WorldWideScience

Sample records for area-wide integrated control

  1. Area-wide integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management (APM) and integrated pest management (IPM) originated from two different efforts to combine two or more control techniques into programmes in which each method could synergise the effectiveness of others and thus create a level of pest control that was greater than that of a single technique (Perkins 1982). Since then, the concept of APM has evolved to include many aspects of IPM and often is now referred to as area-wide IPM. Still, the element of total population management is central to this approach of insect pest management. In support of APM, Knipling (1998) stated that of the insect pests that were of major concern to agriculture before the newer classes of insecticides were available, most are still pests today, the major exceptions being the screw-worm fly and the boll weevil in the southeastern US cotton growing region. Knipling also noted that both of these pest species were subjected to area-wide suppression programmes. In response to the USDA IPM Initiative (USDA 1993, 1994) which seeks to achieve the national goal of having 75% of the crop acres under IPM by the year 2000, the Agricultural Research Service developed an Area-wide IPM Programme. This programme combines environmentally-sound pest control techniques with the advantages of APM and develops partnerships with other federal, state, local and private sector entities. Technologies such as the integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control may be considered for future programmes

  2. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  3. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  4. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  5. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  6. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management is commonly practised throughout the world, probably much more so than is generally recognised (Lindquist 2000, Klassen 2000). Apart from highly publicised area-wide schemes such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) for fruit flies, pheromone disruption for cotton bollworms and classical biological control, there are many examples of actions such as concerted host plant eradication, enforced closed crop seasons, organised pesticide rotation for resistance management, coordination of resistant crop genotypes, etc., some going back several centuries, which should also be considered as area-wide practices. Each of these is faced with many of the economic issues generally associated with area-wide management which will be discussed below. In general, there are to be four major questions to answer in devising an area-wide pest management programme: 1) Should a particular pest be controlled locally or area-wide? 2) What is an appropriate area over which management should be attempted? 3) Within that area what form of control is most efficient? 4) What level of organisation should be used to get the job done? It should be noted that apart from clearly objective measures such as technical effectiveness (say, mortality) or cost efficiency (mortality per dollar), there are many subjective measures that come into the evaluation of area-wide control due to the element of risk (for example, in quarantine and eradication), the boundaries of externalities (for example, variable probabilities of pesticide drift under different conditions or target organism sensitivities) and time preferences for returns on capital investments (such as insect rearing facilities or research to develop pheromone technologies). As a result of these subjective components, it may sometimes be difficult to reach clearly agreed decisions based on objective economic analyses, even with a consensus on the data used. There are three general classes of economic problems in comparing

  7. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  9. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  10. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  11. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  12. Area-wide integrated control of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Guava Fruit Fly (Bactrocera correcta) in Thailand using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two tephritid species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta are the major insect pests of fruit production in Thailand, causing yield loss and quality degradation. This leads to quarantine restrictions from importing countries. After one decade of effective cooperation between IAEA and Thailand, DOAE an area-wide integrated fruit fly management programme has been established with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component. This is underway in two distinctive pilot areas in Ratchaburi (western) and Pichit (northern) provinces, approximately 70 km2. The ongoing programme is aimed at controlling, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta, the key pests of mango. Both species are mass-reared and sterilised at the facility located in the Pathumthani province following standard operational procedures. Currently sterilised pupae, 20 million B. dorsalis and 10 million B. correcta, are transported to the pilot areas, held until adult emergence and ground released. Quality control of the release is monitored through use of a trapping network to monitor the distribution and abundance of wild and sterile flies whilst success of the control is monitored using periodic fruit sampling to assess the percentage of fruit infested. The integrated approach has been effective in controlling fruit flies by reducing damage from over 80% to an average of less than 5% in Ratchaburi province in the past three years. Meanwhile in Pichit province, which has been under a control programme for 2 years, the percentage of infestation has been reduced from 43% to 16%. We also address the use of public relations, grower cooperation and integration of multidisciplinary research for the field operations. (author)

  13. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2012-09-01

    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  14. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  15. Collection of entomological baseline data for tsetse area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Leak, Stephen G. A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Ejigu, Dejene

    2015-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) entails the integration of different control tactics against an entire pest population within a circumscribed area, while given adequate attention to human health and the environment. For most insect pests including tsetse, AW-IPM results in more sustainable pest control and the concept has gained significantly in importance in the last decade. These guidelines provide, aside from some basic information on the biology of tsetse flies, guidance o...

  16. Area-wide integrated pest management of fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are recognised as one of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables. The importance of an Integrated Pest Management approach to fruit fly suppression or eradication has been emphasized over the past 30 years. Integrated Pest Management has, in some instance, a narrow focus on the crop or the orchard or farm, but not adopting an area-wide approach, where much of the activity may be outside the crop or production unit. All of the techniques used to manage fruit flies at the on-farm level may be used on an area-wide basis, preferably in combination to maximise the impact of each technique. There are some techniques, which are better suited to the area-wide approach, but can be used on-farm as well. Techniques include physical control (e.g., bagging), cultural control (e.g., production when fly numbers are low, resistant varieties, crop hygiene, early harvesting, growing refuge crops), biological control, behavioral control (e.g., protein bait spray application technique and male annihilation technique), sterile insect technique, and chemical control. In adopting an area-wide approach, very effective collaboration between many stakeholders is essential. (author)

  17. Area-wide integrated pest management and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) focuses on the preventive management of pest populations throughout the ecosystem. It seeks to treat all habitats of the pest population so that none produces migrants to re-establish significant infestations in areas of concern. In contrast, the conventional strategy focuses narrowly on defending the valued entity (crop, livestock, people, buildings, etc.) from direct attack by pests. AW-IPM requires multiyear planning, and an organization dedicated exclusively to its implementation, whereas conventional pest management involves minimal forward planning, tends to be reactive, and is implemented independently by individual producers, businesses, or households. AW-IPM tends to utilize advanced technologies, whereas the conventional strategy tends to rely on traditional tactics and tools. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific form of birth control imposed on the pest population. It is a powerful tool for 'mopping up' sparse pest populations, and is most efficient when applied as a tactic in a system deployed on an area-wide basis. On environmental, economic and biological grounds, the case for the SIT is compelling. (author)

  18. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  19. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  20. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  1. Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

  2. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

  3. Control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) using the area-wide approach in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Management of codling moth (CM) is being conducted in southern Chile using an area-wide approach and integrating different tools such us Geographic Information System (GIS), classical biological control, inundative biological control and mating disruption. The total area covers 6,000 ha, and extends from the foothills of the Andes mountains and is bordered in the south and north by rivers. Vegetation cover is predominantly pastures, pine forests and berries, including six commercial apple orchards. Codling moth control in the commercial orchards is based on chemical insecticides, mating disruption or organic practices. Many alternative hosts for CM grow in this area, mainly as ornamentals, in abandoned orchards and in gardens for self-consumption. The most important species are noncommercial apple, pear, quince, walnut and apricot. Satellite images were obtained and every alternate host tree was georeferenced and drawn on these images. Pheromone traps are being used to identify main migrant sources and to quantify migration from sources to commercial orchards. Classical biological control includes importation and release of an egg/larval parasitoid (Ascogaster quadridentata) from USA to Chile. CM is reared on artificial diet and eggs are used to increase the A. quadridentata colony and allow field releases in the 2004-2005 growing season, especially in isolated and abandoned trees. Related to inundative biological control, several strains of entomopathogenic organisms have been collected and evaluated against CM, including the fungus (Beauveria bassiana) and nematodes. In addition, a Chilean species of trichogrammatid wasps, Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma caccociae, have been used under an inundative approach, especially in abandoned orchards. The Chilean species T. nerudai has shown similar or better preference and laboratory performance than introduced species such as T. bactrae, T. caccociae, T. dendrolimi and T. platneri. (author)

  4. Strategic options in using sterile insects for area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four strategic options, 'suppression', 'eradication', 'containment' and 'prevention', in which the sterile insect technique (SIT) can be deployed as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) interventions, are defined and described in relation to the contexts in which they are applied against exotic or naturally occurring major insect pests. Advantages and disadvantages of these strategic options are analysed, and examples of successful programmes provided. Considerations of pest status, biology and distribution affecting decision-making in relation to strategy selection are reviewed and discussed in terms of feasibility assessment, and programme planning and implementation. Unrealistic expectations are often associated with applying the SIT, resulting in high political costs to change a strategy during implementation. The choice of strategy needs to be assessed carefully, and considerable baseline data obtained to prepare for the selected strategy, before embarking on an AW-IPM programme with an SIT component. (author)

  5. The role of GIS and spatial analysis within area-wide insect control programmes for disease control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The success of area-wide interventions aimed at suppressing or eradicating insect populations rests largely on appropriate project planning and implementation - and this is as true in the context of vector-borne diseases as it is within the wider context of pest management. In either context, a successful intervention programme requires accurate knowledge of preexisting distributions of insects (disease vectors) in time and space, on the appropriate design of insect suppression/replacement strategies, and on the development of suitable frameworks for monitoring and evaluation. 'Standard' disease control interventions, such as indoor residual spraying of insecticides or insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria, and the aerial application of insecticides or use of baited traps against human and animal trypanosomes, often include elements of area-wide planning because they target particular disease strata. Genetic control strategies (including SIT) are more intrinsically area-wide because they target specific vectors over large geographical areas delineated by biological criteria associated with colonisation or dispersal potential. In either case a strong geographical basis to planning and implementation is likely to improve the chances of programme success, as well as making more efficient use of resources and increasing cost-effectiveness. Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and remote sensing are allied technologies that together provide a means of gathering, integrating and analysing spatial data. To date, the application of these tools within traditional and area-wide programmes has been relatively limited, but this seems likely to change, particularly as GIS and GPS are already being used extensively in other areas of agroecological management and research. The tools themselves are becoming increasingly accessible to non-specialists, while increases in computing power now mean that even high-level GIS systems can be

  6. Conceptual Model for Assessing the Minimum Size Area for an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual model was developed based on the two basic spatial elements of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM), a core area and a buffer zone, to determine the minimum size of the protected area for the program to be technically feasible and economically justifiable. The model consisted of a biological part (insect dispersal) and an economic part. The biological part used random walks and diffusion equations to describe insect dispersal and to determine the minimum width of the buffer zone required to protect the core area from immigration of pests from outside. In the economic part, the size of the core area was calculated to determine the point at which the revenues from the core area equal the control costs. This model will need to be calibrated and validated for each species and geographic location. Tsetse flies and the Mediterranean fruit fly are used as case studies to illustrate the model. (author)

  7. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  8. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso : consequences for area-wide integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyer, J.; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, L; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, I.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an ...

  9. Use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction to the science of GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and satellite remote sensing (RS), and reviews the principal ways in which these technologies can be used to assist various stages of development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes - from the selection of project sites, and feasibility assessments and planning of pre-intervention surveys, to the monitoring and analysis of insect suppression programmes, and the release of sterile insects. Potential barriers to the successful deployment of GIS tools are also discussed. (author)

  10. Potential for area-wide control or eradication of tsetse flies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse flies (Glossina) are found in Africa over an area, estimated by various authors, of 7-11 million sq. km. The northern limit of this area corresponds closely to the southern edges of the Sahara and Somali Deserts, running along 14 deg. N and extending across the continent from Senegal in the west to Somalia in the east. The southern limit of tsetse distribution corresponds closely to the northern edges of the Kalahari and Namibian Deserts in the west and runs generally at 20-30 deg. S to the east of the continent (Ford and Katondo 1977). This tsetse fly belt covers the following 38 countries (listed below) in which the tsetse flies spread African trypanosomosis, a severe disease that affects man and his domestic livestock, and is among the factors responsible for limiting the pace and extent of development in those countries. The disease is of a major economic importance. Throughout the affected countries within the fly belt, areas that are heavily infested by the tsetse fly are virtually devoid of cattle and other species of domestic livestock. Distribution of livestock in all countries on the African continent where densely infested foci exist is almost exactly the reverse of the distribution of the fly (Finelle 1974, Brunhes et al. 1994). Attempts to control African trypanosomosis date back to the beginning of this century. Several different methods of control, some aimed at the disease-causing organism and other aimed at the vector, were employed (Nagel 1995, Jordan 1986). Until after the Second World War, when insecticides became available for use in tsetse control campaigns, the most widely used control measure against tsetse flies was habitat destruction (involving felling trees and bush-clearing), the elimination of host animals (involving killing of wild game) and, to a certain extent, the use of various trapping devices to catch the flies. The tsetse control campaigns mounted in the 40s, 50s and 60s were invariably extensive 'roll up the country

  11. Area-wide implementation of integrated pest management in some scented rice-growing tracts of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scented rice, which is mostly cultivated in the north Indian states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, fetches a high price in domestic and export markets. The yellow stem borer (Sciropophaga incertulas), leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), white back plant hopper (Sogatella furcifera), some occasional pests and a few diseases are the main constraints in achieving the potential yield levels of scented rice cultivars. Farmers use pesticides to get rid of pest problems with meagre knowledge of proper time of application, quantity etc. and as a result they do not get desired control levels. Moreover, excessive use of insecticides often results in reduction of biodiversity of natural enemies, outbreaks of secondary pests and pesticides induced resurgence. The environmental pollution and residues in grains are the other hazards experienced with the indiscriminate use of pesticides. The holistic integrated pest management (IPM) strategy was developed and validated by the National Centre for IPM on some small farms during 1996-1999. This paper reports on the area-wide IPM implemented in two villages of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana states in a farmers' participatory mode during the years 2000 to 2003. Initially, a village namely Shikohpur in Uttar Pradesh was selected, which had a history of excessive and indiscriminate use of pesticides in which the cultivar Pusa Basmati 1 is popularly grown. The area under IPM was 300 ha during 2000, and 400 ha during 2001 and 2002. Another village i.e. Chhajpur in the state of Haryana was selected for IPM implementation during the crop season of 2002 (28 ha) and 2003 (80 ha) in another scented rice cultivar Taraori Local which has more export potential. The main components of the holistic IPM approach were: - Seed treatment to suppress seed borne diseases (no seed treatment in Farmers' Practices (FP)). - Planting of Sesbania aculeate for green manuring after the harvest of wheat crop to reduce dosage of nitrogenous

  12. Radiation induced F1 sterility in Lepidoptera for area-wide control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high doses of ionizing radiation are required to induce sterility in Lepidoptera, but fully sterilizing doses are detrimental to the reproductive competitiveness of the insects and so irradiated males are much less able to compete for mates. It appears, however, that inherited sterility can be induced in all Lepidoptera species by means of radiation doses that induce only low levels of sterility in irradiated individuals. In this way the detrimental effects of irradiation on reproductive performance can be largely avoided, and the irradiated males are able to compete for females with their wild counterparts. This is the basis of radiation induced F1 sterility for genetic pest control. These proceedings include thirteen papers on different aspects of F1 sterility, with emphasis on laboratory experiments to determine the dose of gamma radiation required for inherited sterility. The individual papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M.; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P.; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010–2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  14. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictus in residential neighborhoods: from optimization to operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  15. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictus in residential neighborhoods: from optimization to operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Williams

    Full Text Available The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector.

  16. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bezerra, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sertao Pernambucano (IFSERTAO-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 {+-} 10%. From F{sub 1} to F{sub 22}, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L ({approx} 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 {+-} 3% and 0.59 {+-} 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 {+-} 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  17. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 ± 10%. From F1 to F22, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L (∼ 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 ± 3% and 0.59 ± 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 ± 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  18. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  19. Use of attractant traps in area-wide control of vegetable insect pests in the Jiangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plutella xylostella (L.), Prodenia litura (Fabricius) and Laphyqma exiqua Huebner are main insect pests of vegetables in the Jiangxi province. The long-term use of pesticides to control these pests has caused serious problems such as resistance to pesticides and resurgence of pests as well as pollution to environment and vegetables. Sex attractants have been used for area-wide control of these pests to solve these problems and to produce pollution-free vegetables. Based on the principles of effective, economic and operational implementation, two types of traps made of used plastic cola bottles (1.25L) and oil bottles (2.5L), have been used in 2,250 ha of vegetables in 2001-2003. Traps have been baited with pest-specific attractants incorporated in a rubber wick and placed in vegetable fields at a density of 45 traps per ha. The area-wide use of sex attractants to control these pests has resulted in the decrease of densities of male adults, eggs and larva of these pests and the increase of vegetable yield. An average of 2.34, 2.1, 2.85 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively with the cola bottle trap, and 3.22, 0.63, 4.33 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively oil bottle trap. Comparing trap area with non-trap area, egg density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 84.48% and 85.38%, respectively and larva density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 89.62% and 89.93%, respectively. The egg and larva density of L. exiqua Huebner was reduced by 66.67% and 64.47%, respectively and the percent of damaged host plants and leaves was reduced by 83.48% and 75.85%, respectively. The larva density of P. litura (Fabricius) was reduced by 24.92% and the percent of damaged host plants was reduced by 35.52%. The vegetable yield per ha has been increased by 30% on average

  20. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  1. Stratified entomological sampling in preparation for an area-wide integrated pest management program: the example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2010-07-01

    The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes area using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7 ETM+ satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in 19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations. The remote sensing analysis that identified the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150 km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data. This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. PMID:20695269

  2. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J.B. Vreysen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are among the least developed in the world and hunger and poverty remains widespread in most of the rural communities. Reducing hunger and chronic under nourishment through the introduction of productive livestock as a source of traction and manure for crop production, transport, milk and meat is deemed to be a fundamental first step towards better rural development. The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosomosis it transmits is considered the major barrier to the development of productive livestock. Despite the yearly administration of 35 million doses of trypanocidal drugs (at US$ 1 per dose, African farmers lose 3 million cattle every year to the disease and annual direct economic losses are estimated at US$ 600 to 1200 million. Tsetse flies mainly affect the rural poor and are rightfully considered 'a root cause of poverty ' in Africa . The most desirable way of containing the disease trypanosomosis is undoubtedly the elimination of entire populations of the vector from delimited geographical areas using an integration of various control tactics, i.e. an areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approach. Efficient methods to suppress or even eliminate tsetse populations have been available for the last 50 years and are mostly based on the use of insecticides or entail devices that attract and kill. Nevertheless, despite gigantic efforts in the past century, there are only a few examples where the elimination of tsetse flies has proven to be sustainable, e.g. the elimination of Glossina pallidipes Austen from South Africa in the 1950 's using mainly aerial spraying of residual insecticides or the creation of a zone free of Glossina austeni Newstead on Unguja Island of Zanzibar (1994-1997 through the integration of various control tactics including the release of sterile insects. The decentralisation of the tsetse control offices resulting in a shift from

  3. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501

  4. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  5. The basic principles of the application of sterile insect technique for area-wide insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a new insect pest control technique, potential, and compatible to other techniques. This technique includes irradiation of insect colony in the laboratory using gamma, n, or x-rays and then release them in the field periodically to obtain the increase of sterility probability level from the first generation to the dependence as the result the decrease of the fertility level in the field. The effect the release of sterile insects ( 9:1 ratio to the male indigenous and reproductive potential every single female of each generation reproduce 5 females ) to the insect reduction population model is conceptually discussed. From one million of the female parental decrease to be 26, 316; 1,907; 10; and 0 insects at the first, second, third, and the forth progeny respectively. Then if sterile insect technique integrated with chemical technique (insecticide) 90% kill, it will be much more effective compared to the application sterile insect technique only. From the number of one million population of insects will decrease to be 2,632; 189; and 0 insects at the first, second, and the third progeny respectively. In the Lepidoptera insects was found a phenomenon of inherited sterility. According to Knipling (1970) the inherited sterility in the first offspring caused by chromosome translocation in the gamete . In the individual of heterozygote will be die and in the homozygotes is still alive. Interspecific hybrid sterility first time was found by Laster (1972) from a cross between males Heliothis virescens (F) and females Heliothis subflexa Guenee. Male moths of the first offspring from the cross between H. virescens and H. subflexa is sterile and the females still remain fertile. If the female moths of the first offspring back crossed with male H. virescens the phenomenon of sterility always found will same situation as mention earlier the male offspring is sterile and the females is fertile ( the male F2 will be sterile and the females will

  6. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gregory M.; Ary Faraji; Isik Unlu; Sean P Healy; Muhammad Farooq; Randy Gaugler; George Hamilton; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG)...

