structuring the types of synonyms and in analyzing them at semantic level. The basic idea is that the synonymic relation cannot be total, but it depends on the context; two lexical ...

  20. Nuclear Astrophysics from View Point of Few-Body Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few-body systems provide very useful tools to solve different problems for nuclear astrophysics. This is the case of indirect techniques, developed to overcome some of the limits of direct measurements at astrophysical energies. Here the Coulomb dissociation, the asymptotic normalization coefficient and the Trojan Horse method are discussed. (author)

  1. QED in external fields: A functional point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A functional partial differential equation is set for the proper graphs generating functionals of QED in external electromagnetic fields. This equation leads to the evolution of the proper graphs with the external field amplitude and the external field gauge dependence of the complete fermion propagator and vertex is derived nonperturbatively

  2. Thin Film Substrates from the Raman spectroscopy point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparov, L.; Jegorel, T.; Loetgering, L.; Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated ten standard single crystal substrates of complex oxides on the account of their applicability in the Raman spectroscopy based thin film research. In this study we suggest a spectra normalization procedure that utilizes a comparison of the substrate Raman spectra to those of well-established Raman reference materials. We demonstrate that MgO, LaGaO3, (LaAlO3)_0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)_0.7 (LSAT), DyScO3, YAlO3, and LaAlO3 can be of potential use for a Raman based thin film research....

  3. Pre-irradiation from the surgeon's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If we compare the possibilities of radiotherapy to the causes of surgical failure we see that, provided a tolerable side effect rate, both disciplines complete each other in a natural way. I tried to show that increasing the efficiency of surgical measures can be expected especially from pre-irradiation. This partnership can be expressed in a simple equation: the kinetic part of the therapy, radiation treatment, fights against tumour kinetics, its expansion; while the mechanical part, the operation, eliminates the static, i.e. the radiation-resistent tumour nucleus. On the other side of this equation, increased healing and more qualitative life prolongation should appear. (orig.)

  4. The partitioning and transmutation issue: an industrial point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greneche, D. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Rance, P.; Zimmerman, C. [BNFL, British Nuclear Fuels, Company Research Lab., Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    P and T is a set of technologies which are mostly at the research stage. However, it is considered that enough information is available at present in order to carry out a preliminary investigation of its potential industrialization. This paper considers P and T in terms of technological feasibility, cost, timing and environmental impact. The paper concludes that there are enough uncertainties in the benefits of P and T to warrant a comprehensive evaluation of its cost and socio-economic impact, and its impact on repository design and safety before pushing ahead with large-scale development programmes. (author)

  5. The partitioning and transmutation issue: an industrial point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P and T is a set of technologies which are mostly at the research stage. However, it is considered that enough information is available at present in order to carry out a preliminary investigation of its potential industrialization. This paper considers P and T in terms of technological feasibility, cost, timing and environmental impact. The paper concludes that there are enough uncertainties in the benefits of P and T to warrant a comprehensive evaluation of its cost and socio-economic impact, and its impact on repository design and safety before pushing ahead with large-scale development programmes. (author)

  6. Cancer treatment in elderly patients from radiotherapeutical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indications for oncological treatment and thus for radio- and chemotherapy are clearly defined. However, there are mostly changes of the otherwise usual procedure to be discussed in radiotherapy of aged persons: In decision on the kind of therapy, in medical and physical treatment planning, in the performance of radiotherapy, and in concomitant internal treatment. The physician may encounter ethical conflicts if only palliative therapy is possible. In this regard, it is the principal aim to alleviate the patient's life, to render endurable, worth living the last stage of his disease. (orig.)

  7. Transplantation ethics from the Islamic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Mohammad Mehdi; Niknam, Mohammad Hussein; Hedayat, Kamyar M

    2005-04-01

    Organ transplantation has been transformed from an experimental procedure at Western academic centers to an increasingly common procedure in private and public hospitals throughout the world. Attendant with advancements in organ harvesting, preservation, and transplantation come moral issues. Islam is a holistic religion that takes into account social affairs of man as well as spiritual ones. Islam has a long history of ethics literature including the subgenre of medical ethics. Historical considerations are discussed as to why Muslim thinkers were late to consider contemporary medical issues such as organ donation. Islam respects life and values the needs of the living over the dead, thus allowing organ donation to be considered in certain circumstances. The sources of Islamic law are discussed in brief in order for non-Muslims to appreciate how the parameters of organ transplantation are derived. The Islamic viewpoint, both Shiite and Sunni, is examined in relation to organ donation and its various sources. The advantages and disadvantages of brain dead and cadaveric donation is reviewed with technical and ethical considerations. The Islamic concept of brain death, informed and proxy consent are also discussed. We discuss the concept of rewarded donation as a way to alleviate the current shortage of organs available for transplantation and consider secular and religious support for such a program. Suggestions are made for greater discussion and exchange of ideas between secular and religious thinkers in the Islamic world and between the Islamic world and secular Western countries. PMID:15795706

  8. Experience in developing countries from the vendor's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of nuclear power plants calls for a wide sphere of industrial activities, nuclear as well as conventional. For a specific country the ways and methods of developing an industrial nuclear power program and reaching the target of independence, will widely differ, depending on the size of the country, the economic situation, the already existing industrial manufacturing and engineering capacities, the time schedule of the program and the type of contracting. The supply of nuclear power stations from an industrial country to a developing country is normally combined with an obligation for an effective technology transfer for the strengthening and setting up of a national industry, and the engineering capacities, needed for the construction of nuclear power plants. The German nuclear power industry gained considerable experience in connection with the turn-key supply of the first units in various countries. The prerequisites and national nuclear power programs were different. Based on a successful technological development, including standardization, the German nuclear power industry could meet the demand and different approaches in these countries for nuclear power plants up to the largest size existing today. The specific situation and practices followed will be described for three different cases, namely Argentina, Brazil and Iran. (orig.)

  9. Exchange Rate Risk : From a Portfolio Investors Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Stålstedt, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Due to globalization investors have increasing opportunities to invest on international markets for diversification purposes. This thesis illustrates the added risks of investing internationally due to volatile exchange rates. The purpose is to analyze how a volatile exchange rate affect the risk and return of a portfolio invested in Sweden, when the investor is located in Japan, United Kingdom or the USA. To analyze the effect of exchange rate volatility the focus is on a portfolio consistin...

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Genetic Point Of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, C; CaldarazzoIenco, E; Mancuso, M; Siciliano, G

    2014-10-10

    In the last twenty years the rapid advances in neurogenetic have revolutionized not only the molecular, pathological inheritance but also the clinical concept of ALS. Here we review the current genetic breakthrough in familial and sporadic ALS, considering how this knowledge has allowed widening of the scenario on the possible pathogenic disease mechanisms and better understanding of the relationship between the genetic, pathological and clinical subtypes. PMID:25323864

  11. ECONOMY AND ENVIRONMENT. POINTS OF VIEW AND ACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Maria CHIVU

    2015-01-01

    The current situation of the environment is a direct consequence of history, especially of economic history. The article analyzes the relationship between economy and environment, in order to determine the main causes that led to the ecological crisis. The article argues that despite the close relationship between environment and economy, the economy did not take into account the environmental protection, until there appeared serious environmental impacts. Including the environment in economi...

  12. Generalized Quantum Relativistic Kinematics: a Stability Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Okon, E

    2004-01-01

    We apply Lie algebra deformation theory to the problem of identifying the stable form of the quantum relativistic kinematical algebra. As a warm up, given Galileo's conception of spacetime as input, some modest computer code we wrote zeroes in on the Poincare-plus-Heisenberg algebra in about a minute. Further ahead, along the same path, lies a three dimensional deformation space, with an instability double cone through its origin. We give physical as well as geometrical arguments supporting o...

  13. Investment portfolio management from cybernetic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchev, Angel, Jr.; Marchev, Angel

    2013-12-01

    The theory of investment portfolios is a well defined component of financial science. While sound in principle, it faces some setbacks in its real-world implementation. In this paper the authors propose a reformulation of the investment portfolio problem as a cybernetic system where the Investor is the controlling system and the portfolio is the controlled system. Also the portfolio controlling process should be dissected in several ordered phases, so that each phase is represented as a subsystem within the structure of the controlling system Investor.

  14. Securing medical research: a cybersecurity point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneier, Bruce

    2012-06-22

    The problem of securing biological research data is a difficult and complicated one. Our ability to secure data on computers is not robust enough to ensure the security of existing data sets. Lessons from cryptography illustrate that neither secrecy measures, such as deleting technical details, nor national solutions, such as export controls, will work. PMID:22723410

  15. Informatics Teaching from the Students' Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorec, Jan; Haskova, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Branches of science and technical/engineering study have for a long time been the less favoured disciplines and students have not been interested in studying them. Informatics/computer education, based on its character, belongs to these disciplines, but on the contrary it belongs rather to the group of popular school subjects. The paper presents…

  16. Introduction: Food Allergy - A Toxicologists Point Of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of new proteins into crops to promote resistance to pests and other stressors, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify phenotype is a technology that has many advantages over conventional approaches. There is concern however, that introduction of a novel protein into...

  17. A Common Core in Science? Two Points of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Mary; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents one viewpoint supporting the adoption of a core curriculum in science based upon social, egalitarian ideas and concerns for the basics, and another viewpoint opposing a core curriculum based upon the inability of classical sciences as taught to meet general societal and industrial needs. (DC)

  18. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  19. The Konrad safety case: regulator point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 22 May 2002 the plan approval (i.e. licensing) decision for the KONRAD repository (located near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, Germany) for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation was assigned after almost 20 year duration of the licensing procedure. According to the German regulations, the only quantitative radiological criterion for the long-term safety assessment is the limit for the individual dose, e.g. 0.3 mSv/y effective dose. An additional criterion was the limitation of chemo-toxical components in groundwater given in the 'regulations for drinking water' in Lower Saxony. The licensing authority required the limitations of radioactive dose and chemo-toxical elements to be used as assessment criterion over the whole calculated time span until reaching the concentration maximum of the radionuclides, i.e. up to some 100 000 or even to 1000 000 years. (author)

  20. Friction laws from dimensional-analysis point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Friction laws, which are a key to the understanding of the diversity of earthquakes, are considered theoretically. Using dimensional analysis, the logarithmic dependence of the friction coefficient on the slip velocity and the state variable is derived without any knowledge of the underlying physical processes on the frictional surface. This is based on a simple assumption that the friction coefficient is expressed as the difference from a reference state. Therefore, the functional form of the rate and state dependent friction law itself does not necessarily mean that thermal activation processes dominate friction. It is also shown that, if there are two (or more) state variables having the same dimension, we need not assume the logarithmic dependence on the state variables.

  1. A POINT OF VIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO PÉREZ GÓMEZ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conceptual definitionsmust be a priority; that the abusive glorification of experimental method has to come to an end becausethe tool cannot solve the conceptual difficulties; that the traditional emphasis on the factual dimension ofresearch and the minute attention to the theoretical and conceptual dimensions are detrimental to Psychology;and that it is urgent to create new research methods allowing access to the most refined forms ofhuman behavior, such as art.

  2. Ads/cft Correspondence From The Supergravity Point Of View

    CERN Document Server

    Deger, N S

    2001-01-01

    In this dissertation we explore various supergravity aspects of the AdS/CFT duality. According to this correspondence, string/M theory on AdSd+1 is dual to a CFTd on its boundary. Taking the supergravity limit of the string/M theory one can do perturbative calculations in the bulk which gives information about strongly coupled CFT's. In Chapter I we review the AdS/CFT correspondence. In Chapter II the complete spectrum of D = 6, N = 4b supergravity with n tensor multiplets compactified on AdS3 × S3 is determined. The spectrum contains more than one tower of supermultiplets. In Chapter III we couple n copies of N = (2, 0) scalar multiplets to a gauged N = (2, 0) supergravity in 2 + 1 dimensions which admits AdS3 as a vacuum. The scalar fields are charged under the R-symmetry group U(1) and parametrize certain Kahler manifolds with compact or non-compact isometries. We also find black string solutions of our model. In Chapter IV the boundary behaviour of this model is examined. It is shown that re...

  3. Environment and nuclear law from the lawyer point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has a two-fold purpose: first, to enunciate the characteristics of Environmental and Nuclear Law; and second, to take a glance at the lawyer's interest on these subjects. The beginnings of both subjects are different. Environmental law has evolved slower than Nuclear Law. Nuclear Law presents the following characteristics: strong state intervention, strong international cooperation, emphasis on the prevention of risks, and effective responsibility for nuclear risk. Environmental Law has as characteristics: a constitutional rank, horizontal authority, and diversified risk. A comparison between both laws could be undertaken on: state participation, legislative activity, institutional set up and organization, as well as on public participation through information. (author)

  4. Editorial - Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of the citation rate of Wikipedia since its launch in 2004. It is worth noting that since its inception Wikipedia, the free international multi-lingual encyclopedia, has been subject to criticism (Fasoldt, 2004; Orlowski, 2005; Lipczynska, 2005). Wikipedia as a popular web resource appears in response to every keyword search on Google. One way to test the popularity of a web resource is to use citation analysis method to predict to what extend it is cite...

  5. A point of view on Gowers uniformity norms

    CERN Document Server

    Host, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Gowers norms have been studied extensively both in the direct sense, starting with a function and understanding the associated norm, and in the inverse sense, starting with the norm and deducing properties of the function. Instead of focusing on the norms themselves, we study associated dual norms and dual functions. Combining this study with a variant of the Szemeredi Regularity Lemma, we give a decomposition theorem for dual functions, linking the dual norms to classical norms and indicating that the dual norm is easier to understand than the norm itself. Using the dual functions, we introduce higher order algebras that are analogs of the classical Fourier algebra, which in turn can be used to further characterize the dual functions.

  6. Ethics in Sport: Socio-Political Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. S CHNEIDER

    2015-01-01

    Sport is a natural medium for bringing together people of different backgrounds throughout the world. If grounded in ethics and if participants follow the rules and cooperate, sport can be a conduit for world harmony (Sport great for human bonding, 2010).A s international relationships are developed through sport, those relationships can help support larger global endeavors in pursuit of a better world. If international sport based relation...

  7. Optoelectronic Organic MaterialsFrom Synthetic Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH; Tien-Yau

    2001-01-01

    Most organic materials for optoelectronic applications are conjugated organic system. The burgeoning synthetic methodologies using organometallic catalysts or reagents have provided a powerful arsenal to design and synthesize new conjugated organic materials. It is particularly noteworthy that carbon-carbon bond formation involving a Csp2 or Csp at the reaction center can readily be achieved. For examples, cross-coupling reactions (e.g. Kumada-Corriu reaction, Stille reaction, and Suzuki reaction) are extremely powerful for the synthesis of Csp2-Csp2 single bond. Sonogashira reaction, on the other hand, serves as a useful entry for the preparation of alkynylarenes or conjugated enynes. Heck reaction furnishes a coupling between an aryl halide and an alkene. Alternatively, olefination reactions provides a practical route for the synthesis of carbon-carbon double bond. In the past decade, we have uncovered four new kinds of transformations staring from the dithioacetal functionality (Scheme).1,2 Three of them have been employed in the synthesis of conjugated small molecules as well as conjugated oligomers/polymers. Their syntheses, photophysical as well as electroluminescent properties will briefly be discussed.  ……

  8. A Teacher's Point of View on Family Life (Sex) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlinski, Judy R.

    2007-01-01

    As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…

  9. Spreadsheets for Thermodynamics Instruction: Another Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Stanley I.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to the suggestion that computational tools be used in undergraduate thermodynamics courses. Argues that instead of using spreadsheets or specially prepared programs, students can quickly develop their own worksheets and solve problems using an equation-solving software program such as MATHCAD. Emphasis is on understanding the fundamentals…

  10. Point of View: Taking a Cue from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Eleanor A.

    2015-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This article encourages teachers to use emerging scientific evidence to change classroom culture--accept the evidence from neuroscience and find ways to make classrooms less stressful and more successful.

  11. CLIENTS POINT OF VIEWS AND TRANSLATORS DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Rumentha Simanjuntak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a critique to a chapter in Samuelsson-Browns (2010 A Practical Guide for Translators. The focus is on communication with clients for successful translation negotiations and decisions need to be fairly made. Following clients recommendations may result in intervening translators professionalism and impartiality. The paper argued that balance should be maintained between considering the needs of the clients and maintaining fidelity and impartiality, including ethics and morality aspects that often intertwined with the text.

  12. New Dirac equation from the view point of particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the classical approach, especially the Lorentz Invariant Dirac Equation, when particles are bound to each other, the interaction term appears as a quantity belonging to the “field”. In this work, as a totally new approach, we propose to alter the rest masses of the particles due to their interaction, as much as their respective contributions to the static binding energy. Thus we re-write and solve the Dirac Equation for the hydrogen atom, and amazingly, obtain practically the same numerical results for the ground states, as those obtained from the Dirac Equation.

  13. Network Regulation from an Investor's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an investor, the easiest way to gain value from networks is to invest in newly incentivised wires companies. This is when the scope to 'out-fox' the regulator is at its highest. The only caveat is that the companies should have enough sense not to beat the Regulator's targets so soundly that the whole system is brought into disrepute. However, a far more difficult task is to judge how network regulation will develop once the regulatory regimes have matured and the 'easy wins' have been made. Disquiet over the tendency for the RPI-X regimes to control just operating costs, not total cost (opex plus capex) are likely to grow, as well as the Regulator's tendency to micro-manage. In addition, the system operation aspects of networks are likely to increase in importance as distribution networks become 'active' owing to the growth in small-scale green power. Investors should ensure that commercial reality prevails over theoretical purity and that nodal pricing is avoided. Sometimes, a properly regulated monopoly can be the most effective way of creating value for customers and shareholders alike.

  14. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard

  15. The effects of riding therapy from client’s point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Koivuniemi, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out what kind of effects riding therapy clients experience and how those effect on their everyday lives. This thesis also aims to ex-plain the concept of riding therapy and its benefits from the physiotherapy point of view. Its implementation and requirements are also explained. This study’s main aim was to figure the clients’ point of view about the effects of riding therapy, and to gain knowledge of how they experience them, via a question-naire. ...

  16. Some Considerations on Six Degrees of Separation from A Theoretical Point of View

    CERN Document Server

    Toyota, Norihito

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss six degrees of separation, which has been proposed by Milgram, from a theoretical point of view. Simply if one has $k$ friends, the number $N$ of indirect friends goes up to $\\sim k^d$ in $d$ degrees of separation. So it would easily come up to population of whole world. That, however, is unacceptable. Mainly because of nonzero clustering coefficient $C$, $N$ does not become $\\sim k^d$. In this article, we first discuss relations between six degrees of separation and the clustering coefficient in the small world network proposed by Watt and Strogatz\\cite{Watt1},\\cite{Watt2}. Especially, conditions that $(N)>$ (population of U.S.A or of the whole world) arises in the WS model is explored by theoretical and numerical points of view. Secondly we introduce an index that represents velocity of propagation to the number of friends and obtain an analytical formula for it as a function of $C$, $K$, which is an average degree over all nodes, and some parameter $P$ concerned with network topo...

  17. Participation of the national industry within a nuclear power plant program by technology transfer from the point of view of the main contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad scope of components needed in a nuclear power plant with various technical requirements offer a big opportunity for the participation of local industries in the construction of such plants. Depending on the existing capability of the industrial enterprises, the scope of national participation can be increased by technology transfer on all technical areas to be applied for the construction of NPPs. Such technology requires as basis a nuclear program of the country determined and supported by the government and the utilities. This program has to be defined as realistic as even possible adjoined to the future energy demand of the country. Furthermore the available capability, existing qualifications and equipment of the national industry have to be considered. On the basis of these fundamental requirements a tailormade technology transfer program has to be elaborated in close cooperation with an experienced main contractor of the plant and his partners for such technology transfer and should be established afterwards. This program has to consider not only the goal to achieve finally the independent production of components and equipment for NPPs or the construction of complete power plant units itself, but also the economic benefit of such a program for the country. The costs of technology transfer and the necessary investment of the national industry required for the manufacture of nuclear components have to be thoroughly investigated, based on the expected scope of products to be manufactured for the nuclear power plants according to the nuclear program. Furthermore the application of the technology transferred for other components e.g. for conventional power stations, mineral-oil or chemical industrial plants has to be considered. By a tailormade nuclear technology transfer program, executed by qualified and experienced partners not only the quality of the products of the national industry for NPPs will be improved, but also the general standard regarding

  18. Feature-based fusion of TomoSAR point clouds from multi-view TerraSAR-X data stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xiao Xiang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a technique of fusing point clouds from multiple view angles generated using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography. Using TerraSAR-X high resolution spotlight data stacks, one such point has a population of about 2×107 points, with a density of around 10^6 points / km2. Such large point population leads to a high computational cost while doing the fusion in 3D space. Therefore, we introduce a feature-based unsupervised technique for point clouds fusion by detectin...

  19. Organisational climate from view point of motivation in district hospital, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Wadhwa; Bhaskar Purohit

    2012-01-01

    Organisational Climate (OC) has been an important topic of research in Organisational Development. There are several frameworks and approaches to study OC. One such framework focuses on the effect of OC on motivation. Although studying OC from viewpoint of motivetion is an important one, there is very limited research in Indian public health system on assessing OC from the view point of motivation. The present study uses a comprehensive framework that focuses on assessing OC from the view poi...

  20. Blogging for the Record: A Study of Blogging from an Archival Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michael J., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the current phenomenon of blogging from an archival point of view. To better understand the nature of blogs, the author conducted an informal survey of bloggers at Princeton Theological Seminary. The results of this survey show that blogs represent a dynamic but ephemeral new form of electronic record and writing practice.…

  1. Competence as a Key Concept of Educational Theory: A Semiotic Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkarainen, Eetu

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of competence is studied from the point of view of the semiotics of education. It will be claimed that it is a central key concept when we are trying to analyse the meaning of education. Educational action can be reasonably understood as an insecure and complicatedly mediated trial to affect another person's…

  2. Seafloor character--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Point Reyes, California (raster data file is included in "SFC_PointReyes.zip," which is...

  3. A novel point of view on the conformal anomaly for quantised Dirac fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main and many lessons we learned from the study of scalar fields on globally hyperbolic backgrounds, is that we can account for the so-called quantum trace anomaly employing a modified version of the classical stress-energy tensor as well as a point-splitting regularization by means of an Hadamard bidistribution. In this talk we show that such approach can be traded to Dirac fields yielding a similar result. Particularly we shall try to emphasize, that, although we are reproducing already known results, this point of view is, on the one hand, conceptually rigorous and clear while, on the other hand, it opens the road to possible applications in a cosmological scenario

  4. The distribution of the burden of taxation from the point of view of equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to clarify the basic point of view of equity from a perspective of modern finance theory. The author strives to determine whether, and if so, what role does the equity at distribution of the burden of taxation in the state. In particular, research has shown in a broader context the basic approach to get the point of equity, and innovative conceptuality as a reflex of the values and postulates of law. The material in this article is an interdisciplinary investigation of equity as a quite important and complex issue of theory, philosophy and practice of law.

  5. "The Student Personnel Point of View" as a Catalyst for Dialogue: 75 Years and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dennis C.

    2012-01-01

    "The Student Personnel Point of View" (American Council on Education, 1937) has been a catalyst for dialogue on the purposes of student personnel and student affairs work for 75 years. Through analysis of the writings of Esther Lloyd-Jones and E. G. Williamson, two of the most prolific scholars of the early years of student personnel work, the…

  6. Teaching the Geographies of Urban Areas: Views and Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneker, Tine; Sanders, Rickie; Tani, Sirpa; Taylor, Liz; van der Vaart, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on empirical research in four countries on the growing interest in the perceived "gap" between school and university human geography. Focusing on urban geography, we investigated the views of teachers and academic geographers about key elements of the field and those that were important for geography education. These views were…

  7. Current status of spallation product data. Nuclear engineering view-point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced isotopic transformation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is becoming a key factor in selecting the reference target material design options. The present paper gives an outlook of the current status of data on spallation products from the view-point of nuclear engineering stressing the isotopes whose accumulation would significantly effect the target performance. (author)

  8. Understanding Youth Development from the Practitioner's Point of View: A Call for Research on Effective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.; Walker, Kathrin C.; Rusk, Natalie; Diaz, Lisa B.

    2015-01-01

    This article calls for research on the expertise of youth development practitioners. We argue for studies focused on understanding youth practice from practitioners' points of view--as they experience and enact it--with the aim of contributing findings and frameworks that are helpful to their work and learning. To improve youth programs, first, it…

  9. Acceptance, Usability and Usefulness of WebLab-Deusto from the Students Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Irurzun

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the engineering curriculum, remote labs are becoming a popular learning tool. The advantages of these laboratories and the different deployments have been analyzed many times, but in this paper we want to show the results of the students’ opinion about WebLab-Deusto as a learning tool. This work is focused on the subjects Programmable Logic (PL in the third year of Electronics Engineering and in Electronics Design (ED of the fifth year of the same degree. The paper presents the results of the surveys done by students since 2004. This survey consists of fifteen questions and its main objective is to measure the acceptance, usability and usefulness of the remote laboratory developed at University of Deusto from the students point of view.

  10. Power nad weakness in Japanese landscape: A European point of view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    Tsukuba : National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 2005 - (Aoki, Y.), s. 35-38 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : landscape * Japan * European point of view Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  11. The Degree of Adherence to Educational Values by the Students of the University of Jordan--In Their Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serhan, Khaled Ali

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to probe the degree of adherence by students of the University of Jordan to moral values. To achieve this, a survey was prepared and distributed to a random sample of 1769 students in the second semester of the 2013-2014 school year. The study showed a high degree of adherence to religious, social and behavioral values, and a…

  12. Benefit assessment of PET in malignant lymphomas. The IQWiG point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The call by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to prove the patient-relevant benefit of positron emission tomography (PET) is currently a controversial topic in Germany. From a methodological point of view there is essentially no difference between diagnostic procedures and therapeutic (drug or non-drug) interventions in proving their causal benefit. A broad consensus has been reached since the 1960s (e.g. FDA regulations) that RCTs are the methodological gold standard for therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, the same arguments that were cited against RCTs in assessing the benefit of therapeutic interventions are now used against RCTs in evaluating diagnostic tests (e.g. ethical problems, feasibility, etc.). This paper summarizes the central methodological arguments of the discussion on the benefit assessment of PET in malignant lymphomas from the perspective of IQWiG and its external experts. (orig.)

  13. Acquisition of the syntax–discourse interface: The expression of point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposal that the syntax–discourse interface is particularly vulnerable, and therefore components of this interface are acquired later than those of the syntax–semantics interface. The proposal is examined using data from the native language acquisition of markers of point of view in American Sign Language and Brazilian Sign Language, known as constructed action (CA). CA was observed in the spontaneous production of two case studies from as early as 1 year, 7 months of age, with the correct eye-gaze, facial expression, and manner of movement. However, the children sometimes failed to indicate the referent whose point of view was being expressed, and were not skilled at maintaining point of view marking across discourse. The results are interpreted as providing support for the vulnerability of the syntax–discourse interface, and for the interpretation of this vulnerability in connection with children’s relatively poor ability to assume an identical discourse context with their interlocutor. PMID:21528016

  14. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2013-01-01

    fun for families in the library? • How can play help to promote interaction and communication? The students worked with the space in Dokk1 as the “third place”, which is identified by Oldenburg (1999) as “great good places”, being public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact......Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view By Aviaja Borup Lynggaard & Birgitte Geert Jensen This poster presents a design case of collaborative innovation between design students from Aarhus School of Architecture and pupils from the public school, Samsøgades School in Aarhus, facilitated by the...... the use of space and design. The workshop also showed that the “third place” is achieved today in existing places around the city, such as in shops and banks. Therefore, several of the solutions showed that there is need to create a residence that can accommodate the versatility and give space for...

  15. American Samoa ESI: CASSPT (Coral Areas of Special Significance - Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for "Coral Areas of Special Significance" in American Samoa. Coral Areas of Special Significance were...

  16. Running-in of gears from a surfacetransformation and efficiency point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Requirements today for machines have moved beyond functionality intoefficiency and reliability, gears are no exception. The presented work focuseson the analysis of the measurement, evolution and effect of running-in on geardrives from a surface roughness and efficiency point of view. With no consen-sus on a definition or observation of running-in of gear drives, measurementsof both efficiency and surface transformation during the predefined running-inis explored. A verified methodology on ho...

  17. Things, stuffs, and coincidence. A non-ontological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Psarros

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problem of the so-called 'coinciding objects', i.e. the question whether a substantially homogeneous thing is something ontologically different from the corresponding 'piece of stuff' it is made of or not, is examined from a pragmatical and language-analytical point of view. Instead of recurring to ontological assertions, I propose to regard 'stuffs' or 'substances' as a mode of speaking about things that fulfil the condition of being homogeneous in respect to a certain kind of properties that are called substantial properties. The coincidence problem is resolved by demonstrating that terms for substantially homogeneous things and the corresponding 'pieces of stuff' are predicative expressions in an Aristotelian genus-species relationship.

  18. Defect scaling Lee–Yang model from the perturbed DCFT point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Holló, László [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Watts, Gerard [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    We analyze the defect scaling Lee–Yang model from the perturbed defect conformal field theory (DCFT) point of view. First the defect Lee–Yang model is solved by calculating its structure constants from the sewing relations. Integrable defect perturbations are identified in conformal defect perturbation theory. Then pure defect flows connecting integrable conformal defects are described. We develop a defect truncated conformal space approach (DTCSA) to analyze the one parameter family of integrable massive perturbations in finite volume numerically. Fusing the integrable defect to an integrable boundary the relation between the IR and UV parameters can be derived from the boundary relations. We checked these results by comparing the spectrum for large volumes to the scattering theory.

  19. Iran in the European gas market: a Russian point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behind Iranian diplomacy lies the continuing hope for an easing of tensions between America and Iran, with its consequences, which have not yet been worked out satisfactorily, both for Russian interests in the sphere of energy and from the point of view of preserving the fully-formed configuration of Eurasia's gas market. After this introduction of the political context, the document discusses the energy constituent of the 'Iranian question', the difficult choice between pipelines and LNG, the expansion of contacts of European companies with Iran, the issue of Nabucco pipeline that could be a bone of contention in the anti-Iranian coalition and the fact that Azerbaijan alone cannot save Nabucco, the complex situation in Central Asia (with the gas troika - Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan), the increased war risks of gas transportation, the necessary participation of Iran in the Nabucco project, the appealing prospects for Gazprom in the area, the possible market sharing with the supply of gas from Iran towards the East (China, Pakistan and India)

  20. Analysis of N-qubit perfectly controlled teleportation schemes from the controller's point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi-Han; Ghose, Shohini

    2014-01-01

    We quantitatively analyze and evaluate the controller's power in $N$-qubit controlled teleportation schemes. We calculate the minimum control power required to ensure the controller's authority such that the teleportation fidelity without the controller's permission is no more than the classical bound. We revisit several typical controlled teleportation schemes from the controller's point of view and evaluate the control power in these schemes. We find that for teleporting arbitrary N-qubit s...

  1. On Financing of Urban Transition viewed from the Oresund Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin; Snällfot, David

    2014-01-01

    The “urban transition” agenda is as a conglomerate of ambitions derived from international policy documents and as applied in the Oresund area. Encompassing locally set goals for (i) climate change mitigation; (ii) energy efficiency; and (iii) human wellbeing in the built environment. Its...... implementation is largely dependent on private sector joining in, since transitioning the building stock is to be financed by the market. This paper explores strategies to meet this agenda in the Oresund area. A particular focus is on the refurbishment of multi-family housing relative to these set goals. The...

  2. Simulation study based on the single-point temperature monitoring system of LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongling; Yang, Na; Liu, Shuping; Pan, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenjiang

    2014-12-01

    This paper takes LabVIEW2012 as a development platform, creating a J-type thermocouple sensor and the NI USB-6229 data acquisition card and other hardware emulation circuitry which combined with the PC designed a single-point temperature monitoring system. Through simulation experiments, the system has a collection interval, the sampling rate per channel sampling on the temperature limit set by the user function and it also has the function of real-time display the current temperature, the temperature limit alarm, maximum temperature, minimum temperature display and a temperature history data query. This system can be used for temperature monitoring of life, research, industrial control, environmental monitoring, biomedical, tobacco processing, greenhouse cultivation, livestock breeding and other fields, which has important significance and practical value.

  3. Cost and revenue analysis from an accounting and tax point of view for the selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Mařánková, Iva

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis is focused on the analysis of costs and revenues both from an accounting and tax perspective of the chosen enterprise. The first part of the thesis presents literature review which includes characteristics of costs and revenues, their break down as well as general accounting principles. After that the costs and revenues are divided from an accounting and tax point of view. From the accounting perspective there are deductible and non deductible revenues and costs that were u...

  4. A different point of view in collective bargaining: legal perspective versus business perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Putthiwanit, Chutinon; Santipiriyapon, Sawitree

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the different point of view in collective behavior between legal context and business context. As in business context, in which collective bargaining concerns about a monetary system, a group of farmers can use collective bargaining as a tool to deal with injustice negotiation. Nowadays, a number of goods and services produced/provided are discovered to be determinate; namely, higher or lower wage of the workers, resulted from winning or losing the collective barga...

  5. Different energy policy strategies adopted by the various Federal Lands, as considered from the point of view of regulatory policy and commercial law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing influence exerted by Land governments on the investment policy of the power supply industry will have impacts on the commercial law system and on the regulatory regime that hitherto have not been considered. First signs of such a development are to be seen in, for example, the dispute among Land governments over the distribution of financial burdens resulting from the coal support programmes. The real problem behind this dispute however, is the question of how much and what kind of responsibility is to be assumed by the Land governments for structuring the energy supply system. (orig./HSCH)

  6. Tolerancias y resistencias: el aborto desde la perspectiva de las parteras tradicionales de un área rural de México Tolerance and resistance: abortion from the point of view of traditional midwives in a rural area of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Blanco-Muñoz

    1999-08-01

    formou-se um grupo focal com a participação de 16 parteiras. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma atitude de não aceitação do aborto, induzido ou espontâneo. As mulheres que abortam são chamadas de "porcas", "imundas" ou "cadelas" e as parteiras mostram-se titubeantes em atendê-las. No entanto, é comum a prática da "regulação da menstruação" entre as mulheres da comunidade, ou seja, utilizam substâncias que induzem a menstruação quando a mesma está atrasada. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento de significados populares em torno do aborto é imprescindível para a construção de estratégias que reforcem os vínculos entre serviços institucionais de saúde e as parteiras tradicionais e para melhorar a qualidade da assistência às mulheres.OBJECTIVE: An evaluation of the perception, resources and practices regarding abortion of traditional midwives in a rural area in the municipality of Yecapixtla, state of Morelos, located in the central region of Mexico. METHODS: A qualitative methodology consisting of a detailed interview, focal groups and participating observation, was used. The subjects investigated were socio-cultural aspects, reproduction, sexuality and health related to abortion. Nine midwives were interviewed and a focal group was formed in which 16 midwives participated. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a profound rejection of abortion whether inducted or spontaneous. The former was considered a major sin and the latter a serious failure of a woman´s reproductive function. Women who abort are called "pigs", "hogs" or "bitches" and the midwives are reluctant to attend them. However, a common practice among the women in the community is to "regulate the menstruation", that is, to use substances that provoke menstruation when this is delayed. This specific practice is not considered abortive by these women. CONCLUSION: Local popular beliefs about abortion are indispensible for the construction of effective strategies, which when provided by the institutional

  7. Digital games from teachers’ point of view. A didactic experience in Catalan Primary classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis EGUIA-GÓMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a didactic experience for applying a digital game in Catalan classrooms of grades fifth and sixth of Primary Education. It explains and analyzes the effects of its implementation on the educational practice, taking the teachers’ viewpoint who participated in the experience. The paper is based on the digital game called Miquel Crusafont, a digital game supported by Generalitat de Catalunya. The study tries to understand the sense that such methodological innovation made for the selected group of eleven primary school teachers –of ages 24 to 52–. Interviews were done in order to see the teacher’s behaviours and to know their point of view. The results pointed that the teachers appreciated the potentiality of the digital game to develop diverse Math skills and encourage some collaborative learning activities. They also identified difficulties that obstructed the use of a digital game in classrooms: lack of time in the curriculum and some games in the market are not appropriate to teach or they do not have a user’s guide showing all the potentiality of the game.

  8. Assessing the Accuracy of Georeferenced Point Clouds Produced via Multi-View Stereopsis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Lucieer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor miniaturisation, improved battery technology and the availability of low-cost yet advanced Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV have provided new opportunities for environmental remote sensing. The UAV provides a platform for close-range aerial photography. Detailed imagery captured from micro-UAV can produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis (MVS techniques combining photogrammetry and computer vision. This study applies MVS techniques to imagery acquired from a multi-rotor micro-UAV of a natural coastal site in southeastern Tasmania, Australia. A very dense point cloud ( < 1–3 cm point spacing is produced in an arbitrary coordinate system using full resolution imagery, whereas other studies usually downsample the original imagery. The point cloud is sparse in areas of complex vegetation and where surfaces have a homogeneous texture. Ground control points collected with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS are identified and used for georeferencing via a Helmert transformation. This study compared georeferenced point clouds to a Total Station survey in order to assess and quantify their geometric accuracy. The results indicate that a georeferenced point cloud accurate to 25–40 mm can be obtained from imagery acquired from 50 m. UAV-based image capture provides the spatial and temporal resolution required to map and monitor natural landscapes. This paper assesses the accuracy of the generated point clouds based on field survey points. Based on our key findings we conclude that sub-decimetre terrain change (in this case coastal erosion can be monitored.

  9. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  10. Fifty years of Yang-Mills Theories: a phenomenological point of view

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang--Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds for nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.

  11. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  12. An analysis of silver candlesticks from a casting point of view: originals,copies, forgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Audy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting silver artefacts has traditionally been a very popular hobby. Silver is addictive, therefore the number of potential collectors and investors appears to grow each year. Unfortunately, increases in the interest and buying potentials resulted in a number of forgeries manufactured and introduced to the open antique market. The items such as early silver candlesticks dictate a very high price, for many high quality fakes show very good appearances and matching similarities with originals. Such copies are traditionally manufactured by casting using the original items as patterns. Small details and variances in design features, position and shape of hallmarks, including the final surface quality are usual features to distinguish the fakes from the originals. This paper presents results of a study conducted on several silver candlesticks, including two artefacts bearing features of those produced in the mid 18th century, one original Italian candelabrum from Fascist era, and small candlesticks made in the early 20th century. Also, the paper presents some interesting contemporary coins ?replicas of many those produced in different countries. The coins were offered for sale by unscrupulous dealers via auctions and e-bays. Finally the main results and findings from this study are discussed from a manufacturing point of view, such as fabrication technology, surface quality and hallmarks, which will help the collectors, dealers and investors to detect and avoid forgeries.

  13. On the occurrence of Closed Timelike Curves and the observer’s point of view

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    Bini Donato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Closed Timelike Curves (CTCs in a generic spacetime is often associated with a non-physical choice of coordinates and can be cured by limiting the admissibility of such coordinates. Lichnerowicz conditions, for instance, represent a criterion for admissibility. The result, however, is a very restrictive limitation which may imply “removal” of important regions (with respect to the peculiarity of phenomena which may happen there of the spacetime manifold. We consider here the point of view of a family of observers (Fundamental Slicing Observers, FSO having their world lines orthogonal to the surfaces of constant coordinate time. We say that the time coordinate has not a global character if the associated FSO change their causality condition in the domain of validity of the coordinates themselves. Furthermore, in those regions where FSO have no more timelike world lines, CTCs are present and one may think of special devices or investigation tools apt to operationally detect them. We will discuss in detail theoretical approaches involving (scalar waves or photons.

  14. Locally conformal symplectic structures and their generalizations from the point of view of Lie algebroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kadobianski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We study locally conformal symplectic structures and their generalizations from the point of view of transitive Lie algebroids. To consider l.c.s. structures and their generalizations we use Lie algebroids with trivial adjoint Lie algebra bundle $Mimesmathbb{R}$ and $Mimesfrak{g}$. We observe that important l.c.s's notions can be translated on the Lie algebroid's language. We generalize l.c.s. structures to $frak{g}$-l.c.s. structures in which we can consider an arbitrary finite dimensional Lie algebra $frak{g}$ instead of the commutative Lie algebra $mathbb{R}$.

  15. Patriarchy and the subordination of women from a radical feminist point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Nína Katrín Jóhannsdóttir 1985

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I cover matters concerning patriarchy and its undeniable connection to the subordination of women. My reasoning is from a radical feminist point of view since I blame the patriarchy and its detrimental effects, for women’s position in the world today. Firstly I briefly examine women’s traditional subordination from the beginning and to this day. Likewise I survey the birth of feminism and examine in what ways it has been helpful in women’s battle for equal rights. Se...

  16. Point-of-views representation for hypothetical reasoning: application to decision-aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the knowledge based Decision Support Systems must deal with two difficulties in problem solving representation: reasoning with incomplete knowledge and managing contradictory reasoning. We propose a method which answers the question of reasoning revision when a contradiction occurs, while preserving the functionalities of the De Kleer's ATMS System for simulating hypothetical reasoning. As a matter of fact, these functionalities are particularly suitable for decision aiding problems. In order to formalize the ATMS, we use a resolution method called Cat-resolution (Cayrol and Tayrac). This method allows the computation of ATMS functions relating to a set of propositional clauses by saturating this set. Owing to this choice, we can use the same principles as ATMS on the saturation trace. Each clause in the saturated set can be linked to the sets of initial clauses justifying its derivation by Cat-resolution. The reasoning inconsistency is now managed. First the user can identify the source of the inconsistency thanks to the empty clause explanation. Then he can try to restore the reasoning consistency by relaxing at least one of the initial clauses justifying the empty clause. The computation of 'partial' ATMS, representing a point of view in the decision-making problem, is more effective owing to the justifications of the derived clauses. (author)

  17. Analysis of Valuables in Accounting of Business Entity from the Internal Controller's Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Vépyová Mária; Kastlerová Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to point out the particular issues for businesses in the area of registration, accounting, taxation and control of the valuables. Reference of the electronic registration or invoice from the supplier is not always sufficient for correct booking and the valuables worth evidence. In accordance with all applicable laws are correct rated valuables issued for consumption charged to the cost, the consistent application of legislation norms affects the outcome of ...

  18. Automated Generation of Digital Terrain Model using Point Clouds of Digital Surface Model in Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kamiya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of the digital data acquisition methods generate Digital Surface Model (DSM and not a Digital Elevation Model (DEM. Conversion from DSM to DEM still has some drawbacks, especially the removing of off terrain point clouds and subsequently the generation of DEM within these spaces even though the methods are automated. In this paper it was intended to overcome this issue by attempting to project off terrain point clouds to the terrain in forest areas using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN instead of removing them and then filling gaps by interpolation. Five sites were tested and accuracies assessed. They all give almost the same results. In conclusion, the ANN has ability to obtain the DEM by projecting the DSM point clouds and greater accuracies of DEMs were obtained. If the size of the hollow areas resulting from the removal of DSM point clouds are larger the accuracies are reduced.

  19. Strategies for the back-end of the fuel cycle: a scientific point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following conclusions are made. Sustainable development of nuclear energy has to be supported by appropriate strategies for the back-end of the fuel cycle. From a scientific point of view, in the case of the Uranium cycle, Fast Neutron Reactors provide a flexible and lasting solution in the long term. Critical thermal reactors can possibly handle Pu, delaying somewhat the need to introduce FRs. ADS can play a significant role, in particular to handle MA-based fuels, but also to improve the Thorium cycle. However, they should always intercompared with the corresponding critical reactors. The 'safety' issue is not straightforward. LLFP can be handled if needed, but reasonable options should avoid isotopic separation (e.g. Cs). The Thorium cycle has the potential to reduce radiotoxicity 'at the source'. Classical or innovative core concepts can be envisaged in the long term. Relevant feasibility issues are related to innovative back-end of the fuel cycle strategies, which need a long delay for assessment (fuels, materials, chemistry) and the need for co-ordinated international programs is stressed. International bodies (EU, OECD-NEA and IAEA) can provide the frame for analysis and development. (P.A.)

  20. COMPARISON OF TWO VARIANTS OF A KATA TECHNIQUE (UNSU: THE NEUROMECHANICAL POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Felici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize from a neuromechanical point of view a jump performed within the sequence of Kata Unsu in International top level karateka. A modified jumping technique was proposed to improve the already acquired technique. The neuromechanical evaluation, paralleled by a refereeing judgment, was then used to compare modified and classic technique to test if the modification could lead to a better performance capacity, e.g. a higher score during an official competition. To this purpose, four high ranked karateka were recruited and instructed to perform the two jumps. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded in a bipolar mode from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemious muscles of both lower limbs. Mechanical data were collected by means of a stereophotogrammetric system and force platforms. Performance was associated to parameters characterizing the initial conditions of the aerial phase and to the CoM maximal height. The most critical elements having a negative influence on the arbitral evaluation were associated to quantitative error indicators. 3D reconstruction of the movement and videos were used to obtain the referee scores. The Unsu jump was divided into five phases (preparation, take off, ascending flight, descending flight, and landing and the critical elements were highlighted. When comparing the techniques, no difference was found in the pattern of sEMG activation of the throwing leg muscles, while the push leg showed an earlier activation of RF and GA muscles at the beginning of the modified technique. The only significant improvement associated with the modified technique was evidenced at the beginning of the aerial phase, while there was no significant improvement of the referee score. Nevertheless, the proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a

  1. The Rio Orinoco and the haven - two major cases from a legal point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), an inter-governmental organization with 49 member states, has recently been involved in two major oil spills of great interest from both a legal and a technical point of view. The Rio Orinoco incident occurred in Canada and the Haven incident took place in Italy. The Rio Orinoco was carrying asphalt when it grounded in the Gulf of St Lawrence. The grounding led to extensive salvage and cleanup operations carried out on behalf of the Canadian authorities. The claims for compensation, totalling 15 million Canadian dollars (12.5 million US dollars), were settled out of court. This paper discusses the main legal problems that arose, for example, the reasonableness of certain operations and the relationship between pollution prevention and salvage. The Haven exploded off Genoa with 144,000 metric tons of crude oil on board. A large quantity of oil escaped, necessitating extensive cleanup operations in Italy, France, and Monaco. Over 1,300 claims for compensation have been submitted totalling US$1.4 billion. This paper deals with some of the main legal problems that have arisen as a result of this incident, for example, the admissibility of claims relating to non-economic damage to the marine environment and the method to be applied for the conversion of the maximum amount payable by the IOPC Fund into Italian lire

  2. Dental CT in the planning of surgery. Role in the oromaxillofacial area from the dentist's point of view; Dental-CT zur Planung chirurgischer Eingriffe. Bedeutung im oro-maxillofazialen Bereich aus zahnaerztlicher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar, P. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Orale Chirurgie; Gahleitner, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie

    1999-12-01

    Dental computer assisted tomography (Dental CT) represents a valuable addition to the diagnostic spectrum for planning oral and maxillofacial surgery. High resolution CT and specially designed computer software allow representation of the jaws in different planes that are easy to match. They further allow the display of very small structures relevant to oral surgical interventions and reveal their spatial relationship in three dimensions. Thus, communication between dentists and radiologists may be intensified and supported by usage of modern telecommunication systems. Dental CT is indicated, when clinical and conventional radiological techniques will not allow exact interpretation of the situation. It is modern oral implantology that primarily benefits from computer software enabling the assessment of surgical sites in the presurgical phase. Such planning was not yet possible using two dimensional radiographic techniques. The dental-implantological part expects from radiography sharply defined contours of the external bony contours and the mandibular canal, exactly defined relation between slices and planes, no distortion in the orthoradial planes, tools for reliable measurements of distances, angles and volumes, possibility to transmit pictures electronically or on hardcopy without loss of quality. (orig.) [German] Dentale Computertomographie (Dental-CT) stellt neben Orthopantomographie, intraoralem Zahnfilm und Fernroentgen eine wertvolle Erweiterung des diagnostischen Spektrums zur Planung chirurgischer Eingriffe im oro-maxillofazialen Bereich dar. Durch die Moeglichkeiten von hochaufloesendem CT und der Entwicklung von Software zur Darstellung des Kiefers in raeumlich leicht zuordenbaren Schichtebenen, lassen sich auch kleinste, zahnaerztlich-chirurgisch relevante Strukturen und ihre Lagebeziehung zueinander in allen drei Ebenen darstellen. Dadurch kann es zur intensiveren Kommunikation zwischen Zahnarzt und Radiologen kommen, was durch die Inanspruchnahme

  3. A thought on enterprise knowledge management from the document management's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important innovation of modern management concept, Knowledge Management has been applied in fields as enterprise management and government administration, and has become an important development direction of document management. However, KM currently is still in an embarrassing position in China. As a modern management concept, KM has to exert its function sufficiently by using modern technology. To implement enterprise KM strategy successfully, we need to evaluate enterprise's strategic objectives, organization, system, technology, personnel, capital, work flow, knowledge flow, culture and so on exactly and roundly, to persist in the humanity-based principle, to find out the factors that block the implantation of enterprise KM, to define the objectives of enterprise KM, and accordingly, to formulate corresponding implementation plan and strategy, and to chose appropriate KM tools, etc. From the document management's point of view, KM concept could and should be integrated with digital library and digital archives to construct digital library/digital archives of knowledge management type; to find out the breakthrough of KM and to do the basic jobs of KM well, that includes integrating all kinds of literature resources efficiently, improving the document management level, and constructing different kinds of enterprise knowledge repositories according to user's requirement. (authors)

  4. [How Long Should We Continue the Chemotherapy?-From the View Point of Health Economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, Nobuo

    2016-07-01

    The continuation of cancer chemotherapy was examined from the view point of the patient's economic burden and the national finance. Along with the rapid technological progress, anti-cancer drugs become more and more expensive. According to our survey, not a little patient was obliged to give up the most appropriate treatment due to some economic reasons. The impact of the increasing cost of cancer treatment and the rational measure to minimize the patient's burden were discussed. The mean out-of-pocket expense of the patients without economic worries was three-fourths that of the patients with economic worries. In other words, if the economic burden is reduced by around a quarter in the patients whose burden is heavy, they would certainly receive optimal medical care. As for the situation in which the cancer chemotherapy have to be interrupted due to the constraint of limited funding, it seemed difficult to continue to avoid this thoroughly in the future without the drastic reform of medical insurance system. The importance to set priorities and allocate human and financial resources within the financial crunch was discussed while making reference to health care reforms of several western countries in the late 1990's. PMID:27431625

  5. Seiberg-Witten maps from the point of view of consistent deformations of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noncommutative versions of theories with a gauge freedom define (when they exist) consistent deformations of their commutative counterparts. General aspects of Seiberg-Witten maps are discussed from this point of view. In particular, the existence of the Seiberg-Witten maps for various noncommutative theories is related to known cohomological theorems on the rigidity of the gauge symmetries of the commutative versions. In technical terms, the Seiberg-Witten maps define canonical transformations in the antibracket that make the solutions of the master equation for the commutative and noncommutative versions coincide in their antifield-dependent terms. As an illustration, the on-shell reducible noncommutative Freedman-Townsend theory is considered. (author)

  6. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1): 1-16. AbstractObjectiveNeurometabolic disorders are an important group of diseases that mostly arepresented in newborns and infants.Neurological manifestations are the prominent signs and symptoms in this groupof diseases. Seizures are a common sign and are often refractory to antiepileptic drugs in untreated neurometabolic patients.Th...