  7. Environmentally-safe pest control using novel bioelectrostatic techniques: Initial results and prospects for area-wide usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    active materials. Long-lasting charge retention is perhaps the most important factor. Pesticide Slow-acting approved insecticides in a dry powder formulation can be applied to an insect long enough for it to be killed. The knock-down time can be varied between one and three days for certain synthetic insecticides, or over four days for biological insecticides, during which time the insect behaves normally. Spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium can be used as biological insecticides, for example. Dry spores of the fungus can be formulated with suitable electrostatically chargeable particles. Particle Transfer There is a high rate of loss of particles during the first 48 hours, particularly from hairs and other projections of the insect (after which the loss is very low). This means that particles are readily transferred to females in mating attempts. A Selective Attractant Pheromones or parapheromone attractants for males are available for almost all of the major insect pest species. Control by trapping males alone, however, is generally not a viable method because over 90% must be trapped to ensure that sufficient eggs in the next generation are infertile. A Dissemination Station Bait stations have been developed which retain formulated powders, minimising their loss by wind and facilitating transfer to insects (Patent applied for). This method mimics a natural epidemic infective process (such as a sexually-transmitted disease), with the following advantages: insecticides do not come into contact with the crop or soil, extremely small amounts of insecticide are used, the method targets the pest species only, and others (beneficial insects etc.) are unaffected materials are all low-cost, unskilled labour is required only for placing devices around the crop, does not preclude the use of other methods that might be used in integrated pest management, the way is open to using a range of pesticides to which insects have not previously been exposed and to which

  8. Experiences in management of area-wide control of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Ghana using bait technology and releases of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana is infested with ten species of morsitans, palpalis and fusca groups of tsetse fly in approximately 37% of the country including areas where mixed farming is practiced, hence making animal trypanosomiasis a major constraint to rural agricultural production and other socioeconomic development. There have been many tsetse and trypanosomiasis control schemes implemented since the 1920s using a variety of methods. In the control of animal trypanosomiasis, the country has relied mainly on chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis regimes using homidium chloride (Novidium), diaminazene aceturate (Berenil) and isometamidium chloride (Samorin) in cattle, goats and sheep, keeping of trypanotolerant cattle and game elimination. Methods for tsetse control include discriminate bush clearance, settlements and land use, insecticidal dips, ground spraying of tsetse habitats with insecticides, use of traps of various designs, insecticide-impregnated biconical traps, screens and targets and pour-ons. Despite successes in the various control programmes, the magnitude of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis problem is increasing due to the advance of tsetse flies into previously uninfested areas and development of drug resistance by trypanosome parasites to different types of trypanocidal drugs in use in Ghana. Sustainable tsetse and trypanosomiasis control require the use of appropriate strategies which take into account the environmental and socioeconomic considerations to facilitate adequate community participation. In the 1983 Ghana entered into a Technical Assistance Cooperation Programme with IAEA to provide technical support for the control of riverine tsetse flies in critical cattle-rearing areas in the northern sector of the country

  9. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J.B. VREYSEN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los países del África sub-Sahariana están entre los menos desarrollados del mundo, y el hambre y la pobreza continúan siendo muy extendidos en la mayoría de las comunidades rurales. Se considera que disminuir el hambre y la sub-alimentación mediante la introducción de ganado productivo, como fuente de tracción y abono para la producción agrícola, el transporte, los lácteos y la carne, es un primer paso fundamental hacia un mejor desarrollo rural. La presencia de la mosca tse-tsé en un tercio del continente africano y la tripanosomiasis que transmite, se consideran la principal barrera para el desarrollo del ganado productivo. A pesar de la administración anual de 35 millones de dosis de drogas tripanocidas (a 1 (un dólar por dosis, los granjeros africanos pierden 3 millones de cabezas de ganado por año debido a esta enfermedad, y las pérdidas económicas directas se estiman entre 600 y 1200 millones de dólares...

  10. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most importan

  11. Area-wide pest management: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Employing area-wide pest management practices best controls several major insect pests of crops and livestock. The screwworm fly that attacks several types of livestock, especially cattle, has been effectively controlled by utilising nuclear energy to sterilise the males. This pest was causing about USD 750 million in damages per year to US livestock. The cotton boll weevil and corn rootworm pests have been effectively controlled using area-wide pest management practices in some regions employing either insecticides or crop rotations. Timed crop planting of wide areas has provided effective against some wheat and rice pests in the USA and Asia. The major challenges facing pest management specialists is the invasion of foreign insect pests into crops, forests, and natural ecosystems. Approximately 40% of the insect and mite pests of the US crops are introduced species and they are causing about USD10 billion in damage and control costs each year. The most recent introductions are the long-horned beetle and the emerald ash-borer, both accidentally introduced from Asia by mistake. The long-horned beetle has become a threat to maple trees in the USA and Canada, while the emerald ash-borer is killing ash trees also in the same region. Area-wide control of these destructive pests is in progress because they are a major threat to valuable tree species in the North American forest ecosystems. (author)

  12. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most important cause of malfunctioning networks. The methodology described in this paper gives a structured approach to develop scenarios for dynamic traffic management. The detection of spillback can be done b...

  13. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional Insect Control The usual approach to insect control is to treat the commodity only after a damaging population of insects has developed. In other words, the producer, home owner or casual gardener fights a defensive battle. He reacts to an insect attack. When he sees the enemy or the damage caused by the enemy, he loads up his sprayer with an insecticide and mounts a counter attack. Most insect control procedures are applied by an individual producer on his own relatively small production area. This conventional insect control approach encourages the producer to make his own decisions about whether or not any insect control is to be used, which insect control method or product to use, when to use it, how to use it, who applies it, etc. Advice to producers on insect control is usually available from government extension personnel, private insect control consultants or representatives of companies that sell insecticides or other insect control materials or methods. The conventional procedure results in great variability in the efficacy of insect control because each producer makes his own decisions. The objective of conventional insect control is to protect the commodity. This is usually accomplished by treating the commodity, be it cows or corn or rice in a warehouse. Conventional insect control requires virtually no planning to achieve results. The 'programme' is short-term, frequently measured in days until the next insecticide application is needed. It is reactive (defensive). Area-wide Insect Control Area-wide insect control is applied against an important insect pest over a relatively large area involving many individual producers of the same or similar crops. The 'area' is a combination of geography and the range of hosts of the target insect pest. The term 'area' in 'area-wide' refers to the area where the target insect population survives. The area is not limited to production of the major crop(s) to be protected. It is very likely that a large

  14. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  15. Integrated Control and Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Årzén, Karl-Erik; Bernhardsson, Bo; Eker, Johan; Cervin, Anton; Nilsson, Klas; Persson, Patrik; Sha, Lui

    1999-01-01

    The report gives a state-of-the-art survey of the field of integrated control and scheduling. Subtopics discussed are implementation and scheduling of periodic control loops, scheduling under overload, control and scheduling co-design, dynamic task adaptation, feedback scheduling, and scheduling of imprecise calculations. The report also presents the background, motivation, and research topics in the ARTES project Integrated Control and Scheduling.

  16. Area-wide suppression of invasive fire ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    increases the susceptibility of fire ants to bait insecticide treatments. Field host range studies conducted in Argentina indicated that both T. solenopsae and V. invictae were specific to Solenopsis ants. A combination of chemical and biologically-based control could form the basis of an integrated management system to suppress fire ant populations over large areas, while possibly requiring less chemical control. Project proposal was funded by USDA/ARS Headquarters to demonstrate control of fire ant populations over large areas using integrated management methods. The objectives of this project are to: (1) maintain low fire ant populations using a combination of self-sustaining fire ant biological control agents (the phorid fly, P. tricuspis, and the pathogen, T. solenopsae) and bait toxicants, (2) assess the economic impact associated with fire ants and the benefits of area-wide fire ant control, (3) assess the environmental impact of fire ants and the effects of their control on native ant fauna, (4) develop educational materials for the public on fire ants and their control, and (5) a research component that focuses on new methodologies that can enhance bait and/or biocontrol effectiveness. The Project team includes USDA/ARS and APHIS personnel and state cooperators from Texas A and M University, Oklahoma State University, Clemson University, South Carolina, and the University of Florida. Control and treatment demonstration sites (120 ha + periphery) were set up in each of five states (Florida, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina, and Mississippi). The control site had bait applications, but no biocontrol around the periphery. The treatment site had bait applications plus biocontrol agents (phorid flies and T. solenopsae) were applied to the periphery around the bait treated areas, to prevent, limit, or slow reinfestation of the chemically treated area. Insecticide applications consisted of a combination of hydramethylnon and methoprene baits, chosen because they were

  17. Area-wide control tactics for the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, in South Africa designed to suppress local populations and prevent and treat invasion/establishment in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The False Codling Moth (FCM), Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of citrus, stone fruit, and other crops in many countries throughout continental Africa, including South Africa. There is a growing awareness that this damaging pest could soon be introduced into other countries including the USA as a direct result of increased international trade and daily direct flights from African countries (including South Africa). As such, the FCM features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' Exotic Pest Arthropod List prepared for the USDA-APHIS-PPQ by the Entomological Society of America's Pest List Team. South Africa currently employs augmentative biological control against FCM using the egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae, however, this programme is not adequate as a stand-alone tactic for effective FCM suppression. Currently, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is under development as a strategy for FCM suppression in South Africa and as a tactic that could be rapidly deployed if FCM were to become established as an exotic invasive pest in other countries such as the United States. The SIT is regarded as a host-specific tactic that is environment-friendly and compatible with natural enemies. However, fully successful integration of the SIT and releases of natural enemies into an effective pest management approach can occur only if the natural enemy does not negatively impact irradiated insects and their progeny more severely than it affects the feral pest population, and if the release of irradiated insects does not negatively impact the efficacy of the natural enemy. Therefore, knowledge of the compatibility of T. cryptophlebiae and the release of irradiated FCM is crucial to the evaluation of the combined use of these tactics. The development and combination of these off-shore IPM strategies in South Africa will develop and/or enhance scientific expertise and infrastructure in South Africa, reduce populations of

  18. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  19. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  20. Corn rootworm area-wide management across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research Service and cooperating north central United States universities developed a semiochemical insecticide-bait targeted at adult corn rootworms (Sutter and Hesler 1993). The bait, composed of cucurbitacins, a minute amount of carbaryl, and a non-toxic edible carrier, can be applied by conventional aerial or ground sprayers (Hoffmann et al. 1996, Chandler and Sutter 1997, Chandler 1998). The bait adheres to plant surfaces and stimulates rootworm adult feeding, resulting in high levels of mortality and little impact on secondary pests or beneficial arthropods. The bait is applied when females predominate in the field and before significant oviposition begins. By targeting females at this critical developmental stage, egg laying can be reduced and thus, economic larval infestations can be avoided in the following growing season. Unlike soil insecticides, where maize root protection is the primary goal, this control tactic manages rootworm populations. The development of this bait along with improved rootworm monitoring techniques and better understanding of rootworm biology/ecology, forms the basis for the corn rootworm area-wide management programme. Management of rootworm populations using the bait concept is best accomplished when conducted over a large area. Thus, a regional or area-wide approach may effectively reduce rootworm populations, resulting in significant economic savings to growers and improved environmental stewardship through the reduction of insecticide use throughout maize production areas. The information presented discusses the development of the corn rootworm area-wide programme, the initiation of the operational component of the programme, and the results of the first year of semiochemical-bait applications

  1. An integrated gyrotron controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Georg, E-mail: michel@ipp.mpg.de; Sachtleben, Juergen

    2011-10-15

    The ECRH system of W7-X is composed of 10 independent gyrotron modules. Each module consists of one gyrotron and its peripherals such as power supplies, cooling plants and distributed PLC systems. The fast real-time control functions such as the timing of the two high voltage supplies, trigger pulses, protection, modulation and communication with the central control of W7-X, is implemented in an integrated controller which is described in this paper. As long-term maintainability and sustainability are important for nuclear fusion experiments, the choice fell on an FPGA-based design which is exclusively based on free (as in 'freedom') software and configuration code. The core of the controller consists of a real-time Java virtual machine (JVM) that provides the TCP-IP connectivity as well as more complicated control functions, and which interacts with the gyrotron-specific hardware. Both the gyrotron-specific hardware and the JVM are implemented on the same FPGA, which is the main component of the controller. All 10 controllers are currently completed and operational. All parameters and functions are accessible via Ethernet. Due to the open, FPGA-based design, most hardware modifications can be made via the network as well. This paper discusses the capabilities of the controllers and their integration into the central W7-X control.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis model: A tool for area-wide fruit fly management. Procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generic Fruit Fly Cost-Benefit Analysis Model assists in economic decision making associated with area-wide fruit fly control options. The FRUIT FLY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS PROGRAM (available on 1 CD-ROM from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) is an Excel 2000 Windows based program, for which all standard Windows and Excel conventions apply. The Model is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a procedures manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software. Please note that the table presenting the pest management options in the Introductory Page of the model is controlled by spin buttons and click boxes. These controls are linked to macros that hide non relevant tables and boxes. N.B. it is important that the medium level of security is selected from the Tools menu of Excel, to do this go to Tools|Macros|Security| and select Medium. When the file is opened a form will appear containing three buttons, click on the middle button, 'Enable Macros', so that the macros may be used. Ideally the model should be used as a support tool by working groups aiming at assessing the economic returns of different fruit fly control options (suppression, eradication, containment and prevention). The working group should include professionals in agriculture with experience in area-wide implementation of integrated pest management programmes, an economist or at least someone with basic knowledge in economics, and if relevant, an entomologist with some background in the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT)

  3. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food security and economic security are unarguably desirable objectives for all nations - indeed for the world. Equally important is the sustainability of designs that achieve these objectives without disadvantaging others or damaging the environment. Considering area-wide pest management in the context of these interrelated global policy forces is essential to fully understand its role in both the protection of plant resources and in facilitation of trade. The case for food security begins with the realisation that there are currently about 800 million people in the world who are suffering from malnutrition due to lack of food. The World Food Summit, convened in November 1996, urgently called for coordinated world-wide action to ensure 'food for all'. A key strategy for realising this goal is reducing losses due to plant pests. In this light, area-wide pest management can be viewed as a valuable addition to the toolbox of pest management strategies. It can also be one of the most sustainable and cost-effective options to consider for pest management. However, just as the problem of world hunger is not solved by a single farmer, area-wide pest management cannot be successful at the individual level. It requires commitment and cooperation to make it feasible - the same type of commitment and cooperation that was expressed at the World Food Summit. Where economic security is concerned, one need not look far to see a world of growing economic integration and widening circles of development. As the World Trade Organisation celebrates the 50th anniversary of the rules-based trading system which began with the GATT after World War II, it is clear that globalisation and the liberalisation of trade have become permanent fixtures in international policy formulation and are integral to the economic security of all nations. Now, more than ever before, the world's prosperity rests on maintaining an open international economy based on commonly agreed rules. The significance of

  4. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  5. Genetic methods for area-wide management of Lepidopterous pests with emphasis on F1 sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enormous losses in the production and marketing of food and fiber are caused by larvae of Lepidoptera. Currently, large quantities of insecticides are used to combat these pests. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM. Genetic methods have emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests. Genetic control as a practical means of pest management was first successfully implemented by Knipling and colleagues in the USA during the 1960's with the sterile insect technique (SIT) program for the screwworm fly. SIT is not a readily adapted for use against Lepidoptera as against Diptera. Radiation-induced inherited sterility (or F1 sterility) is generally considered the most promising genetic methods for large-scale suppression of lepidopteran populations. This papers discusses four genetic control methods that have been developed and the progress that has been made in integrating sterility with other IPM tactics. (author)

  6. Risk Sensitive Path Integral Control

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, L.J. van den; Wiegerinck, W.A.J.J.; Kappen, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently path integral methods have been developed for stochastic optimal control for a wide class of models with non-linear dynamics in continuous space-time. Path integral methods find the control that minimizes the expected cost-to-go. In this paper we show that under the same assumptions, path integral methods generalize directly to risk sensitive stochastic optimal control. Here the method minimizes in expectation an exponentially weighted cost-to-go. Depending on the exponential weight,...

  7. Area-wide IPM for commercial wheat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The USDA, Agricultural Research Service funded a demonstration project (1998-2003) for area-wide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilised two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 843,682 metric tonnes of wheat, which was harvested from approximately 324,000 ha. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator bins. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to take ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 meters of each bin at grain elevators. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed. This software interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report that describes which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Recommended treatment strategies and economic analysis are presented to the manager. The area-wide IPM programme was superior to calendar-based management because it ensured that the grain in each bin was only treated when insect densities exceeded economic thresholds. This approach reduced the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Elevators that followed our recommendations reduced the number of bins they normally fumigated by at least 50%. A new grain-scouting company was started that is using SGA Pro and the sampling tools that were developed in this project. The company is in its second year and has over 30 commercial elevators on contract. (author)

  8. Integrated control-structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, K. Scott; Kraft, Raymond H.; Bossi, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach for the design and control of flexible space structures is described. The approach integrates the structure and controller design processes thereby providing extra opportunities for avoiding some of the disastrous effects of control-structures interaction and for discovering new, unexpected avenues of future structural design. A control formulation based on Boyd's implementation of Youla parameterization is employed. Control design parameters are coupled with structural design variables to produce a set of integrated-design variables which are selected through optimization-based methodology. A performance index reflecting spacecraft mission goals and constraints is formulated and optimized with respect to the integrated design variables. Initial studies have been concerned with achieving mission requirements with a lighter, more flexible space structure. Details of the formulation of the integrated-design approach are presented and results are given from a study involving the integrated redesign of a flexible geostationary platform.

  9. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  10. Developing critical partnerships in area-wide pest management programmes: The Hawaii experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aside from the technical issues that form the basis of any successful area-wide programme, significant attention must be made to programme organisation and development of partnerships that facilitate the large numbers of non-technical issues that must be addressed in a successful area-wide programme. The recent experience with the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly integrated pest management programme (HAW-FLYPM) is a recent example of the trials and tribulations that occur when one attempts to set up such a programme. In our example, USDA-ARS researchers (and their predecessors) from the US Pacific Basin Agr. Res. Center had developed much of overarching strategies that are used today for the detection, control and eradication of many tephritid fruit fly species, especially Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly and melon fly, all species that have become established in Hawaii over the last 100 years. Early researchers were responsible for such seminal technologies as the development of low cost diets for mass-rearing, attractants for several fruit fly species, early demonstrations of SIT against fruit flies and more recently development of augmentative biological control strategies against fruit flies. These early discoveries have been refined and improved by many USDA and non-USDA researchers over the subsequent decades but the basic technologies have remained the same. While credit must be given for those pioneers in Hawaii who set the stage for area-wide fruit fly control technologies, the presence of plantation agriculture in the form of sugarcane and pineapple overshadowed any strong movement to apply the Hawaii-based technologies in their backyard. Instead the application of these technologies was showcased outside the state of Hawaii. The decline of both sugar cane and pineapple in Hawaii has brought about a renewed interest in diversified ag in Hawaii and with it the resurgence of the fruit fly issue due to its impact on production, trade and

  11. A contribution towards simplifying area-wide tsetse surveys using medium resolution meteorological satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, G; Napala, A; Slingenbergh, J H; De Deken, R; Rogers, D J

    2001-10-01

    A raster or grid-based Geographic Information System with data on tsetse, trypanosomiasis, animal production, agriculture and land use has recently been developed in Togo. The area-wide sampling of tsetse fly, aided by satellite imagery, is the subject of two separate papers. This paper follows on a first paper, published in this journal, describing the generation of digital tsetse distribution and abundance maps and how these accord with the local climatic and agro-ecological setting. Such maps when combined with data on the disease, the hosts and their owners, should contribute to the knowledge of the spatial epidemiology of trypanosomiasis and assist planning of integrated control operations. Here we address the problem of generating tsetse distribution and abundance maps from remotely sensed data, using a restricted amount of field data. Different discriminant analysis models have been applied using contemporary tsetse data and remotely sensed, low resolution data acquired from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Meteosat platforms. The results confirm the potential of satellite data application and multivariate analysis for the prediction of the tsetse distribution and abundance. This opens up new avenues because satellite predictions and field data may be combined to strengthen and/or substitute one another. The analysis shows how the strategic incorporation of satellite imagery may minimize field collection of data. Field surveys may be modified and conducted in two stages, first concentrating on the expected fly distribution limits and thereafter on fly abundance. The study also shows that when applying satellite data, care should be taken in selecting the optimal number of predictor variables because this number varies with the amount of training data for predicting abundance and on the homogeneity of the distribution limits for predicting fly presence. Finally, it is suggested that in addition to the use of contemporary

  12. Integrated controls design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl H.

    2015-09-01

    A control system (207) for optimizing a chemical looping process of a power plant includes an optimizer (420), an income algorithm (230) and a cost algorithm (225) and a chemical looping process models. The process models are used to predict the process outputs from process input variables. Some of the process in puts and output variables are related to the income of the plant; and some others are related to the cost of the plant operations. The income algorithm (230) provides an income input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of input parameters (215) of the power plant. The cost algorithm (225) provides a cost input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of output parameters (220) of the power plant. The optimizer (420) determines an optimized operating parameter solution based on at least one of the income input and the cost input, and supplies the optimized operating parameter solution to the power plant.

  13. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in Western Australia. On the other hand Queensland fruit fly is just as destructive but is restricted to the east coast of Australia. Programmes such as advice on cover sprays, correct use of pesticides, public education, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), the male annihilation technique (MAT) and fruit fly baiting and trapping are under way to reduce the impact of pest fruit flies on commercial and backyard horticulture. Due to trade and travel, both commercial and private, from Western Australia to the central areas of Australia (the State of South Australia and the Northern Territory) and the east (Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory) and from east to west, both Mediterranean fruit fly and Queensland fruit fly are serious threats to those other States. Mechanisms such as roadblocks, community awareness programmes, reduce the threat of these pests to horticultural production in areas free from these species. Codes of Practice for actions against both Queensland fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, which describe these conditions and actions, have been compiled and agreed upon by most States and some overseas trading partners. Apart from protecting fruit fly free-areas and regions with native species from non-endemic pest fruit flies from other regions within Australia we also protect our shores from exotic pest fruit fly species from regions outside Australia. The Australian Government has issued signage, pamphlets and compulsory quarantine declaration forms alerting travellers about the risk of bringing in fresh fruit and vegetables and the penalties for doing so. All commercial produce is inspected on arrival and samples taken for analysis of possible infestation. Some produce is prohibited from some countries due to the presence of quarantine pests while others are allowed following certification of area-freedom status or of the correct application of post-harvest quarantine treatment or area-wide management

  14. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment

  15. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  16. Non-invasive, Cosmic Ray Neutrons Approach for Area Wide Soil Moisture Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of area wide soil moisture content is needed for a variety of applications such as large scale irrigation scheduling, yield forecasting and climate change studies. In past decades, measurement of area wide soil moisture has been a challenge since most devices are for small plots within the range of 0.05 to 1 m in diameter. As a result, a large number of measurements, which can be costly and time consuming, are required. The recent development of a cosmic ray neutrons approach represents a breakthrough in addressing this challenge (Zreda et al. 2008, Shuttleworth et al. 2010). Cosmic-ray neutrons monitor the background radiation in the air above the soil, the intensity of which depends primarily on soil moisture that was found to correlate with soil hydrogen content. The cosmic ray soil moisture probe integrates soil moisture content over an area of approximately 700 m in diameter to a depth of 70 cm, covering the rooting zones of most crops. As a result it can enhance point measurement devices to yield a reliable measure of area average soil moisture. The probe is insensitive to temperature, salinity, soil mineral chemistry and is non-invasive (Desilets et al. 2010), thus allowing measurements to be carried out under undisturbed soil conditions. The cosmic ray neutron probe responds to all forms of moisture, including liquid and frozen soil water, snow, and water in or on vegetation, allowing for the assessment of the total surface moisture. The probe will enable us to provide soil moisture readings at a large number of sites with different physical characteristics, from simple and easy (flat grasslands) to complex and difficult terrain.

  17. Short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A background paper for the seminar on short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures is presented. The seminar is restricted to safety measures, thus only countermeasures that are intended to reduce accidents are regarded. The measures should be furthermore for the short-term and area-wide.

  18. 40 CFR 52.326 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.326 Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions. The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) submitted a NOX...

  19. The area-wide epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis and its impact on mixed farming in subhumid West Africa; a case study in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, G; Napala, A; Dao, B; Batawui, K; Bastiaensen, P; De Deken, R; Vermeilen, A; Vercruysse, J; Slingenbergh, J H

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an area wide study of all major variables determining the expression of trypanosomosis in cattle in the subhumid eco-zone of West Africa, taking Togo as an example. To enable systematic area-wide sampling, the country was divided in 311 grid-squares of 0.125 x 0.125 sides. Cross-sectional surveys were then conducted to generate maps or digital layers on cattle density, herd structure, ownership and breed. These data layers, except for the breed data, were subjected to a cluster analysis in order to define spatial patterns in animal husbandry systems. This analysis revealed two main systems: one is oriented towards integration with crop-agriculture and a second towards investment in cattle. These two systems could be further characterised by incorporating breed data. Zebu cattle and their crossbreeds are more favoured in the second system. The breed distribution map shows the actual situation but also serves to predict the outcome of progressive crossbreeding. An area wide trypanosomosis survey allowed the production of prevalence maps for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and the associated packed cell volume (PCV) values. A simple curvi-linear relationship was established between vector density and disease prevalence. The regression between disease prevalence and PCV for taurine and zebu plus crossbreeds separately, revealed that taurine cattle maintain a comparatively high PCV level particularly in high prevalence scenarios. The relationship between the average herd PCV and cattle density suggests that herd PCV value may provide a mirror for the number of animals not kept because of the prevailing risk. The regression between agricultural intensity and cattle density subsequently in areas with decreasing herd PCV values reveals that the level of integration of cattle in crop production decreases with a decreasing PCV. Thus, despite the presence of taurine animals in Togo, the omnipresence of tsetse in particular Glossina tachinoides, remains

  20. Path Integral Control and State Dependent Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, Sep; Kappen, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem to compute state dependent feedback controls for path integral control problems. To this end we generalize the path integral control formula and utilize this to construct parameterized state dependent feedback controllers. In addition, we show a novel relation between control and importance sampling: better control, in terms of control cost, yields more efficient importance sampling, in terms of effective sample size. The optimal control provides a zero-va...

  1. Area-wide pest management programmes: Challenges and opportunities for regulatory plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) entered into force for all WTO Member countries in 2000. It states that measures to protect human, animal and plant health or life shall be based on international standards where possible. These measures shall be based on a scientific risk assessment and should be implemented only to the extent necessary to achieve an appropriate level of protection. The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is the international standard setting body for protecting plant health identified in the SPS Agreement. Both international treaties make provision for control of pests at regional levels (regionalisation) and for identification of pest free areas. The IPPC provides guidance to countries, in the form of international standards, on the implementation of pest free areas and pest risk analysis (including Systems Approaches and other risk management measures). The implementation of area-wide pest management programmes should meet IPPC standards. Countries meeting IPPC requirements can take advantage of liberalised trade while maintaining their phytosanitary security. (author)

  2. Designing and implementing a geographical information system: A guide for managers of area-wide pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, the use of computer software and mapping methods known as geographical information systems (GIS) has been adopted by an ever growing variety of professionals. Every activity that deals with location dependent information can use GIS, and agriculture is no exception. The potential of GIS and remote sensing (RS) to facilitate the planning and implementation of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is enormous but unfortunately, these methods are still much underused. AW-IPM programmes, especially those that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) with other surveillance and control methods, would benefit considerably by drawing on GIS/RS. These programmes are often implemented over large areas of even tens of thousands of square kilometres, where surveillance methods are deployed and large data sets are systematically generated on a daily basis. The acquisition of geo-referenced data sets on pest presence/absence, relative abundance, disease prevalence, crop damage, etc., that will allow accurate spatial and temporal analysis is important for proper and timely decision making to efficiently plan and implement any operational pest management programme. Animal health and plant protection officials and pest control programme managers might be intuitively aware of the importance of employing GIS as an analytical tool. However, they often lack a deeper understanding of its capabilities. Since GIS is a desk exercise using computers, data analysis is often left to the computer staff without proper directives from the programme managers on programmatic needs. This is unfortunate as it will usually NOT bring the desired GIS-processed information to the decision makers. This manual targets area-wide pest control programme administrators and managers of FAO and IAEA Member States in an attempt to demonstrate the type of data processing and spatial analysis that can be expected of GIS. The manual does not aim to provide

  3. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  4. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  5. Control systems integration for enhanced vehicle dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Vigliani, Alessandro; Velardocchia, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with improving comfort and handling for a ground vehicle through the coordinated control of different active systems available in passenger cars, e.g., electronic stability control, active roll control and engine torque control. The authors first describe separate control systems, each with its logic, showing advantages and limits, then propose various possible integrations, aiming at exploiting the benefits of a coordinated approach. Finally, the proposed control logics are ...

  6. Integrated control system for LEHIPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) is a 20 MeV 30 mA proton accelerator which will be achieved in multiple stages. LEHIPA consists of several sub systems/devices located at different positions of the beam path which includes ION source, RF Power, RF Protection Interlock System, Low Conductivity Water plant, Low Level RF Control Systems, Vacuum System, Beam Diagnostics and Beam Line Devices. All these subsystems have their own local control systems (LCS) which will coordinate the operation of the corresponding subsystem. The control system for LEHIPA is thus being designed as a Distributed Control System with different teams developing each LCS. The control system will assist the operator to achieve a beam of desired characteristics by interacting with various sub systems of the accelerator in a seamless manner, protect the various parts of machine by generating the necessary interlocks, keep track of various parameters monitored periodically by suitably archiving them, alarms annunciation and trouble shoot from the control room. This paper describes approach to system design of ICS. (author)

  7. Lessons learned from area-wide insect pest management programmes with an SIT component: an FAO/IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach, which entails the integration of various control tactics addressing an entire insect pest population within a circumscribed geographical area, is undoubtedly the most rational control strategy available against major insect pests of agricultural and medical/veterinary importance. The concept of interfering with the reproductive capacity of major insect pests (i.e. the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)) has considerably evolved since its original description by Knipling in the in the 1950's. To date, the SIT, which relies on the sequential release of sterile male insects in the target area, is increasingly being considered as one of many complementary methods to be integrated in an AW-IPM approach. Four major strategic options of area-wide IPM programmes with an SIT component can be distinguished and have been implemented successfully worldwide, leading to: (i) the eradication of the insect pest (e.g. the New World screwworm (NWS) in Libya; the Mediterranean fruit fly in Chile and in the Patagonia region of Argentina), (ii) its containment (e.g. the Mediterranean fruit fly containment programme in Guatemala and Mexico) and (iii) its prevention (e.g. the Mediterranean fruit fly preventative programme in California and Florida) or (iv) its suppression (e.g. the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada or the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Arava/Araba Valley of Israel/Jordan and in the Hex River Valley of the Western Cape, South Africa). These programmes have directly or indirectly benefited from support by the IAEA and the FAO through i.) Technical Cooperation projects with its Member States, ii.) the implementation of coordinated research and development (R and D) efforts, iii.) 'problem-solving' research and iv.) normative activities. This support often includes the development of local technical capacity for the economic assessment, the rearing of flies

  8. 40 CFR 52.2351 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption. 52.2351 Section 52.2351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption. On May 2, 1997, Ursula Trueman, Director, Division of Air Quality,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.992 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides exemptions. 52.992 Section 52.992 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... nitrogen oxides exemptions. (a) The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality submitted to the EPA...

  10. Integrated Device Control System using Google Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro KOITA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an integrated device control system called Control Architecture for Networked Devices in Location Environments (CANDLE, which controls devices with Google Maps. Google Maps provides a global map interface and flexible APIs. The main motivation for this study is to provide a search and control system for physically distributed devices using Google Maps. To achieve this, the requirements of the system are (1 to coordinate device information with map information on Google Maps and (2 all distributed information has to be integrated on one interface. Device information is a set of information to control devices on an interface of Google Maps. CANDLE is an integrated device control system using Google Maps designed to meet these requirements. Using CANDLE, a user can control physically distributed devices through a web browser. In CANDLE, all device information is integrated into one map. CANDLE enables device control, searches, and display of information on distributed devices on an interface of Google Maps through a web browser. By using a web browser, a user can control devices from anywhere even if the devices are distributed globally. Thus, CANDLE is quite useful for distributed device control systems such as security, healthcare, and global monitoring systems.

  11. Leprosy control: the rationale of integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretti, A

    1989-12-01

    After considering the situation and the perspectives of integration and the drawbacks that a vertical approach can represent for leprosy control, the author proposes the framework of control programmes as a systemic model for comprehensive health care. The structure that health services in developing countries are adopting in order to implement PHC allows for an horizontal integration of specific activities; conversely, activities which have already proved their value for leprosy control can easily enlarge their scope and include other prevalent conditions. Integration leads to an improvement in patients' and health workers' attitudes; provided that the necessary supervision is guaranteed, integration is feasible and warrants more effective patients' care and a better exploitation of resources in order to reduce the specific risk in the community.

  12. International assistance to intervention policies and implementation of area-wide tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    agricultural development. The Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) and the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) of the African Union jointly developed a set of criteria and guiding principles to assist tsetse-affected countries in the selection of priority areas for intervention against the AAT problem. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) has been designed to address geographically and ecologically well demarcated tsetse fly populations impacting seriously on SARD and to ensure efficiency of the intervention and sustainability of results. AW-IPM exploits favourable trends (entomological, agro-ecological, climatic, anthropogenic and epidemiological), which may assist in redressing the impact of the disease. Thus, substantial benefits from interventions are believed to result, particularly for the development of mixed-crop-livestock systems in the 'cotton-belt', a transfrontier area of Burkina Faso and Mali, and in the southern part of the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. With regards to HAT, priority countries for intervention, as far as WHO is concerned, include Angola, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea and Sudan. For HAT the next challenge is the development of tools, supporting the strategies for the elimination of the disease. Sets of measures against the HAT and the AAT problem, as part of overall efforts directed at improved public health and SARD, respectively, will necessitate an integration of technical, institutional, socio-economic, public health and agricultural development considerations. This integrated approach will, in turn, provide the supportive environment for emergency interventions in HAT foci, balanced investments in AAT programmes, amalgamated with the AW-IPM concept, as preliminary essential steps for technical success, anticipated SARD impact and sustainability. In the context of the described overall agricultural development and public health framework the

  13. Integration of control and fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    The integrated design of control and fault detection is studied. The result of the analysis is that it is possible to separate the design of the controller and the filter for fault detection in the case where the nominal model can be assumed to be fairly accurate. In the uncertain case, however...

  14. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  15. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and

  16. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  17. Integrating Software Modules For Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Khosla, Pradeep; Stewart, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Reconfigurable, sensor-based control system uses state variables in systematic integration of reusable control modules. Designed for open-architecture hardware including many general-purpose microprocessors, each having own local memory plus access to global shared memory. Implemented in software as extension of Chimera II real-time operating system. Provides transparent computing mechanism for intertask communication between control modules and generic process-module architecture for multiprocessor realtime computation. Used to control robot arm. Proves useful in variety of other control and robotic applications.

  18. NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdall, P.

    1998-01-26

    This System Description introduces the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The architecture is sufficiently abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. As discussed below, over twenty software applications derived from the framework comprise the NIF control system. This document lays the essential foundation for understanding the ICCS architecture. The NIF design effort is motivated by the magnitude of the task. Figure 1 shows a cut-away rendition of the coliseum-sized facility. The NIF requires integration of about 40,000 atypical control points, must be highly automated and robust, and will operate continuously around the clock. The control system coordinates several experimental cycles concurrently, each at different stages of completion. Furthermore, facilities such as the NIF represent major capital investments that will be operated, maintained, and upgraded for decades. The computers, control subsystems, and functionality must be relatively easy to extend or replace periodically with newer technology.

  19. Control of Ideal Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克谨; 战德志; 中岩腾; 中根尧; 高松武一郎

    1999-01-01

    The operation of an ideal heat integrated dlstillation columan (HIDiC) is addressed .Five Kinds of control configurations, i.e. single-loop control, multi-loop control, multivariable internal model control (IMC), modified multlvariable internal model control (MIMC) and nonlinear process model-based control (NPMC), are designed and applied to the process. Simulation results demonstrate that all of the above control confaguratloam ere valid for product quality control. NPMC control configuration is found to be the best one among all the alternatives. It can readily realize setpoint transitions and conduct effectively against external disturbance. MIMC control configuration ranks second in the row for its regulatory responses to feed composition disturbances with relatively extended setting time, Next comes from the multi-loop control configuration, which is moee or lees handicapped by its greater deviations and overshootings. IMC control configuration can not compete with the multi-loop control configuration because it is extremely sensitive to operating condition changes. Single-ioop control configuration is the worst one among all the mentioned control configurations. Its responses for the uncoutrolled end products are extremely sluggish.

  20. INTEGRATED PLASMA CONTROL FOR ADVANCED TOKAMAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUMPHREYS,D.A; FERRON,J.R; JOHNSON,R.D; LEUER,J.A; PENAFLOR,B.G; WALKER,M.L; WELANDER,A.S; KHAYRUTDINOV,R.R; DOKOUKA,V; EDGELL,D.H; FRANSSON,C.M

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Advanced tokamaks (AT) are distinguished from conventional tokamaks by their high degree of shaping, achievement of profiles optimized for high confinement and stability characteristics, and active stabilization of MHD instabilities to attain high values of normalized beta and confinement. These high performance fusion devices thus require accurate regulation of the plasma boundary, internal profiles, pumping, fueling, and heating, as well as simultaneous and well-coordinated MHD control action to stabilize such instabilities as tearing modes and resistive wall modes. Satisfying the simultaneous demands on control accuracy, reliability, and performance for all of these subsystems requires a high degree of integration in both design and operation of the plasma control system in an advanced tokamak. The present work describes the approach, benefits, and progress made in integrated plasma control with application examples drawn from the DIII-D tokamak. The approach includes construction of plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers which operate in concert with one another as well as with supervisory modules, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and iteration of the design-test loop to optimize performance.

  1. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  2. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal ControlIntegrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  3. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering the n...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  4. Integrated computer control system architectural overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Arsdall, P.

    1997-06-18

    This overview introduces the NIF Integrated Control System (ICCS) architecture. The design is abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. This summary lays the essential foundation for understanding the model-based engineering approach used to execute the design.

  5. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  6. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  7. Planning to Plan-Integrating Control Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In many planning situations, computation itself becomes a resource to be planned and scheduled. We model such computational resources as conventional resources which are used by control-flow actions, e.g., to direct the planning process. Control-flow actions and conventional actions are planned/scheduled in an integrated way and can interact with each other. Control-flow actions are then executed by the planning engine itself. The approach is illustrated by examples, e.g., for hierarchical planning, in which tasks that are temporally still far away impose only rough constraints on the current schedule, and control-flow tasks ensure that these tasks are refined as they approach the current time. Using the same mechanism, anytime algorithms can change appropriate search methods or parameters over time, and problems like scheduling critical time-outs for garbage collection can be made part of the planning itself.

  8. Integrated Bulding Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bing

    Current research studies show that building heating, cooling and ventilation energy consumption account for nearly 40% of the total building energy use in the U.S. The potential for saving energy through building control systems varies from 5% to 20% based on recent market surveys. In addition, building control affects environmental performances such as thermal, visual, air quality, etc., and occupancy such as working productivity and comfort. Building control has been proven to be important both in design and operation stages. Building control design and operation need consistent and reliable static and dynamic information from multiple resources. Static information includes building geometry, construction and HVAC equipment. Dynamic information includes zone environmental performance, occupancy and outside weather information during operation. At the same time, model-based predicted control can help to optimize energy use while maintaining indoor set-point temperature when occupied. Unfortunately, several issues in the current approach of building control design and operation impede achieving this goal. These issues include: a) dynamic information data such as real-time on-site weather (e.g., temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) and occupancy (number of occupants and occupancy duration in the space) are not readily available; b) a comprehensive building energy model is not fully integrated into advanced control for accuracy and robustness; c) real-time implementation of indoor air temperature control are rare. This dissertation aims to investigate and solve these issues based on an integrated building control approach. This dissertation introduces and illustrates a method for integrated building heating, cooling and ventilation control to reduce energy consumption and maintain indoor temperature set-point, based on the prediction of occupant behavior patterns and weather conditions. Advanced machine learning methods including Adaptive Gaussian Process

  9. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  10. National Ignition Facility integrated computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NIF design team is developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is based on an object-oriented software framework applicable to event-driven control systems. The framework provides an open, extensible architecture that is sufficiently abstract to construct future mission-critical control systems. The ICCS will become operational when the first 8 out of 192 beams are activated in mid 2000. The ICCS consists of 300 front-end processors attached to 60,000 control points coordinated by a supervisory system. Computers running either Solaris or VxWorks are networked over a hybrid configuration of switched fast Ethernet and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). ATM carries digital motion video from sensors to operator consoles. Supervisory software is constructed by extending the reusable framework components for each specific application. The framework incorporates services for database persistence, system configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. More than twenty collaborating software applications are derived from the common framework. The framework is interoperable among different kinds of computers and functions as a plug-in software bus by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA). CORBA transparently distributes the software objects across the network. Because of the pivotal role played, CORBA was tested to ensure adequate performance

  11. National Ignition Facility integrated computer control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Arsdall, P.J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The NIF design team is developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is based on an object-oriented software framework applicable to event-driven control systems. The framework provides an open, extensible architecture that is sufficiently abstract to construct future mission-critical control systems. The ICCS will become operational when the first 8 out of 192 beams are activated in mid 2000. The ICCS consists of 300 front-end processors attached to 60,000 control points coordinated by a supervisory system. Computers running either Solaris or VxWorks are networked over a hybrid configuration of switched fast Ethernet and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). ATM carries digital motion video from sensors to operator consoles. Supervisory software is constructed by extending the reusable framework components for each specific application. The framework incorporates services for database persistence, system configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. More than twenty collaborating software applications are derived from the common framework. The framework is interoperable among different kinds of computers and functions as a plug-in software bus by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA). CORBA transparently distributes the software objects across the network. Because of the pivotal role played, CORBA was tested to ensure adequate performance.

  12. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  13. Integrated tools for control-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Clark, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The basic functions embedded within a user friendly software package (MATRIXx) are used to provide a high level systems approach to the analysis of linear control systems. Various control system analysis configurations are assembled automatically to minimize the amount of work by the user. Interactive decision making is incorporated via menu options and at selected points, such as in the plotting section, by inputting data. There are five evaluations such as the singular value robustness test, singular value loop transfer frequency response, Bode frequency response, steady-state covariance analysis, and closed-loop eigenvalues. Another section describes time response simulations. A time response for random white noise disturbance is available. The configurations and key equations used for each type of analysis, the restrictions that apply, the type of data required, and an example problem are described. One approach for integrating the design and analysis tools is also presented.