  7. Common data model access; a unified layer to access data from data analysis point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost 20 years, the scientific community of neutron and synchrotron institutes have been dreaming of a common data format for exchanging experimental results and applications for reducing and analyzing the data. Using HDF5 as a data container has become the standard in many facilities. The big issue is the standardization of the data organization (schema) within the HDF5 container. By introducing a new level of indirection for data access, the Common-Data-Model-Access (CDMA) framework proposes a solution and allows separation of responsibilities between data reduction developers and the institute. Data reduction developers are responsible for data reduction code; the institute provides a plug-in to access the data. The CDMA is a core API that accesses data through a data format plug-in mechanism and scientific application definitions (sets of keywords) coming from a consensus between scientists and institutes. Using a innovative 'mapping' system between application definitions and physical data organizations, the CDMA allows data reduction application development independent of the data file container AND schema. Each institute develops a data access plug-in for its own data file formats along with the mapping between application definitions and its data files. Thus data reduction applications can be developed from a strictly scientific point of view and are immediately able to process data acquired from several institutes. (authors)

  8. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa. PMID:18943730

  9. Ultrasonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome of mild and moderate severity in diabetic patients by using an 8-point measurement of median nerve cross-sectional areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shu-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using high-resolution ultrasonography (US to measure the median nerve cross-sectional areas (CSAs such as in the “inching test” conducted in nerve conduction studies is a valuable tool to assess carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. However, using this US measurement method to assess the median nerve CSA in diabetic patients with CTS has rarely been reported. Therefore, we used this US measurement method in this study to measure median nerve CSAs and to compare the CSAs of idiopathic, diabetic and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN patients with CTS. Methods 124 hands belonging to 89 participants were included and assigned into four groups: control (32, idiopathic (38, diabetic (38 and DPN (16 CTS. In the latter two groups, only patients with mild and moderately severe CTS were included. The median nerve CSAs were measured at 8 points marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and o3 in the inching test. The measured CSAs in each group of participants were compared. Results Compared with the CSAs of the control group, enlarged CSAs were found in the idiopathic, diabetic and DPN CTS groups. The CSAs were larger at i4, i3 and i2 in the diabetic CTS group compared to the idiopathic CTS group. The CSAs measured at the i1 and w levels of the DPN CTS group were smaller than those of the diabetic CTS group. In the diabetic CTS group, the cut-off values of CSAs measured at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet were 15.3 mm2, 13.4 mm2 and 10.0 mm2, respectively, and 14.0 mm2, 12.5 mm2 and 10.5 mm2, respectively, in the DPN CTS group. Conclusions Compared with the median nerve CSAs of the control and idiopathic CTS groups, the median nerve CSAs of the diabetic patients with CTS were significantly enlarged. However, compared with the diabetic CTS group, the CSAs were significantly smaller in the DPN CTS group. This US 8-point measurement method can be of value as an important complementary tool for CTS studies and diagnosis among diabetic

  10. Laser diagnostic and therapy of dental caries: the clinic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental caries's diagnosis is a major dentistry problem from the clinic point of view. The laser beam on the region of 655 nm induces the fluorescence of the compounds present in the hard tissue, quantifying differences between sound and carious enamel and dentine. Diagnodent (Kavo, Germany), showed to be effective regarding dental caries's diagnosis in the present research sampling. The Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser 2, Germany) performed efficient cavity preparations in caries lesions of I and V class type, using up energies that ranged from 300 mJ to 350 mJ with 4 Hz repetition rate for the enamel; and from 250 mJ to 300 mJ with 4 Hz repetition rate for the dentine, and with 80 mJ with 6 Hz of repetition rate for laser conditioning. In the Er:YAG laser preparations no patient was anesthetized even when there were deeper cavities, and the maximum degree of pain ( which ranged from 0 to 10) was 4. In the control group with conventional high-speed drill two patients were anesthetized and the maximum degree of pain was 7. Restorations performed by conventional method of composite were equally satisfying both in caries groups of I and V class type and in the control group. The laser application in the operative dentistry office as a new method of diagnosis and dental preparations should be a good alternative to the use of the conventional dental drill. Nevertheless, dentistry practice has a lot to improve from technology progress, as well as new researches on laser dentistry are necessary in a long term. New types of lasers will come about and will increasingly improve the dental practice assistance and procedures quality. (author)

  11. Science and scientists from the children point of view, an overlook from drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Rubbia, Giuliana; Carosi, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is currently the largest European scientific institution dealing with Earth Sciences research and real-time surveillance, early warning, and forecast activities in geophysics and volcanology. The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of INGV organizes every year educational and outreach activities with schools of different levels and with general public to convey scientific knowledge and to promote the Research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Among the most successful initiatives is the creation of a calendar designed for the schools and realized based on a competition devoted to children of primary school. The intent is to provide a pleasant stimulus for discussion for teachers and students. Schools participate with enthusiasm by sending drawings made by children on a specified theme, different each year, chosen among geophysics and earth sciences arguments. For 2011, the theme was selected also with the aims to investigate on the image the young generations have of the Research and on its potential and future prospective. The title was "Scienziato anche io! La Scienza e gli scienziati visti dai bambini" (I'm a scientist too! Science and scientists from the children point of view), with the purpose of give a shape to the image children have of the world of science, its potential and the figure of the scientists. We asked the children to realized a draw suggesting some possible arguments between: 1. How do you imagine a scientist? How do you imagine the daily activities of a researcher? 2. What is the invention you consider the most important among all those you know? 3. What would you invent? The 986 drawings realized by 6 up to 10 years old boys and girls from 48 schools distributed throughout the Italian territory, report us a generally positive picture of the work of scientists and also highlight a great level of confidence in the potential of science, capable to

  12. Analysis of Valuables in Accounting of Business Entity from the Internal Controller's Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vépyová Mária

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to point out the particular issues for businesses in the area of registration, accounting, taxation and control of the valuables. Reference of the electronic registration or invoice from the supplier is not always sufficient for correct booking and the valuables worth evidence. In accordance with all applicable laws are correct rated valuables issued for consumption charged to the cost, the consistent application of legislation norms affects the outcome of the management of slovak businesses and the tax base revenue.

  13. Change detection in urban areas by object-based analysis and on-the-fly comparison of multi-view ALS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael; Stilla, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The use of helicopters as a sensor platform offers flexible fields of application due to adaptable flying speed at low flight levels. Modern helicopters are equipped with radar altimeters, inertial navigation systems (INS), forward-looking cameras and even laser scanners for automatic obstacle avoidance. If the 3D geometry of the terrain is already available, the analysis of airborne laser scanner (ALS) measurements may also be used for terrain-referenced navigation and change detection. In this paper, we present a framework for on-the-fly comparison of current ALS data to given reference data of an urban area. In contrast to classical difference methods, our approach extends the concept of occupancy grids known from robot mapping. However, it does not blur the measured information onto the grid cells. The proposed change detection method applies the Dempster-Shafer theory to identify conflicting evidence along the laser pulse propagation path. Additional attributes are considered to decide whether detected changes are of man-made origin or occurring due to seasonal effects. The concept of online change detection has been successfully validated in offline experiments with recorded ALS data streams. Results are shown for an urban test site at which multi-view ALS data were acquired at an interval of 1 year.

  14. Dta points used in assessment of coal in the southern Piceance basin study area (psptg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and point coverage of 627 data points used in the assessment of coal in the southern Piceance Basin study area. Information in this file...

  15. The BOT model for nuclear power plant projects from a supplier's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significant financing requirements in particular for Nuclear Power Plants as well as the mandatory need for a professional management of their construction and operation has led to the discussion of so called ''BOT'' models for the implementation of such projects. Under this model, a ''Joint-Venture'' would be established which would act as the Purchaser, owner and operator of the Plant. The equity of this Joint-Venture would be held by the Supplier(s) of the Power Plant, the local private or state-owned utilities and possibly additional private or institutional investors. The Joint-Venture would, in addition to the Shareholder agreement concluded between the investors, enter into a Power Sales Agreement with the local utilities, a Supply contract with the vendor of the Power Plant and Loan Agreement for the financing of the Project. After a defined period, during which the return on and of equity of the investors would be affected and the loans taken out for the project would be repaid, the ownership of the Plant would be transferred to the local utility. The paper briefly describes the structure of such a model and discusses in particular the assessment of its feasibility from a supplier's point of view. It is concluded that any private investor including the supplier of the plant will necessarily limit his financial obligations in such a scheme to his equity in the joint venture. Hence, the feasibility of such a model depends on the security concept for the financing of the project which according to our present experience will have to comprise an exposure of the Government of the country, in which such a project shall be implemented. (author). 1 fig

  16. High energy heavy ion collisions from the view point of the 'strong field physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the high energy heavy ion collisions at the facilities like RHIC and LHC, two strongest fields in the present universe are generated. First of all, a very strong electromagnetic field is generated, though its duration is very short due to the very high speed collisions of nuclei and the large electric charges. On the other hand, the nuclei are described as the high density saturation gluon state just before the moment of the collision and the high density gluon is released by the collision. A very strong color electromagnetic field is generated. The color glass condensate (CGC) is a reasonable picture. In this text, dynamics of the GLASMA (Glass + plasma), the new physics brought about by those 'strong fields', are introduced and are explained how the yet unsolved problems of the heavy ion collisions are going to be investigated on the new view point. The mechanism of the apparitions of the strong electromagnetic field and the strong color electromagnetic field are explained at first. The heavy ion collisions can be described as the process CGC to develop into QGP. As the phenomena under the strong electromagnetic field and the heavy ion collisions, their synchrotron radiations, the photon birefringence, the photon decay, the splitting of photons and the chiral phase transitions under high field are picked up. Concerning the strong color electromagnetic field dynamics and the heavy ion collisions, the plasma flux tube dynamics, the color magnetic flux tube, the color electric flux tube and the coexisting case of the color electric field and magnetic field are presented. (S. Funahashi)

  17. Education for Sustainable Development Research from the Researchers' Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Pipere, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Research is not just a simple application of research methods. It is undertaken by human beings who hold personal views on the environment. The way in which the researcher sees environmental changes may have an impact on the research questions and the choice of research practices. The researcher may be a contributor to cultural development either…

  18. Impacts and Adaptation: From the Points of View of Financial Management System in Enterprise Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The integration of international economy dominated wi th the financial market leads to fierce competition. This requires firms impleme nt modern corporate financial mechanism. From the view of the current situation of financial management in China, we demonstrates the differences in financial m anagement between Chinese enterprises and international companies by describing detailed case studies of typical large enterprises in China. To transform the enterprise management mechanism, the enterprise fi...

  19. In view of the Sixth Framework Programme. An analysis of the EoIs submitted by Dutch entities. Thematic Priority Area Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FP6 (Sixth Framework Program of the European Union) team of PricewaterhouseCoopers has analysed the EoIs (Expression of Interest) submitted by Dutch parties, as published on the Internet (http://www.cordis.lu/). These 'Dutch EoIs' give a reliable indication of the focus of the Dutch research community, and its participation in pan-European research initiatives. Furthermore, it gives the Dutch submitters of EoIs the opportunity to see what other Dutch parties are involved in their relevant area of research (or in terms of FP6 - Thematic Priority Area (TPA)). The analysis of the Dutch EoIs has been carried out in the first week of October 2002. Considering the dynamics of the EoI database, results from this analysis can vary slightly with searches carried out later in this database

  20. Saya Mau Bu! or Aku Mau Bu!? from the Teachers and Students Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Article describes a research which purpose was to find out whether there was a shift in the use of aku and saya from the children and teenagers points of view as well as their teacherss. The shift of those expressions was based on the factors of concept, family education,, and the influence of media i.e. television. The objects of this research were 140 elementary and high school students as well as their teachers. Questionnaires were distributed to them. The results showed that there was a shift from the expression saya to aku in the students and teachers perception. However, when tested using statistics, the differences in the shift and in the perception between students and teachers concerning this matter were not significant.

  1. Value Added: the Case for Point-of-View Camera use in Orthopedic Surgical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geb W.; Taylor, Leah; Liu, Xiaoxing; Anthony, Chris A.; Anderson, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Orthopedic surgical education is evolving as educators search for new ways to enhance surgical skills training. Orthopedic educators should seek new methods and technologies to augment and add value to real-time orthopedic surgical experience. This paper describes a protocol whereby we have started to capture and evaluate specific orthopedic milestone procedures with a GoPro® point-of-view video camera and a dedicated video reviewing website as a way of supplementing the current paradigm in surgical skills training. We report our experience regarding the details and feasibility of this protocol. Methods Upon identification of a patient undergoing surgical fixation of a hip or ankle fracture, an orthopedic resident places a GoPro® point-of-view camera on his or her forehead. All fluoroscopic images acquired during the case are saved and later incorporated into a video on the reviewing website. Surgical videos are uploaded to a secure server and are accessible for later review and assessment via a custom-built website. An electronic survey of resident participants was performed utilizing Qualtrics software. Results are reported using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 51 surgical videos involving 23 different residents have been captured to date. This includes 20 intertrochanteric hip fracture cases and 31 ankle fracture cases. The average duration of each surgical video was 1 hour and 16 minutes (range 40 minutes to 2 hours and 19 minutes). Of 24 orthopedic resident surgeons surveyed, 88% thought capturing a video portfolio of orthopedic milestones would benefit their education Conclusions There is a growing demand in orthopedic surgical education to extract more value from each surgical experience. While further work in development and refinement of such assessments is necessary, we feel that intraoperative video, particularly when captured and presented in a non-threatening, user friendly manner, can add significant value to the

  2. Early Warning Systems: Feasibility and End-Users' Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. S.; Mota de Sá, F.; Lopes, M.; Ferreira, M. A.; Pais, I.

    2015-09-01

    From the user's point of view, Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWSs) have a number of applications that need to be viewed in detail for better utilisation of the "lead time" and the usefulness of the associated information . From the seismological point of view, the most important information is of two types: (1) the amount of lead time, the period from the moment the end-user receives the warning until the moment of arrival of larger S waves of significant importance or of exceeding a threshold value of a parameter characteristic of the seismic motion and (2) the reliability of the information transmitted. Missing events and false alarms may be critical or not to the type of "facilities/equipment" we are trying to protect, depending of the consequences. And to be more confident of the predictions, the lead time becomes shorter because the number of stations required increases. To check the level of possible lead time for the Portuguese industrial complex of Sines, we used the available procedures (front and on-site detection for SS and SP wave arrivals) and published the results obtained with the present configuration of the station network and with a hypothetical station configuration. Monte-Carlo simulation was used for the epicentre location within the most critical seismic source zones. The level of reliability and useful lead time ideal for different operators may be quite different, depending on the type of equipment under analysis. Therefore, the optimum balance between reliability and lead time may vary significantly between end-users, and some may even be interested in more than one option. In this article we study the effect of these problems on the industrial infrastructures, a group of installations where EEWSs may have a tremendous impact. Lead times, false and missing events are analysed from the end-users' viewpoint. We applied a simplified and preliminary cost-benefit analysis of using EEWSs at an industrial site and concluded that it is worth

  3. The contrast between Chinese and Japanese culture and language From the sociolinguistics point of view Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2009-01-01

    China and Japan are both Asian countries,which have the similar customs and ceremonies.From ancient time,china has had great impact on Japan,including the architectures,culture and customs.But later,Japan learns more from the western counties,especially from America.With the development of globalization,the contacts between countries are becoming more and more frequent.In order to achieve Success in diplomacy,we should learn more the rites about these countries.This paper mainly discusses the study of contrast between Chinese and Japanese relative tides from the sociolinguistic point of view,because there are close relationship between language and culture.

  4. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget L Borg

    Full Text Available The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP and Yellowstone (YNP, on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  5. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies. PMID:27124729

  6. Experience Feedback of Current LWR on the Design and Operation of Advanced LWR, under the Safety Analysis Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current LWR are operating with an excellent safety record. It is foreseen that they will be progressively replaced by more advanced designs (Generation III, III+, and IV). This paper reviews the role of the safety analysis, both in steady and transient state, in the flexible yet safe operation of the nuclear power plants. Several aspects such as licensing, technological progress, efficiency, public opinion and environmental consideration, and generation replacement, are considered form a broad perspective. Besides, deficiencies, learned lessons and design and operation aspects that could be improved in the new reactor fleet, under the perspective of safety analysis, are also considered from the engineering point of view and experience. (author)

  7. Human beings' adaptability to extreme environmental changes from medical and physical points of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Ragulskaya, Maria; Dimitrova, Svetla; Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin; Samsonov, Sergey; Med. Dimitry Markov, Of; Nazarova, Of Med. Olga N.; Rudenchik, Evgeny

    The question about features of human reaction on the sharp environmental physical activity (EPA) changes is considered by international group of physicists and physicians on the base of results of monitoring of human health state in different cities spread on latitude and longitude. The typical reaction of human body on the influences, exceeding the organisms' ability to adaptation, is of stress-reaction character. From medical point of view there is no significant difference for human body -what external (EPA) agent shocked an organism (emotional or some physical threats). First attempt of the organism to restore its homeostasis is stress-reaction, being universal for many stress-factors. Its main stages (such as alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) are detectable by different medical equipments, but we tried to find universal, non-traumatic method of daily measurements, enough sensitive and appropriate for observation of people reaction both on weather and space weather (geomagnetic activity) changes. The experiment was based on a method of electrical conductivity measurements of biologically active (acupunctural) points of human skin. The used method (electroacupunctural method by Dr. R.Voll) is very sensitive to current state of an organism and characterize the functional condition of different organs and systems of human body and allows to express so-called "group's health status" in the units, suitable for comparison with meteorological and heliogeophysical parameters. We conduct the parallel investigations as a part of collaborative study in different geographic latitudes-longitudes (Baku:40° 23'43"N -49° 52'56"E, Troitsk (Moscow region): 55° 28'40"N -37° 18'42"E, Yakutsk: 62° 02'00"N -129° 44'00"E). Measurements were carried out on daily basis with permanent group of functionally healthy persons (Moscow -19, Yakutsk -22, CityBaku -12 volunteers). Daily monitoring of nervous, endocrinological, lymphatic systems, blood, lungs, thick and thin intestine

  8. Aspects of industrial psychology in power plant operation from the employee's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working-psychological stress of the colleagues during their duty hours in a nuclear power plant is lined out with respect to education, maintenance and proof of the technical qualification. Of special significance is the behaviour of the staff during pre-commissioning, commissioning, normal operation and abnormal operation of a nuclear power plant. In line of duty special stress is added for employees by the strange behaviour of politicians, mass-media and neighbours. The proposals for modification in relation to the education of shift supervisors are shown in a critical view. (orig.)

  9. The radon problem from the medical point of view. Introduction into the theme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mining areas with high uran and radium deposits dwellings are found with high indoor radon concentrations. In spite of all controversies on the actual risk of the population, up to now the epidemiological data do not exclude a lung cancer risk above the average supposing a decade-long residence in dwellings with high radon burden. For preventive reasons the physician should draw attention to possibilities to reduce the radon concentration and, if necessary, to rehabilitation of dwellings. For the strengthening effect of tobacco smoke he should point out at the necessity of smoking cessation. (orig./MG)

  10. [A history and philosophy of bio-medical ethics seen from a dentist's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shinik

    2002-01-01

    When we think about ethics or morals, we tend to look at them from the viewpoint of here and now. Actual implications of then and there, however, could be different. That is why we should study history of bio-ethics along with philosophy involved in it. Bio-medical ethics is situated in spatial and cultural dimension as well as temporal and historical. Dentistry has been in a peculiar situation in that although it has evolved from the same root as medicine, it has become a separate discipline. Ethical implications of dentistry, however, share the historical and philosophical background with its mother discipline, i.e., medicine, surgery, barber-surgery and even smithery. This paper tries to grasp the main ideas of bio-medical ethics from the ancient Greek and China, and picks up three of them as guiding principles, i.e., deontology and teleology from the west and self-cultivation from the east. It also tracks down the contents of modern biomedical ethics; from etiquette to ethics, from morals to contract (ethics of autonomy), and ethics of professional responsibility. Finally it reviews and analyzes two different traditions of dental professional regulation from the legal and ethical point of view (U.S. and Europe), and proposes a new direction for the construction of dental ethics in Korea. PMID:12825602

  11. Model of radionuclide migration in the ChNPP 30-km zone on the basis of landscape point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the territory of the 30-km zone was tinguished on secondary distribution factors of radionuclides: relief of surface and its grades, presence and propagation of closed and semiclosed drinages, lithology of soil-forming rocks and depth of bed of first water-bearing layer. Application of geoinformation systems (GIS) for submitting of geographic and radioecological information provides advantages of landscape point of view. Creation of reference points for samplers was considered

  12. Nuclear safeguards challenges from the point of view of a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Djaloeis addressed safeguards challenges from the point of view of a developing country. IAEA safeguards are vital for stopping the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as stipulated in the NPT. However, success depends on the willingness of States to sign the NPT, to conclude a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol with the IAEA, and to cooperate with the IAEA in safeguards implementation. The history of nuclear energy, from the weapons use in 1945 and especially the Atoms for Peace speech of 1953, led to the foundation of the IAEA in 1957 and has led to the development of peaceful nuclear applications. The NPT included provisions that have not been followed up on, especially the disarmament provision. This continues to cause animosity among States party to the NPT who have made non-proliferation commitments under the treaty and expect the nuclear weapons States to follow through on their commitments. The NPT review conferences have repeatedly emphasized that the nuclear weapon States are not disarming. In particular, the NPT review conference in 2000 laid down a supposedly agreed upon route to the elimination of nuclear weapons. Developing countries see this as an unfair divergence between developed countries and others. This issue strengthens the hand of those opposed to international cooperation and development

  13. Developing a Land Suitability Index for Agricultural uses in Dry Lands from Geologic Point of View Using GIS - a Case Study from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammmad Al Farajat; Alsharifa Hind Mohammad; Abdullah Diabat; Hassan Al Ibraheem

    2015-01-01

    DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.63-76In the context of the study, a Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) in GIS was used in developing suitability index to optimize suitable lands for agricultural uses and seasonal farming in dry lands from geologic point of view. This study was performed in the areas between Mafraq and Zarqa Cities in Jordan which are classified as arid lands. The study aims at protecting groundwater from pollution, reducing soil salting, reducing irrigation water loss caused by evaporatio...