  14. Integrated Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the first industry-wide integrated research and development plan to support upgrading instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in nuclear power plants in the United States. The plan encompasses both solving obsolescence problems and introducing modern I ampersand C technology into the industry. Accomplishing this plan will provide the technological base to modernize existing plants, as well as bridge the gap to meet Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) requirements for modern I ampersand C systems. This plan defines Research and Development tasks to meet the identified needs for the following technical elements: Instrumentation, Control and Protection, Man-Machine Support Systems, Maintenance, Communications, Verification and Validation, and Specifications and Standards

  15. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)

    2003-06-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  16. Integrated Control of Axonemal Dynein AAA+ Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are AAA+ enzymes that convert ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. This leads to the sliding of doublet microtubules with respect to each other and ultimately the generation of ciliary/flagellar beating. However, in order for useful work to be generated, the action of individual dynein motors must be precisely controlled. In addition, cells modulate the motility of these organelles through a variety of second messenger systems and these signals too must be integrated by the dynein motors to yield an appropriate output. This review describes the current status of efforts to understand dynein control mechanisms and their connectivity focusing mainly on studies of the outer dynein arm from axonemes of the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas. PMID:22406539

  17. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration among the sub-projects on the various fields. So, this integrated project control system project is necessary to make all of the sub-projects consistent with the project main goal. The system was built in the 1st project phase and has been modified and executed during the 2nd project phase. Firstly, through CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive project process management has been executed. Secondly, supportive activities has been efficiently executed such as purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control on linac, etc. Especially, the licenses of 20MeV proton linear accelerator and low energy accelerator were approved. Also, tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site management were carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of developed technology, several managerial methods were performed: TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Strategy Integration System). Through these procedure, a life cycle management has been carried out successfully from developing stage to commercializing stage of sub-projects

  18. Funnel Equations and Multivalued Integration Problems for Control Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzhanski, A.B.; Nikonov, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper indicates a sequence of evolutionary "funnel equations" with set-valued solutions which are crucial for the construction of respective feed-back control strategies along the schemes introduced by N.N. Krasovskii. The integration of these funnel equations leads to a sequence of multivalued integrals that generalize some of those introduced earlier (Auman's integral, the Convolution integral, Pontryagin's Alternated integral).

  19. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  20. An Integrated Biological Control System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimate spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  1. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses. PMID:18944382

  2. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multivariable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. In these example evaluations, the significance of these interactions was underscored. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important nonlinear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multivariable techniques, including model-following formulations of LQG and/or H infinity methods, showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods. The major contributions of the second phase of the grant was the development of conditions under which no decentralized controller could achieve closed loop system requirements on stability and/or performance. Sought were conditions that depended only on properties of the plant and the requirement, and independent of any particular control law or synthesis approach. Therefore, they could be applied a priori, before synthesis of a candidate control law. Under this grant, such conditions were found regarding stability, and encouraging initial results were obtained regarding performance.

  3. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  4. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage

  5. Control of polarization in integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonath, Prakash Vijayan

    Integrated optical devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years with the rapid progress in optical communications, and the emergence of dense wavelength division multiplexing systems. The control over the state of polarization of the optical signal is an important issue that needs to be addressed due to the structure-induced anisotropy in these devices. In this thesis, two different types of integrated optical devices, with distinct approaches to address their polarization sensitivity, have been explored. The first device investigated was a semiconductor optical amplifier based on multi-quantum wells, where the gain depends on the state of polarization of the optical signal. To realize amplifiers with polarization insensitive gain, tensile-strained quantum wells structures were utilized as active regions in these devices. Optical gain calculations were performed using k.p method to calculate the tensile stress that needs to be introduced for gain equalization. These devices were then fabricated and tested to demonstrate the concept of gain equalization in InGaAsP/InP based material system at 1300 nm wavelength window and in AlInGaAs/InP based material system at both 1300 nm and 1550 run wavelength windows. In the second device, polarization sensitivity of integrated optical devices, combined with the linear electro-optic effect in III-V semiconductor materials, is exploited to manipulate the state of polarization of the optical signal. A phase modulator, combined with a TE TM converter, may be used to obtain a device that converts the arbitrary elliptical input state of polarization to either the TE or the TM mode of the structure. Finite element methods have been developed to model the propagation and loss characteristics, and calculate the switching voltages of these devices based on AlGaAs/GaAs material system. The fabricated devices were then investigated for their I-V characteristics and propagations losses with and without the metal

  6. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  7. Integrated Coordinated Optimization Control of Automatic Generation Control and Automatic Voltage Control in Regional Power Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu-Yu Lu; Wei Hu; Le Zheng; Yong Min; Miao Li; Xiao-Ping Li; Wei-Chun Ge; Zhi-Ming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Automatic Generation Control (AGC) and Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) are key approaches to frequency and voltage regulation in power systems. However, based on the assumption of decoupling of active and reactive power control, the existing AGC and AVC systems work independently without any coordination. In this paper, a concept and method of hybrid control is introduced to set up an Integrated Coordinated Optimization Control (ICOC) system for AGC and AVC. Concerning the diversity of contro...

  8. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae) and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae) y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana

    OpenAIRE

    Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are among the least developed in the world and hunger and poverty remains widespread in most of the rural communities. Reducing hunger and chronic under nourishment through the introduction of productive livestock as a source of traction and manure for crop production, transport, milk and meat is deemed to be a fundamental first step towards better rural development. The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosom...

  9. Integrated systems for control of pink bollworm in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    stage. Most diapause larvae develop in late season bolls that do not contribute to yield but are a source of PBW that infest cotton the following year. We hypothesised that shortening the growing season to reduce the number of late-season bolls would reduce the number of overwintered larvae. The earliest cotton planting date was established as 1 March. Defoliation or plant growth regulator application to terminate plant growth and reduce numbers of late season immature bolls was mandated for 1 September. Cotton stalk destruction and plant residue plowdown was accomplished on 1 November to destroy PBW diapause larvae. Gossyplure-baited PBW trap catches were reduced in the following growing seasons of each year for 4 years following initiation of the programme. Fewer larvae per boll occurred during each season, and the production of diapause larvae was reduced over 90%. Cotton yields and quality increased, and the need for insecticidal control of PBW decreased. The development of Bt-cottons as another IPM component facilitated PBW area-wide management. Field evaluations during 1996 to 2004 have shown PBW infestations reduced 95% compared to non-Bt-cotton. Increased yields, reduced insecticide use, environmental compatibility and increased profits have been documented. The success of PBW-IPM sterile release, behavioural control, cultural control and host plant resistance components stimulated western cotton growers and the National Cotton Council to consider PBW eradication. A strategy has been developed to eradicate the PBW in programme increments in West Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona, California and northern Mexico, respectively. Short-season cotton culture and Bt-cotton effectively reduce overall PBW populations to facilitate the effectiveness of low-density effective pheromone mating disruption and sterile moth releases. The eradication programme was initiated in 2001-2002 in 22,300 ha of cotton in the El Paso- Trans Pecos area of Texas, 10,500 ha in south

  10. Integrating Pricing and Inventory Control: Is it Worth the Effort?

    OpenAIRE

    Gimpl-Heersink, Lisa; Rudloff, Christian; Fleischmann, Moritz; Taudes, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we first show that the gains achievable by integrating pricing and inventory control are usually small for classical demand functions. We then introduce reference price models and demonstrate that for this class of demand functions the benefits of integration with inventory control are substantially increased due to the price dynamics. We also provide some analytical results for this more complex model. We thus conclude that integrated pricing/inventory models could repeat the s...

  11. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con

  12. Integrated aerodynamic-structural-control wing design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, M.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Unger, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic-structural-control design of a forward-swept composite wing for a high subsonic transport aircraft is considered. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element method. The aerodynamic calculations are based on a vortex-lattice method, and the control calculations are based on an output feedback control. The wing is designed for minimum weight subject to structural, performance/aerodynamic and control constraints. Efficient methods are used to calculate the control-deflection and control-effectiveness sensitivities which appear as second-order derivatives in the control constraint equations. To suppress the aeroelastic divergence of the forward-swept wing, and to reduce the gross weight of the design aircraft, two separate cases are studied: (1) combined application of aeroelastic tailoring and active controls; and (2) aeroelastic tailoring alone. The results of this study indicated that, for this particular example, aeroelastic tailoring is sufficient for suppressing the aeroelastic divergence, and the use of active controls was not necessary.

  13. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures

  14. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  15. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tahersima, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants' thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via de-sign of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart electricity grid. We ...

  16. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  17. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  18. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  19. Integrated System Management and Reconfigurable Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team proposes to develop an onboard, real-time health management capability that monitors a flight control system (for spacecraft, fixed or rotary wing...

  20. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  1. Developing the sterile insect technique for area-wide management of the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : fertile) overflooding ratio inside large field-cages containing O. stricta host plants. Insects were allowed to mate and lay eggs and all egg sticks were collected daily. Percent egg hatch and reduction in F1 fertile larvae was used to ascertain the effectiveness of each release combination. In addition, we conducted limited field release-recapture experiments to examine the dispersal ability of untreated and treated cactus moth males. Results suggest that an overflooding ratio as low as 5:1 can effectively suppress C. cactorum in field-cages. Our data also suggests that releasing both genders together may be more effective than releasing males only. Finally, our results suggest that the dispersal ability of C. cactorum is not significantly affected by irradiating the adults with a dose of 200 Gy. An area-wide field trial currently is in progress to evaluate the ability of the SIT in combination with cultural controls to reduce C. cactorum populations near the leading edge of the expanding geographical range. (author)

  2. Integrated low power digital gyro control electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Closkey, Robert (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Grayver, Eugene (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention generally encompass a digital, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed to perform excitation of a selected mode within a vibratory rate gyroscope, damping, or force-rebalance, of other modes within the sensor, and signal demodulation of the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal containing the angular rate information. The ASIC filters dedicated to each channel may be individually programmed to accommodate different rate sensor designs/technology or variations within the same class of sensors. The ASIC architecture employs a low-power design, making the ASIC, particularly suitable for use in power-sensitive applications.

  3. Integrating Attributes into Role-Based Access Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.; Krishnan, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Role-based access control (RBAC) and attribute-based access control (ABAC) are currently the most prominent access control models. However, they both suffer from limitations and have features complimentary to each other. Due to this fact, integration of RBAC and ABAC has become a hot area...

  4. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk;

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  5. Gain Scheduling of Observer-Based Controllers with Integral Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

     This paper presents a method for continuous gain scheduling of  observer-based controllers with integral action. Given two stabilising controllers for a given system, explicit state space formulae are presented, allowing to change gradually from one  controller to the other while preserving...

  6. Design of a multivariable integrated control for a supersonic propulsion system. [variable stream control engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    An inlet/engine/nozzle integrated control mode for the propulsion system of an advanced supersonic commercial aircraft was studied. Results show that integration of these control functions can result in both operational and performance benefits for the propulsion system. For example, this integrated control mode may make it possible to minimize the use of inlet bypass doors for shock position control. This may be of benefit to the aircraft as a result of minimizing: (1) bypass bleed drag effects; (2) perturbations to the aircraft resulting from the side thrust effect of the bypass bleeds; and (3) potential unstarts of the inlet. A conceptual integrated control mode was developed which makes use of many cross coupling paths between inlet and engine control variables and inlet and engine sensed variables. A multivariable control design technique based upon linear quadratic regulator theory was applied to designing the feedback gains for this control to allow a simulation evaluation of the benefits of the integrated control mode.

  7. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-11-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended.

  8. New control system: solutions for CAMAC and VME integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three solutions for a new control system are presented. This system must integrate the whole existing CAMAC park with its LTR software, the VME modules for new interfaces and new processes, user interfaces integrating workstations for best graphic visualizations of setting tasks, the use of ETHERNET net and of the programming language ADA. (A.B.). 3 figs

  9. Integrity control in relational database systems - an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, Paul W.P.J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research regarding integrity control or integrity constraint handling in relational database management systems. The topic of constraint handling is discussed from two points of view. First, constraint handling is discussed by identifying a number of important researc

  10. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  11. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  12. Integrated Sensing and Control of Aeroelastic Deformation (ISCAD) Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Integrated Sensing and Control of Aeroelastic Deformation (ISCAD) Toolbox is proposed. Specif-ically, this toolbox will provide a methodology, both hardware and...

  13. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  14. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI, in collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to develop and test an efficient Integrated Damage Adaptive Control System (IDACS). The proposed system...

  15. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to further develop, implement and test the damage-adaptive control algorithms developed in Phase I within the framework of an Integrated Damage...

  16. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    and reliability constraints in power systems are motivating research into new control architectures suitable for such a large and complex system. The focus of this thesis is on an intermediate stage of evolution between today's largely passive loads and a future "Internet of Things". Specifically...... to the fluctuating production. The large number and geographic dispersion of loads make coordinating their behavior challenging. New telecommunication technology has reduced the cost of linking devices, promising a future "Internet of Things" where loads are fully networked. Strict real-time constraints......, this intermediate stage is autonomous devices with sensors, actuators, and software to control local processes but without digital communications interfaces. The architectures explored in this thesis are newly emergent, so the focus is on feasibility and system modeling. Earlier research has proposed using...

  17. Fracture control procedures for aircraft structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of applied fracture mechanics in the design, analysis, and qualification of aircraft structural systems are reviewed. Recent service experiences are cited. Current trends in high-strength materials application are reviewed with particular emphasis on the manner in which fracture toughness and structural efficiency may affect the material selection process. General fracture control procedures are reviewed in depth with specific reference to the impact of inspectability, structural arrangement, and material on proposed analysis requirements for safe crack growth. The relative impact on allowable design stress is indicated by example. Design criteria, material, and analysis requirements for implementation of fracture control procedures are reviewed together with limitations in current available data techniques. A summary of items which require further study and attention is presented.

  18. Integrating Strategy-Making through Interactive Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Sax, Johanna; Juul Andersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Strategic responses to complex and frequent environmental changes must balance the tension between innovative opportunistic search and optimization of operating processes. The ability to survive and thrive depends on an ability to facilitate dispersed exploratory initiatives, test their commercial viability, and exploit the associated business opportunities. However, dispersion of authority requires coordination as well as empowerment calls for extended controls. Hence, there is a tension bet...

  19. Integrating sand control, completion decisions pay off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, K.D.; Procyk, A.

    1998-10-01

    Anadarko recently completed an open-hole, horizontal gas well in the Gulf of Mexico using completion and sand control techniques that have proven extremely successful, judging from the production numbers. The well, in the East Addition, High Island Area, about 120 miles southeast of Galveston in 341-ft waters, was completed with a Pall Stratapac Sand Control Screen without a gravel pack. The flow rate of the well is four to sic times what would have been expected from a conventional, vertical, gravel-packed well with similar conditions. The well`s peak production rate was 22.0 MMcfd, and the well produced a total of more than 2.635 bcf of gas from November 1997 to July 1998. Drawdown was calculated at less than 40 psi, and a skin factor of negative 3.5 indicates that formation damage during the completion was negligible. The full range of completion and sand control decisions came together to make this well a success.

  20. Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2000-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. It is shown that the same set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables is employed with different objectives in design and control. Analysis...... of the phenomena models representing the process model identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control issues. The model analysis is highlighted through examples involving...... processes with mass and/or energy recycle. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Predictive functional control of integrating process based on impulse response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Ping LI; Weidong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The predictive model is built according to the characteristics of the impulse response of integrating process. In order to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output in the presence of the load disturbance, a novel error compensation method is proposed. Then predictive functional control of integrating process is designed. The method given generates a simple control structure, which can significantly reduce online computation. Furthermore, the tuning of the controller is fairly straightforward. Simulation results indicate that the designed control system is relatively robust to the parameters variation of the process.

  2. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local cont

  3. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  4. CONSTRUCTION COST INTEGRATED CONTROL BASED ON COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Construction cost control is a complex system engineering. Thetraditional controlling method cannot dynamically control in advance the construction cost because of its hysteresis. This paper proposes a computer simulation based construction cost integrated control method, which combines the cost with PERT systematically, so that the construction cost can be predicted and optimized systematically and effectively. The new method overcomes the hysteresis of the traditional systems, and is a distinct improvement over them in effect and practicality.

  5. Integrating Pricing and Inventory Control: Is it Worth the Effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gimpl-Heersink

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first show that the gains achievable by integrating pricing and inventory control are usually small for classical demand functions. We then introduce reference price models and demonstrate that for this class of demand functions the benefits of integration with inventory control are substantially increased due to the price dynamics. We also provide some analytical results for this more complex model. We thus conclude that integrated pricing/inventory models could repeat the success of revenue management in practice if reference price effects are included in the demand model and the properties of this new model are better understood.

  6. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of science-based standards for designing viable, sustainable T and T interventions in West Africa. The workshop was attended by staff of FAO, IAEA, CIRDES, ITC, ILRI specialists in the field of T and T and related development, field workers and those involved in the administration of PATTEC

  7. Key technologies for the novel distributed numerical control integrated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Guibao; LlU Fei; WANG Shilong

    2004-01-01

    A novel distributed numerical control (DNC) integrated system based on plug-in software technology is proposed. It connects new or old numerical control (NC) machine tools which haveinhomogeneous numerical control systems with CAD/CAM system by CANbus network. A DNC computer is able to control 15 sets of NC machine tools reliably at the same time. The novel DNC system increases the efficiency of machine tools and improve the production management level by realizing non-paper production, agile manufacturing, networked manufacturing and so on in the near future. Key technologies to construct the novel DNC integrated system include the integration of inhomogeneous numerical control systems, NC program restart, and algorithm for communication competition. Such system has demonstrated successful applications in some corporations that have acquired good economic benefits and social effects.

  8. Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2002-01-01

    A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models...... representing the constitutive equations identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control. Furthermore, the analysis is able to identify a set of process (control) variables...... and design (manipulative) variables that may be employed with different objectives in design and control for the integrated problem. The computer aided model analysis is highlighted through illustrative examples, involving processes with mass and/or energy recycle, where the important design and control...

  9. Integrated Coordinated Optimization Control of Automatic Generation Control and Automatic Voltage Control in Regional Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yu Lu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Generation Control (AGC and Automatic Voltage Control (AVC are key approaches to frequency and voltage regulation in power systems. However, based on the assumption of decoupling of active and reactive power control, the existing AGC and AVC systems work independently without any coordination. In this paper, a concept and method of hybrid control is introduced to set up an Integrated Coordinated Optimization Control (ICOC system for AGC and AVC. Concerning the diversity of control devices and the characteristics of discrete control interaction with a continuously operating power system, the ICOC system is designed in a hierarchical structure and driven by security, quality and economic events, consequently reducing optimization complexity and realizing multi-target quasi-optimization. In addition, an innovative model of Loss Minimization Control (LMC taking into consideration active and reactive power regulation is proposed to achieve a substantial reduction in network losses and a cross iterative method for AGC and AVC instructions is also presented to decrease negative interference between control systems. The ICOC system has already been put into practice in some provincial regional power grids in China. Open-looping operation tests have proved the validity of the presented control strategies.

  10. Development of the HIDEC inlet integration mode. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, J. D.; Nobbs, S. G.; Stewart, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) development program conducted at NASA-Ames/Dryden will use an F-15 test aircraft for flight demonstration. An account is presently given of the HIDEC Inlet Integration mode's design concept, control law, and test aircraft implementation, with a view to its performance benefits. The enhancement of performance is a function of the use of Digital Electronic Engine Control corrected engine airflow computations to improve the scheduling of inlet ramp positions in real time; excess thrust can thereby be increased by 13 percent at Mach 2.3 and 40,000 ft. Aircraft supportability is also improved through the obviation of inlet controllers.

  11. Control of mitochondrial integrity in ageing and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szklarczyk, R.J.; Nooteboom, M.; Osiewacz, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Various molecular and cellular pathways are active in eukaryotes to control the quality and integrity of mitochondria. These pathways are involved in keeping a 'healthy' population of this essential organelle during the lifetime of the organism. Quality control (QC) systems counteract processes that

  12. Impact of active controls technology on structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of The Technical Cooperation Program to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting the loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle. The potential for active controls to adversely affect structural integrity is described, and load predictions obtained using two state-of-the-art analytical methods are given.

  13. Embedded integrated servo-controllers for intelligent modular actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an embedded integrated servo-controller (EISC) for servomotors. Comprising of mainly servo-controller and servo-amplifiers, this EISC is capable of controlling a wide range of servomotors to perform complicated tasks. Hence, integration of this EISC with a servomotor forms an intelligent modular actuator (IMA) that is essential to modern manufacturing industries. The development of such an EISC involves two major tasks: first, designing the hardware of a compact-sized and highly compatible EISC, and second, developing the software functions to facilitate its functionalities and capabilities. The developed EISC hence forms an integrated-servo-control module, which determines the capability, functionality, flexibility and responsiveness of these IMAs.

  14. NASA Integrated Network Monitor and Control Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Kowal, Steve; Levesque, Michael; Sindiy, Oleg; Donahue, Kenneth; Barnes, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) has commissioned a series of trade studies to define a new architecture intended to integrate the three existing networks that it operates, the Deep Space Network (DSN), Space Network (SN), and Near Earth Network (NEN), into one integrated network that offers users a set of common, standardized, services and interfaces. The integrated monitor and control architecture utilizes common software and common operator interfaces that can be deployed at all three network elements. This software uses state-of-the-art concepts such as a pool of re-programmable equipment that acts like a configurable software radio, distributed hierarchical control, and centralized management of the whole SCaN integrated network. For this trade space study a model-based approach using SysML was adopted to describe and analyze several possible options for the integrated network monitor and control architecture. This model was used to refine the design and to drive the costing of the four different software options. This trade study modeled the three existing self standing network elements at point of departure, and then described how to integrate them using variations of new and existing monitor and control system components for the different proposed deployments under consideration. This paper will describe the trade space explored, the selected system architecture, the modeling and trade study methods, and some observations on useful approaches to implementing such model based trade space representation and analysis.

  15. Global satisfactory control for nonlinear integrator processes with long delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqun YANG; Guobo XIANG

    2007-01-01

    Integrator processes with long delay are difficult to control. Nonlinear characteristics of actuators make the control problem more challenging. A technique is proposed in this paper for global satisfactory control (GSC) of such processes with relay-type nonlinearity. An oscillatory control signal is injected into the nonlinear process; the amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory signal are designed to linearise the nonlinear process in the sense of harmonic analysis; and a state feedback controller is configured to implement GSC over the linearised process. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Linear Quadratic Integral Control for the Active Suspension of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The quarter model of an active suspension is established in the form of controllable autoregressive moving average (CARMA) model. An accelerometer can be mounted on the wheel hub for measuring road disturbance; this signal is used to identify the CARMA model parameters by recursive forgetting factors least square method. The linear quadratic integral (LQI) control method for the active suspension is presented. The LQI control algorithm is fit for vehicle suspension control, for the control performance index can comprise multi controlled variables. The simulation results show that the vertical acceleration and suspension travel both are decreased with the LQI control in the low frequency band, and the suspension travel is increased with the LQI control in the middle or high frequency band. The suspension travel is very small in the middle or high frequency band, the suspension bottoming stop will not happen, so the vehicle ride quality can be improved apparently by the LQI control.

  17. Integrated seismic design of structure and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structural optimization procedure presented in this book makes it possible to achieve seismic protection through integrated structural/control system design. In particular, it is explained how slender structural systems with a high seismic performance can be achieved through inclusion of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an integral part of the system. Readers are provided with essential introductory information on passive structural control and passive energy dissipation systems. Dynamic analyses of both single and multiple degree of freedom systems are performed in order to verify the achievement of pre-assigned performance targets, and it is explained how the optimal integrated design methodology, also relevant to retrofitting of existing buildings, should be applied. The book illustrates how structural control research is opening up new possibilities in structural forms and configurations without compromising structural performance.

  18. Challenges and opportunities in integration of design and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    Process synthesis and design of plant operation are related topics but current industrial practice solves these problems sequentially. The implication of this sequential strategy may result in design of processing systems which are very hard to control. This paper presents a discussion on drivers...... for an integrated approach and outlines the challenges in formulation of such a multi-objective synthesis problem. This discussion is viewed in relation to some of the changing trends in the industry. Significant results have been published which in different ways seek to handle the integrated problem. Further......, advancements in control algorithms and software have widened the range of feasible operation and control for strongly interconnected production systems. In light of these advances in different areas of the field, recommendations for further research and initiatives for development of an integrated approach...

  19. Integration of multiple sensor fusion in controller design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Kandasamy, Parameshwaran

    2003-04-01

    The main focus of this research is to reduce the risk of a catastrophic response of a feedback control system when some of the feedback data from the system sensors are not reliable, while maintaining a reasonable performance of the control system. In this paper a methodology for integrating multiple sensor fusion into the controller design is presented. The multiple sensor fusion algorithm produces, in addition to the estimate of the measurand, a parameter that measures the confidence in the estimated value. This confidence is integrated as a parameter into the controller to produce fast system response when the confidence in the estimate is high, and a slow response when the confidence in the estimate is low. Conditions for the stability of the system with the developed controller are discussed. This methodology is demonstrated on a cupola furnace model. The simulations illustrate the advantages of the new methodology.

  20. An integrated approach to modeling and adaptive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    In the book (Adaptive Identification,Prediction and Control-Multi Level Recursive Approach), the concept of dynamical linearization of nonlinear systems has been presented.This dynamical linearization is formal only,not a real linearization.From the linearization procedure,we can find a new approach of system identification,which is on-line real-time modeling and real-time feedback control correction.The modeling and real-time feedback control have been integrated in the identification approach,with the parameter adaptation model being abandoned.The structure adaptation of control systems has been achieved,which avoids the complex modeling steps.The objective of this paper is to introduce the approach of integrated modeling and control.

  1. Integration of multiple sensor fusion in controller design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Kandasamy, Parameshwaran

    2003-04-01

    The main focus of this research is to reduce the risk of a catastrophic response of a feedback control system when some of the feedback data from the system sensors are not reliable, while maintaining a reasonable performance of the control system. In this paper a methodology for integrating multiple sensor fusion into the controller design is presented. The multiple sensor fusion algorithm produces, in addition to the estimate of the measurand, a parameter that measures the confidence in the estimated value. This confidence is integrated as a parameter into the controller to produce fast system response when the confidence in the estimate is high, and a slow response when the confidence in the estimate is low. Conditions for the stability of the system with the developed controller are discussed. This methodology is demonstrated on a cupola furnace model. The simulations illustrate the advantages of the new methodology. PMID:12708539

  2. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  3. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  4. Construction CAE; Integration of CAD, simulation, planning and cost control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickard, D.A. (Bechtel Power Corp., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Bill, R.D.; Gates, K.H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Ohcoshi, S. (Nuclear Engineering and Construction Dept., Hitachi Works, Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi (JP))

    1989-01-01

    Construction CAE is a simulation, planning, scheduling, and cost control tool that is integrated with a computer aided design (CAD) system. The system uses a CAD model and allows the user to perform construction simulation on objects defined within the model. Initial cost/schedule reports as well as those required for project chronicling are supported through an interface to a work breakdown structure (WBS) and a client's existing schedule reporting system. By integrating currently available project control tools with a simulation system, Construction CAE is more effective than its individual components.

  5. Adaptive robust controller based on integral sliding mode concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, M.; Plestan, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes, for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, an adaptive controller based on adaptive second-order sliding mode control and integral sliding mode control concepts. The adaptation strategy solves the problem of gain tuning and has the advantage of chattering reduction. Moreover, limited information about perturbation and uncertainties has to be known. The control is composed of two parts: an adaptive one whose objective is to reject the perturbation and system uncertainties, whereas the second one is chosen such as the nominal part of the system is stabilised in zero. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an application on an academic example is shown with simulation results.

  6. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚燕安[1; 颜鸿森[2; 张策[3; 邹慧君[4

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  7. Integrated control centre concepts for CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size and complexity of nuclear power plants has increased significantly in the last 20 years. There is general agreement that plant safety and power production can be enhanced if more operational support systems that are significantly different from the ones based on the more conventional technologies used in plant control rooms. In particular, artificial intelligence and related technologies will play a major role in the development of innovative methods for information processing and presentation. These technologies must be integrated into the overall management and control philosophy of the plant and not be treated as vehicles to implement point solutions. The underlying philosophy behind our approach is discussed in this paper. Operator support systems will integrate into the overall control philosophy by complementing the operator. Four support systems are described; each is a prototype of a system being considered for the CANDU 3 control centre

  8. Control structure selection for energy integrated distillation column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.E.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    This paper treats a case study on control structure selection for an almost binary distillation column. The column is energy integrated with a heat pump in order to transfer heat from the condenser to the reboiler. This integrated plant configuration renders the possible control structures somewhat...... different from what is usual for binary distillation columns. Further the heat pump enables disturbances to propagate faster through the system. The plant has six possible actuators of which three must be used to stabilize the system. Hereby three actuators are left for product purity control. An MILP...... screening method based on a linear state space model is used to determine economically optimal sets of controlled and manipulated variables. The generated sets of inputs and outputs are analysed with frequency dependent relative gain array (RGA), relative disturbance gain (RDG) and condition number (CN...

  9. Propulsion control experience used in the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will integrate the propulsion and flight control systems on an F-15 airplane at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Ames-Dryden has conducted several propulsion control programs that have contributed to the HIDEC program. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) flight evaluation investigated the performance and operability of the F100 engine equipped with a full-authority digital electronic control system. Investigations of nozzle instability, fault detection and accommodation, and augmentor transient capability provided important information for the HIDEC program. The F100 engine model derivative (EMD) was also flown in the F-15 airplane, and airplane performance was significantly improved. A throttle response problem was found and solved with a software fix to the control logic. For the HIDEC program, the F100 EMD engines equipped with DEEC controls will be integrated with the digital flight control system. The control modes to be implemented are an integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine control system mode. The engine control experience that will be used in the HIDEC program is discussed.

  10. Security controls in the Stockpoint Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, D. S.

    1985-03-01

    This thesis examines security controls specified and implemented in the Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE) project. Controls provided by the Defense Data Network and the Tandem operating system are reviewed. Alternatives from current literature in areas of authentication, encryption, and dial-port protection are reviewed for the purpose of suggesting enhancements. Issues discussed apply to most interactive/decentralized systems in operation today and include administrative as well as technical recommendations.

  11. The Integrated Control-Mechanism in ATM-Based Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Survivability is one of the important issues in ATM-based networks since even a single network element failure may cause a serious data loss. This paper introduces a new restoration mechanism based on multi-layer ATM survivable network management architecture. This mechanism integrates the general control and restoration control by establishing the Working VPs logical network, Backup VPs logical network and spare logical network in order to optimally utilize the network resources while maintaining the restoration requirements.

  12. Design and control of integrated styrene aniline production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Partenie, O.; Last, V.; Sorin Bildea, C.; Altimari, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the operational difficulties arising from simultaneously performing exothermic and endothermic reactions, and demonstrates that a plant can be built and safely operated by integrating the design and plantwide control issues. The behaviour of reactor – separation – recycle systems carrying the coupled reactions A →P + Q (endo) and B + Q → R (exo) is investigated. Irrespective of the control structure, state multiplicity cannot be removed if the intermediate component Q i...

  13. Automatic control of paint spray booth with integrated dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Živec, Marko

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents a solution for automatic control of a paint spray booth with integrated dryer. The conditions in the booth must be as constant as possible to assure better quality of surface coating applied on a particular object, while also lowering the consumption of energy sources and improving the working environment. The thesis includes descriptions of physical elements used for control and regulation, the software solution, which includes algorithms for the regulation of the tempera...

  14. Dispersion-enabled quantum state control in integrated photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchildon, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Integrated optics has brought unprecedented levels of stability and performance to quantum photonic circuits. However, integrated devices are not merely micron-scale equivalents of their bulk-optics counterparts. By exploiting the inherently dispersive characteristics of the integrated setting, such devices can play a remarkably more versatile role in quantum circuit architectures. We show this by examining the implications of linear dispersion in an ordinary directional coupler. Dispersion unlocks several novel capabilities for this device, including in-situ control over photon spectral and polarization entanglement, tunable photon time-ordering, and entanglement-sensitive two-photon coincidence generation. Also revealed is an ability to maintain perfect two-photon anti-coalescence while tuning the interference visibility, which has no equivalent in bulk-optics. The outcome of this work adds to a suite of state engineering and characterization tools that benefit from the advantages of integration. It also pa...

  15. Controllable growth of dielectric/semiconductor integrated films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YangRong; ZHU Jun; LUO WenBo; LIU XingZhao; ZHANG WanLi

    2009-01-01

    Currently,electronic information systems are developing quickly towards further miniaturization and monolithic integration so as to realize smaller volume,higher velocity and lower power consumption.For this purpose,the integration of all sorts of active devices (mainly fabricated by semiconductors) with passive devices (fabricated by functional materials) is particularly important and impendent.Therefore,it is necessary to integrate multifunctional oxide dielectrics possessing electric,magnetic,acoustic,optical and thermal properties characterized by spontaneous polarization with semiconductors bearing the characters of carrier transportation to form artificial structures via deposition of solid films.This kind of integrated films may have two characters,i.e.,the all-in-one multifunction and modulation of electromagnetic properties by hetero-interface.This makes it possible to realize monolithic integration of detecting,processing,transmission,executing and storing of electronic information.Meanwhile,possible integrated coupling effects will be pursued instead of exploring the limited physical properties of the related materials.In this paper,we put forward a new direction of developing electronic devices with higher performances,and demonstrate some results concerning our recent research on the interface-controllable integrated growth of dielectrics and GaN.Recent progresses of the related research in the world are also reviewed.

  16. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized

  17. A semiconductor laser with monolithically integrated dynamic polarization control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B M; Naeem, M A; Hutchings, D C; Marsh, J H; Kelly, A E

    2012-08-27

    We report the first demonstration of a semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an active polarization controller, which consists of a polarization mode converter followed by an active, differential phase shifter. High speed modulation of the device output polarization is demonstrated via current injection to the phase shifter section. PMID:23037101

  18. Integrated product definition representation for agile numerical control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, W.R. Jr.; Brooks, S.L.; Kirk, W.J. III; Brown, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Realization of agile manufacturing capabilities for a virtual enterprise requires the integration of technology, management, and work force into a coordinated, interdependent system. This paper is focused on technology enabling tools for agile manufacturing within a virtual enterprise specifically relating to Numerical Control (N/C) manufacturing activities and product definition requirements for these activities.

  19. Two-layer distributed optimal control for energy system integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti

    2016-01-01

    We study how to embed dynamic agents that transform gas to power, or power to gas in the different energy grids, such as the gas, power, industry and heat grids in a distributed and optimal manner. Integrated in a community, the agents aim at controlling their supply and demand levels thereby achiev

  20. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this m

  1. Design and control of integrated styrene aniline production plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partenie, O.; Van der Last, V.; Sorin Bildea, C.; Altimari, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the operational difficulties arising from simultaneously performing exothermic and endothermic reactions, and demonstrates that a plant can be built and safely operated by integrating the design and plantwide control issues. The behaviour of reactor – separation – recycle syst

  2. Silicon-on-insulator integrated tunable polarization controller (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Merenguel, Jose-Dario; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Halir, Robert; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cheben, Pavel; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Xu, Danxia; Schmid, Jens H.; Janz, Siegfried; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Polarization management is a key functionality in many photonic applications, including optical communications, imaging or quantum information. Developing integrated devices capable of reliably controlling polarization state would result in compact and low cost circuits with improved stability compared with fiber or bulk optics solutions. However, stringent fabrication tolerances make the integration of polarization managing elements highly challenging. The main challenge in polarization controllers, composed by polarization rotators and polarization phase shifters, is to precisely control rotation angle in integrated polarization rotators. Proposed solutions typically require sophisticated fabrication processes or extremely tight fabrication tolerances, seriously hindering their practical application. Here we present a technology independent polarization controller scheme that relies on phase shifters to largely relax fabrication tolerances of polarization rotators. In addition, these phase shifters enable dynamic wavelength tuning. In our scheme, three polarization rotation elements are interconnected with two tunable phase shifters to adjust the polarization extinction ratio, while an output polarization phase shifter is used to select the relative phase. This way we can achieve any desired output state of polarization. We have implemented this scheme in the silicon-on-insulator platform, experimentally demonstrating a record polarization extinction range of 40 dB (± 20 dB) with a 98% coverage of the Poincaré sphere. Furthermore, the device is tunable in the complete C-band. These results constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the highest polarization extinction range achieved in a fully integrated device.

  3. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert A.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to o

  4. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Programme: Influence of a good education and partnerships in a successful programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In 1999, USDA-ARS launched the 'Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program' as a 5-yr programme to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The programme involved developing and integrating biologically-based pest technologies into a comprehensive management package that will be economically viable, environmentally sensitive and sustainable. Technologies included: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, and if needed, 4) augmentative parasitoid releases and 5) sterile insect releases. Many of these technologies were developed by ARS in Hawaii; however, they had never been packaged and transferred to Hawaiian farmers. Education: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes is an organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programme. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity-based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAWFLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a

  5. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Longhua; Peng, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly time-consuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms ...

  6. Robust output LQ optimal control via integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Leonid; Bejarano, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Featuring original research from well-known experts in the field of sliding mode control, this monograph presents new design schemes for implementing LQ control solutions in situations where the output system is the only information provided about the state of the plant. This new design works under the restrictions of matched disturbances without losing its desirable features. On the cutting-edge of optimal control research, Robust Output LQ Optimal Control via Integral Sliding Modes is an excellent resource for both graduate students and professionals involved in linear systems, optimal control, observation of systems with unknown inputs, and automatization. In the theory of optimal control, the linear quadratic (LQ) optimal problem plays an important role due to its physical meaning, and its solution is easily given by an algebraic Riccati equation. This solution turns out to be restrictive, however, because of two assumptions: the system must be free from disturbances and the entire state vector must be kn...

  7. Fault tolerant control schemes using integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamayun, Mirza Tariq; Alwi, Halim

    2016-01-01

    The key attribute of a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is its ability to maintain overall system stability and acceptable performance in the face of faults and failures within the feedback system. In this book Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) Control Allocation (CA) schemes for FTC are described, which have the potential to maintain close to nominal fault-free performance (for the entire system response), in the face of actuator faults and even complete failures of certain actuators. Broadly an ISM controller based around a model of the plant with the aim of creating a nonlinear fault tolerant feedback controller whose closed-loop performance is established during the design process. The second approach involves retro-fitting an ISM scheme to an existing feedback controller to introduce fault tolerance. This may be advantageous from an industrial perspective, because fault tolerance can be introduced without changing the existing control loops. A high fidelity benchmark model of a large transport aircraft is u...

  8. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G. A.

    1993-12-01

    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis.

  9. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  10. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    are distributed based on the network states, channel conditions, and QoS requirements. A new aspect in the design of future network is the energy efficiency. An energy management mechanism is proposed and evaluated for the optical network. With regard to power saving, a sleep mode operation is developed...... control platform design. To achieve an integrated and unified control platform, enhanced signalling protocol plays an important role in gluing the two different technologies. Consequently, an integrated resource management system is developed. Furthermore, and admission control scheme for connections....... Therefore, power is conserved by switch off some operating functions. The sleep period and wake up period are computed and assigned using two alternative scheduling schemes, which show trade-off performances on energy efficiency, queuing delay and network bandwidth utilization. To summarize...

  11. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  12. Process Orientation, Integration of Work Teams and Management Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Göran

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend in Swedish companies to use team-based organisational design when striving for process orientation. The first question put forth in this paper is whether this design supports a process orientation. Since the teams usually are rather autonomous it is not obvious that they become integrated with other teams in the process. The second question put forth is if and how management control, in a broad sense, can support an integration of the teams. In an explorative field survey, ai...

  13. A novel sliding mode nonlinear proportional-integral control scheme for controlling chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Dong-Chuan; Wu Ai-Guo; Yang Chao-Ping

    2005-01-01

    A novel sliding mode nonlinear proportional-integral control (SMNPIC) scheme is proposed for driving a class of time-variant chaotic systems with uncertainty to arbitrarily desired trajectory with high accuracy. The SMNPIC differs from the previous sliding mode techniques in the sense that a nonlinear proportional-integral action of sliding function is involved in control law, so that both the steady-state error and the high-frequency chattering are reduced,and meanwhile, robustness and fastness are guaranteed. In addition, the proposed SMNPIC actually acts as a class of nonlinear proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller, in which the tracking error and its derivatives up to (n-1)thorder as well as the integral of tracking error are considered, so that more useful information than traditional PID can be implemented and better dynamic and static characteristics can obtained. Its good performance for chaotic control is illustrated through a During-Holmes system with uncertainty.

  14. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  15. Proportional-plus-integral semiactive control using magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, N.; Ikhouane, F.; Rodellar, J.

    2011-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are a promising alternative to structural active actuators as they provide adjustable damping over a wide range of frequencies without large power requirements. However, the complex dynamics that characterizes these devices makes it difficult to formulate control laws based on the MR damper model. Instead, many semiactive control strategies proposed in the literature have been based on the idea of "clipping" the voltage signal so that the MR damper force "tracks" a desired active control force which is computed on-line. With this idea many algorithms have been proposed using, among others, techniques such as optimal control, H∞ control, sliding mode control, backstepping and QFT. This work presents a semiactive control strategy based on the same idea of "clipping" the voltage signal but using a simpler PI design. The proportional and integral gains of the controller are calculated so that the controller guarantees stability, minimization of the closed loop response and robustness against modeling errors. Effectiveness of the control strategy is compared to some others techniques and passive cases as well. Simulation results shows that this simple strategy can effectively improve the structural responses and achieve performance index comparable to that of more complex algorithms.