  14. Development opportunities for communities: a point of view from the Canadian association of nuclear host communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Kraemer, Chairperson, Canadian Association for Nuclear Host Communities (CANHC), and Mayor of Kincardine, the host community of the Bruce nuclear power station, brought forward some 'grass roots ideals' of elected officials. The CANHC was recently created in recognition of the need for nuclear host communities to come together to engage not only the nuclear industry, but provincial and federal government as well, in a public dialogue. This association will champion host community needs as the new option-weighing process goes forward. It was a disappointment that the association did not receive a seat on the WMO board. With the new NFW Act, geological disposal of spent fuel waste is no longer a foregone conclusion, and the communities woke up to the possibility that waste now cooling within the nuclear power station area may potentially remain there for a much longer term. Even if these wastes are one day transported away from reactor sites, long-term storage on site needs attention. Mayor Kraemer views that a community not currently hosting a nuclear installation would volunteer to receive waste only on economic motives. Current host communities concentrate knowledge of nuclear operations and issues. Mayor Kraemer then recounted his own constituents' perceptions of the ongoing siting process for a low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste storage facility in Kincardine. He highlighted the importance of mutual co-operation between the nuclear industry and the municipality to 'debunk public hysteria', characterising 'fear' as 'False Expectations Appearing Real'. A Memorandum of Understanding has been developed between his municipal government and the local nuclear station, foreseeing elements of public education, safety and management methodology. In Mayor Kraemer's view, making an active investment in waste management solutions at the local level can realize the economic aspirations of both the community and the nuclear sector. (author)

  15. The Improvement Project in Postponement of Bankruptcy Process: An Evaluation from the Business Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozdevecioglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is inevitable for the capital companies and cooperatives in Turkey to go bankrupt in case the assets of the company are insufficient to meet the obligations. However, the law enacted in 2004 has enabled the bankruptcy to be postponed. The company requesting the adjournment of bankruptcy should not only fulfill the legal requirements but also present the court a convincing and serious improvement project. The main objective of this study is to discuss how to prepare such a plan from the point of view of business manager. The improvement project is a financial project based on objective and solid data which contains precautionary measures envisaged to rescue the company. In general the project should incorporate financial and administrative measures. Financial measures include direct and indirect cash inflows from sources like finding new partners, selling personal assets of existing partners and focusing on high profit margin products to ensure that the assets can cover the liabilities. The administrative measures in the field of accounting, finance and human resources contribute to the healing process indirectly. This paper explains the financial and administrative measures in detail.

  16. Ideals of curves given by points

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuna, E; Trager, B

    2012-01-01

    Let C be an irreducible projective curve of degree d in Pn(K), where K is an algebraically closed field, and let I be the associated homogeneous prime ideal. We wish to compute generators for I, assuming we are given sufficiently many points on the curve C. In particular if I can be generated by polynomials of degree at most m and we are given md + 1 points on C, then we can find a set of generators for I. We will show that a minimal set of generators of I can be constructed in polynomial time. Our constructions are completely independent of any notion of term ordering; this allows us the maximal freedom in performing our constructions in order to improve the numerical stability. We also summarize some classical results on bounds for the degrees of the generators of our ideal in terms of the degree and genus of the curve.

  17. HOW TO SOLVE THE MORAL DILEMMA OF HELPING A FALLEN OLD MAN - FROM AN ECONOMIC POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Li Fengsen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a peculiar phenomenon has happened time and time again and aroused hot social discussions in China. It is the fact that when an old man (or woman) falls down on the street, most passers-by dare not to help him, or in other cases, when one of them does offer his (or her) help, he might be accused of having knocked the old man down. As a result, nowadays in China, most people will not help a fallen old man for fear of being falsely accused. From an economic point of view, this ...

  18. PET and diagnostic technology evaluation in a global clinical process. DGN's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN) criticizes the methodological approach of the IQWiG for evaluation of PET and the conclusions, which represent the opposite point of view compared to the most other European countries and health companies in the USA: (1) Real integration of experienced physicians into the interpretation of data and the evaluation of effectiveness should be used for best possible reporting instead of only formal hearing. (2) Data of the National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR) from the USA have shown, that PET has changed the therapeutic management in 38% of patients. (3) The decision of the IQWiG to accept outcome data only for their benefit analyses, is controversial. Medical knowledge is generated by different methods, and an actual analysis of the scientific guidelines has shown that only 15% out of all guidelines are based on the level of evidence demanded by the IQWiG. Health economics has created different assessment methods for the evaluation of a diagnostic procedure. The strategy chosen by the IQWiG overestimated the perspective of the population and undervalue the benefit for an individual patient. (4) PET evaluates the effectiveness of a therapeutic procedure, but does not create an effective therapy. When the predictive value of PET is already implemented in a specific study design and the result of PET define a specific management, the trial evaluate the whole algorithm and PET is part of this algorithm only. When PET is implemented as test during chemotherapy or by the end of chemotherapy, the predictive value of PET will depend decisively on the effectiveness of the therapy: The better the therapy, the smaller the differences in survival detected by PET. (5) The significance of an optimal staging by the integration of PET will increase. Rationale is the actual development of ''titration'' of chemotherapy intensity and radiation dose towards the lowest possible, just about effective dosage. (6) The medical therapy of

  19. Education as a Value: Students, Teachers and Parents Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article based upon empiric empirical experimental research, we disclose point of view from students, teachers and parents side. Highlighting school and parents influence to students attitude to education importance. Disclosing different views on education between 10th and 12th grade students. Students view on modern youths values shows that they don’t really care about education (10th grade – 7%, 12th grade – 9%. The most valuable thing is money (10th gr. – 23%, 12th gr. – 32%, and independence (10th gr. – 23%, 12th gr. – 33%. This shows us that material fulfillment, as they think, leads to successful future. So in this case “fast” money and independence becomes a successful life standard. However answer to question what is most important to them personally education is most reachable value (10th gr. – 58%, 12th gr. – 49%. This shows us that youth is not ready (psychologically prepared to open up their true values. In the other hand that shows us lack of openness in our relationship. Personally highest rates goes to education (10th gr. – 58%, 12th gr. – 49%; communication and collaboration (10th gr. – 52%, 12th gr. – 45%, self esteem (10th gr. – 48%, 12th gr. – 49%, honesty (10th gr. – 41%, 12th gr. – 37%. In conclusion we can say that social relationship and collaboration helps to achieve goals, in this case – education. Most of students are looking forward to achieve higher education (10th gr. – 43%, 12th gr. – 46%. Planning to study in Lithuania (10th gr. – 44%, 12th gr. – 50%. Students planning to go for postgraduate studies (10th gr. – 18%, 12th gr. – 25%. This shows us that not only 12th grade students, but also 10th grade students understand higher education importance. It is not a surprise that amount of postgraduate students is growing each year. Achievement of higher education students are linking with opportunity to make more money (10th gr. – 26%, 12th gr. – 32%; getting

  20. Assessment of nuclear risks in administrative court proceedings from an engineer's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the experience gained in a multitude of nuclear energy proceedings before administrative courts, structures of and criteria for decision-making court concessing failure-preventing measures are discussed. The paper points out the significance of probabilistic methods in this context. To assess risks related to normal-operation emissions, e.g. natural radiation exposure, there exists a standard of comparison to be applied directly, which is approved by the Supreme Court. (DG)

  1. A point of view on the energy needs and supplies for 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the increase of the primary energy consumption in the future, the author discusses the hypothesis proposed by the economists. The following points are detailed: the economic growth, the demography, the reserves and resources in fossil coal, the renewable energies and nuclear future, the world energy accounting for 2050. (A.L.B.)

  2. [Non-point loads of soluble cadmium by in situ field experiment with different landuses, in central Hunan province mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Ye, Chang-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Non-point source loads of heavy metals from contaminated soil has increasingly become the major cause of heavy metal concentrations of rivers and lakes surpassed the limitation value, while only few studies had focused on quantitative monitoring of soil heavy metal transportation to water, in situ field conditions. As reported, agricultural farmland heavy metal contamination was the major contamination problem, especially for cadmium (Cd) pollution in middle and downstream of Xiangjiang River. This study selected the typical Cd polluted agricultural watershed for a case study, three typical landuse types of rice, dry farmland and unused grassland with three replicate quadrates were carried out for natural rainfall runoff hydrology processes monitoring, from 2011-2012. Results showed that, precipitation pH value increased from spring to summer, soluble Cd concentration of spring runoff was significantly higher than that of summer rainfall runoff, which presented an obviously seasonal heterogeneity and had a negative correlation with rainfall pH value, and rainfall pH value can obviously impact soil soluble Cd transportation into surface runoff charge. In the same rainfall event, soluble Cd concentration and non-point load of rice were significantly lower than those of dry land and unused grassland, while no obviously seasonal trend was found for non-point load of Cd from three typical landuse types because of the rainfall depth variance, which needs more researches and concerns in the future. These results can provide valuable data and scientific supports for watershed scale's heavy metal non-point source load quantitative estimation and water environment management and water quality diagnosis and early warning. PMID:24289005

  3. A Perfect View of Vesta: Creating Pointing Observations for the Dawn Spacecraft on Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Katrina M.

    2005-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has a timely and clever assignment in store. It will take a close look at two intact survivors from the dawn of the solar system (asteroids 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres) to understand more about solar system origin and evolution. To optimize science return, Dawn must make carefully designed observations on approach and in survey orbit, high altitude mapping orbit, and low altitude mapping orbit at each body. In this report, observations outlined in the science plan are modeled using the science opportunity analyzer program for the Vesta encounter. Specifically, I encoded Dawn's flight rules into the program, modeled pointing profiles of the optical instruments (framing camera, visible infrared spectrometer) and mapped their fields of view onto Vesta's surface. Visualization of coverage will provide the science team with information necessary to assess feasibility of alternative observation plans. Dawn launches in summer 2006 and ends its journey in 2016. Instrument observations on Vesta in 2011 will supply detailed information about Vesta's surface and internal structure. These data will be used to analyze the formation and history of the protoplanet and, therefore, complete an important step in understanding the development of our solar system.

  4. Quantifying and Mapping the Digital Divide from an Internet Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Khan, Shahryar; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Williams, Jerrod; /SLAC; Mehdi, Akbar; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2008-09-18

    Quantitative knowledge of the magnitude, extent and trends of the Digital Divide are critical to understand and identify the regions most in need of help, to make rational decisions on how to address the problems and to make cases for executives, funding agencies and politicians. We report on a project (PingER) to measure the Digital Divide from the point of view of Internet performance. The PingER project has been measuring Internet performance since 1995 and with the increased emphasis on measuring and tracking the Digital Divide, it now covers over 700 hosts in over 150 countries that between them contain over 99% of the world's Internet connected population. In this paper we will describe the how PingER works, it deployment, the data analysis, and presentation. We also introduce a new PingER visualization tool (ViPER) that provides a more appealing interactive visualization of the PingER data and also works on mobile PDAs. We will also show results from PingER that illustrate the magnitude, extent and trends for the Digital Divide, and also compare PingER results with some human development and technology indices.

  5. Feedback is good or bad? Medical residents’ points of view on feedback in clinical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFKAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feedback is very important in education and can help quality in the training process and orient the trainees in clinical contexts. This study aimed to assess the residents’ points of view about feedback in clinical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The sample of this study included 170 medical residents attending medical workshops in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The residents filled a valid and reliable questionnaire containing 21 items on their perceptions of the feedback they got throughout the workshops. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Results: The study revealed that residents, generally, have a positive perception of feedback in their training. The highest score belonged to the items such as “feedback was applicable to future work”, “feedback corrected my behavior”, “feedback worked as a motivation for education” and “feedback was specific in one subject”. Residents who had a negative feedback experience also increased their efforts to learn. The Surgery residents acquired the highest scores while radiology residents got the lowest. The difference between these groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000. Conclusion: The highest mean score belonged to internal medicine residents. This shows that residents believe that obstetrics & gynecology ward is a ward in which the formative assessment is much more powerful in comparison to the other three major wards. The surgery ward received the lowest score for formative assessment and this shows that the feedback in surgery ward is very low.

  6. LEDs in automotive lighting and signaling: a customer point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Heider, Christian

    2007-09-01

    The development of brand specific front and tail lights in cooperation with the stylists is the assignment of automobile lighting. Highest car safety, attractive styling, differentiation in the traffic situation and environment friendliness are the project limits. LED technology has the potential to extend these limits. The LED technology will have to improve, but it is also enhanced by new sensor technologies that introduce new functionalities. The implementation of a possible roadmap depends on right technologies at the right time. For new styling ideas and functional innovations further steps in lighting technology are necessary. The document will show a car makers view on possible innovation ideas.

  7. BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  8. BackscatterC [7125]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  9. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. BackscatterC [7125]--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. BackscatterA [8210]--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  12. BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  13. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Tomales Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  15. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. The conception of disability under discussion: the point of view of Occupational Therapy professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ramos Baleotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The way one conceives disabled people seems to influence the actions directed toward them. Occupational therapists constitute a part of health professionals that direct their actions based on a comprehensive view of disability. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the conception of disability from the standpoint of occupational therapists. Fifteen university teachers of Occupational Therapy undergraduate courses participated in this study: seven from public universities and eight from private institutions, located in mid-sized municipalities in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected by means of a scale denominated “Escala de Avaliação da Concepção de Deficiência” (Rating Scale for Conception of Disability. The results show that the subjects tend to follow interactional, social conceptions of disability. This study yields contributions to understand the conception of disability held by teachers of Occupational Therapy. This conception certainly guides their teaching performance and affects the training of future professionals.

  17. Site Suitability Assessment with Dynamic Wake Meandering Model. A Certification Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Bayo, Ricard; Parro, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of large wind farms requires enormous investments putting steadily greater emphasis on optimal topology design and control of these. This requires not only an optimization of the power output, but also the development of strategies to cope with the higher loading expected. The cornerstone of such strategies is a realistic characterization and modelling of the wake flow field inside the wind farm, beyond Frandsen's equivalent turbulence method. Whereas Frandsen model has been mostly considered in the industry so far, it has not proved completely satisfactory when facing current problems such as wake effects on turbines placed at short distances or consequences of half wake for turbine loading. The objective of the present work is to address these questions from a certification point of view within the framework of Risoe's Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model. The DWM model is based on the combination of three parts: modeling of quasi-steady wake deficits, a stochastic model of the downwind wake meandering and an added or self-generated wake turbulence. The analysis carried out is two-fold: First, a comparative study of the wake effects generated in Frandsen model as well as in various realizations of the DWM model is performed. For this purpose wake-induced loads are calculated using two different aeroelastic codes: HAWC2 and Bladed. Second, the applicability of DWM for the assessment of wind turbines under site-specific conditions is discussed and the conclusions summarized in a Recommended Practice. Clear prescriptions are thereby provided for the use of DWMM for site suitability assessments, including the aforementioned extreme situations, along with the interpretation of the future version of the IEC 61400-1 standards.

  18. Bench-to-bedside review: Sepsis - from the redox point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Andrades, Michael Éverton; Morina, Arian; Spasić, Snežana; Spasojević, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sepsis and its progression to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and septic shock have been the subject of investigations for nearly half a century. Controversies still exist with regard to understanding the molecular pathophysiology of sepsis in relation to the complex roles played by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, complements and cytokines. In the present review we categorise the key turning points in sepsis development and outline the most probable sequence of ...

  19. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances. PMID:21120327

  20. Variations on the European labor markets from gender point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern societies gender gap attracts significant attention. Scientists are trying to research this issue from different aspects: demographical, sociological, economic, etc. The goal of this paper is to define the basic variables that explain variation on the labor markets in Europe from the gender point of view and to compare labor market in Serbia with European countries in order to identify the countries with the most similar gender performances, with intention to overview their experiences concerning the policy measures for gender gap reduction. Analysis is conducted through observations of activity rates, employment rates, unemployment rates, inactivity rates, and long-term unemployment rates. With use of factor analysis we have identified the main factors on the labor markets in Europe and on the basis of cluster analysis we have conducted grouping of countries on the basis of discovered factors. Identification of cluster with Serbia was conducted and also the place of the Serbian labor market in the same cluster. On the basis of quantitative results qualitative analysis was conducted to overview the experience in the field of gender differences on the labor market in the countries from the same cluster as Serbia, with special attention to Italy. Contemporary researches define labor market policy measures oriented to reduction of inequalities in the field of paid and unpaid labor. Decrease of these inequalities will consequently lead to the increase of female labor supply on the market. Final result of this research is the recommendation of policy measures in order to reduce gender differences in economic activity with final goal of creating modern society in Serbia and convergence with the most advanced countries in that field.

  1. The point-spread function of fiber-coupled area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The point-spread function (PSF) of a powdered-phosphor fiber-optic taper-coupled CCD area detector was measured, and an analytic expression for its functional form proposed. The ‘tails’ of this PSF were shown to be due almost entirely to the fiber-optic taper, with no contribution from the phosphor itself. The point-spread function (PSF) of a fiber-optic taper-coupled CCD area detector was measured over five decades of intensity using a 20 µm X-ray beam and ∼2000-fold averaging. The ‘tails’ of the PSF clearly revealed that it is neither Gaussian nor Lorentzian, but instead resembles the solid angle subtended by a pixel at a point source of light held a small distance (∼27 µm) above the pixel plane. This converges to an inverse cube law far from the beam impact point. Further analysis revealed that the tails are dominated by the fiber-optic taper, with negligible contribution from the phosphor, suggesting that the PSF of all fiber-coupled CCD-type detectors is best described as a Moffat function

  2. Statistical point of view on nucleus excited states and fluctuations of differential polarization of particles emitted during nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As previous works notably performed by Ericson outlined the fact that the compound nucleus model resulted in variations of efficient cross sections about average values and that these variations were not negligible at all as it had been previously admitted, this research thesis aims at establishing theoretical predictions and at showing that Ericson's predictions can be extended to polarization. After having qualitatively and quantitatively recalled the underlying concepts used in the compound nucleus and direct interaction models, the author shows the relevance of a statistical point of view on nuclei which must not be confused with the statistical model itself. Then, after a recall of results obtained by Ericson, the author reports the study of the fluctuations of differential polarization, addresses the experimental aspect of fluctuations, and shows which are the main factors for this kind of study

  3. Experience on implementation of the Integrated Safeguards approach for the MOX facility from the operator's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IS approach for the JNC-1 site was implemented in August 2008, and this was the first experience in the world. This IS approach aimed not only to improve efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards but also to reduce burden of the plant operation by improvement of efficiency of the inspection activity. It was planned to review effectiveness of this new approach after three years from implementation. And JAEA also evaluated effects by application of the IS approach for two MOX fuel facilities in the JNC-1 site based on the three years experiences from the operator's view point. As the result of evaluation, it was confirmed that there were some difference of benefits by application of the IS approach depending on features of the facility, automation level of equipment and advance level of safeguards systems. (author)

  4. The conception of disability under discussion: the point of view of Occupational Therapy professors

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Ramos Baleotti; Sadao Omote

    2014-01-01

    The way one conceives disabled people seems to influence the actions directed toward them. Occupational therapists constitute a part of health professionals that direct their actions based on a comprehensive view of disability. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the conception of disability from the standpoint of occupational therapists. Fifteen university teachers of Occupational Therapy undergraduate courses participated in this study: seven from public universities and e...

  5. Larger-area single-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Song-Liang; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2013-01-01

    By altering the lattice geometry of the photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs), we tune the regular lasing band edges of quadratic dispersions to form a single accidental Dirac point of linear dispersion at the Brillouin zone center. This not only increases the mode spacing by orders of magnitude, but also eliminates the distributed in-plane feedback to enable single-mode PCSELs of substantially larger area thus substantially higher output power. The advantages of using accidental Dirac cones are systematically evaluated through two-dimensional in-plane calculations and confirmed by three-dimensional simulations of photonic crystal slab devices.

  6. Standard GAX versus hybrid GAX absorption refrigeration cycle: From the view point of thermoeconomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The SGAX cycle is found to be thermoeconomically efficient compared to HGAX cycle. • The HGAX cycle has higher COP and exergy efficiency compared to SGAX cycle. • Minimum product cost is found 180.5 $/GJ and 159.1 $/GJ for HGAX and SGAX, respectively. - Abstract: The main goal of this research is to compare thermoeconomic performance of a GAX absorption cycle and a hybrid GAX absorption cycle in which a compressor is employed to raise the absorber pressure. In order to do this, the ammonia–water standard GAX (SGAX) and hybrid GAX (HGAX) absorption refrigeration cycles are investigated and optimized from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and economics. Parametric studies are carried out and with the help of genetic algorithm (GA), the cycles’ performance is optimized based on the COP and exergy efficiency as well as the cost of unit product. Results indicate that although, compared to the GAX cycle, the HGAX cycle demonstrates a better performance from the view points of both the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the unit product cost for the HGAX cycle is higher. At the optimum operating conditions, the cost of unit product for the HGAX cycle is calculated as 180.5 $/GJ while the corresponding value for the SGAX cycle is obtained as 159.1 $/GJ. Also, the exergoeconomic analyses unfold that the condenser has the lowest exergoeconomic factor, f, in both the systems. In addition, inspired from nature, a new graphical plot is proposed to illustrate the fuel cost, product cost, capital investment and operating and maintenance cost and cost rates associated with the exergy destruction and losses within the system’s components

  7. Different faces of chaos in FRW models with scalar fields -- geometrical point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Hrycyna, O; Hrycyna, Orest; Szydlowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    FRW cosmologies with conformally coupled scalar fields are investigated in a geometrical way by the means of geodesics of the Jacobi metric. In this model of dynamics, trajectories in the configuration space are represented by geodesics. Because of the singular nature of the Jacobi metric on the boundary set $\\partial\\mathcal{D}$ of the domain of admissible motion, the geodesics change the cone sectors several times (or an infinite number of times) in the neighborhood of the singular set $\\partial\\mathcal{D}$. We show that this singular set contains interesting information about the dynamical complexity of the model. Firstly, this set can be used as a Poincar{\\'e} surface for construction of Poincar{\\'e} sections, and the trajectories then have the recurrence property. We also investigate the distribution of the intersection points. Secondly, the full classification of periodic orbits in the configuration space is performed and existence of UPO is demonstrated. Our general conclusion is that, although the pre...

  8. Concerning the nuclear power in Romania - an A.R.I.N. point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the position of a Romanian non-governmental organization, A.R.I.N., towards the nuclear energy programs in Romania. It is argued that the nuclear energy is potentially pollutant from the very mining through the final radioactive waste disposal, occasionally with effects extending along tens of thousands years. Even if the carbon dioxide emissions are lower the nuclear power plants contribute to the global harmful heating by heating the waters used for cooling. The paper contains blaming views toward the Health Ministry as concerns the reliability of published data of the irradiation state of population and against the Romanian Electricity Authority for its lack of public information or even misinformation of population with respect to nuclear hazards. For instance, the nuclear incidents of November 1994 and May 1995 in Canada were never acknowledged through mass media

  9. Understanding the health care business model: the financial analysts' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on how financial analysts understand the strategy of a health care company and which elements, from such a strategy perspective, they perceive as constituting the cornerstone of a health care company's business model. The empirical part of this study is based on semi-structured interviews with analysts following a large health care company listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. The authors analyse how the financial analysts view strategy and value creation within the framework of a business model. Further, the authors analyze whether the characteristics emerging from a comprehensive literature review are reflected in the financial analysts' perceptions of which information is decision-relevant and important to communicate to the financial markets. Among the conclusions of the study is the importance of distinguishing between the health care companies' business model and the model by which the payment of revenues are allocated between end users and reimbursing organizations. PMID:21294436

  10. CO2 electrochemical reduction into CO or C in molten carbonates: a thermodynamic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Competing reduction processes in molten alkali carbonates are studied theoretically. • The redox systems CO2/CO, CO2/C, CO/C, H2O/H2, Metal+/Metal are investigated. • Potential-oxoacidity diagrams are established for binary and ternary eutectics. • We focus on different operating conditions for CO2/CO reduction from 450 to 750 °C. • Syngas is theoretically feasible in oxoacidic conditions and relatively high CO pressure. - Abstract: This work is a predictive thermodynamic study focused on competing reduction processes in molten carbonates, involving the following redox systems CO2/CO, CO2/C, CO/C, H2O/H2, M+/M (M = Li, Na or K). Its main purpose is to determine the best electrolyte and operating conditions relative to the CO2 reduction into CO or C between 450 and 750 °C, from a theoretical point of view. Potential-oxoacidity diagrams are established at different temperatures for binary eutectics (Li2CO3-K2CO3: 42.7–57.3 mol.%, Li2CO3-K2CO3: 62–38 mol.%, Li2CO3-Na2CO3: 52–48 mol.% and Na2CO3-K2CO3: 56–44 mol.%), and for the ternary carbonate eutectic Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3: 43.5–31.5–25 mol.%. As residual water can be present, its reduction into hydrogen is studied as well. The coexistence of CO (g) and H2 (g) in the same phase is theoretically feasible in acidic condition along with a relatively high pressure of CO

  11. Orientation of Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds with Multi-View, Multi-Scale Image Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Haggrén

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive 3D modeling of our environment requires integration of terrestrial and airborne data, which is collected, preferably, using laser scanning and photogrammetric methods. However, integration of these multi-source data requires accurate relative orientations. In this article, two methods for solving relative orientation problems are presented. The first method includes registration by minimizing the distances between of an airborne laser point cloud and a 3D model. The 3D model was derived from photogrammetric measurements and terrestrial laser scanning points. The first method was used as a reference and for validation. Having completed registration in the object space, the relative orientation between images and laser point cloud is known. The second method utilizes an interactive orientation method between a multi-scale image block and a laser point cloud. The multi-scale image block includes both aerial and terrestrial images. Experiments with the multi-scale image block revealed that the accuracy of a relative orientation increased when more images were included in the block. The orientations of the first and second methods were compared. The comparison showed that correct rotations were the most difficult to detect accurately by using the interactive method. Because the interactive method forces laser scanning data to fit with the images, inaccurate rotations cause corresponding shifts to image positions. However, in a test case, in which the orientation differences included only shifts, the interactive method could solve the relative orientation of an aerial image and airborne laser scanning data repeatedly within a couple of centimeters.