  16. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  17. Integral control concept of buildings; Integrales Steuerungskonzept von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabben, L.; Schmitz, H.J. [e2 energieberatung GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Each existing building is unique in its function, appearance, users and location regarding to local climatic conditions and in case of an existing building also in its history. Therefore a custom-made control-concept is to be prepared in form of requirement specifications compellingly necessarily for each building. The building simulation is a powerful tool for the optimization of a coordinated control processes for heating, cooling and ventilation including the control of solar shading and lighting. Basic conditions for the design of a successful control concept are realistic assumptions of the user behaviour and in the realisation the application of the found results of the simulation. This article shows by example of the reconstruction of the main building of the Dortmund energy and water supply GmbH (DEW21), how important a building and user-specific HVAC control concept is. Only by a consistent application of the integrated concept and the monitoring by the specialized consultants contradictory controls for users and environment can be avoided. The example shows that the successful integrated design process does not only achieve substantial energy conservation, but also substantially improved user comfort. (orig.)

  18. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  19. Optimal integrated process control and maintenance under general deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an integrated Statistical Process Control (SPC) and preventive maintenance (PM) model for three-state processes (two operational states and a non-operational failure state) taking into account the interrelation between quality degradation and proneness to complete failure. No restriction is placed on the distributions of the times to quality shifts and failures and different types of inspection policies and tools are allowed signifying a wide practical applicability of the model. The proposed scheme leads to significant economic improvement compared to: (a) independently obtained SPC and PM policies, which treat quality shifts and failures in isolation, and (b) approximate models, which assume Markovian deterioration. - Highlights: ► Joint statistical process control and maintenance procedures are considered. ► The random times to quality shifts and failures follow general distributions. ► The model combines minimal and perfect preventive maintenance actions. ► The economic effectiveness of the proposed integrated model is illustrated.

  20. Internal Control of Enterprise Capital Turnover under the Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Tetiana H.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to build methods of internal control of the capital turnover, which would meet modern integration processes in Ukraine and in the world. First of all it states that internal control should ensure realisation of interests of the enterprise owner. It marks out that despite the existing methods, the enterprise control should be started not with assets, but from the sources of their formation – own capital and obligations, and only then go to the enterprise property control. The author offers relevant methods of capital turnover control, which takes into account its stages – acquisition, production and sales – and gives practical recommendations on its use at enterprises. Special attention is paid to the capital turnover control at the stage of production, which should keep track of both quantitative and qualitative parameters. Acquisition and sales control, except for internal controllers, is carried out by marketing, logistics and other services. Generalisation of results of the control should be done in forms that, on the one hand, have evidential force and, on the other, accessible for comprehension and use in the process of making managerial decisions by managers of various levels.

  1. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  2. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  3. Voltage margin control for offshore multi-use platform integration

    OpenAIRE

    Mier, V.; Casielles, P.G.; Koto, J.; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a multiterminal direct current (MTDC) connection proposed for integration of offshore multi-use platforms into continental grids. Voltage source converters (VSC) were selected for their suitability for multiterminal dc systems and for their flexibility in control. A five terminal VSC-MTDC which includes offshore generation, storage, loads and ac connection, was modeled and simulated in DigSILENT Power Factory software. Voltage margin method has been used for reliable oper...

  4. Integrating ecology and technology to create innovative pest control devices

    OpenAIRE

    Blackie, H.; MacMorran, D.; L. Shapiro; Woodhead, I.; Diegel, O.; Murphy, E.; Eason, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of innovative pest management and monitoring tools requires the integration of animal ecology, toxicology and design engineering. Resetting, multi-kill devices offer substantial advantages over current baiting or trapping techniques. This research outlines the development and testing of a longlife, resetting, toxin delivery systems for predator control, which has recently been laboratory and field trialed on stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (M. nivalis). Results of laborat...

  5. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  6. System design and control integration for advanced manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Han-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Most existing robust design books address design for static systems, or achieve robust design from experimental data via the Taguchi method. Little work considers model information for robust design particularly for the dynamic system. This book covers robust design for both static and dynamic systems using the nominal model information or the hybrid model/data information, and also integrates design with control under a large operating region. This design can handle strong nonlinearity and more uncertainties from model and parameters.

  7. An integrated approach to pipeline buoyancy control and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L.N. [AMEC E and C Services Inc., Abbotsford, BC (Canada); Henderson, J. [Associated Mining Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An integrated approach used to solve a complex pipeline design was presented. The problem pipeline was EnCana's Ekwan Pipeline, an NPS 24x83 km long natural gas pipeline in a remote location of northeastern British Columbia where high costs were anticipated for buoyancy control; permafrost protection; and, river crossing construction. This case study demonstrated how to integrate several investigative methods with design, procurement, contracting and construction strategies to reduce life cycles costs considerably for newly constructed operating pipelines. The project design team made use of air photo interpretation, borehole investigation, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), fixed frequency electromagnetics (FEM) and seismic refraction. When each of these methods were integrated effectively with project assessment, design, procurement and construction, the combined data yielded project-specific information that was greater than the sum of individual investigative parts, and significantly reduced construction costs. The best indicator for choosing which buoyancy control method to use was soil types and depths; stability; and, moisture content in the ditch during construction. Pipe buoyancy control design takes into account backfill; ditch and trenching methods; set-on weights; bolt-on weights; concrete coatings; heavy wall pipe; pipe sacks; and, screw anchors. The integrated approach was found to reduce the total amount spent for buoyancy control on the Ekwan Pipeline from a potential 18 per cent of the capital cost to an installed cost of less than 5 per cent of the project total, including all labour, material and data collection methods used. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. Development of Quality Control Procedures for Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidopteran species are among the most destructive insect pests throughout the world. The sterile insect technique (SIT), within an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach, has proven to be a valuable tactic for controlling and eradicating important moth pests. Improving laboratory...

  9. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  10. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  11. Instrumentation and control system for Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation and Control System for nuclear recycle facilities have advanced step by step from manual operation from the operating gallery in the 1960s to hardwired panel based operation from the control room in 1980s and to remote operation through PLC/SCADA systems from control room in the last decade. This paper describes the requirements and associated challenges in Instrumentation and control system design for Integrated nuclear recycle facilities being set up by Nuclear Recycle Board. This will be the forerunner for many such plants being executed by the Board. It details the changes in design philosophy over existing plants in reprocessing and waste management. The paper also explains the design provisions made and the implementation of the same for safe operation of the facility for the designed period. (author)

  12. The strategy for intelligent integrated instrumentation and control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of the nuclear power plants in Korea are operating with analog instrumentation and control ( I and C) equipment which are increasingly faced with frequent troubles, obsolescence and high maintenance expenses. Electrical and computer technology has improved rapidly in recent years and has been applied to other industries. So it is strongly recommended we adopt modern digital and computer technology to improve plant safety and availability. The advanced I and C system, namely, Integrated Intelligent Instrumentation and Control System (I3 Cs) will be developed for beyond the next generation nuclear power plant. I3CS consists of three major parts, the advanced compact workstation, distributed digital control and protection system including Automatic Start-up/Shutdown Intelligent Control System (ASICS) and the computer-based alarm processing and operator support system, namely, Diagnosis, Response, and operator Aid Management System (DREAMS)

  13. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  14. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  15. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  16. [Controllability pyramid: an integrated control system of quality for traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-He; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wang, Jia-Bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Quality control is one of the key scientific tissues in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In order to overcome the deficiencies of assessment indexes, including little systematization and quantification, as well as loose association with clinical efficacy and dosage, a new integrated method named controllability pyramid ( CP) is first proposed in this paper. In addition, some study cases are used to explain how this model is constructed. We hope the establishment of CP could promote the clinical-orien- ted integrated innovation research of TCM, and provide control strategy and technology examples for improving the quality of Chinese medicines and clinical efficacy.

  17. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  18. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  19. Integral Sliding Mode Control Design for Electronic Throttle Valve System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibly Ahmed AL-Samarraie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major components in an automobile engine is the throttle valve part. It is used to keep up with emissions and fuel efficiency low. Design a control system to the throttle valve is newly common requirement trend in automotive technology. The non-smoothness nonlinearity in throttle valve model are due to the friction model and the nonlinear spring, the uncertainty in system parameters and non-satisfying the matching condition are the main obstacles when designing a throttle plate controller. In this work, the theory of the Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC is utilized to design a robust controller for the Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV system. From the first instant, the electronic throttle valve dynamics is represented by the nominal system model, this model is not affected by system parameters uncertainty and the non-smooth nonlinearities. This is a consequence of applying the integral sliding mode control. The ISMC consists of two part; the first is the nominal control which is used to control the nominal system, while the second is a discontinuous part which is used to eliminate the effects of the parameters uncertainty and the non-smooth nonlinearities from system model. These features for the ISMC are proved mathematically and demonstrated numerically via seven numerical simulations and for different desired trajectories. The simulation results clarify that for different system parameters, the ETV behaves as a nominal system. This enables to freely and precisely select the system response characteristics and the time required for the throttle angle to reach the desired value. Moreover the ability to deal with the chattering problem is demonstrated through the worked simulation tests, where the chattering is eliminated via approximating the signum function by arc tan function.

  20. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Peng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  1. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Peng, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly time-consuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  2. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  3. Protein kinase C controls activation of the DNA integrity checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Carot, María; Quilis, Inma; Bañó, M. Carmen; Igual, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily plays key regulatory roles in numerous cellular processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a single PKC, Pkc1, whose main function is cell wall integrity maintenance. In this work, we connect the Pkc1 protein to the maintenance of genome integrity in response to genotoxic stresses. Pkc1 and its kinase activity are necessary for the phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase Rad53, histone H2A and Xrs2 protein after deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, indicating that Pkc1 is required for activation of checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Tel1. Furthermore, Pkc1 electrophoretic mobility is delayed after inducing DNA damage, which reflects that Pkc1 is post-translationally modified. This modification is a phosphorylation event mediated by Tel1. The expression of different mammalian PKC isoforms at the endogenous level in yeast pkc1 mutant cells revealed that PKCδ is able to activate the DNA integrity checkpoint. Finally, downregulation of PKCδ activity in HeLa cells caused a defective activation of checkpoint kinase Chk2 when DNA damage was induced. Our results indicate that the control of the DNA integrity checkpoint by PKC is a mechanism conserved from yeast to humans. PMID:24792164

  4. Structural integrated sensor and actuator systems for active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Christian; Schwerter, Martin; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Wierach, Peter; Dietzel, Andreas; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    An adaptive flow separation control system is designed and implemented as an essential part of a novel high-lift device for future aircraft. The system consists of MEMS pressure sensors to determine the flow conditions and adaptive lips to regulate the mass flow and the velocity of a wall near stream over the internally blown Coanda flap. By the oscillating lip the mass flow in the blowing slot changes dynamically, consequently the momentum exchange of the boundary layer over a high lift flap required mass flow can be reduced. These new compact and highly integrated systems provide a real-time monitoring and manipulation of the flow conditions. In this context the integration of pressure sensors into flow sensing airfoils of composite material is investigated. Mechanical and electrical properties of the integrated sensors are investigated under mechanical loads during tensile tests. The sensors contain a reference pressure chamber isolated to the ambient by a deformable membrane with integrated piezoresistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge, which outputs voltage signals depending on the ambient pressure. The composite material in which the sensors are embedded consists of 22 individual layers of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) prepreg. The results of the experiments are used for adapting the design of the sensors and the layout of the laminate to ensure an optimized flux of force in highly loaded structures primarily for future aeronautical applications. It can be shown that the pressure sensor withstands the embedding process into fiber composites with full functional capability and predictable behavior under stress.

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Brian R.; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn; Summers, Cathy Ann; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul Chandler

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  6. Path integrals and symmetry breaking for optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers linear-quadratic control of a non-linear dynamical system subject to arbitrary cost. I show that for this class of stochastic control problems the non-linear Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation can be transformed into a linear equation. The transformation is similar to the transformation used to relate the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation to the Schr\\"odinger equation. As a result of the linearity, the usual backward computation can be replaced by a forward diffusion process, that can be computed by stochastic integration or by the evaluation of a path integral. It is shown, how in the deterministic limit the PMP formalism is recovered. The significance of the path integral approach is that it forms the basis for a number of efficient computational methods, such as MC sampling, the Laplace approximation and the variational approximation. We show the effectiveness of the first two methods in number of examples. Examples are given that show the qualitative difference between stochastic and d...

  7. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  8. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  9. DESIGNING OF TWO NEW FUZZY CONTROLLERS WITH ERROR INTEGRAL AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN FOLLOWING CONTROL OF WARSHIP-GUNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new fuzzy controllers are designed,one's control rules are adjusted by error integral,another are with feedforward of error integral. If only the control rules and parameters are selected felicitously,the static errors of the system will be eliminated. The test results show that the controllers can assuredly improve static performances of the controlled system.

  10. Somatosensory integration controlled by dynamic thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabernet, Laetitia; Jadhav, Shantanu P; Feldman, Daniel E; Carandini, Matteo; Scanziani, Massimo

    2005-10-20

    The temporal features of tactile stimuli are faithfully represented by the activity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex. However, the cellular mechanisms that enable cortical neurons to report accurate temporal information are not known. Here, we show that in the rodent barrel cortex, the temporal window for integration of thalamic inputs is under the control of thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition and can vary from 1 to 10 ms. A single thalamic fiber can trigger feed-forward inhibition and contacts both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons. The dynamics of feed-forward inhibition exceed those of each individual synapse in the circuit and are captured by a simple disynaptic model of the thalamocortical projection. The variations in the integration window produce changes in the temporal precision of cortical responses to whisker stimulation. Hence, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, classically known to sharpen spatial contrast of tactile inputs, also increase the temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex.

  11. An integrated design for missile guidance/control/tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yefeng; Qiu, Haitao

    2008-10-01

    An integrated information system (IIS) which contains strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), automatic pilot and terminal guidance seeker is proposed. Using rotating modulation approach, the performance of the low cost MEMS inertial sensor is improved by 20-30 times. The precision of the modulated MEMS gyro is available for strapdown navigation system and autopilot. The IIS gyros replace gimbal-based gyros are used in the line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization system. The seeker's LOS angular rate is estimated by combining the missile-fixed gyro information with gimbal coordinate rate information. The indirect LOS stabilization control loop is elaborately designed according to the gimbal kinematical relationship and dynamics models. The study and analysis results show that the compensation torque is available to null the disturbance and make the LOS stabilization. The proposed IIS saves two sets of gyros and make the SINS, autopilot, seeker integrated designing. It owns many advantages such as compact configuration, prominent low cost etc.

  12. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  13. An Integrated Enterprise Accelerator Database for the SLC Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception in the early 1980's, the SLC Control System has been driven by a highly structured memory-resident real-time database. While efficient, its rigid structure and file-based sources makes it difficult to maintain and extract relevant information. The goal of transforming the sources for this database into a relational form is to enable it to be part of a Control System Enterprise Database that is an integrated central repository for SLC accelerator device and Control System data with links to other associated databases. We have taken the concepts developed for the NLC Enterprise Database and used them to create and load a relational model of the online SLC Control System database. This database contains data and structure to allow querying and reporting on beamline devices, their associations and parameters. In the future this will be extended to allow generation of EPICS and SLC database files, setup of applications and links to other databases such as accelerator maintenance, archive data, financial and personnel records, cabling information, documentation etc. The database is implemented using Oracle 8i. In the short term it will be updated daily in batch from the online SLC database. In the longer term, it will serve as the primary source for Control System static data, an R and D platform for the NLC, and contribute to SLC Control System operations

  14. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  15. On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.

  16. Diving control of underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle using integral-fast terminal sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浙平; 于浩淼; 侯恕萍

    2016-01-01

    The problem of diving control for an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) considering the presence of parameters perturbations and wave disturbances was addressesed. The vertical motion of an UUV was divided into two noninteracting subsystems for surge velocity control and diving. To stabilize the vertical motion system, the surge velocity and the depth control controllers were proposed using backstepping technology and an integral-fast terminal sliding mode control (IFTSMC). It is proven that the proposed control scheme can guarantee that all the error signals in the whole closed-loop system globally converge to the sliding surface in finite time and asymptotically converge to the origin along the sliding surface. With a unified control parameters for different motion states, a series of numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the above designed control scheme, which also shows strong robustness against parameters perturbations and wave disturbances.

  17. Voltage margin control for offshore multi-use platform integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mier, V.; Casielles, P.G.; Koto, J.;

    This paper discusses a multiterminal direct current (MTDC) connection proposed for integration of offshore multi-use platforms into continental grids. Voltage source converters (VSC) were selected for their suitability for multiterminal dc systems and for their flexibility in control. A five...... terminal VSC-MTDC which includes offshore generation, storage, loads and ac connection, was modeled and simulated in DigSILENT Power Factory software. Voltage margin method has been used for reliable operation of the MTDC system without the need of fast communication. Simulation results show......, sell or store energy attending to the price in the electricity market....

  18. TIME PRECISE INTEGRATION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓子辰; 钟万勰

    2002-01-01

    For the constrained nonlinear optimal control problem, by taking the first term of Taylor series, the dynamic equation is linearized. Thus by introducing into the dual variable (Lagrange multiplier vector), the dynamic equation can be transformed into Hamilton system from Lagrange system on the basis of the original variable. Under the whole state, the problem discussed can be described from a new view, and the equation can be precisely solved by the time precise integration method established in linear dynamic system. A numerical example shows the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Multivariable robust control of an integrated nuclear power reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Etchepareborda A.; Flury C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The design of the main control system of the CAREM nuclear power plant is presented. This plant is an inherently safe low-power nuclear reactor with natural convection on the primary coolant circuit and is self-pressurized with a steam dome on the top of the pressure vessel (PV). It is an integrated reactor as the whole primary coolant circuit is within the PV. The primary circuit transports the heat to the secondary circuit through once-through steam generators (SG). There is a feedwater val...

  20. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  1. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  2. Integrated Control Plane for IP Enabled Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhengbin; YINHongxi; YUDeming; XUAnshi

    2003-01-01

    With the exponential growth of the Internet traffle for the intense demand for broadband services,providing bandwidth and connectivity on demand has risen to be a hot topic involving establishing connections from client ent systems to another through the optical backbone.So that,control plane and signaling in the optical network seems to be a critical component.This paper proposes and integrated control plane(ICP)and signaling related in IP enabled optical networks.Signaling processing for ensuring dynamic end-to-end lightpath setup has also been presented.Path provisioning comprises a string of operations like service & neighbor discovery,route computation,signaling requests,and path setup.

  3. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...... actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate...

  4. Fuel and control for an integrated fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OS/IES (On-Site Integrated Energy System) comprises a phosphoric acid fuel cell driven total energy package that produces electrical energy in the form of AC power (when the DC voltage from the fuel cell is inverted), and heat energy in the form of hot water. The fuel cell prefers a fuel high in hydrogen therefore it becomes necessary to convert as much of the fuel, i.e. natural or pipeline gas into hydrogen as possible using a fuel reformer. Fuel reforming is an endothermic process and in this case waste energy in the form of ''spent'' fuel from the fuel cell is used to supply heat to the reformer. Fuel cell waste heat is also used to raise the steam used in the reforming process. The OS/IES fuel processing system comprises five interrelated subsystems. Each subsystem is controlled independently through a microprocessor but a change in any subsystem function could have an effect on the operation of any or several other subsystems. Thus the controller receives a signal indicating electrical demand and proceeds to balance the subsystems as well as the fuel and air flow to each of the fuel cells. The controller also responds to a number of alarm signals and is capable of starting and stopping the complete OS/IES. It is assisted by a tie to the utility line which can dispense electrical energy for startup or instantaneous load following and accept excess generated power in case of load loss. In this paper we review fuel cell operation and requirements, the components and interactions that make up the reformer system, and the microprocessor control required to integrate the OS/IES

  5. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  6. Status of the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. When completed, NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing an international center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's 192 energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). ICCS is a layered architecture of 300 front-end processors attached to nearly 60,000 control points and coordinated by supervisor subsystems in the main control room. The functional subsystems--beam control including automatic beam alignment and wavefront correction, laser pulse generation and pre-amplification, diagnostics, pulse power, and timing--implement automated shot control, archive data, and support the actions of fourteen operators at graphic consoles. Object-oriented software development uses a mixed language environment of Ada (for functional controls) and Java (for user interface and database backend). The ICCS distributed software framework uses CORBA to communicate between languages and processors. ICCS software is approximately 3/4 complete with over 750 thousand source lines of code having undergone off-line verification tests and deployed to the facility. NIF has entered the first phases of its laser commissioning program. NIF has now demonstrated the highest energy 1ω, 2ω, and 3ω beamlines in the world. NIF's target experimental

  7. Improvement of one-cycle controller by use of proportional integral differential controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUZBEHANI Mohsen; ZHOU Luowei; WANG Mingyu

    2004-01-01

    The main advantage of one-cycle control is its ability to reject input disturbance in one-cycle. Despite this great ability,it can not provide good responses in following commands and rejecting load disturbance. This study explores the way toovercome these problems by using another controller. Although the idea of using output feedback has been used in previousworks, by considering a simple model for one-cycle controller, the design of the controller has become simpler in this work. In theproposed method, difficult mathematical modeling is avoided. Based on decupling of effects of feedback and input voltagedisturbance, a simple model for one-cycle controller has been given. Therefore, by employing a conventional averaging methodand the model of one-cycle controller, design of proportional integral differential controller has become straightforward.