  12. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free

  13. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  14. In situ observation of the molecular ordering in the lubricating point contact area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-07-01

    The organization of lubricant molecules confined between two solid surfaces when the lubricant film thickness is at the nanoscale is unknown. In this work, an ordering process of nematic liquid crystal molecules is observed by in situ polarized Raman spectroscopy of the lubricated point contact area. Our experimental results indicate that 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal molecules orient along the rotation direction when the linear speed exceeds 12.6 mm/s, and the degree of order increases with linear speed. The relationship between the observed orientation and physical properties of the lubricant film is investigated. Isotropic orientation is observed at the outlet area of the contact region. The orientation behavior of liquid crystal molecules in a confined area is observed and the relationship between lubrication conditions and molecular orientation is discussed.

  15. Constructivisms from a genetic point of view: a critical classification of current tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José Carlos; Loredo, José Carlos

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a critical classification of contemporary constructivist orientations. Our fundamental theoretical reference is the notion of genesis, understood as the construction of reality in a way that is neither relativist nor positivist-realist. We identify a nucleus of classic, genetic constructivism that revolves around the ideas of Baldwin, Piaget and Vygotsky and discuss two tendencies that distort the spirit of that nucleus: objectivism and subjectivism. Objectivism rules out the psychological, constructive activity of the subject, subordinating (or just reducing) it to objective structures either from nature (like genetic endowment or neural functioning), or from culture (like language or social practices). Subjectivism completely detaches the objectivity of knowledge from its construction on the part of the subject, reducing it to the mere product of individual interest, view, or irrationality. Thus, subjectivism is the non-constructive way to conceive the subject. Then, we attempt to show the dialectics that exists between these two tendencies and the scope of our criteria by analysing a representative (non exhaustive) group of authors who are defined as constructivists or who bring important elements to the debate about constructivism. PMID:19306117

  16. Evaluation of stochastic algorithms for financial mathematics problems from point of view of energy-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments in the area of high-performance computing are driven not only by the desire for ever higher performance but also by the rising costs of electricity. The use of various types of accelerators like GPUs, Intel Xeon Phi has become mainstream and many algorithms and applications have been ported to make use of them where available. In Financial Mathematics the question of optimal use of computational resources should also take into account the limitations on space, because in many use cases the servers are deployed close to the exchanges. In this work we evaluate various algorithms for option pricing that we have implemented for different target architectures in terms of their energy and space efficiency. Since it has been established that low-discrepancy sequences may be better than pseudorandom numbers for these types of algorithms, we also test the Sobol and Halton sequences. We present the raw results, the computed metrics and conclusions from our tests

  17. Evaluation of stochastic algorithms for financial mathematics problems from point of view of energy-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, E.; Dimitrov, D.; Gurov, T.

    2015-10-01

    The recent developments in the area of high-performance computing are driven not only by the desire for ever higher performance but also by the rising costs of electricity. The use of various types of accelerators like GPUs, Intel Xeon Phi has become mainstream and many algorithms and applications have been ported to make use of them where available. In Financial Mathematics the question of optimal use of computational resources should also take into account the limitations on space, because in many use cases the servers are deployed close to the exchanges. In this work we evaluate various algorithms for option pricing that we have implemented for different target architectures in terms of their energy and space efficiency. Since it has been established that low-discrepancy sequences may be better than pseudorandom numbers for these types of algorithms, we also test the Sobol and Halton sequences. We present the raw results, the computed metrics and conclusions from our tests.

  18. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  19. Point of view about the energy industry in 1995 and strategy of a large group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of petroleum industry is viewed through the life of an important company, the Statoil Norwegian group. The reduction of costs and the taxes problem tackled. The markets of petroleum products and natural gas are discussed. The technologies advances in drilling, offshore and seismic are treated. But, except for the natural gas, the market gives little opportunities in term of prices and receipts growth. (N.C.)

  20. Analysis of spiky net toroidal current in the magnetized toroidal plasma from the point of view of helicity conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that 'runaway oscillations' in the toroidal current of the magnetized resistive toroidal plasma may cause continuous tearing activity, resulting in 'spiky' net toroidal current and modulation of toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields of the plasma with a definite phase relationship, depending upon the magnitude of vertical magnetic field. The present experimental results on current decay and recovery are explained from the point of view of helicity conservation. (author)

  1. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  2. Re-Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media: Comments on Richard E. Clark's "Point of View" Column on Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. R.; Becker, Katrin; Sawyer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Everything old is new again. In a recent "Point of View" editorial commentary in "Educational Technology," Richard E. Clark revisits the now-famous media-effects debate with a focus on serious games. Clark argues that serious games have little to offer that improves upon traditional methods. This article responds to those claims. While Clark's…

  3. Efficiency, Feasibility and Desirability of Learner Autonomy Based on Teachers’ and Learners’ Point of Views

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Shahsavari

    2014-01-01

    Learner autonomy has been a recent trend in education which highlights the students’ engagement in their own learning. Although over the past 30 years, a large body of research has been carried on learner autonomy, limited attention has been paid to the sense teachers in comparison to learners would make of this concept. The present study is an attempt to shed light on the general existing pattern of the way teachers and learners view learner autonomy. To do so, applying the convenience...

  4. Incentives and the Economic Point of View: the Case of Popular Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew McCaffrey

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines some underlying assumptions of the “popular” economics writing of recent years, e.g. the Freakonomics literature. I examine two problems that emerge from these writings. First, popular economics is myopic in that it views incentives as the fundamental economic concept. This focus can place misleading emphasis on only one relevant economic problem, while neglecting other important facts, such as (a) institutional arrangements that determine the pattern of ...

  5. Public Access Points, Our current file was compiled from our parcel mapping & locating on records & maps, areas of public access. Areas have been reviewed by the DNR, Published in 2011, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Access Points dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is described as...

  6. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  7. The development of information society in the light of new dangers in the area of internal security as viewed by the students

    OpenAIRE

    Stachowiak, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The development of information society contributes to many transformations; they virtually encompass all the aspects of the contemporary world. However, not all the realms of transformations are subject to scrutiny to the very same degree. This paper is an attempt to acquaint its readers with the issues oftentimes evaded or even not picked up by researchers. The author in this paper presents the results of the research conducted among the students of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru...

  8. Analysis of costs and revenues from accounting and tax point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Škvorová, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The final thesis is concentrated on costs and revenues which are necessary to account correctly during the accounting period and to recognize them as expenses incurred to generate, assure and maintain income and those which are not recognized for tax purposes. The literature search contains fundamental concepts, classification of costs and revenues, general principles for accounting costs and revenues, accounting and tax view on costs and revenues, balancing and financial statements. Accou...

  9. The project of documentary space 'ExploRe' Opened pluri-disciplinary exploration of reversibility: multiple-point of view access to exploratory works of Andra on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a digital space (a web site - 'ExploRe') which would allows a community to share a set of pluri-disciplinary information items concerning reversibility, and in which the community members describe the items by using attributes and themes belonging to different points of view

  10. Influence of neutron correlations on nuclear break-up reaction both from theoretical and experimental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear break-up has been studied both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view and has shown to be a powerful tool to probe nucleon correlations in nuclei. A theory beyond mean-field, called TDDM, (Time Dependant Density Matrix) taking into account two-body correlations has been developed. The dynamical evolution of a correlated nuclei can be described and especially nuclear break-up. This study shows that the distributions of relative angle between the two neutrons strongly differ when varying initial correlations: two nucleons close together in the nuclei will lead to small relative angle after emission whereas two nucleons far from each other gives large relative angles. From an experimental point of view, correlations between the two neutrons in the halo of the Borromean nucleus He6 have been investigated. Its ground state is predicted to have two dominant configurations: the di-neutron configuration where the two neutrons are very close to each other and the cigar configuration, where the two neutrons are on opposite side with respect to the core. Nuclear break-up of He6 on a lead target has been studied at GANIL with a SPIRAL beam. The alpha particles coming out of the break-up where detected by a stripped Silicon detector coupled to a Silicon-Lithium detector and the neutrons by EDEN and the Neutron Wall, in order to get a large angular coverage. Angular correlation functions extracted from data show both strong correlation at small relative angles and at large relative angle corresponding respectively to the contribution of the di-neutron configuration and of the cigar like configuration. So He6 ground state seems to be a superposition of these two configurations. (author)

  11. Organizational well-being in a Public Research Agency: the point of view of administrative staff and researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Col?, Elisa; Rissotto, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate organizational well- being in a Public Research Agency, exploring the point of view of two different categories of workers, administrative staff and researchers, employed in the same organization. We hypothesized that, in a complex organization, the kind of work performed, along with other factors, could influence the representation of organizational well-being. The study involved 37 administrative staff and 24 researchers of the Italian National Resear...

  12. A Review on Bioethics and Legal Concerns in Stem Cell Researches from Embryo Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad Mahmoodian; Bita Pakniyat Jahromi; Nazanin Setayeshpour

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sharply progression and development in different aspect of technology and science in the field of medicine and sanitation bring many challenges in biological moral and social aspects of the life. Meanwhile statistical problems of this subjects will be rised. Study and researches on embryonic stem cells are one of this specimens. Religions and different ideological views in vast human cultures associated with various laws in different countries of the world, made moral and bio...

  13. A multi-scale point of view on the structure-property relationships of A15 superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlong Ding; Min Pan; Shuiquan Deng; Yong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Nb3Sn and other A15 members have been widely applied in nuclear power, nuclear magnetic reso-nance, and high-energy particle accelerators for their high critical current density (Jc) and upper critical field (Bc2). There have been comprehensive and intensive studies on the applications, the fundamental lattice dynamic and electronic properties, etc., of A15 superconductors. Various reviews on the preparations, structures, and properties have already been written in the last few years. Nevertheless, on account of the large amount of existing facts and views, a coherent view on the relations between the structures and properties has not appeared to unify the facts. This article sketches a multi-scale point of view on the relations between the multi-scale structures and the corresponding properties.

  14. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  15. Target Audience of Live Opera Transmissions to Cinema Theatres from the Marketing Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Tahal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Opera has a famous history and even the present-day repertoire in opera houses mostly consists of classical and well-known works. Marketers are trying to find new ways that would enable opera lovers all over the world to enjoy top quality performances. One of the most successful models is real-time transmissions of operas to geographically remote cinemas. Cinemas from all around the world participate in the project. In this paper, the authors analyze the spectators´ profile and point out differences between North America and the Czech Republic, focusing on transmissions of performances by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. The authors submit a detailed analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the spectators and the attendance frequency. Special attention is paid to the marketing profile of Czech spectators, based on primary data gathered in the research. The paper is a combination of research report and business case study. The study reveals that female visitors prevail. Elderly people are also represented in high percentages. The spectators are characterized by refined taste in their lifestyles and familiarity with modern technology.

  16. Robust seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice area through tipping point in amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ditlevsen, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    The variation in the Arctic sea ice is dominated by the seasonal cycle with little inter-annual correlation. Though the mean sea ice area has decreased steadily in the period of satellite observations, a dramatic transition in the dynamics was initiated with the record low September ice area in 2007. The change is much more pronounced in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle than in the annual mean ice area. The shape of the seasonal cycle is surprisingly constant for the whole observational record despite the general decline. A simple explanation, independent of the increased greenhouse warming, for the shape of the seasonal cycle is offered. Thus the dramatic climate change in arctic ice area is seen in the amplitude of the cycle and to a lesser extend the annual mean and the summer ice extend. The reason why the climate change is most pronounced in the amplitude is related to the rapid reduction in perennial ice and thus a thinning of the ice. The analysis shows that a tipping point for the arctic ice area w...

  17. Transcriptomic signature of Leishmania infected mice macrophages: a metabolic point of view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Rabhi

    Full Text Available We analyzed the transcriptional signatures of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages at different times after infection with promastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the macrophage metabolic pathways including carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were among the most altered pathways at later time points of infection. Indeed, L. major promastiogtes induced increased mRNA levels of the glucose transporter and almost all of the genes associated with glycolysis and lactate dehydrogenase, suggesting a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. On the other hand, L. major promastigotes enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors involved in the uptake of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL, inhibited the expression of genes coding for proteins regulating cholesterol efflux, and induced the synthesis of triacylglycerides. These data suggested that Leishmania infection disturbs cholesterol and triglycerides homeostasis and may lead to cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Using Filipin and Bodipy staining, we showed cholesterol and triglycerides accumulation in infected macrophages. Moreover, Bodipy-positive lipid droplets accumulated in close proximity to parasitophorous vacuoles, suggesting that intracellular L. major may take advantage of these organelles as high-energy substrate sources. While the effect of infection on cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation was independent on parasite development, our data indicate that anaerobic glycolysis is actively induced by L. major during the establishment of infection.

  18. Problems, challenges and future of plant disease management:from an ecological point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dun-chun; ZHAN Jia-sui; XIE Lian-hui

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease management faces ever-growing chalenges due to: (i) increasing demands for total, safe and diverse foods to support the booming global population and its improving living standards; (i) reducing production potential in agriculture due to competition for land in fertile areas and exhaustion of marginal arable lands; (ii) deteriorating ecology of agro-ecosystems and depletion of natural resources; and (iv) increased risk of disease epidemics resulting from agricultural intensiifcation and monocultures. Future plant disease management should aim to strengthen food security for a stable society while simultaneously safeguarding the health of associated ecosystems and reducing dependency on natural resources. To achieve these multiple functionalities, sustainable plant disease management should place emphases on rational adaptation of resistance, avoidance, elimination and remediation strategies individualy and colectively, guided by traits of speciifc host-pathogen associations using evolutionary ecology principles to create environmental (biotic and abiotic) conditions favorable for host growth and development while adverse to pathogen reproduction and evolution.

  19. TREES DETECTION FROM LASER POINT CLOUDS ACQUIRED IN DENSE URBAN AREAS BY A MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Monnier, F.; Vallet, B; B. Soheilian

    2012-01-01

    3D reconstruction of trees is of great interest in large-scale 3D city modelling. Laser scanners provide geometrically accurate 3D point clouds that are very useful for object recognition in complex urban scenes. Trees often cause important occlusions on building façades. Their recognition can lead to occlusion maps that are useful for many façade oriented applications such as visual based localisation and automatic image tagging. This paper proposes a pipeline to detect trees in poi...

  20. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: a meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    to hydrometeorological hazards, suffer from incalculable social and economic losses, and face irreversible impacts. A coastal manager needs to know that the east coast of India has been hit by a minimum of 4 high intensity cyclones every year over the last 100 years... depending upon the type of ecosystems and development along coasts. The main essence of CRZ Notification of 1991 was to protect ecologically sensitive coastal network. But the main issue of interest to the present topic is that CRZ I also includes areas...

  1. Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation: One or Two Depends on Your Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, James J.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Emotion regulation has the odd distinction of being a wildly popular construct whose scientific existence is in considerable doubt. In this article, we discuss the confusion about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can and should be distinguished from one another. We describe a continuum of perspectives on emotion, and highlight how different (often mutually incompatible) perspectives on emotion lead to different views about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can...

  2. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  3. Measurements on pointing error and field of view of Cimel-318 Sun photometers in the scope of AERONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Torres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity studies indicate that among the diverse error sources of ground-based sky radiometer observations, the pointing error plays an important role in the correct retrieval of aerosol properties. The accurate pointing is specially critical for the characterization of desert dust aerosol. The present work relies on the analysis of two new measurement procedures (cross and matrix specifically designed for the evaluation of the pointing error in the standard instrument of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET, the Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer. The first part of the analysis contains a preliminary study whose results conclude on the need of a Sun movement correction for an accurate evaluation of the pointing error from both new measurements. Once this correction is applied, both measurements show equivalent results with differences under 0.01° in the pointing error estimations. The second part of the analysis includes the incorporation of the cross procedure in the AERONET routine measurement protocol in order to monitor the pointing error in field instruments. The pointing error was evaluated using the data collected for more than a year, in 7 Sun photometers belonging to AERONET sites. The registered pointing error values were generally smaller than 0.1°, though in some instruments values up to 0.3° have been observed. Moreover, the pointing error analysis shows that this measurement can be useful to detect mechanical problems in the robots or dirtiness in the 4-quadrant detector used to track the Sun. Specifically, these mechanical faults can be detected due to the stable behavior of the values over time and vs. the solar zenith angle. Finally, the matrix procedure can be used to derive the value of the solid view angle of the instruments. The methodology has been implemented and applied for the characterization of 5 Sun photometers. To validate the method, a comparison with solid angles obtained from the vicarious calibration method was

  4. The Casimir Effect from the Point of View of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Nosari, Gabriele; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    We consider a region of Minkowski spacetime bounded either by one or by two parallel, infinitely extended plates orthogonal to a spatial direction and a real Klein-Gordon field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions. We quantize these two systems within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory using the so-called functional formalism. As a first step we construct a suitable unital ∗-algebra of observables whose generating functionals are characterized by a labelling space which is at the same time optimal and separating and fulfils the F-locality property. Subsequently we give a definition for these systems of Hadamard states and we investigate explicit examples. In the case of a single plate, it turns out that one can build algebraic states via a pull-back of those on the whole Minkowski spacetime, moreover inheriting from them the Hadamard property. When we consider instead two plates, algebraic states can be put in correspondence with those on flat spacetime via the so-called method of images, which we translate to the algebraic setting. For a massless scalar field we show that this procedure works perfectly for a large class of quasi-free states including the Poincaré vacuum and KMS states. Eventually Wick polynomials are introduced. Contrary to the Minkowski case, the extended algebras, built in globally hyperbolic subregions can be collected in a global counterpart only after a suitable deformation which is expressed locally in terms of a *-isomorphism. As a last step, we construct explicitly the two-point function and the regularized energy density, showing, moreover, that the outcome is consistent with the standard results of the Casimir effect.

  5. Point of view of experts from Columbia university, New-york, and from University of California, Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a widely circulated document, a group of French renowned scientists from French Academia of sciences suggests that the risk of cancer induced by ionizing radiation is for the low doses smaller by unit than this one established for strong doses that is to say for the doses where an effect has been demonstrated by epidemiological studies. It suggests particularly that at very low doses, the excess of cancers could be null even negative. Although there is considerable uncertainty about the carcinogenic effect of low doses, we believe that the authors have not provided a convincing argument in favor of their hypotheses, from a quantitative point of view or a qualifying one. The main argument of the authors is based on biological arguments demonstrating that very low doses of radiation induce lesions in a limited number of cells, making possible the elimination of these cells either by cell death, or by another mechanism. Thus, one would be led to define a threshold below which there is no increased cancer risk. But the arguments do not seem sufficient to draw such conclusions. (N.C.)

  6. Cross-modal plasticity in sensory deprived animal models: From the thalamocortical development point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzera, Cecilia; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2016-09-01

    Over recent decades, our understanding of the plasticity of the central nervous system has expanded enormously. Accordingly, it is now widely accepted that the brain can adapt to changes by reorganizing its circuitry, both in response to external stimuli and experience, as well as through intrinsic mechanisms. A clear example of this is the activation of a deprived sensory area and the expansion of spared sensory cortical regions in individuals who suffered peripheral sensory loss. Despite the efforts to understand these neuroplastic changes, the mechanisms underlying such adaptive remodeling remains poorly understood. Progress in understanding these events may be hindered by the highly varied data obtained from the distinct experimental paradigms analyzed, which include different animal models and neuronal systems, as well as studies into the onset of sensory loss. Here, we will establish the current state-of-the-art describing the principal observations made according to the time of sensory deprivation with respect to the development of the thalamocortical connectivity. We will review the experimental data obtained from animal models where sensory deprivation has been induced either before or after thalamocortical axons reach and invade their target cortical areas. The anatomical and functional effects of sensory loss on the primary sensory areas of the cortex will be presented. Indeed, we consider that the comparative approach of this review is a necessary step in order to help deciphering the processes that underlie sensory neuroplasticity, for which studies in animal models have been indispensable. Understanding these mechanisms will then help to develop restorative strategies and prostheses that will overcome the functional loss. PMID:26459021

  7. From the proteomic point of view: Integration of adaptive changes to iron deficiency in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Mai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the proteomic adaptations to iron deficiency in plants may contribute to find possible new research targets in order to generate crop plants that are more tolerant to iron deficiency, to increase the iron content or to enhance the bioavailability of iron in food plants. We provide this update on adaptations to iron deficiency from the proteomic standpoint. We have mined the data and compared ten studies on iron deficiency-related proteomic changes in six different Strategy I plant species. We summarize these results and point out common iron deficiency-induced alterations of important biochemical pathways based on the data provided by these publications, deliver explanations on the possible benefits that arise from these adaptations in iron-deficient plants and present a concluding model of these adaptations. Furthermore, we demonstrate the close interdependence of proteins which were found regulated across multiple studies, and we pinpoint proteins with yet unknown function, which may play important roles in iron homeostasis.

  8. The pros and cons of cryogenic accelerators: An engineering point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of cryogenic linacs is a challenging engineering task; however, significant improvements in accelerator performance are possible. Resistive power losses may be reduced by a factor of four or greater. Greater flexibility is possible in thermal management as a result of substantial increases in thermal conductivity for certain materials. Radio frequency structures may by an order of magnitude more stable in terms of frequency shifts due to thermal transients resulting form very small coefficients of thermal expansion at cryogenic temperatures. Significant engineering problems must be addressed, such as the design of effective rf contacts that will not be affected by thermal cycling and the design of cryogenic mechanisms and dynamic components, such as frequency tuners, that operate reliably at cryogenic operating temperatures. The areas of high-power sparking and multipactoring have not yet been experimentally addressed. Both Los Alamos, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, and Boeing Corporation have built or are building and testing cryogenic accelerator structures. This paper reviews the advances made in cryogenic technology applied to radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and drift tube linac (DTL) structures and will discuss the advantages and engineering challenges that these linacs present

  9. HOW TO SOLVE THE MORAL DILEMMA OF HELPING A FALLEN OLD MAN - FROM AN ECONOMIC POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fengsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a peculiar phenomenon has happened time and time again and aroused hot social discussions in China. It is the fact that when an old man (or woman falls down on the street, most passers-by dare not to help him, or in other cases, when one of them does offer his (or her help, he might be accused of having knocked the old man down. As a result, nowadays in China, most people will not help a fallen old man for fear of being falsely accused. From an economic point of view, this paper points out that this peculiar phenomenon, which I call it a moral dilemma of helping a fallen old man, not only is a moral issue, but also closely relates to the intrinsic defects within China’s current institutions. In order to solve this moral dilemma, some improvement measures have to be taken not only in public moral education, but in the legal institutions, civil administration, health care system and public opinion guidance as well.

  10. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  11. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient's well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  12. The point of view of a heat exchangers manufacturer; Le point de vue d`un fabricant d`echangeurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R.; Meziani, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of a RKM 200 refrigerating machinery tested with the R22, R134a, R404A and R407C refrigerants. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal performances of new fluids in identical functioning conditions and to analyze the behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient with respect to the mass velocity and to the heat flux. (J.S.)

  13. Geographic Space Organisation from an Environmental Point of View. Why Bukovina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CHIRIŢĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For geographers and other actors involved in geographical space organization and as well in territorial planning, the Bukovina area represents an entity marked by the contradiction between the rich and varied natural and cultural potential on the one hand and the recent negative impact brought about by the aggressive actions upon the forestry fund or by the territorial spreading of new types of buildings on the other hand. In this context, specialists in different fields of activity were invited to an open debate meant to identify the territorial tensions and to propose solutions for the present situation. Last but not least, we intended to find a way to try to avoid such contrasting realities in the future.

  14. The past and future of the decision in principle: the implementor's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnish legislation for use of nuclear energy prescribes the responsibility for nuclear waste management to the waste producers. TVO, the utility operating the Olkiluoto power plant, launched already in the early 1980's research and development activities for final disposal of spent fuel. Also collection of funds for the future waste management was started by the utilities in a very early phase of power plant operation. In 1995, the owners of the Olkiluoto (TVO) and Loviisa nuclear power plants (Fortum Power and Heat) established Posiva, a jointly owned company to take care of deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Now, about 20 years have been spent creating technical and scientific basis for final disposal. The planned facility for spent nuclear fuel consists of an encapsulation plant and an underground repository to be constructed in crystalline bedrock at a depth of about 500 metres. Copper canister is an essential engineered barrier for safety of final disposal. In the middle of 1980's the siting programme proceed to the phase, at which the activities were to be focused on selection of candidate areas and to the start of deep drillings. Already then it was evident that promoting of public acceptance and good co-operation with the host municipalities would be necessities for the success of the project, according to the Nuclear Energy Act a precondition for site selection was an approval of the host municipality. (authors)

  15. BENEFICIARIES VIEW POINT AND FACTORS INFLUENCING IN DUCED ABORTIONS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF WEST BENGAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Study of induced abortion in India by considering t he complete birth history of women is lacking. Induced abortion is associated wi th high mortality and morbidity in India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to find out the In duced abortions ratio and to identify certain characteristics like perception, hea lth care seeking behavior and the motivational factors for such an act. METHODS: An exploratory type of investigation (a retrospective case series study was carried out amo ng 46 acceptors of induced abortion in a rural community of west Bengal, between September, 1 1 to February 12. RESULTS: The ratio of induced abortions was 20.62 per year per 1000 women o f reproductive age group. 89% belongs to Hindu and 93% of them were married. Unplanned preg nancy (43.47% and financial problem (21.73 % were the main reasons for acceptance of in duced abortions. About 71 % of induced abortions were carried out by qualified person in h ospital set up. CONCLUSION: Eventually induced abortions are increasing universally and se veral traditional methods are also found to be life threatening. So exploration of induced abort ions is important aspect and explores the point for entry of further research.

  16. Recent Advances in Optimal Design of Structures from a Reliability Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Structural optimisation and structural reliability theory are considered. Both of these areas have developed during the last two decades from being of purely theoretical interest to areas useful in practical design. The main elements of structural reliability theory are described in the second...... Baker[4] and Madsen et al.[5]. Next a heuristic method, the so-called ß-unzipping method[6] is mentioned. This method can be used to estimate the reliability of a structural system if some modelling assumptions are fulfilled. In the third section some elements of structural optimisation theory are...

  17. The point of view of thermal equipment users; Le point de vue des gestionnaires d`equipements thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroyer, P. [Compagnie Generale de Chauffe, 59 - Saint Andre Lez Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The influence of new pollution regulations in France on the operation of thermal equipment for central heating systems or industrial heat process systems, is examined. The main French regulations concerning air pollution control and energy rational consumption are reviewed, and their effects on the design, equipment, operation and costs of heat plants are discussed: impacts of the decree on upgrading and disposal of fossil fuel ashes, the decree on special protection zone (large cities), the clean air law, the compulsory declaration for classified combustion plants and limit air pollution emission levels

  18. Unifying diseases from a genetic point of view: the example of the genetic theory of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrason, Marie

    2013-08-01

    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), they attempt to unify infectious diseases from a genetic point of view. In this article, I analyze this explicit example of a genetic theory, which relies on mechanisms and is applied only to a specific category of diseases, what we call "a regional genetic theory." I have three aims: to prove that a genetic theory of disease can be devoid of genocentrism, to consider the possibility of a genetic theory applied to every disease, and to introduce two hypotheses about the form that such a genetic theory could take by distinguishing between a genetic theory of diseases and a genetic theory of Disease. Finally, I suggest that network medicine could be an interesting framework for a genetic theory of Disease. PMID:23807757

  19. From a Philosophical point of view, can the Budism Be An Anti-Sacrificial Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Felizol Marques

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Both on Buddhist tradition and René Girard´s thought ignorance and desire are on the basis of suffering and violence. The Buddhist tradition puts/takes ignorance, that nothing exists in and by itself, avydia as the cause of all sufferings because it generates a chain of desire / aversion that leads us to an imprisonment where we move from desiring an object to another. Girard´s perspective founds violence´s origin on the ignorance of our mimetic desire. The subject ignores that, far from being free, autonomous and differentiated, as the "romantic lie" prays, he only desires and wants by imitating a model. Neither the subject nor the object, which the subject freely thinks to desire, exist free for themselves. While this model prevails, he will react more and more violently to the claims of the subject; and even if the subject overtakes its model, he will greedily seek another and another model, always doomed to deception. If we add to this the proximity of the two anti-sacrificial perspectives, displayed on the descriptive closeness of the samsara´s wheel and the circular and sacrificial time of a pagan society, we find between Girard and the buddhist tradition enough common points for their mutual understanding.

  20. Saturn’s UV aurora: the (high latitude) point of view of Cassini

    OpenAIRE

    Grodent, Denis; Bonfond, Bertrand; Gustin, Jacques; Radioti, Aikaterini; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Pryor, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The high latitude vantage point of Cassini and its short distance to Saturn give rise to a unique opportunity for obtaining exceptional spectral images of the aurorae, along with in situ observations of the associated particles and magnetic field. Cassini’s T83 flyby of Titan significantly changed the inclination of the spacecraft’s orbit and marked the beginning of the XXM inclined phase 1 which will last until March 16, 2015. We will give an overview of the auroral emissions observed so ...

  1. A SUGGESTION ON A SUITABLE INVENTORY METHOD FROM ANALYTIC APPLICATION INTENDED FOR WILDLIFE ECOLOGY POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kürşad ÖZKAN

    2009-01-01

    Inventory methods of wildlife ecology and vegetation ecology are different with each other from the analytic processes point of view due to the fact that the survey intended for vegetation ecology can be done in sample plots. Thus, it can be obtained the same sizes matrixes belonging to vegetation and environment characteristics for analytical process. Nevertheless the situation is different for wildlife ecology. Wild animals can move unlike plant species. Hence, the inventory must be phased ...

  2. [Theses on critical gerontology from a social science point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, D

    2012-10-01

    This contribution formulates several key statements concerning a critical gerontology and is intended as a starting point for further thought and discussion from the perspective of critical social sciences. In terms of scientific theory, it follows a concept of normative universalism, distinguishing itself from a mere "science of order", which would be restricted to social self-observation. The assumptions focus on dealing with the social construct of age(ing) under the conditions of modern capitalist societies and on putting age(ing) into context with neo-liberal economic and social politics. This contribution explains some aspects of restructuring the German welfare state into an "activating state", a process accompanied by the casualisation of many older people's life circumstances. Moreover, some cultural perspectives of self-determined life in old age are demonstrated, which invariably should also be seen as a learning task. In this way, the complex interactions between gerontology and social and political practice in terms of praxeological and critical research are covered in their totality. At the same time, critical gerontology is oriented towards what is humanly possible and attempts to identify restrictions to a fulfilling life in old age and to suggest perspectives of how such restrictions can be overcome. The aim is to reflect on our own professional behaviour, to make it more compatible theoretically with critical scientific discourses on ageing and thus contribute to the emancipation of older people from discourses of dominance. PMID:22911392

  3. Soluble Urokinase Receptors in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Review on the Scientific Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Moin A.; Meijers, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the primary glomerular disorders in both children and adults which can progress to end-stage renal failure. Although there are genetic and secondary causes, circulating factors have also been regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of FSGS, because about 40% of the patients with FSGS have recurrence after renal transplantation. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a soluble form of uPAR, which is a membrane-bound protein linked to GPI in various immunologically active cells, including podocytes. It has recently been suggested as a potential circulating factor in FSGS by in vitro podocyte experiments, in vivo mice models, and human studies. However, there have also been controversies on this issue, because subsequent studies showed conflicting results. suPAR levels were also increased in patients with other glomerular diseases and were inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, there has been no balanced review on this issue. In this review, we compare the conflicting data on the involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS and shed light on interpretation by taking into account many points and the potential variables and confounders influencing serum suPAR levels.

  4. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1: 1-16. AbstractObjectiveNeurometabolic disorders are an important group of diseases that mostly arepresented in newborns and infants.Neurological manifestations are the prominent signs and symptoms in this groupof diseases. Seizures are a common sign and are often refractory to antiepileptic drugs in untreated neurometabolic patients.The onset of symptoms for neurometabolic disorders appears after an interval ofnormal or near normal growth and development.Additionally, affected childrenmay fare well until a catabolic crisis occurs.Patients with neurometabolic disorders during metabolic decompensation havesevere clinical presentation, which include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy,seizures, and loss of consciousness.This symptom is often fatal but severe neurological insult and regression inneurodevelopmental milestones can result as a prominent sign in patients whosurvived.Acute symptoms should be immediately treated regardless of the cause.A number of patients with neurometabolic disorders respond favorably and, insome instances, dramatically respond to treatment.Early detection and early intervention is invaluable in some patients to preventcatabolism and normal or near normal neurodevelopmental milestones.This paper discusses neurometabolic disorders, approaches to this group ofdiseases (from the view of a pediatric neurologist, clinical and neurologicalmanifestations, neuroimaging and electroencephalography findings, earlydetection, and early treatment. ReferencesFiliano JJ. Neurometabolic Disease in the Newborn. ClinPerinatol 33, 2006, 411-479.Van Karnebeek CDM, Stockler S. Treatable inborn errors of metabolism causing intellectual disability: A systematic literature review. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 105, 2012, 369-381.Abdel-Salam GMH, Abdel-Kader AA, Effat L, Gouda A

  5. [Technology and future ways of thinking related to work from ergonomics points of views in moments of global crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes-Lagos, David E; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-06-01

    Is it possible to establish (at short, medium and long term) future work conditions or expected work conditions for Colombian people considering upcoming work technologies? Is it possible to anticipate future work desirable work conditions for Colombian people in order to plan (foresee?) work technologies? These questions guided this research and they point to an action thesis and to a reaction one in this context of work crisis. Even though a work technology establishes where, when, how, who, who with, and using what element work is done, it also establishes certain work conditions. Besides, multiple forms of considering and deconstructing past have been created from many disciplines. However, in order to foresee or construct work technologies requires a different perspective for looking further. This research has been carried out considering other disciplines points of view regarding Future Studies and Future Thinking Studies. This research has the purpose of finding future paths for Future Thinking Studies from ergonomics point of view in this moment of global work crisis we are going through. PMID:23258752

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of Georeferenced Point Clouds Produced via Multi-View Stereopsis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Arko Lucieer; Steve Harwin

    2012-01-01

    Sensor miniaturisation, improved battery technology and the availability of low-cost yet advanced Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have provided new opportunities for environmental remote sensing. The UAV provides a platform for close-range aerial photography. Detailed imagery captured from micro-UAV can produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis (MVS) techniques combining photogrammetry and computer vision. This study applies MVS techniques to imagery acquired from a multi-rotor mi...

  7. A bibliography on sketches from the computer science point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Permwall, Oskar

    1991-01-01

    A Sketch is a categorical tool for presenting theories. This is a commented bibliography on sketches and their use within some areas of computer science. References to work on sketches not primarily related to computer science are also provided.

  8. Execution of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1994 in the Construction Industry from Contractors’ Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction is one of the highest contributing industries to occupational accidents by sector in Malaysia. Statistics have been drawn from year to year that show an increasing number of cases of accidents by industry sector. While it is impossible to completely eliminate all accidents, with a proper and effective safety and health policy or rules set by top management, especially contractors, the rate of accidents on construction sites can be reduced. The main objective of this study is to analyse the degree of application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA 1994 in the construction industry and to identify the contributing factors leading to a lack of execution of OSHA 1994 on construction sites with a primary focus on contractors’ point of view. Five on-going construction projects in Perak were selected as case studies and site inspections were conducted. The results showed that none of the contractors have fully implemented the rules and regulations provided by the government. Within this report, some recommendations are made towards enhancing the safety and health issues on construction sites.

  9. Skin protection during contact with radioactive substances (from the dermatological and pharmaceutical points of view)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to shield the skin, particularly that of the hands, without the aid of gloves, skin care measures are recommended as a suitable protection during work. Ways to choose from among and to prepare the different types of ointment for skin protection are described in brief. The possibilities and limits of skin protection through any such pastes and ointments are pointed out and a few sample formulas are provided for the preparation of protective ointments. (HP)

  10. Improvement of logistics education from the point of view environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Á.

    2009-04-01

    cooperation of the higher education institutes and companies of the three counties. This publication was supported by the National Office for Research and Technology within the frame of Pázmány Péter programme. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Office for Research and Technology. Literature: [1] J. Cselényi, Gy. Fischer, J. Murvai, B. Mang: Typical models of the recycling logistics of worn out product. Proceedings of XIV. International Conference on Material Handling and Warehousing in Belgrade, 1996. pp. 138-143. [2] R. Knoth, M. Hoffmann, B. Kopacek, P. Kopacek: A logistic concept to improve the re-usability of electric and electronic equipment, Electronics and the Environment, 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Symposium. 2001. pp. 115 - 118. [3] L. Cser, B. Mang: Cleaner Technologies and Recycling in Hungary. Proceedings of Int. Workshop on Environmental Conscious Manufacturing in Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, 1997. pp. 48-56.

  11. The cell monolayer trajectory from the system state point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stys, Dalibor; Vanek, Jan; Nahlik, Tomas; Urban, Jan; Cisar, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Time-lapse microscopic movies are being increasingly utilized for understanding the derivation of cell states and predicting cell future. Often, fluorescence and other types of labeling are not available or desirable, and cell state-definitions based on observable structures must be used. We present the methodology for cell behavior recognition and prediction based on the short term cell recurrent behavior analysis. This approach has theoretical justification in non-linear dynamics theory. The methodology is based on the general stochastic systems theory which allows us to define the cell states, trajectory and the system itself. We introduce the usage of a novel image content descriptor based on information contribution (gain) by each image point for the cell state characterization as the first step. The linkage between the method and the general system theory is presented as a general frame for cell behavior interpretation. We also discuss extended cell description, system theory and methodology for future development. This methodology may be used for many practical purposes, ranging from advanced, medically relevant, precise cell culture diagnostics to very utilitarian cell recognition in a noisy or uneven image background. In addition, the results are theoretically justified. PMID:21879106

  12. The point of view from thermal equipment managers; Le point de vue des gestionnaires d`equipements thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroyeur, P. [Compagnie General de Chauffe, 59 - Saint Andre Lez Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The new French regulations on air pollution and classified installations have increased the technical and economical constraints of thermal equipment managers in the domain of collective space heating and industrial heating. The aim of this paper is to precise the impact of these regulations in particular, on the valorization and elimination of fossil fuel ashes, and on the design, operation and maintenance of combustion installations (maximum acceptable limits of pollutant emissions). (J.S.)

  13. Managing medical treatment waste and effluent: the point of view of a nuclear medicine practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear medicine department of the Nancy CHU hospital is one of the largest in France: 16.000 patients are welcomed each year and 4.000 persons undergo a tomography there. 5 shielded and isolated rooms, dedicated to Iodine131 treatment, allow the care of 150 to 200 patients each year. The head of the nuclear medicine department gives his meaning about the new regulation on the management of radioactive effluents. According to him, regulations are necessary but the values of the imposed thresholds have to be scientifically justified. Another point is that a lot of money is spent on radiation protection issues while the radioactive risks are almost null, which leads to wasting money. The elaboration of the radioprotection regulations must be made not as a whole but on a specific basis according to the domain: nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear medicine, it applies. (A.C.)

  14. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin,...

  15. NMSSM Inflation and Domain Walls from a Tri-critical Point of View

    CERN Document Server

    Aval, Hadi Gholian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we want to study the conditions in which we could bring a universe filled with different $Z_3$ vacua created during the Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) electroweak symmetry breaking at $\\textit{O} (10)^2$ GeV and a three dimensional three states diluted Potts model together in the same universality class. Then we use Cardy-Jacobsen conjecture to prove that there might be a tri-critical point in the NMSSM electroweak epoch of early universe. We prove that due to the existence of this point there would be no cosmological domain wall problem. Moreover, at this point the heat capacity and correlation length diverge which lead to a huge amount of energy release at constant temperature and a new mechanism for cosmological structure formation. Also, the entropy decrease after the tri-critical phase transition could explain the problem of low initial entropy in early universe. Finally, we combine Cardy-Jacobsen and Yaffe-Svetitsky conjectures to show that there might be a tri-criti...

  16. A preliminary view on adsorption of organics on ice at temperatures close to melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Artiglia, Luca; Ammann, Markus; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    -level spectroscopies to reveal the behaviour of adsorption and dissociation on ice. Additionally, pure ice and amine doped ice will be compared for their surface structure change at different temperatures, which will indicate the differences of surface disordering caused by different factors. For instance, we will have a chance to know better if impurities will cause local disordering, i.e. forming hydration shell, which challenges the traditional picture of a homogenous disordered doped ice surface. The findings of this study could not only improve our understanding of how acidic organics adsorb to ice, and of their chemical properties on ice, but also have potentials to know better the behaviour of pure ice at temperatures approaching to the melting point.

  17. Seeking the Self-consciousness of Black Woman from the Point of View of“Womanism”in Everyday Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门薇薇

    2012-01-01

      Alice Walker is one of the prominent American writers in American women’ s literature and black literature in 1950s-1960s. The short story Everyday Use was published early in her writing career. She displays the differences in the behav⁃iors and minds of the mother and her two daughters during the process of seeking the self-consciousness of black woman from the point of view of“ womanism”. This paper attempts to explore the awakening of their heritage and self-consciousness in or⁃der to deepen the understanding and thoughts on the theme of the text.

  18. High-resolution three-dimensional views of membrane-associated clathrin and cytoskeleton in critical-point-dried macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeler, J; Takemura, R; Werb, Z

    1983-11-01

    We obtained high-resolution topographical information about the distribution of clathrin and cytoskeletal filaments on cytoplasmic membrane surfaces of macrophages spreading onto glass coverslips by both critical-point drying of broken-open cells and preparation of rotary platinum replicas. Irregular patches of the adherent ventral surface of the plasma membrane were exposed in these cells, and large areas of these exposed membranes were covered with clathrin-coated patches, pits, and vesicles. Various amounts of cytoskeleton were attached to the plasma membranes of these spreading cells, either as distinct starlike foci, or as individual filaments and bundles radiating out from the cytoskeletal meshwork. In newly adherent cells a well developed Golgi-GERL complex, characterized by smooth, dish-like cisternae associated with rough endoplasmic reticulum, was observed. There were many coated vesicles budding off from the Golgi cisternae, and these were predominantly of the large type (150 nm) usually associated with the plasma membrane. In critical-point-dried samples, both cytoskeleton and membranes were preserved in detail comparable to that of quick-frozen samples, after appropriate fixation. Rotary replication of critical-point-dried cells provides a rapid, easily controlled, and generally easy to perform method for obtaining samples of exposed membrane large enough to permit quantification of membrane-associated clathrin and cytoskeleton under various experimental conditions. PMID:6415067

  19. DCGA based evaluating role of bundle lines in TNEP considering expansion of substations from voltage level point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is an important component of power system planning. It determines the characteristic and performance of the future electric power network and influences the power system operation directly. Up till now, various methods have been presented for the solution of static TNEP (STNEP) problem. However, in all of them, the role of bundle lines in TNEP problem considering the expansion of substations from the voltage level point of view has not been investigated. Thus, in this paper, the role of bundle lines in STNEP problem is being studied considering expansion cost of substations from the voltage level point of view using decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on an actual transmission network of the Azerbaijan regional electric company, Iran. The results reveal that bundle lines have effective role in transmission expansion planning and subsequent determining the network arrangement. In addition, considering the bundle lines in a power system is caused that the expansion cost of lines and substations decreases and therefore the total expansion cost of network is minimized. Also, it can be said, although cost of bundle lines are more than those which have not bundle conductor, constructing this type of lines in a transmission network with different voltage levels prevents useless expansion of unbundled lines in separate corridors and therefore the network expansion planning is optimized.

  20. Quality Aspects of Aerial Digital Orthophotos, the Producers Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Beckmann, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper gives an overview on the problems occurring during commercial digital orthophoto (DOP) production. There is a wide variety in requirements on orthophotos. It is no problem to produce good orthophotos in small areas, whereas production of good and homogeneous orthophotos in large areas remains a challenge. Therefore, we discuss large area orthophotos based on regular areal flight with regular flight parameters and nadir images, not on large numbers of images creating orthophotos based on various oblique images. The focus of the paper is to optimize the process of line production of orthophotos to achieve the best results under minimum usage of resources. Beside improvements in commercial software, the improvement in process design can help to achieve this objectives. It is necessary the attach importance to the different quality aspects to invest the limited resources at the most profitable process step. The requirements on orthophotos can be grouped into three categories: geometric, radiometric and aesthetic requirements. The main intention is to generate correct and well interpretable orthoimages, putting attention to geometry and radiometry. Many requirements cause enormous expenditures in flight time, number of images and amount of interactive editing work. Among the geometric aspects, the accuracy is the prominent factor. The geometric quality of the underlying digital terrain model (DTM) is of outstanding importance. Depending on the used focal length during acquisition and overlap, geometric errors in the DTM are directly represented in the orthophoto. Particularly at manmade surface break lines, even horizontal DTM errors occur striking in the orthophotos. A special consideration is to put on objects outside the DTM surface. While buildings may be represented in a good manner in a digital surface models (DSM) to generate so called "true orthophotos", there is no way to represent vegetation, cables, poles etc. in an appropriate manner in any DSM

  1. Factors Contributing to University Image: The Postgraduate Students' Points of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaz, Asal; Hashemi, Amin; Atashgah, Maryam S. Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Despite several studies having been conducted to examine organizational image from a business perspective, there has not been adequate research in the area of perceived image in nonprofit organizations such as universities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the factors contributing to university image, from the postgraduate students'…

  2. Reduction of streamflow monitoring networks by a reference point approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Cem P.; Harmancioglu, Nilgun B.

    2014-05-01

    Adoption of an integrated approach to water management strongly forces policy and decision-makers to focus on hydrometric monitoring systems as well. Existing hydrometric networks need to be assessed and revised against the requirements on water quantity data to support integrated management. One of the questions that a network assessment study should resolve is whether a current monitoring system can be consolidated in view of the increased expenditures in time, money and effort imposed on the monitoring activity. Within the last decade, governmental monitoring agencies in Turkey have foreseen an audit on all their basin networks in view of prevailing economic pressures. In particular, they question how they can decide whether monitoring should be continued or terminated at a particular site in a network. The presented study is initiated to address this question by examining the applicability of a method called “reference point approach” (RPA) for network assessment and reduction purposes. The main objective of the study is to develop an easily applicable and flexible network reduction methodology, focusing mainly on the assessment of the “performance” of existing streamflow monitoring networks in view of variable operational purposes. The methodology is applied to 13 hydrometric stations in the Gediz Basin, along the Aegean coast of Turkey. The results have shown that the simplicity of the method, in contrast to more complicated computational techniques, is an asset that facilitates the involvement of decision makers in application of the methodology for a more interactive assessment procedure between the monitoring agency and the network designer. The method permits ranking of hydrometric stations with regard to multiple objectives of monitoring and the desired attributes of the basin network. Another distinctive feature of the approach is that it also assists decision making in cases with limited data and metadata. These features of the RPA approach

  3. Information technology in university-level mathematics teaching and learning: a mathematician's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Borovik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mathematicians frequently use specialist software in direct teaching ofmathematics, as a means of delivery e-learning technologies have so far been lesswidely used. We (mathematicians insist that teaching methods should be subjectspecificand content-driven, not delivery-driven. We oppose generic approaches toteaching, including excessively generalist, content-free, one-size-fits-allpromotion of information and communications technology. This stance is fullyexpressed, for example, in the recent Teaching Position Statement from the LondonMathematical Society (2010 and is supported by a recent report from the NationalUnion of Students (2010, 5: “Not every area of study needed or was compatiblewith e-learning, and so to assume it would grant blanket advantages was notaccurate”. This paper is an attempt to explain mathematicians' selectivity in use ofinformation and communications technology and its guiding principles. The paperis addressed to our non-mathematician colleagues and is not intended to be a surveyof the existing software and courseware for mathematics teaching – the corpus ofexisting solutions is enormous and its discussion inevitably involves hardcoremathematics.

  4. Do the Heterodox Theories Have Something in Common? A post-Keynesian Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Lavoie

    2005-01-01

    This article presents different theoretical elements that share some heterodox ideas. This elements reside in four intricate areas: rationality of the individual, the theory of prices, the kaleckian model of growth, and the integration of the real with the monetary sector. Despite the divergences, these theoretical elements constitute a coherent set that could be improved with the aim of building a sole heterodox theory,which would serve as a real alternative to the dominant neoclassical theory.