  8. Engine Torque Control of SI Engine using Linear Quadratic Integral Tracking (LQIT Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Triwiyatno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the needs of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions, it is increasingly important to achieve control over robustness behavior and meet performance objectives over the life of the vehicle. This requires the development of high performance and optimal power train controllers. The performance objectives are often conflicting, or at least interrelated. One way to potentially meet these performance requirements is to introduce a method of controlling engine torque of Spark Ignition (SI engine using Linear Quadratic Integral Tracking (LQIT optimal control. The goal is to develop simple algorithms which can control engine torque well, thus providing fuel control more efficient and simultaneously improving engine performance due to the needs of the driver based on throttle opening information. In this case, spark ignition engine with automatic transmission simulation model is used to meet a good performance under this controller design.

  9. Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Jouko O.; Haverinen, Janne; Mattila, Pentti; Maekelae, Hannu; von Numers, Thomas; Stanek, Zbigniev; Roening, Juha

    1997-09-01

    We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.

  10. SENSOR FUSION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kumile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Manufacturing companies of today face unpredictable, high frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must have the characteristics of cost-effective rapid response to the market needs. As an engineering discipline, mechatronics strives to integrate mechanical, electronic, and computer systems optimally in order to create high precision products and manufacturing processes. This paper presents a methodology of increasing flexibility and reusability of a generic computer integrated manufacturing (CIM cell-control system using simulation and modelling of mechatronic sensory system (MSS concepts. The utilisation of sensors within the CIM cell is highlighted specifically for data acquisition, analysis, and multi-sensor data fusion. Thus the designed reference architecture provides comprehensive insight for the functions and methodologies of a generic shop-floor control system (SFCS, which consequently enables the rapid deployment of a flexible system.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hedendaagse vervaardigingsondernemings ervaar gereeld onvoorspelbare markveranderinge wat aangedryf word deur wêreldwye mededinging. Om kompeterend te bly moet hierdie ondernemings die eienskappe van kosteeffektiwiteit en snelle-respons op markfluktuasies toon. Megatronika streef daarna om meganiese, elektroniese en rekenaarstelsels optimaal te integreer om hoëpresisieprodukte en produksieprosesse daar te stel. Hierdie artikel suggereer 'n metodologie vir toenemende aanpasbaarheid en herbruikbaarheid van 'n generiese rekenaargeïntegreerde vervaardigingsel-beheersisteem deur die gebruik van simulasie en die modellering van megatroniese sensorsisteemkonsepte. Die aanwending van sensors binne die sel fasiliteer datavaslegging, ontleding en multisensordatafusie. Sodoende verskaf die ontwerpte argitektuur insig in die funksie en metodologie van 'n generiese stukwerkwinkelbeheersisteem wat die vinnige

  11. Research on Integration of Coal Mine Monitoring and Control System with Field Bus Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the construction of current coal mine monitoring and control systems in China, the paper proposes three kinds of applicable schemes of integrating PLC and DCS systems with field bus technology to digitize the system and to improve the flexibility and extent of the system. Essentially, the paper introduces the integration of FCS on I/O layers. Based on a real coal mine safety-monitoring and control system applied with a CAN field bus, the major technology of system relays and extensions is discussed. We believe that one of the most applicable methods is currently replacing the connection between function-stations and field-sensors with a CAN bus on I/O layers for system integration.

  12. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  13. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  14. Effective use of proportional-integral controllers for stabilization and tuning of load-frequency control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Carlos Alberto D. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletronica

    1994-12-31

    In load-frequency control loops of electric power systems, the use of purely integral controllers to eliminate steady-state frequency deviations is a well established practice. However, the use of controllers which have only integral action always make transient behaviour worse, as compared to proportional controllers. Integral action for steady-state error elimination should be introduced in parallel with proportional action, thus forming a Proportional-Integral (PI) Controller. In this work a systematic procedure for including and setting of PI controllers in load-frequency control systems is suggested. An example is included, in which the procedure is illustrated, and a comparison between the result obtained with a PI controller and that obtained with a purely integral controller is made. It is verified that the PI controller, besides eliminating the steady-state frequency deviation, gives a better transient behaviour. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim; Johnson, Robert; Sass, Jared; Youney, Justin

    2014-01-01

    An intelligent autonomous control capability has been developed and is currently being validated in ground cryogenic fluid management operations. The capability embodies a physical architecture consistent with typical launch infrastructure and control systems, augmented by a higher level autonomous control (AC) system enabled to make knowledge-based decisions. The AC system is supported by an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability that detects anomalies, diagnoses causes, determines effects, and could predict future anomalies. AC is implemented using the concept of programmed sequences that could be considered to be building blocks of more generic mission plans. A sequence is a series of steps, and each executes actions once conditions for the step are met (e.g. desired temperatures or fluid state are achieved). For autonomous capability, conditions must consider also health management outcomes, as they will determine whether or not an action is executed, or how an action may be executed, or if an alternative action is executed instead. Aside from health, higher level objectives can also drive how a mission is carried out. The capability was developed using the G2 software environment (www.gensym.com) augmented by a NASA Toolkit that significantly shortens time to deployment. G2 is a commercial product to develop intelligent applications. It is fully object oriented. The core of the capability is a Domain Model of the system where all elements of the system are represented as objects (sensors, instruments, components, pipes, etc.). Reasoning and decision making can be done with all elements in the domain model. The toolkit also enables implementation of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), which are represented as root cause trees. FMEA's are programmed graphically, they are reusable, as they address generic FMEA referring to classes of subsystems or objects and their functional relationships. User interfaces for integrated awareness by

  16. Adaptive Contingency Control: Wind Turbine Operation Integrated with Blade Condition Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report here on first steps towards integrating systems health monitoring with adaptive contingency controls. In the scenario considered, the adaptive controller...

  17. Integrated software environment dedicated for implementation of control systems based on PLC controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon SURMA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes’ control systems based on PLC controllers play today a very important role in all fields of transport, including also sea transport. Construction of control systems is the field of engineering, which has been continuously evolving towards maximum simplification of system design path. Up to now the time needed forthe system construction from the design to commissioning had to be divided into a few stages. A mistake made in an earlier stage caused that in most cases the next stages had to be restarted. Available debugging systems allows defect detection at an early stage of theproject implementation. The paper presents general characteristic of integrated software for implementation of complex control systems. The issues related to the software use for programming of the visualisation environment, control computer, selection oftransmission medium and transmission protocol as well as PLC controllers’ configuration, software and control have been analysed.

  18. Robust control of integrated motor-transmission powertrain system over controller area network for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Dongpu; Fang, Zongde

    2015-06-01

    Integrated motor-transmission (IMT) powertrain system with directly coupled motor and gearbox is a good choice for electric commercial vehicles (e.g., pure electric buses) due to its potential in motor size reduction and energy efficiency improvement. However, the controller design for powertrain oscillation damping becomes challenging due to the elimination of damping components. On the other hand, as controller area network (CAN) is commonly adopted in modern vehicle system, the network-induced time-varying delays that caused by bandwidth limitation will further lead to powertrain vibration or even destabilize the powertrain control system. Therefore, in this paper, a robust energy-to-peak controller is proposed for the IMT powertrain system to address the oscillation damping problem and also attenuate the external disturbance. The control law adopted here is based on a multivariable PI control, which ensures the applicability and performance of the proposed controller in engineering practice. With the linearized delay uncertainties characterized by polytopic inclusions, a delay-free closed-loop augmented system is established for the IMT powertrain system under discrete-time framework. The proposed controller design problem is then converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem where the feedback control gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by comparing its performance against that of a conventional PI controller.

  19. Integrated and objective-oriented statistical process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Von Collani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global competition and increased environmental concern have emphasized the significance of process quality for an economic success. Statistical Process Control (SPC is considered as one of the major tools for better quality. However, there are many opinions about the nature, the role and the results of SPC in industry. If SPC is understood and implemented correctly, then it should not only lead to "a reduction of waste, shorter throughput times and greater reliability of supply, but also in a better understanding of the processes and their variation" as Does, Roes and Trip formulated it. SPC should ultimately lead to "an operational management of the continuous improvement of processes." The aim of an industrial production process is to make profit, thus quality should be measured by process profitability. From a more operational point of view highest quality, i.e. highest profitability, is reached by producing with high conformance to an appropriately selected target value, and quality improvement means further reduction of variation around the target value. Thus, understanding the inherent variation represents the key for controlling "profitability" and for being able to implement a system of continuous "quality improvement". The inherent variations reflect the complex relations between everything concerning the production process and results in uncertainty about the future development. Exactly at this point stochastics, the science of uncertainty, enters the stage. For controlling profitability the relations and the resulting variations have to be taken appropriately into account by an integrated and objective-oriented stochastic approach.

  20. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A;

    2011-01-01

    20 years. The relative importance of the different primary inoculum sources and specific measures for reducing their role, such as covering dumps with plastic and preventing seed tubers from becoming infected, is described for the different regions. In NW Europe, varieties with greater resistance...... tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...... in NW Europe and a table of the specific attributes of the most important fungicides in Europe are presented. The development and use of decision support systems (DSSs) in NW Europe are described. In The Netherlands, it is estimated that almost 40% of potato growers use recommendations based...

  1. Attacker Control and Impact for Confidentiality and Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Askarov, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    Language-based information flow methods offer a principled way to enforce strong security properties, but enforcing noninterference is too inflexible for realistic applications. Security-typed languages have therefore introduced declassification mechanisms for relaxing confidentiality policies, and endorsement mechanisms for relaxing integrity policies. However, a continuing challenge has been to define what security is guaranteed when such mechanisms are used. This paper presents a new semantic framework for expressing security policies for declassification and endorsement in a language-based setting. The key insight is that security can be characterized in terms of the influence that declassification and endorsement allow to the attacker. The new framework introduces two notions of security to describe the influence of the attacker. Attacker control defines what the attacker is able to learn from observable effects of this code; attacker impact captures the attacker's influence on trusted locations. This ap...

  2. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature hydronic heating and cooling systems connected to renewable energy sources have gained more attention in the recent decades. This is due to the growing public awareness of the adverse environmental impacts of energy generation using fossil fuel. Radiant hydronic sub-floor heating...... pipes and radiator panels are two examples of such systems that have reputation of improving the quality of indoor thermal comfort compared to forced-air heating or cooling units. Specifically, a radiant water-based sub-floor heating system is usually combined with low temperature heat sources, among...... which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...

  3. Status of the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagin, L; Bryant, R; Carey, R; Casavant, D; Edwards, O; Ferguson, W; Krammen, J; Larson, D; Lee, A; Ludwigsen, P; Miller, M; Moses, E; Nyholm, R; Reed, R; Shelton, R; Van Arsdall, P J; Wuest, C

    2003-10-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. When completed, NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing an international center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's 192 energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). ICCS is a layered architecture of 300 front-end processors attached to nearly 60,000 control points and coordinated by supervisor subsystems in the main control room. The functional subsystems--beam control including automatic beam alignment and wavefront correction, laser pulse generation and pre-amplification, diagnostics, pulse power, and timing--implement automated shot control, archive data, and support the actions of fourteen operators at graphic consoles. Object-oriented software development uses a mixed language environment of Ada (for functional controls) and Java (for user interface and database backend). The ICCS distributed software framework uses CORBA to communicate between languages and processors. ICCS software is approximately 3/4 complete with over 750 thousand source lines of code having undergone off-line verification tests and deployed to the facility. NIF has entered the first phases of its laser commissioning program. NIF has now demonstrated the highest energy 1{omega}, 2{omega}, and 3{omega} beamlines in the world

  4. Measuring the Impact of Termite Prevention Curricula in Hawaii Public Schools in an Area-Wide Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of Educate to Eradicate, a K-12 service-learning science curricula developed as part of a statewide, community-based Extension effort for termite prevention, was evaluated. The curricula use termite biology and control as the basis for science education and have been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms with more…

  5. Characterization of integrated optical CD for process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jackie; Uchida, Junichi; van Dommelen, Youri; Carpaij, Rene; Cheng, Shaunee; Pollentier, Ivan; Viswanathan, Anita; Lane, Lawrence; Barry, Kelly A.; Jakatdar, Nickhil

    2004-05-01

    The accurate measurement of CD (critical dimension) and its application to inline process control are key challenges for high yield and OEE (overall equipment efficiency) in semiconductor production. CD-SEM metrology, although providing the resolution necessary for CD evaluation, suffers from the well-known effect of resist shrinkage, making accuracy and stability of the measurements an issue. For sub-100 nm in-line process control, where accuracy and stability as well as speed are required, CD-SEM metrology faces serious limitations. In contrast, scatterometry, using broadband optical spectra taken from grating structures, does not suffer from such limitations. This technology is non-destructive and, in addition to CD, provides profile information and film thickness in a single measurement. Using Timbre's Optical Digital Profililometry (ODP) technology, we characterized the Process Window, using a iODP101 integrated optical CD metrology into a TEL Clean Track at IMEC. We demonstrate the Optical CD's high sensitivity to process change and its insensitivity to measurement noise. We demonstrate the validity of ODP modeling by showing its accurate response to known process changes built into the evaluation and its excellent correlation to CD-SEM. We will further discuss the intrinsic Optical CD metrology factors that affect the tool precision, accuracy and its correlation to CD-SEM.

  6. Integrated Detector Control and Calibration Processing at the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Münnich, A; Heisen, B C; Januschek, F; Kuster, M; Lang, P M; Raab, N; Rüter, T; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Turcato, M

    2016-01-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser is a high-intensity X-ray light source currently being constructed in the area of Hamburg, that will provide spatially coherent X-rays in the energy range between $0.25\\,\\mathrm{keV}$ and $25\\,\\mathrm{keV}$. The machine will deliver $10\\,\\mathrm{trains/s}$, consisting of up to $2700\\,\\mathrm{pulses}$, with a $4.5\\,\\mathrm{MHz}$ repetition rate. The LPD, DSSC and AGIPD detectors are being developed to provide high dynamic-range Mpixel imaging capabilities at the mentioned repetition rates. A consequence of these detector characteristics is that they generate raw data volumes of up to $15\\,\\mathrm{Gbyte/s}$. In addition the detector's on-sensor memory-cell and multi-/non-linear gain architectures pose unique challenges in data correction and calibration, requiring online access to operating conditions and control settings. We present how these challenges are addressed within XFEL's control and analysis framework Karabo, which integrates access to hardware conditions, acqui...

  7. Integrated controlling technique of ecological environment in Shendong Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-sheng; LIU Yu-de; WANG An; WANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    To enclose the interactive relation between the underground mining with suitable protection for surface ecological environments and surface prevention of ecological environments adapting to mining disturbing was researched and developed core of this technique. There are three aspects of controlling ecological environments, to dispose and renew before exploitation, to protect surface ecological environments in the exploitative process and to repair and build up after exploitation. Based on the moving law of overburden strata in shallow seam, the surface subsidence law and the growth law of vegetation in subsidence mine area, the integrated controlling technique has been developed synthetically by methods of theoretic analysis, laboratory simulation, numerical calculation,commercial test etc.. It includes the key techniques of aquifer-protective mining, filtering and purging of mine water through goaf, preventing and extinguishing fire in shallow seam,no-rock roadway layout and waste disposal in underground, frame-building ecological functional sphere before exploitation, frame-building the ecological cycle using system after mining and so on.

  8. Neuroendocrine-Based Cooperative Intelligent Control System for Multiobjective Integrated Control of a Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongbin Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel multiloop and Multi-objective cooperative intelligent control system (MMCICS used to improve the performance of position, velocity and acceleration integrated control on a complex multichannel plant. Based on regulation mechanism of the neuroendocrine system (NES, a bioinspired motion control approach has been used in the MMCICS which includes four cooperative units. The planning unit outputs the desired signals. The selection unit chooses the real-time dominant control mode. The coordination unit uses the velocity Jacobian matrix to regulate the cooperative control signals. The execution unit achieves the ultimate task based on sub-channel controllers with the proposed hormone regulation self-adaptive Modules (HRSMs. Parameter tuning is given to facilitate the MMCICS implementation. The MMCICS is applied to an actual 2-DOF redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new control system is demonstrated. The MMCICS keeps its subchannels interacting harmoniously and systematically. Therefore, the plant has fast response, smooth velocity, accurate position, strong self-adaptability, and high stability. The HRSM improves the control performance of the local controllers and the global system as well, especially for manipulators running at high velocities and accelerations.

  9. Fault Tolerant Control Using Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller Tuned by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanthalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing demand for reliability, maintainability and survivability in industrial processes has drawn significant research in fault detection and fault tolerant control domain. A fault is usually defined as an unexpected change in a system, such as component malfunction and variations in operating condition, which tends to degrade the overall system performance. The purpose of fault detection is to detect these malfunctions to take proper action in order to prevent faults from developing into a total system failure. Approach: In this study an effective integrated fault detection and fault tolerant control scheme was developed for a class of LTI system. The scheme was based on a Kalman filter for simultaneous state and fault parameter estimation, statistical decisions for fault detection and activation of controller reconfiguration. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control schemes continue to provide the simplest and yet effective solutions to most of the control engineering applications today. Determination or tuning of the PID parameters continues to be important as these parameters have a great influence on the stability and performance of the control system. In this study GA was proposed to tune the PID controller. Results: The results reflect that proposed scheme improves the performance of the process in terms of time domain specifications, robustness to parametric changes and optimum stability. Also, A comparison with the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method proves the superiority of GA based system. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of genetic algorithm in tuning of a PID controller with optimum parameters. It is, moreover, proved to be robust to the variations in plant dynamic characteristics and disturbances assuring a parameter-insensitive operation of the process.

  10. Integral Radiators for Next Generation Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integral radiators integrate the primary structural system and the thermal rejection system into a dual function subsystem allowing for reduced weight. The design...

  11. GENETIC BASED PLUS INTEGRAL CONTROLLER FOR PMBLDC MOTOR CONTROL USING RESONANT POLE INVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muruganantham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motor drives are increasingly popular in industrial applications due to rapid progress of technologies in power electronics and the growing demand for energy saving. The increasing demand of energy saving from society is the external force for the development of PMBLDC motor drives. It is however driven by a hard-switching Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverter, which has low switching frequency, high switching loss, high Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI, high acoustic noise and low efficiency, etc. To solve these problems of the hard-switching inverter, many soft-switching inverters have been designed in the past. Unfortunately, high device voltage stress, large dc link voltage ripples, complex control scheme and so on are noticed in the soft-switching inverters. This study introduces a novel genetic-proportional Plus Integral (PI controller based resonant pole inverter using transformer, which can generate dc link voltage notches during chopping which minimize the drawbacks of soft-switching. Hence all switches work in zero-voltage switching condition. The performance of the genetic-based PI controller is compared with conventional PI controller. The experimental results show that the genetic-based PI controller renders a better transient response than the conventional PI controller resulting in negligible overshoot, smaller settling time and rise time. Moreover the proposed controller provides low torque ripples and high starting torque. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the proposed GA-PI controller based resonant pole inverter.

  12. Supply Chain Control: A Theory of Vertical Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ursino, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Improving a company's bargaining position is often cited as a chief motivation to vertically integrate with suppliers. This paper expands on that view in building a new theory of vertical integration. In my model firms integrate to gain bargaining power against other suppliers in the production process. The cost of integration is a loss of flexibility in choosing the most suitable suppliers for a particular final product. I show that the firms who make the most specific investments in the pro...

  13. Migrant integration policy: a nationalist fantasy of management and control?

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Breda

    2006-01-01

    Integration and how it is to be achieved have only recently become objects of policy and discussion in Ireland. Approaches to integration in Ireland are influenced by: the integration policies of those countries with longer experiences of immigration; EU policy; and the specificity of the Irish experience of migration. The Republic of Ireland is an interesting example of a state that is simultaneously involved in policy initiatives that promote the integration of Irish emigrant...

  14. Integrated Neural and Endocrine Control of Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, John B

    2016-01-01

    The activity of the digestive system is dynamically regulated by external factors, including body nutritional and activity states, emotions and the contents of the digestive tube. The gut must adjust its activity to assimilate a hugely variable mixture that is ingested, particularly in an omnivore such as human for which a wide range of food choices exist. It must also guard against toxins and pathogens. These nutritive and non-nutritive components of the gut contents interact with the largest and most vulnerable surface in the body, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. This requires a gut sensory system that can detect many classes of nutrients, non-nutrient components of food, physicochemical conditions, toxins, pathogens and symbionts (Furness et al., Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:729-740, 2013). The gut sensors are in turn coupled to effector systems that can respond to the sensory information. The responses are exerted through enteroendocrine cells (EEC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut immune and tissue defence systems. It is apparent that the control of the digestive organs is an integrated function of these effectors. The peripheral components of the EEC, ENS and CNS triumvirate are extensive. EEC cells have traditionally been classified into about 12 types (disputed in this review), releasing about 20 hormones, together making the gut endocrine system the largest endocrine organ in the body. Likewise, in human the ENS contains about 500 million neurons, far more than the number of neurons in the remainder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Together gut hormones, the ENS and the CNS control or influence functions including satiety, mixing and propulsive activity, release of digestive enzymes, induction of nutrient transporters, fluid transport, local blood flow, gastric acid secretion, evacuation and immune responses. Gut content receptors, including taste, free fatty acid, peptide and

  15. Nonlinear control for global stabilization of multiple-integrator system by bounded controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Guangren DUAN; Liu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The global stabilization problem of the multiple-integrator system by bounded controls is considered.A nonlinear feedback law consisting of nested saturation functions is proposed.This type of nonlinear feedback law that is a modification and generalization of the result given in[1] needs only[(n+1)/2](n is the dimensions of the system)saturation elements,which is fewer than that which the other nonlinear laws need.Funhermore.the poles of the closedloop system Can be placed on any location on the left real axis when none of the saturafion elements in the control laws is saturated.This type of nonlinear control law exhibits a simpler structure and call significantly improve the transient performances of the closed-loop system,and is very superior to the other existing methods.Simulation on a fourth-order system is used to validate the proposed method.