  5. Environmental Audits of High Voltage Objects from the View Point of Investors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of high voltage objects, e.g., overhead transmission lines, under the spatial planning and environmental protection regulations is discussed. The most important elements of the localization procedure concerning high voltage overhead lines are presented. One of the elements of this procedure is the assessment of the investment environmental impact. The environmental audit is an essential document, in which this impact is described. It seems that its scope specified in the Environmental Protection Act is not adjusted to the specificity of line investments. This gives rise to some problems in preparing environmental audits for overhead lines, e.g., possible influence of high voltage lines on the Natura 2000 area zones. Several other related problems are also highlighted in this paper. (author)

  6. Endocytic Trafficking of Membrane-Bound Cargo: A Flotillin Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and highly conserved flotillin proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, have been shown to be involved in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, signal transduction through receptor tyrosine kinases as well as in cellular trafficking pathways. Due to the fact that flotillins are acylated and form hetero-oligomers, they constitutively associate with cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains. In recent years, such microdomains have been appreciated as platforms that participate in endocytosis and other cellular trafficking steps. This review summarizes the current findings on the role of flotillins in membrane-bound cargo endocytosis and endosomal trafficking events. We will discuss the proposed function of flotillins in endocytosis in the light of recent findings that point towards a role for flotillins in a step that precedes the actual endocytic uptake of cargo molecules. Recent findings have also revealed that flotillins may be important for endosomal sorting and recycling of specific cargo molecules. In addition to these aspects, the cellular trafficking pathway of flotillins themselves as potential cargo in the context of growth factor signaling will be discussed.

  7. ANALYSIS OF VARIANTS THERMOMODERNIZATION OF A DWELLING HOUSE FROM A POINT OF VIEW OF OPTIMAL ENERGETIC DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rutkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the basic element and building block of the world – it is pervasive. In comparison to other European countries, Poland allots still too much quantites of energy for heating of buildings which mostly had been built without concern for ecological and economical aspect of heat consumption. Therefore more and more investors decide to thermomodernize their buildings because of the energy savings and increase of the comfort of use of the building. The paper presents the analysis of thermomodernisation variants of an existing dwelling house from the point of view of the optimal adjustment for energetic supply. There was defined the optimal thickness of insulation for a vertical baffle and roof for various configurations of layers. The calculations of cost-effectiveness were carried out for the investment with the use of the NPV index for various thicknesses of the insulation, including the case without insulation

  8. The case of NPP Greifswald, promises and realities as seen from a regional point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We hope that after the closing down of the NPP our site development program will be successful in restructuring the industrial site, enable economic growth and create new jobs. However, the experience of our commune showed that the whole region can be lead into an economic and social disaster, if decisions of the government are taken without involving local authorities. We also think that decisions to shut down NPPs have to be combined with a package of a restructuring program and a special budget for investments in the local and regional infrastructure. The communes might then have a chance to locate new promising industries, avoid losses of high-tech jobs and well educated employees. Otherwise, a serious break down of traditional social structures would be likely to occur, especially in areas without alternative industries. (author)

  9. A survey of indian logic from the point of view of computer science

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, VVS

    1994-01-01

    Indian logic has a long history. It somewhat covers the domains of two of the six schools (darsanas) of Indian philosophy, namely, Nyaya and Vaisesika. The generally accepted definition of Indian logic over the ages is the science which ascertains valid knowledge either by means of six senses or by means of the five members of the syllogism. In other words, perception and inference constitute the subject matter of logic. The science of logic evolved in India through three ages: the ancient, t...

  10. From the children's point of view : power, pragmatism and rights in children's lives in Buganda

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    I left for Uganda in 1996 with two issues I wanted to consider: One, people's comprehension of children's rights; and two, children's perspective of their daily life. As Redd Barna had been working in this particular area of Uganda since the early 1990's I had heard that almost everybody knew about children's rights - or eddembe ly'abaana in Luganda (a translation which literally could mean, and often understood as children's freedom or liberty, and even children's peace). Now, when sumarizin...

  11. The Measels-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination from a health political and economical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habl, Claudia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measels, Mumps and Rubella (MMR are highly contagious infectious diseases which may lead to severe complications. These diseases are vaccine-preventable. The present Health Technology Assessment report (report on technological consequences, HTA report was commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI and addresses various aspects of the MMR vaccination, the key question being how the MMR immunisation coverage rate can be increased in Germany. Objectives: The objectives of this report were to describe the benefits of the MMR vaccination for Germany and to analyse how the desired MMR immunisation coverage of >95% can be achieved. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 29 literature data bases. Particularly for epidemiological data and information on vaccination programs, this systematic search was supplemented by an extensive hand search, written and oral enquiries, as well as interviews with experts. A total of 200 texts were used to prepare this report. Results: At 92.5% (as of 2004 based on the whole of Germany, the current immunisation coverage for measles in children is above the weighted EC-15-average of 90.67%. Statements can only be made regarding the probability of illness for measles, as no data is available for mumps and rubella. With 2.8 infections (per 100,000 residents in 2006, Germany has not achieved the WHO target. Of cases submitted to the laboratory, only 32% were validated by diagnostic laboratory findings and 45% confirmed clinical-epidemiologically. There are only few economic analyses of vaccination programs in Germany. In international publications, mainly measels are validated economically. An analysis of the cost of measles for Germany shows potential cost savings. Unfortunately, no complete economic evaluation (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, or cost-utility analyses for MMR vaccination has been performed for Germany. Analyses conducted in the US

  12. Mathematical modeling of childhood obesity from a social epidemic point of view for the spanish region of Valencia: numerical and analytical solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    González Parra, Gilberto Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This thesis dissertation deals with the mathematical modeling of childhood obesity from a social epidemic point of view for the Spanish region of Valencia. Three mathematical models based on systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of first order were constructed. The first one is constructed for simulating childhood obesity for the 3-5 years old population. For this model a nonstandard scheme based on the techniquesn developed by Ronald Mickens is constructed. This model is...

  13. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  14. Impact of different endurance races on the heart: the point of view of the biologist

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goff, Caroline; Melon, Pierre; Thébault, Jérémie; Kaux, Jean-François; Cavalier, Etienne; Chapelle, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intense exercise, represented by different endurance races, in relationship with oxidative stress and cardiac markers. In a second time, we tried to demonstrate if oxidative stress induced by physical activity is a physiological or pathological process, and to establish some issues to diagnose the risk of sudden death in athletes. Methods Four populations were compared, a control group of 16 participants “sedentary” (...

  15. CRP FUMEX PHWR Cases a BaCo Code Point of View and its Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BaCo code was developed to simulate the nuclear fuel rods behaviour under irradiation. BaCo is focussed in PHWR fuel and has good compatibility with PWR, BWR, WWER, among others type of fuels (commercial, experimental or prototypes). The code includes additional extensions for 3D calculations, statistical analysis, fuel design and a full core analysis. The main BaCo features in the area of PHWR nuclear fuel design, the BaCo code results of the PHWR cases included in the Coordinated Projects of the IAEA and an overview of the main findings of our participation of those code comparison is presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Points of view: where do we look when we watch TV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2008-01-01

    How is our gaze dispersed across the screen when watching television? An exploratory eyetracker study with a custom-designed show indicated a very strong center-of-screen bias with gaze points following a roughly normal distribution peaked near screen center. Examining the show across time revealed that people were rarely all looking at the same location, and the amount of gaze dispersion within frames was highly variable. Different forms of programming yielded different levels of dispersion: static network 'bumpers' created the tightest visual groupings, and gaze dispersion for frames with show content was less than the dispersion for commercials. Advertising frames with brand logos generated higher dispersion than the non-branded advertisement portions, and repeated advertisements generated higher dispersion than their first-run counterparts. PMID:19227380

  17. Femtosecond point-by-point inscription of Bragg gratings by drawing a coated fiber through ferrule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostovalov, A V; Wolf, A A; Parygin, A V; Zyubin, V E; Babin, S A

    2016-07-25

    A ferrule-based method of direct fs FBG inscription through protective plastic coating is demonstrated. Fluctuations of fiber core position relative to the writing fs beam are compensated by the developed auto-alignment system. As a result, high-quality FBGs with length from 0.1 to 50 mm are fabricated in polyimide-coated fibers, whose spectra are well described by the theory. The fabricated FBGs have great potential in sensor applications at high temperature and harsh environments both point-action and distributed ones. PMID:27464076

  18. Mochovce NPP safety measures evaluation from point of view of operational safety enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing. (author)

  19. Attention estimation by simultaneous analysis of viewer and view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawari, Ashish; Møgelmose, Andreas; Martin, Sujitha;

    2014-01-01

    first person view from cars is that the interior of the car can take up a large part of the image. The proposed system automatically filters out the dashboard of the car, along with other parts of the instrumentation. The remaining area is used as a region of interest for a pedestrian detector. Two...

  20. The grey economy and the effects of its prevention : Point of view of the building sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vainionpää, Jonna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to introduce three ways of preventing of the grey economy: contractor’s liability, tax number, and reversed charge in value added taxes. Another aim was to find out the effects of grey economy on building companies and their opinions in general about the prevention of the grey economy. The study method is qualitative. The material for this thesis was gathered from building companies’ representatives who know about the theme by interviewing them personally and...

  1. Description of the Renewable Lease from Point of View the Tax Advantage of Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielska, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    This article refers to the tax advantages of the new kind o f operating lease - so-called renewable lease. Renewable lease, initiated by EFL, is more profitable source of financing of investment than standard operating lease, because it has lower sum of discounted effective expenses and bigger reduction in tax payable. However take the opportunity of deducting value added tax brings bigger gains. In these case new product is also more improved offer. The paper emphasizes tha...

  2. Construction of power plants from the affected citizens' point of view - experience with citizens' committees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of the VGB-Conference Power plants and Environment 1977, Eiteneyer presented a lecture on power plant construction and public relation. He had hopefully drawn attention to the at last productive dispute between power plant advocates and power plant opponents, without finding ideal solutions. His conclusion, that power plant planning today is to a much greater extent an enterprising activity than a while ago, still carries weight, probably even more. It expresses itself mainly in the dialogue with citizens' committees, which according to experience appear at nearly every power plant building project today. Representatives of our corporation have asked themselves the question at this dialogue, whether these citizens' committees are really representing the population, as they often affirm. This situation induced us to entrust an independent institute in two cases with the questioning of the people concerned in those areas, in which the new constructions are planned. How this questioning was performed, its scope and the partial surprising results will be reported. The received objective information basis on the existing level of public opinion, made it possible to develop a realistic communication strategy. (orig.)

  3. Usefulness and perceived usefulness of Decision Support Systems (DSSs in participatory forest planning: the final users’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorella F

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the focus of forestry Decision Support Systems (DSSs has expanded to consider the social dimension of forestry and to support participatory decision-making. A large number of models and tools have become available to solve forest management planning problems. The Usefulness of a DSS depends on the range of tools that it incorporates, and many researches have been developed to evaluate DSSs using Usefulness as parameter. The assessment of Usefulness concerns the effectiveness of a DSS. Furthermore, most assessments take into account the degree of Perceived Usefulness, which is considered an indicator of the impact a system has on job performance. The present study focuses on the analysis of final users’ point of view on the Usefulness and Perceived Usefulness of DSSs in participatory forest planning. The research investigates how forest users’ characteristics and context influence their views on the potentialities of DSSs to enhance both the various phases of the participatory planning process (Usefulness and job performance (Perceived Usefulness. The study is based on quantitative data collected through two questionnaires e-mailed to a sample of 150 DSSs end users. The questionnaires focused on Usefulness and on Perceived Usefulness topics, respectively. Results indicate that special attention must be given to motivating respondents with a clear explanation of the survey objectives when e-mailing questionnaires. Moreover, results show that, in general, respondents consider DSSs useful at each step of the participatory process, despite differences emerge among steps. The research also shows that respondents’ Perceived Usefulness of DSSs was higher before actually engaging with DSSs. Furthermore, the results highlight differences in Perceived Usefulness to improve job performance, suggesting that the use of DSSs may actually improve job performance more than expected. Specifically, results indicate that improving the

  4. [Introduction of the DRG system from the point of view of private health insurers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Jürgen; Miebach, Jürgen; Hüdig, Wolfgang

    2002-08-01

    For the first time, there has been a worldwide attempt to fund all hospital services almost completely by a DRG system supplemented by additional charges, rebates, and procedural rates. In the interest of the efficiency and transparency of hospital services the introduction of a German DRG system settling the current implausible price differences would be welcome. The system selected by the medical self-governing bodies in Germany is based upon the Australian AR-DRG classification. In contrast to other systems, the latter provides the best medical plausibility, the highest transparency of the assignment algorithm and the highest potential for flexibility and adaptations to changing morbidity patterns and medical progress. The adaptation to the conditions of the German health care system requires considerable efforts on the part of hospitals as well as sickness funds and health insurers. Hospitals need to establish a cost unit accounting system satisfying the rules of Applied Economics to allow, among other things, the calculation of relative cost weights. The self-governing bodies will have to consent on a complex regulation system. The German Hospital Federation declared the break down of negotiations concerning a provisional DRG system to be optionally available to hospitals in 2003. The Federal Ministry of Health will now have to decide whether to implement the system through executive fiat. The comprehensive DRG system will introduce new risks. The economic risks of the individual hospital, though not the individual insurer's risks, will be partially compensated for in the introductory phase by revenue balance mechanisms, for example. In particular, both the privately insured and civil servants will face a rise in costs as they will no longer benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay. To end this discrimination against private health insurers, the double counting of the costs associated with medical treatment (included in the DRG price and additionally

  5. Octreotide scintigraphy: practical aspects. Point of view of the nuclear medicine technologist; Scintigraphie a l'OctreoScan: aspects pratiques. Le point de vue du manipulateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretaudeau, C.; Davy, G. [CHU La Miletrie, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2009-11-15

    Evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors extent comprises a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with OctreoScan. This examination begins with the radiopharmaceutical preparation and its quality control (dose, visual appearance, radiochemical purity, ph). The radiopharmaceutical is administered intravenously at a slow rate with respect of the contra-indications and recommendations. The patient's good respect of low residue diet and digestive preparations is essential for a good imaging quality. In addition, the technologist's psychological role (particularly for people suffering from claustrophobia) and adequate procedures must be taken into account. Several days are necessary to perform the examination that comprises whole body and planar (thoracic and abdominal) views, combined SPECT-CT imaging. This hybrid modality using fused images allows a good anatomical localisation of focal areas of increased uptake even in case of faint uptake. Some false-positive can be avoided (colonic stasis, gall bladder). SPECT-CT contribution to the diagnosis is certain. (authors)

  6. SENSORY DIMENSIONS OF THE DESTINATION BUCHAREST FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF YOUNG PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    DITOIU Mihail-Cristian; Aurelia-Felicia STANCIOIU; Nicolae TEODORESCU

    2012-01-01

    For a marketer, any destination that has the objective of connecting the consumer`s emotions with the location`s elements must surprise the tourist by stimulating all his senses. Although this leads to an efficient positioning and creates a competitive advantage, marketers have focused primarily on the visual and auditory senses, neglecting the other three senses of the consumer. Thus, instead of having brands with five sensory dimensions, today we have two-dimensional brands. This study`s ob...

  7. Long-Term Efficacy of Radiofrequency Treatment of Turbinate Hypertrophy: A Patient Based Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Incandela, Cinzia; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Massenti, Maria Fatima; Incandela, Salvatore; Speciale, Riccardo; Amodio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Nasal turbinate hypertrophy is a major cause of nasal airway obstruction that affects up to 20% of the European general population. This study aims to determine the efficacy of radiofrequency treatment as perceived by patients during a 2-years period. From 2007 to 2009, an observational study was conducted on 36 patients who consecutively underwent temperature-controlled radiofrequency tissue volume reduction. A questionnaire was administered to each patient in order to collect demographic da...

  8. Area-normalized thematic views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

  9. Elements of the physics of fast fission systems from the nuclear materials misuse point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motive for writing this paper was the fact that frequent uncontrolled manipulation with nuclear fuel and even illegal trade has been noticed during last few years. Concept of critical mass, its meaning and materials which may from a critical mass are explained; some of the most reliable results from literature are shown. A review is given of the first basic compact critical systems which in fact represented experimental verification of computer codes needed for nuclear weapons functioning and the energy release procedure are exposed. This is performed by an example of fast fission system without control and regulation quite approximately. (author). 8 refs. 4 tabs

  10. PSA analysis focused on Mochovce safety measure evaluation from operational safety point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reaktor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present units 1 and 2 are in operation. As these units represent the second generation of WWER reactor design, additional safety measures were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of international audits and operational experience from other simular units (such as Dukovany and Bohunice). These requirements result into a number of safety measures grouped according to their purpose to achieve recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for specification of safety measures including their grouping into comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of project management including participating companies and work performance. Results are also given regarding the contribution of selected safety measures to reduction of total core damage frequency. (authors)

  11. Role of CT in hybrid imaging. Point of view of the medical physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent introduction of hybrid systems SPECT/CT and PET/CT in nuclear medicine, greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy for particular clinical indications, due to the possible attenuation correction of functional images and the availability of helpful anatomic information. The introduction of CT in the nuclear diagnostic process results in a significant increase of the patient dose. This increase should be justified and optimized considering both the clinical question and the CT settings available on these systems. The choice of CT settings directly affects the effective dose. It varies basically as the square of the tube voltage, linearly with the length of the scan and the product of the current by the rotation time of the tube. It is also inversely proportional to the pitch. For attenuation correction, the literature shows that it is possible to use a low CT tube current without significant effect on tumor FDG uptake or lesion size. Conversely low CT voltage must be used with caution, depending on the algorithm implemented in the CT hybrid device to transform CT Hounsfield units to the attenuation map at the appropriate energy. The radiation dose for anatomic correlation can be substantially lower than for diagnostic-quality CT. It is possible to reduce the patient's radiation dose by a factor of 2 or 3 by acquiring a low-dose PET/CT scan for anatomic correlation of adequate image quality if compared with diagnostic 18FDG PET/CT. Using specific CT settings, the effective dose can range 7.3-11.3 mSv depending on the patient weight and age. (authors)

  12. PSA analysis focused on Mochovce NPP safety measures evaluation from operational safety point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present two units are operated and another two are under the construction. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on the exploitation of similar units. These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for SMs establishing including their grouping covering different areas of safety goals and results of SM contributions to the total core damage frequency based on FPSA analysis. (author)

  13. Upgrading the safety systems on VVERs: the point of view of a supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview is given of problems encountered in the modernization of instrumentation and control systems, as seen by the supplier. The modernization is a more complex operation than implementation of a new reactor system. Only a partial and step by step modernization is considered as economically justified. (A.K.)

  14. The Problem of Financial Resource in Turkish Local Administration from a Historical Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gundogdu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study claims that the financial problems existing in Turkish local administration which have been under reform by force of EU process have slight chance to be overcome. This is because like the reform efforts once tried in the 19th century Ottoman Empire, if the system would be reformed by transplanting the European system of city administration, the result could cause disappointment as it did in the Ottoman municipal 'revolution'. Rather, like European reformers did by 'inventing their traditions', Turkey could reform the local governments by reviving some of the institutions of classical cities which were evidently prosperous before industrialization.

  15. Long-term efficacy of radiofrequency treatment of turbinate hypertrophy: a patient based point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incandela, Cinzia; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Massenti, Maria Fatima; Incandela, Salvatore; Speciale, Riccardo; Amodio, Emanuele

    2013-08-01

    Nasal turbinate hypertrophy is a major cause of nasal airway obstruction that affects up to 20% of the European general population. This study aims to determine the efficacy of radiofrequency treatment as perceived by patients during a 2-years period. From 2007 to 2009, an observational study was conducted on 36 patients who consecutively underwent temperature-controlled radiofrequency tissue volume reduction. A questionnaire was administered to each patient in order to collect demographic data, lifestyle habits, health status and visual analogue scale (VAS) score of perceived symptoms. Mean VAS scores of nasal obstruction, headache, rhinorrhoea and anosmia after treatment were significantly lower than that at baseline. Urban residence and allergic rhinitis were significantly associated with lower mean improvement (2.9 vs. 5.6; P = 0.04 and 2.3 vs. 5.3; P = 0.01, respectively). A non significant association with scarce nasal obstruction improvement was present in older aged patients, in patients other than students and in active and passive smokers. Our data enrich the general knowledge on radiofrequency treatment of turbinate hypertrophy identifying the rate of long-term efficacy of radiofrequency treatment as perceived by patients and focusing on several risk factors involved in patient prognosis after treatment. PMID:24427651

  16. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  17. A Comparison of Bangladesh Climate Surfaces from the Geostatistical Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Avit Kumar Bhowmik

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the degree and margin of differences among the surfaces of annual total precipitation in wet days (PRCPTOT) and the yearly maximum value of the daily maximum temperature (TXx) of Bangladesh, produced by thin plate spline (TPS), inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and universal kriging (UK) methods of spatial interpolation. From the surface differences, the maximum and minimum differences are observed between the surfaces produced by TPS and IDW, and OK...

  18. Key building sites of Saint-Petersburg from the point of view of acoustics of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zagorskaya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When constructing every building or erection it's important to take into consideration the acoustics of halls and noise in the rooms and observe the regulations.The article is devoted to the analysis of the observance of these regulations on first-rate projects of Saint-Petersburg: Second stage of Mariinsky theatre, West high-speed diameter, Quay of Europe.

  19. Key building sites of Saint-Petersburg from the point of view of acoustics of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Zagorskaya

    2010-01-01

    When constructing every building or erection it's important to take into consideration the acoustics of halls and noise in the rooms and observe the regulations.The article is devoted to the analysis of the observance of these regulations on first-rate projects of Saint-Petersburg: Second stage of Mariinsky theatre, West high-speed diameter, Quay of Europe.

  20. The Problem of Financial Resource in Turkish Local Administration from a Historical Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Gündogdu

    2016-01-01

    This study claims that the financial problems existing in Turkish local administration which have been under reform by force of EU process have slight chance to be overcome. This is because like the reform efforts once tried in the 19th century Ottoman Empire, if the system would be reformed by transplanting the European system of city administration, the result could cause disappointment as it did in the Ottoman municipal ‘revolution’. Rather, like European reformers did by ‘i...

  1. Psychocardiology: the spectrum of stress in the genesis of heart disease: a point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch HJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Horst J Koch Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS Clinic Aue – Academic Hospital of the Technical University Dresden, Aue, Germany Abstract: Psychiatric disease, particularly depression and stress disorders, worsens the outcome of cardiovascular disease by about a factor of two to three. Conversely, heart disease can also cause or aggravate affective disorders in the person concerned. Although this mind–heart interaction has been known since the 1930s, many questions about the underlying mutual pathophysiology remain. Apart from psychological stress models, inflammatory or psychoimmunology processes and metabolic or endocrinological mechanisms may be involved, as might lifestyle and drug treatments. Takotsubo, or broken-heart cardiomyopathy, which frequently occurs in response to stressful events, and post-myocardial infarction depression may serve as paradigms in seeking to understand the pathological basis of the mind–heart relationship. Keywords: broken-heart cardiomyopathy, takotsubo, post-infarction depression, mind–heart interaction, pathophysiology

  2. Some quantum experiments from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, 2007 - (Nieuwenhuizen, T.; Špička, V.; Aghdami, M.; Khrennikov, A.), s. 247-270 ISBN 978-981-277-117-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR GA202/04/0585; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : stochastic electrodynamics * zero - point energy * black-body radiation * noise measurements * weak localization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  3. Characterization of a Hermitian curve by Galois point

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    For a plane curve, a point in the projective plane is said to be Galois when the point projection induces a Galois extension of function fields. We give a new characterization of a Fermat curve whose degree minus one is a power of $p$ in characteristic $p>2$, which is sometimes called Hermitian, by the number of Galois points lying on the curve.

  4. Role and meaning of safety assessment from the point of view of IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, the IAEA published its revised Safety Fundamentals. This states that the ''fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation''. This objective has to be achieved for all facilities and activities and for all stages over the lifetime of a facility by adherence to ten fundamental principles. This leads, inter alia, to the requirement for a safety assessment to be carried out. In particular, the text accompanying Principle 3 on leadership and management for safety states that: ''3.15. Safety has to be assessed for all facilities and activities, consistent with a graded approach. Safety assessment involves the systematic analysis of normal operation and its effects, of the ways in which failures might occur and of the consequences of such failures. Safety assessments cover the safety measures necessary to control the hazard, and the design and engineered safety features are assessed to demonstrate that they fulfill the safety functions required of them. Where control measures or operator actions are called on to maintain safety, an initial safety assessment has to be carried out to demonstrate that the arrangements made are robust and that they can be relied on. A facility may only be constructed and commissioned or an activity may only be commenced once it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the regulatory body that the proposed safety measures are adequate.'' Principle 3 further states that the process of safety assessment for facilities and activities is repeated in the conduct of operations in order to take into account changed circumstances (such as the application of new standards or scientific and technological developments), the feedback of operating experience, modifications and the effects of ageing. Continuation of operations over long periods of time requires reassessments demonstrating that the safety measures remain adequate. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point "inching test" for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shu-Fang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the "inching test", provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs like the "inching test" and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. Methods Two hundred and twelve (212 "CTS-hands" from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ("A-hands" from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme. Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. Results There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of "CTS-hands" than of "A-hands". The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm2, 11.5 mm2 and 10.1 mm2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 "CTS-hands", 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of "CTS-hands" positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 "CTS-hands" were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ≤12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In "inching test", segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common "positive-site". The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not "positive-site". Conclusions Using the 8-point measurement of the median nerve CSA from inlet to outlet similar to the "inching test" has

  6. Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point 'inching test' for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the 'inching test', provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs) like the 'inching test' and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS) severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Two hundred and twelve (212) 'CTS-hands' from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ('A-hands') from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of 'CTS-hands' than of 'A-hands'. The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm2, 11.5 mm2 and 10.1 mm2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 'CTS-hands', 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of 'CTS-hands' positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 'CTS-hands' were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ≤12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In 'inching test', segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common 'positive-site'. The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not 'positive-site'. Using the 8-point measurement of the median nerve

  7. Designing and evaluating sports footwear from the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and wearers - an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research work are: a to analyse the sports footwear, giving emphasis to its development, technical criteria and making, the opinion of the sportperson as an important element in parameter definition for the manufacturing and aspects concerning problems of the feet; b to verify the tecnical evolution the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and researches; c identify the criteria adopted by wearers in their choice and evaluation. Data information was obtained from literature and bibliographical research (On-line systems, Comut, Sibradid and Internet in Portuguese, English and French. Through content analysis technique the following information was obtained: a concern on the design and manufacture of the sports footwear goes back to 19th century. Sports footwear has been moulded according to the charactectistics of type of sports, taking into consideration the rules of the games, the suggestion of specilists, the examination of the footwear and the type of injuries endured; b evaluation is an old practice, going back to the time of the footwear’s design and manufacturing. In a set of tests the first criterion was always the prevention of lesions. Five and ten criteria were adopted in 1977 and in 1980, respectively. Durability was included, enhancing consumerism; c for a host of reason the Brazilian consumer is a good of the footwear. This fact is indicative of his/her education as a consumer; d definition of parameters is urgent. They are an integral part of laws on quality control and production and propaganda material for the consumer’s orientation.

  8. Significance of lenticular opacity from the view point of the exposure dose of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of lenticular opacity were discussed from the view point of exposure dose of A-bomb radiation. Case 1: female, 22 year and 5 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was 482.0 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation. Case 2: female, 21 years and 6 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was more than 1,000 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation and incipient cataract senilis. It was reported here that there was a marked difference in opacity findings of cataract due to A-bomb radiation in accordance with difference in exposure dose of radiation. It was also presumed from the findings of incipient cataract senilis that with increasing exposure dose, the aging phenomenon was promoted. (Y. Tsukamoto)

  9. Uncertainty analysis of point by point sampling complex surfaces using touch probe CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barini, Emanuele; Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a study concerning point by point scanning of complex surfaces using tactile CMMs. A four factors-two level full factorial experiment was carried out, involving measurements on a complex surface configuration item comprising a sphere, a cylinder and a cone, combined in a singl...

  10. Downsizing from the point of view of merging model (preliminary discussion)

    CERN Document Server

    Kontorovich, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    In four-particle scattering processes with transfer of mass, unlike mergers in which mass can only increase, mass of the most massive galaxies may be reduced. Elementary model describing such process is considered. In this way, it is supposed to explain observed phenomenon of downsizing when increasing of characteristic mass the heaviest galaxies over cosmological time replaces by its reduction.

  11. Robots and remote intervention. Point of view of a maintenance service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two typical intervention axes are followed by Framatome during maintenance operations in primary circuits of nuclear power stations (water box of steam generator for instance): direct human interventions for pinpoint operations with manual tools, and remote interventions using robots and automatic tools for long or repetitive operations. This paper gives an insight of some devices used by Framatome's maintenance service of nuclear sites principally for interventions in water boxes of steam generators and an evaluation of users' opinion about their cohabitation with these complex but necessary tools. Finally, Framatome's prospects in this domain for the forthcoming years are discussed. (J.S.). 5 figs

  12. Pedagogical Evaluation of Child of Pre-school Age from the Point of View of Individualization

    OpenAIRE

    VAVERKOVÁ, Helena

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT This bachelor{\\crq}s thesis will aim to describe specific ways to diagnose child behaviour for a individual child.This means that there will be a description of ways how and what to observe, analyse and write down. My main foundation for the child appraisal and their behaviour in pre-school education will be : notes that form the play school organizing notebook, notesheets with the description of each childs behaviour, standard supplements from educational manuals RVP PV, Methodology...

  13. Cooperative cataloging from the participants' point of view: a record of SUNY'S and Countway's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsi, P W; Pelosi, S J

    1970-04-01

    This paper describes the procedures and practices adopted for the cooperative cataloging program between NLM, Countway, and the Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse. Catalogers were trained by NLM, and the two libraries communicated data and queries by means of TWX and, later, IBM terminals. A description is given of how books are selected for cataloging, and details are given as to how conflicts in cataloging practice are settled. Further results of such cooperation are given, such as the addition of Upstate's holding symbol in Current Catalog. Statistics of work done are given, and impending changes are mentioned. PMID:5439903

  14. The nursing care quality from the point of view of stoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Person with stoma is any handicapped human with temporarily or permanently drawn hollow organ out onto body surface. The most common it concerns colon, small intestine or urinal system. Uncontrollable emptying of faecal matter or urine happens by innatural way with necessary use of stoma appliances. In stomas sphere the most important factor is informedness not only of the patient himself but of nurses as well. Sufficient education of a patient and ability of a nurse to treat stoma is the bas...

  15. On the origin of dislocation loops in irradiated materials: A point of view from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Alain; Cherkashin, Nikolay

    2016-05-01

    Numerous dislocation loops are often observed in irradiated and nuclear materials, affecting many physical properties. The understanding of their origin and of their growth mechanism remains unclear rendering all modeling efforts elusive. In this paper, we remind the knowledge which has been gained during the last 20 years on the formation and growth of extrinsic dislocations loops in irradiated/implanted silicon. From the compilation of a large number of experimental results, a unified picture describing the thermal evolution of interstitial defects, from the di-interstitial stable at room temperature, to "magic-size" clusters then to rod-like defects and finally to large dislocation loops of two types has emerged. All these defects grow by Ostwald ripening, i.e. by interchanging the interstitial atoms they are composed of, and transform from one to the other driven by the resulting reduction of the defect formation energy. A model has been proposed and is now integrated into process simulators which quantitatively describes the thermal evolution of all these defects, based on pertinent formation energies. The influence of the proximity of free surfaces or other recombining interfaces can be integrated, allowing simulating the possible dissolution of defects. It is suggested that, beyond silicon, the same type of scenario may take place in many materials. Dislocation loops are just one, easily detectable among many, type of defects which forms during the growth of self-interstitials. They do not nucleate but result from the growth and transformation of smaller defects.

  16. The magnetospheric chaos hypothesis: a new point of view of the magnetospheric dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlos, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was announced for the first time in Greek language in 1988 in the National Observatory of Athens, in the conference of the 1st Panhellenic Symposium entitled "Solar and Space Research in Greece Today - Basic Research, Technology and Applications" organized by the National Observatory of Athens, in Penteli (Athens) in 1988. It was also republished in the Conference proceedings of the 2nd Panhellenic Symposium held in Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi - Greece, 26-29 April 1993...

  17. Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    experience or estimates. Through a mathematical optimization it is possible to find the optimal timetable supplement. A way to do so is by using the passenger delay model in a socio-economic analysis as done by (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010). A case study of an upgrade of Sydbanen between Ringsted and Rødby has...... sequel to the article “The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010)....... been conducted using the passenger delay model and the methods are described in this article. The case study has shown that the optimum timetable supplement is between 6-9 % depending on the scenario. By optimizing the timetable supplement it is possible to achieve a surplus of 250-500 mio. DKK during...

  18. Comparative study of irradiated and hydrogen implantation damaged German RPV steels from PAS point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecko, Stanislav, E-mail: stanislav.pecko@stuba.sk; Sojak, Stanislav; Slugeň, Vladimír

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • We used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study German RPV steels. • We examine microstructural changes in the studied specimens. • Simulation of neutron irradiation was performed by hydrogen ion implantation. • No large voids or vacancy clusters were formed due to irradiation or implantation. - Abstract: Commercial German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This unique non-destructive method can be effectively applied for the evaluation of microstructural changes and for the analysis of degradation of reactor steels due to neutron irradiation and proton implantation. Studied specimens of German reactor pressure vessel steels are originally from CARINA/CARISMA program. Eight specimens were measured in as-received state and two specimens were irradiated by neutrons in German experimental reactor VAK (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl) in the 1980s. One of the specimens which was also in as-received and neutron irradiated condition was also used for simulation of neutron damage by hydrogen nuclei implantation. Defects with the size of about 1–2 vacancies with relatively small contribution (with intensity on the level of 20–40%) were observed in “as-received” steels. A significant increase in the size of the induced defects due to neutron damage was observed at a level of 2–3 vacancies in the irradiated specimens. The size and intensity of defects reached a similar level as in the specimens irradiated in nuclear reactor due to hydrogen ions implantation with energy of 100 keV (up to the depth <500 nm). This could confirm the ability to simulate neutron damage by ion implantation.

  19. Assessing safety from the point of view of the human factor in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of safety in the nuclear industry in France places safety in an institutional context marked by the tripartite relations between the operating of a complex, high-risk process, regulatory authorities and ergonomists providing technical support to these authorities. This is the particular context in which the ergonomists responsible for the human factor safety assessment have been led to develop intervention methods which incorporate, among other things, the fact that the request for an assessment is issued by the safety authorities and not by the utility, which remains the actual subject of the assessment. An illustration is given of the approach fo1lowed by the ergonomists, based on the particular case of a safety assessment of plans to reorganise operations teams in nuclear facilities in France. The authors go on to show that it is important for the human factor safety assessment not to take place at the 'back-end' of the process, but to respond to a dynamic process of shadowing intended to encourage the utility's project. This approach, based on an attempt to negotiate a compromise between the various partners involved in the assessment has led to a shift of attention from the final result to the stages and the resources needed to achieve it. (author)

  20. Challenges to lexicography in the digital era: the point of view of the function theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2016-01-01

    information technologies into lexicography. The transformation is triple and affects the compilation, presentation and usage of the lexicographical product. In a certain way, the millenarian discipline is shaken by an identity crisis due to this transition from the well-known to the unknown. Today most...... global and seems irreversible. Most digital dictionaries are now published online, i.e. in the clouds, and can be accessed almost anywhere by means of a variety of devices like laptops, tablets, iPads and smart phones....

  1. PSA analysis focused on Mochovce NPP safety measures evaluation from operational safety point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing.(author)

  2. The legal duty of dosemeter calibration, seen from the users' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure of official radiation dosemeter calibration, at least that for personal dosemeters and portable ambient dose rate measuring systems, is an established procedure well accepted by the users. As to the calibration of installed ambient dose rate meters, there are many problems still to be solved. One proposal for instance is to just carry through the design qualification tests, and to dispense of calibration and re-calibration of individual systems. (orig./HP)

  3. Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Soto, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the impli...

  4. Essence of Inviscid Shear Instability: a Point View of Vortex Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The essence of shear instability is reviewed both mathematically and physically, which extends the instability theory of a sheet vortex from the viewpoint of vortex dynamics. For this, the Kelvin-Arnol'd theorem is retrieved in linear context, i.e., the stable flow minimizes the kinetic energy associated with vorticity. Then the mechanism of shear instability is explored by combining the mechanisms of both Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (K-H instability) and resonance of waves. The waves, which have the same phase speed with the concentrated vortex,have interactions with the vortex to trigger the instability. The physical explanation of shear instability is also sketched by extending Batchelor's theory. These results should lead to a more comprehensive understanding on shear instabilities.

  5. Two cases of hemichorea-hemiballism with nonketotic hyperglycemia: a new point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Carla; Forte, Francesca; Rubenni, Elisa; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Bartali, Anna; Gennari, Paola; Federico, Antonio; Cerase, Alfonso

    2009-06-01

    Hemichorea-hemiballism (HCHB) is an usually continuous, nonpatterned, involuntary movement disorder caused by basal ganglia dysfunction, commonly due to a vascular lesion, described in nonketotic hyperglycemic patients. Particular computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings have been described. The pathogenic mechanism of chorea arising during hyperglycemia and the nature of neuroimaging findings are unclear. In this paper we describe two elderly women with onset of HCHB during a hyperglycemic episode. The symptoms persisted in one of them after recovery of normal glycemia. The pathophysiological mechanism of the disease is discussed in the light of clinical and neuroradiological follow-up. PMID:19305947

  6. A Survey of the Origin and Evolution of Religion from the Points of View Edward Tylor and James Frazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza khajegir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a universal human phenomenon, religion is rooted in human nature, and human beings instinctively require a superior and supreme power. Besides this internal need for religion, attention to the meaning, function, and interpretation of religion has always been prevalent in the history of human thought from West to East, and scholars have always tried to comment on and analyze this fundamental issue of human life .  From among the approaches that arose about the interpretation and explanation of religion, rationalism tendency—influenced by evolution—has stood up because in the establishment of religion, rationalism takes its genesis and evolution as manifestations of the evolution of human thought, and it takes the development and evolution of religion as equal. This approach considers religion as answer to the need of the cognitive need of human beings. In this anthropological approach, religion is the product of primitive human beings’ effort to identify objects and events in the surrounding environment. As a results, as the man’s knowledge of the world around him increases, the need for religion decreases .  Anthropologist like Edward Tylor and James Frazer have taken this view to the origin and evolution of religion. They emphasize on principles such as the bodily and cognitive unity of the mind, the survival principal, and the evolutionary intellectual pattern of human beings in order to interpret religion stages from animism and magic till monism and monotheism, which will eventually decline during the development of science .  Taylor regards anthropology as the best scientific method to achieve a universal theory to understand the origin of religion. Based on its psychological unity, religion in all times and places—despite its diversity—is a unique phenomenon and has an exclusive identity because the very existence of commonalities in all practices and customs of the people of the world is indicative of the basic

  7. The dilemma of re-licensing DWI offenders: The offenders' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Louise; Vanlaar, Ward; Jarvis, Juliette; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, drivers convicted for the first-time of driving while impaired by alcohol undertake a risk assessment that will determine the severity of sanctions and the remedial measures they must follow as requisites for re-licensing. There is uncertainty inherent in the assessment of risk for recidivism, however, many offenders feel unfairly assessed and discommoded by the decision-making process and its consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the perspectives of offenders regarding re-licensing decision making and sanctioning. Specifically, in focus groups first-time offenders and recidivists were probed as to whether they favoured erring on the side of road safety in decision making, with its consequent greater risk of false positive assessments, or erring on the side of maintaining driving privileges, with its consequent greater risk of false negative assessments. In general, participants preferred a higher probability of false negative vs. false positive assessments. Most cited the consequences of sanctions and remedial measures as too severe to impose them on potentially low-risk drivers, as the assessment and monitoring protocols' limitations could lead to non-equitable treatment. At the same time, recidivists evoked a greater preference for a higher probability of false positive assessments compared to first-time offenders, as they believed that recidivism was more likely to follow a first conviction than did first-time offenders. This information can be useful for a more comprehensive and societally coherent exercise of DWI prevention policies. PMID:26647015

  8. Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Soto, D E

    2015-01-01

    The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the implication of the gauge invariance onto the model and obtain the respective Ward-Takahashi-Fradkin identities.

  9. Multi-View Object Recognition using View-Point Invariant Shape Relations and Appearance Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, W.; Pugeault, N; Krueger, N

    2013-01-01

    We present an object recognition system coding shape by view-point invariant geometric relations and appearance. In our intelligent work-cell, the system can observe the work space of the robot by 3 pairs of Kinect and stereo cameras allowing for reliable and complete object information. We show that in such a set-up we can achieve high performance already with a low number of training samples. We show this by training the system to classify 56 objects using Random Forest algorithm. This indi...

  10. Work characteristics and determinants of job satisfaction in four age groups: university employees' point of view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.T.; Donders, N.C.G.M.; Bouwman-Brouwer, K.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate (a) differences in work characteristics and (b) determinants of job satisfaction among employees in different age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was filled in by 1,112 university employees, classified into four age groups. (a) Work characteristics were analy

  11. Multiple organ failure in the newborn: the point of view of the pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gerosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe events occurring in critically ill patients admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU center is represented by the multiple organ failure (MOF, a systemic inflammatory response leading to a progressive organ dysfunction and mortality in newborns. MOF may occur in newborns primarily affected by multiple single organ diseases, including respiratory distress syndrome neonatal sepsis with acute kidney injury, post-asphyxial hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection. In a previous article from our group, based on the histological examination of all organs at autopsy of newborns affected by MOF, all organs studied did not escape to be damaged, including thymus and pancreas normally not mentioned in the literature of MOF. The aim of this article is to review the most important pathological changes pathologists should look for in every case of MOF occurring in the perinatal period, with particular attention to systemic endothelial changes occurring in blood vessels in all organs and sytems. On the basis of our experience, matching data during the last phases of the clinicopathological diagnosis represents a useful method, much more productive as compared to the method based on giving pathological answers to the clinical questions prospected before autopsy. As for the pathological features observed in neonatal MOF, one of them deserves a particular attention: the vascular lesions, and in particular the multiple changes occurring during MOF development in endothelial cells, ending with the loss of the endothelial barrier, probably the most relevant histological lesion followed by the insurgence of interstitial edema and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Small vessels should be observed at high power, with particular attention to the size and shape of endothelial nuclei, in order to evidence endothelial swelling, probably the initial modification of the endothelial cells leading to their

  12. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures...... point of view. In the paper, negative benefits (user costs) are discussed in relation to the maintenance of concrete bridges. A limited number of excerpts from published reports that are related to the importance of estimating user costs when repairs of bridges are planned, and when optimized strategies...... are formulated, are shown. These excerpts clearly show that user costs in several cases completely dominate the total costs. In some cases, the user costs are more than ten times higher than the repair costs. A simple example of how to relate and estimate user costs to the repair of a single bridge is...

  13. Rural extension in Uruguay: problems and approaches from the point of view of their extensionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Landini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the problems faced by rural extension in Uruguay as well as the conceptions used by the development agents to conduct their practices constitutes a contribution to both, the Uruguayan rural development policies and the wider space of the MERCOSUR. A quali-quantitative research was conducted, during which 32 Uruguayan extensionists replied to a questionnaire. Replies underwent content and statistic analysis. Results suggest that the Uruguayan rural extensionists posses a complex conception of their practice, which articulates productive and social dimensions and relates to a critical and participatory way of understanding rural extension. Nevertheless, a diffusionist conception of rural extension is also present in some cases. Finally, problems related to group dynamics are highlighted.

  14. The deterrent effect of the death penalty from an econometric point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with whether the death penalty deters murderers from committing capital crimes. It examines this matter on the basis of those empirical investigations conducted in the last two decades by, primarily, American economists and criminologists. These analyses presented in my study attempted to reveal using different statistical methods whether people’s strong belief in that capital punishment can prevent committing a certain sum of nonnegligent manslaughters in the future t...

  15. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  16. Evolutionary Implications of Metal Binding Features in Different Species’ Prion Protein: An Inorganic Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego La Mendola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion disorders are a group of fatal neurodegenerative conditions of mammals. The key molecular event in the pathogenesis of such diseases is the conformational conversion of prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded form rich in β-sheet structure, PrPSc, but the detailed mechanistic aspects of prion protein conversion remain enigmatic. There is uncertainty on the precise physiological function of PrPC in healthy individuals. Several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ mainly through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. In addition to mammals, PrP homologues have also been identified in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The globular domain of protein is retained in the different species, suggesting that the protein carries out an essential common function. However, the comparison of amino acid sequences indicates that prion protein has evolved differently in each vertebrate class. The primary sequences are strongly conserved in each group, but these exhibit a low similarity with those of mammals. The N-terminal domain of different prions shows tandem amino acid repeats with an increasing amount of histidine residues going from amphibians to mammals. The difference in the sequence affects the number of copper binding sites, the affinity and the coordination environment of metal ions, suggesting that the involvement of prion in metal homeostasis may be a specific characteristic of mammalian prion protein. In this review, we describe the similarities and the differences in the metal binding of different species’ prion protein, as revealed by studies carried out on the entire protein and related peptide fragments.

  17. Improvement of logistics education from the point of view environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Á.

    2009-04-01

    The paper briefly presents the influence of environmental management on the improvement of the logistics education and research structure of the Department of Materials Handling and Logistics at the University of Miskolc, Hungary. The logistics, as an integrated science offers a very good possibility to demonstrate the effect of new innovative knowledge on the migration of the priorities of education and research of sciences. The importance of logistics in the field of recycling (or in wider sense in the field of environmental management) can be justified by the high proportion of logistic costs (as investment and operation costs) and these costs show that optimum logistic solutions are able to decrease the financial outcomes and lead to the establishment of a profitable system. Technological change constantly creates new demands on both education and research. The most important objective of the department is to create a unique logistics education in the country. For this reason the department offered up-to-date integrated knowledge at all level: undergraduate, master degree and PhD education. The integration of logistics means traditionally the joint use of technology of material handling, method of material flow, technology method of traffic, information technology, management sciences, production technology, marketing, market research, technology of services, mathematics and optimization, communication technology, system engineering, electronics and automation, mechatronics [1, 3]. The education and research portfolio of the department followed this tradition till 1993. The new lectures in the field of sustainability (logistics of recycling, logistics of quality management and recycling, closed loop economy, EU logistics or global logistics) became more and more important in the logistics education. The results of fast developments in closed loop economy, recycling, waste management, environmental protection are more and more used in the industry and this

  18. Production of heavy water. An analysis from export control point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main use for heavy water is in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors. This type of reactor is optimal for producing plutonium and therefore countries with nuclear weapons ambitions show interest for such reactors. Most equipment used in heavy water production facilities are under export control to prevent clandestine heavy water production. Heavy water is produced by increasing the concentration of deuterium in the water relative to natural hydrogen. For use in nuclear reactors the deuterium content has to be increased from 0,0155 % to more than 99,75 %. The enrichment can be achieved by several different processes where the GS-process (hydrogen-sulphide exchange) and ammonia-hydrogen exchange process are the two most cost efficient. The energy consumption for these processes is however relatively high. This is due to low separation efficiency which is caused by the relatively small difference in chemical properties between heavy water and natural water. FOI has, under contract work financed by SKI, performed a study of different production processes for heavy water and identified equipment used in the processes. The identified equipment includes both equipment under export control and other sensitive equipment which is important to prevent countries with nuclear weapons ambitions to acquire

  19. Outbreak of Legionella disease in Murcia, at July 2001. The environmental health point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gutiérrez Molina

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The measures of intervention adopted for the study and control of the outbreak are exposed. 126 systems with risk were found (45 of them high risk: 70 water cooling towers or similar, 35 decorative fountains, 1 building site with earth movement and 20 air-water closed systems, distributed by risk criteria.Immediately were stopped: decorative fountains, washing down of streets, spray irrigation in parks and the building site.486 inspections and 1040 sample taking were executed, the cleaning and disinfection of water cooling towers and similar systems were ordered and closing if necessary.Afterwards, fills were replaced in water cooling tower which tested Lp positive.After the investigation of 339 systems, 57 (16.9% tested Lp positive culture, 23 (6.8 % water cooling towers and 31 (9.1 % drinking water taps.Distribution by serotypes: LpS1 (62’3%, serotypes 2-14 (36’68%.LpS1Olda Olda (21’74% was the most abundant followed by LpS1 Pontiac Philadelphia Lugano (18’84%, in contrast to LpS1 Pontiac Philadelphia Glasgow (1’45%, found only in one case although isolated in the 18 samples of patients.Culture and PCR were available in 355 cases, resulting in 30,8% sensitivity (confidence interval 95%, 25,1 and specificity 99,4±0,8.There are a big percentage of samples positives to Lp Sg1 and between them prevail Lp Pontiac Philadelphia, basically Lugano kind.The first disinfection doesn ́t eradicate all the contamination. The finding of 14 Lp positive systems after cleaning and disinfection process, with previous negative cultures, suggests a high analytical results variability and/or an inefficient first cleaning and disinfections of the system.The previous conclusions and the low sensitivity of the PCR test must be considered in future cases.

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE AND VULNERABILITY OF THE ARCTIC ELDERLY: AN ASSESSMENT FROM HUMAN RIGHTS POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaj Begum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing challenges among the elderly in the Arctic region. Global warming due to climate change is one of the major reasons for these challenges. Because of climate change temperature in the region increases, which results in rapid melting of sea ice causing various environmental, social, cultural and economic problems. Population in the region suffers from these problems where elderly people are the most vulnerable. Climate change has already affected the elderly lives in different ways, such as, by physical, social, political, cultural and psychological ways. These have serious consequences in terms of human rights of this vulnerable group of people. However, the elderly people’s human rights issues have not been adequately researched in the context of this region. The goal of this paper is to present elderly related human rights issues, particularly the rights that are affected due to climate change in this specific region.