  16. On controllability of an integrated bioreactor and periodically operated membrane separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of integrated processes involves challenges at both design and control levels, these can mainly be associated with different dynamic behaviors of the individual units plus their interaction. Therefore, the design and operation of the integrated system constitutes a key issue. In order to understand the controlled operation of the integrated process, it is convenient to use a model based approach supported by experimental evidence. Recently, an integrated bioreactor and electrica...

  17. Development and Integration of Alternative Management Strategies Using Inherited Sterility and Natural Enemies to Control Lepidopteran Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepidopteran pests such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, are often the most destructive pests of field crops in the United States. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM practices. IPM-based systems, including genetic methods and biological control, offer the best long-term solutions to pesticide reduction and the management of destructive agricultural pests. F1 sterility has emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests.

  18. Integrated Auto-Tuning PID Control of Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    PID controllers were used for the hydraulic servo system of sliding gate and the tundish weight control system in continuous caster. These two loops were synthesized in mould level controller based on model reduction and internal model control strategy. Satisfactory control performance of this synthetic mould level controller was demonstrated by simulations and on-line experiments.

  19. Flatness and Profile Integration Control Model for Tandem Cold Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using the effective matrix methods of flatness and profile control synthetically, the flatness and profile in- tegration control scheme for tandem cold mills is built in order to increase flatness and profile control precision of tan- dem cold mills. Corresponding control strategies are adopted for various control objectives of different stands and the coordination control strategies of various stands are given, which makes the on-line flatness control cooperate with on-line profile control and implements the parallel control of different stands. According to the measured flatness and profile data of some 1550 mm tandem cold mills, the control scheme is verified and the result indicates that the scheme has high flatness and profile control precision with steady and reliable control process. A new way and method is supplied for researching shade control of tandem cold mills.

  20. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  1. An efficient method for multiobjective optimal control and optimal control subject to integral constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ajeet

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new and efficient numerical method for multicriterion optimal control and single criterion optimal control under integral constraints. The approach is based on extending the state space to include information on a "budget" remaining to satisfy each constraint; the augmented Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman PDE is then solved numerically. The efficiency of our approach hinges on the causality in that PDE, i.e., the monotonicity of characteristic curves in one of the newly added dimensions. A semi-Lagrangian "marching" method is used to approximate the discontinuous viscosity solution efficiently. We compare this to a recently introduced "weighted sum" based algorithm for the same problem. We illustrate our method using examples from flight path planning and robotic navigation in the presence of friendly and adversarial observers.

  2. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  3. Machining Error Control by Integrating Multivariate Statistical Process Control and Stream of Variations Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pei; ZHANG Dinghua; LI Shan; CHEN Bing

    2012-01-01

    For aircraft manufacturing industries,the analyses and prediction of part machining error during machining process are very important to control and improve part machining quality.In order to effectively control machining error,the method of integrating multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) and stream of variations (SoV) is proposed.Firstly,machining error is modeled by multi-operation approaches for part machining process.SoV is adopted to establish the mathematic model of the relationship between the error of upstream operations and the error of downstream operations.Here error sources not only include the influence of upstream operations but also include many of other error sources.The standard model and the predicted model about SoV are built respectively by whether the operation is done or not to satisfy different requests during part machining process.Secondly,the method of one-step ahead forecast error (OSFE) is used to eliminate autocorrelativity of the sample data from the SoV model,and the T2 control chart in MSPC is built to realize machining error detection according to the data characteristics of the above error model,which can judge whether the operation is out of control or not.If it is,then feedback is sent to the operations.The error model is modified by adjusting the operation out of control,and continually it is used to monitor operations.Finally,a machining instance containing two operations demonstrates the effectiveness of the machining error control method presented in this paper.

  4. Damage Adaptation Using Integrated Structural, Propulsion, and Aerodynamic Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR Phase I plan of research seeks to develop and demonstrate an integrated architecture designed to compensate for combined propulsion, airframe,...

  5. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

  6. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human‐like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context‐aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long‐term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  7. Outcomes-based planning and implementation led to the success of the Hawaii fruit fly suppression programme: Implications to adoption of area-wide programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes are organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programmes. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, a part of a USDA AWPM programme in Hawaii, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of programme sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring programme elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilisation of the logic model to organise efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programmes such as the HAW-FLYPM programme has shown to be a successful method of programme advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  8. Integrated controls/structures study of advanced space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C. S.; Cunningham, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A cost tradeoff is postulated for a stiff structure utilizing minimal controls (and control expense) to point and stabilize the vehicle. Extra costs for a stiff structure are caused by weight, packaging size, etc. Likewise, a more flexible vehicle should result in reduced structural costs but increased costs associated with additional control hardware and data processing required for vibration control of the structure. This tradeoff occurs as the ratio of the control bandwidth required for the mission to the lowest (significant) bending mode of the vehicle. The cost of controlling a spacecraft for a specific mission and the same basic configuration but varying the flexibility is established.

  9. Integrated structural control design of large space structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.

  10. Integrated Optimal Model of Structure and Control of the Single Arm Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Deng-lin; JIANG Tao; WEI Jun-hua; WANG An-lin; WANG Shi-gang

    2006-01-01

    The integrated optimal design of mechanical and control system is discussed in terms of the performance requirement and configuration for the single arm flexible manipulator. By combination of dynamics of flexible structure and control theory, a PD feedback control system, which minimizes the settling time, has been designed. Then, the viable region of poles of the PD closed-loop control system is decided according to overshoot and the settling time, and an integrated optimal model of structure and control of single arm manipu lator is presented. Finally, the parameters of structure and control system are simultaneously optimized withrespect to objective function including the moment of inertia and the control effort of system.

  11. National Ignition Facility system design requirements NIF integrated computer controls SDR004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is covered in NIF WBS element 1.5. This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in the NIF Functional Requirements/Primary Criteria, and is supported by subsystem design requirements documents for each major ICCS Subsystem

  12. A Multi-Modal Control Using a Hybrid Pole-Placement-Integral Resonant Controller (PPIR) with Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    controller. The pole-placement controller is used to achieve a target equivalent modal viscous damping in the system and helps in the suppression of higher modes, which contribute to the vibration response of flexible structures. The integral resonant controller successfully reduces the low frequency...

  13. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.)

  14. Integrated guidance and control design for missile with terminal impact angle constraint based on sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wu; Ming Yang

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at the guidance requirements of some missiles which attack targets with terminal impact angle at the terminal point,a new integrated guidance and control design scheme based on variable structure control approach for missile with terminal impact angle constraint is proposed.First,a mathematical model of an integrated guidance and control model in pitch plane is established,and then nonlinear transformation is employed to transform the mathematical model into a standard form suitable for sliding mode control method design.A sufficient condition for the existence of linear sliding surface is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities(LMIs),based on which the corresponding reaching motion controller is also developed.To verify the effectiveness of the proposed integrated design scheme,the numerical simulation of missile is made.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance and control law can guide missile to hit the target with desired impact angle and desired flight attitude angle simultaneously.

  15. Spatial Integration under Contextual Control in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Mikael; Gambet, Boris; Bugallo, Mehdi; Miller, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    The role of context was examined in the selection and integration of independently learned spatial relationships. Using a dynamic 3D virtual environment, participants learned one spatial relationship between landmarks A and B which was established in one virtual context (e.g., A is left of B) and a different spatial relationship which was…

  16. Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Jun LI; R. M. Goodall

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the development of inte-grated control strategies for railway vehicles with inde-pendently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are pre-sented, which are followed by an investigation of the inte-grated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and prac-ticality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.

  17. Data center high availability for integrated machine control platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hole, Anders

    2014-01-01

    National Oilwell Varco is a multinational company providing solutions to the oil industry. The main focus in Stavanger office is the Cyberbase chair and control system. This chair is a operators interface with machinery and software that controls the drilling process. The high operation costs of an oil exploration rig, downtime is expensive and should be avoided. The current computer system used in machine control is setup uses multiple paths, which are dependent ...

  18. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  19. HTGR-GT and electrical load integrated control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.; Openshaw, F.; Pfremmer, D.

    1980-05-01

    A discussion of the control and operation of the HTGR-GT power plant is presented in terms of its closely coupled electrical load and core cooling functions. The system and its controls are briefly described and comparisons are made with more conventional plants. The results of analyses of selected transients are presented to illustrate the operation and control of the HTGR-GT. The events presented were specifically chosen to show the controllability of the plant and to highlight some of the unique characteristics inherent in this multiloop closed-cycle plant.

  20. DERIVATION AND INTEGRAL SLIDING MODE VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC VELOCITY TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jianhua; Guan Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The velocity tracking control of a hydraulic servo system is studied. Since the dynamics of the system are highly nonlinear and have large extent of model uncertainties, such as big changes in load and parameters, a derivation and integral sliding mode variable structure control scheme (DI-SVSC) is proposed. An integral controller is introduced to avoid the assumption that the derivative of desired signal must be known in conventional sliding mode variable structure control, a nonlinear derivation controller is used to weaken the chattering of system. The design method of switching function in integral sliding mode control, nonlinear derivation coefficient and controllers of DI-SVSC is presented respectively. Simulation shows that the control approach is of nice robustness and improves velocity tracking accuracy considerably.

  1. Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Matthew; Brush, Charles; Chung, Francis; Dogrul, Emin; Kadir, Tariq

    2010-01-01

    An open problem that arises when using modern iterative linear solvers, such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method or Generalized Minimum RESidual method (GMRES) is how to choose the residual tolerance in the linear solver to be consistent with the tolerance on the solution error. This problem is especially acute for integrated groundwater models which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models, and resolve both multiple scales of flow and temporal interaction terms, giving rise to linear systems with variable scaling. This article uses the theory of 'forward error bound estimation' to show how rescaling the linear system affects the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using examples of linear systems from models developed using the USGS GSFLOW package and the California State Department of Water Resources' Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), we observe that this error bound guides the choice of a prac...

  2. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  3. An integrated architecture of adaptive neural network control for dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Liu; Tokar, R.; Mcvey, B.

    1994-07-01

    In this study, an integrated neural network control architecture for nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. Most of the recent emphasis in the neural network control field has no error feedback as the control input which rises the adaptation problem. The integrated architecture in this paper combines feed forward control and error feedback adaptive control using neural networks. The paper reveals the different internal functionality of these two kinds of neural network controllers for certain input styles, e.g., state feedback and error feedback. Feed forward neural network controllers with state feedback establish fixed control mappings which can not adapt when model uncertainties present. With error feedbacks, neural network controllers learn the slopes or the gains respecting to the error feedbacks, which are error driven adaptive control systems. The results demonstrate that the two kinds of control scheme can be combined to realize their individual advantages. Testing with disturbances added to the plant shows good tracking and adaptation.

  4. 城市交通区域智能协调控制研究%Urban Traffic Area-wide Intelligent Coordination Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆升; 陈昕; 胡娟娟; 蔡长青

    2005-01-01

    针对我国城市混合交通状态复杂多变,随机性大,具有分布式交通区域控制等特点,利用多智能体技术和融合技术对其进行研究,提出了基于多智能体技术和融合技术的城市交通区域控制系统框架和智能体的内部结构,并采用博弈再励学习方法进行优化控制和区域协调,实现城市交通控制区域智能协调和全局优化,最后通过仿真分析说明算法的有效性.

  5. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    control, market based control, and price control. The thesis investigates new approaches for distribution networks congestion management. It suggests and develops a market based control for distribution grid congestion management. The general equilibrium market mechanism is utilized in the operation....... EVs can absorb energy during periods of high electricity production and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insucient electricity generation. However, extra loads created by the increasing number of EVs may have adverse impacts on the distribution...... network such as congestion. These factors will bring new challenges to the distribution system operator. Typically, the challenges are solved by expanding the grid to t the size and the pattern of the demand. As an alternative, the capacity problem can also be solved smartly using advanced control...

  6. Integration of behavioral and biological control for the management of cotton insect pests: Significance and cost benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earias pheromones. The pheromones were applied once in a season at the start of square formation stage of the cotton crop. The fourth block was treated with conventional insecticides. The farmer applied organophosphate (confidor) and Pyrethroid (Polytrin-C) insecticides in two sprays each. The infestation of pink bollworm and Earias spp. was recorded at weekly intervals. Establishment of the parasitoids was determined by placing Angoumois grain moth eggs in the field. These cards were brought into the laboratory after 24 hours exposure in the differently treated blocks and parasitoid emergence was recorded. For the control of sucking pests, insecticide (confidor) was sprayed uniformly in all the treatments in the third week of June during both years. The cost of the treatments was worked out and the cost benefit ratio for each treatment was calculated. Integration of parasitoids and pheromones, suppressed the bollworms infestation below the economic injury level (5-10%). Separate treatment of pheromones or parasitoids was less effective, and required supplemental measures. The population of the parasitoids in the field was low in the hot months of June and July and thereafter it gradually increased in the succeeding months. Maximum number of the parasitoids was observed in the month of October. The cost of integrated treatment with parasitoids and pheromones was also less than that of insecticide treatment alone. Potential of behavioural and biological control tactics for launching the integrated approach on an area-wide basis is discussed

  7. Pipeline integrity management: integration of geotechnical and mechanical assessment to control potential risks due to external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpartida Moya, John E.; Sota, Giancarlo Massucco de la; Seri, Walter [Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Every pipeline integrity management system evaluates and controls various threats. On pipelines which have particular characteristics as it is the case of the Andean pipelines and pipelines crossing jungles, one of the main threats are the external forces. Even, this threat causes a greater number of failures than other threats like corrosion or the third part damage. Facing this situation, the pipeline integrity management system of TgP has achieved an important development in the use and suitable handling of the information provided by diverse techniques of pipeline mechanical inspection and geotechnical inspection of the right-of-way (ROW). This document presents our methodology, which interrelate information of the in-line inspection, information of geotechnical inspections of the ROW, instrumentation (Strain Gages), topographic monitoring, among others. All this information is supported in a Geographic Information System (GIS) which allows us to integrate the information. By means of the pipeline integrity management system we control potential risks due to external forces, we have been able to act before events become critical, with no occurrence of failures. This system allows us simultaneously to optimize efforts and preserve the mechanical integrity of our pipelines, not producing neither personal nor environmental nor economical affectation. (author)

  8. Fault tolerance and reliability in integrated ship control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Various strategies for achieving fault tolerance in large scale control systems are discussed. The positive and negative impacts of distribution through network communication are presented. The ATOMOS framework for standardized reliable marine automation is presented along with the corresponding...

  9. Genetic Algorithm Based Proportional Integral Controller Design for Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanasundaram Kuppusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study has expounded the application of evolutionary computation method namely Genetic Algorithm (GA for estimation of feedback controller parameters for induction motor. GA offers certain advantages such as simple computational steps, derivative free optimization, reduced number of iterations and assured near global optima. The development of the method is well documented and computed and measured results are presented. Approach: The design of PI controller parameter for three phase induction motor drives was done using Genetic Algorithm. The objective function of motor current reduction, using PI controller, at starting is formulated as an optimization problem and solved with Genetic Algorithm. Results: The results showed the selected values of PI controller parameter using genetic algorithm approach, with objective of induction motor starting current reduction. Conclusions/Recommendation: The results proved the robustness and easy implementation of genetic algorithm selection of PI parameters for induction motor starting.

  10. Optimal Control of Vertically Transmitted Disease: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    horizontal transmission, administration of the antiviral drug to infected individuals lessens the chance of vertical transmission. Thus the vaccine and antiviral drug play different roles in controlling the disease, which has both vertical and horizontal transmission. We develop a 3D model with Susceptible–Infected–Recovered under vaccination to the susceptible and antiviral treatment to the infected and consider a control theoretic approach using the Pontryagin maximum principle to analyse the costeffectiveness of the control process. Our results demonstrate that a mixed intervention strategy of vaccination and antiviral drug in a proper ratio is the most effective way to control the disease. We show that cost-effectiveness of both intervention strategies intimately depends on disease-related parameters, such as force of infection, probability of being infected to offspring from infected mothers, loss of immunity or reinfection and also on cost of treatment.

  11. INTEGRAL RADIATORS FOR NEXT GENERATION THERMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of spacecraft thermal control systems is to maintain internal and external temperature within acceptable boundaries while minimizing impact on vehicle...

  12. Effect of diluents on tablet integrity and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y E; Schwartz, J B

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diluents and wax level on tablet integrity during heat treatment and dissolution for sustained-release formulations and the resultant effect on drug release. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and lactose were evaluated for their effect on tablet integrity during drug dissolution and heat treatment in wax matrix formulations. A newly developed direct compression diluent, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), was also evaluated. Compritol 888 ATO was used as the wax matrix material, with phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA) as a model drug. Tablets were made by direct compression and then subjected to heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 30 min. The results showed that MCC, lactose, and DCPA could maintain tablets intact during heat treatment above the melting point of wax (70 degrees C-75 degrees C). However, DCPD tablets showed wax egress during the treatment. MCC tablets swelled and cracked during drug dissolution and resulted in quick release. DCPD and lactose tablets remained intact during dissolution and gave slower release than MCC tablets. DCPA tablets without heat treatment disintegrated very quickly and showed immediate release. In contrast, heat-treated DCPA tablets remained intact through the 24-hr dissolution test and only released about 80% PPA at 6 hr. In the investigation of wax level, DCPD was used as the diluent. The drug release rate decreased as the wax content increased from 15% to 81.25%. The dissolution data were best described by the Higuchi square-root-of-time model. Diluents showed various effects during heat treatment and drug dissolution. The integrity of the tablets was related to the drug release rate. Heat treatment retarded drug release if there was no wax egress.

  13. Integrated intelligent control analysis on semi-active structures by using magnetorheological dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The control strategy is very important for semiactive control or active control systems. An integrated intelligent control strategy for building structures incorpo rated with magnetorheological (MR) dampers subjected to earthquake excitation is proposed. In this strategy, the time-delay problem is solved by a neural network and the control currents of the MR dampers are determined quickly by a fuzzy controller. Through a numerical example of a three-storey structure with one MR damper installed in the first floor, the seismic responses of the uncontrolled, the intelligently controlled, the passiveon controlled, and the passive-off controlled structures under different earthquake excitations are analyzed. Based on the numerical results, it can be found that the time domain and the frequency domain responses are reduced effectively when the MR damper is added in the structure, and the integrated intelligent control strategy has a better earthquake mitigation effect.

  14. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    is the use of biofuel (ethanol) and synthetic fuel (methanol) for internal combustion cars. An increase in the fraction of electricity delivered by fluctuating sources like wind power will lead to excess electricity production and the two aforementioned scenarios have a substantial effect on the decrease...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  15. Integrated control of sun shades, daylight and artificial light; Integreret regulering af solafskaermning, dagslys og kunstlys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Christoffersen, J.; Soerensen, Henrik; Jessen, G.

    2011-07-01

    The project established a basis of calculation and a practical basis for optimum choice of solar shading and integrated control strategies for both new buildings and for office, commercial and institutional buildings to be renovated with new calculation models for controlling solar shading integrated in the BSim program. A complete and applicable model for optimum, integrated solar shading control was established, focusing on thermal and visual comfort criteria towards energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting. A prototype was tested in the daylight laboratory at Danish Building Research Institute-Aalborg University and at University of Southern Denmark. (LN)

  16. Finite-time control of DC-DC buck converters via integral terminal sliding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chian-Song; Shen, Chih-Teng

    2012-05-01

    This article presents novel terminal sliding modes for finite-time output tracking control of DC-DC buck converters. Instead of using traditional singular terminal sliding mode, two integral terminal sliding modes are introduced for robust output voltage tracking of uncertain buck converters. Different from traditional sliding mode control (SMC), the proposed controller assures finite convergence time for the tracking error and integral tracking error. Furthermore, the singular problem in traditional terminal SMC is removed from this article. When considering worse modelling, adaptive integral terminal SMC is derived to guarantee finite-time convergence under more relaxed stability conditions. In addition, several experiments show better start-up performance and robustness.

  17. Design of an Integrated Controller based on ZigBee Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Ji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many different home appliances in our home, for example Lamps, Television, DVD player, etc. Moreover, the appliances are usually controlled by different controller using IR (Infra-Red signal. This brings our life many inconveniences, and many resources are wasted. Therefore, we propose an integrated controller. It can control these various appliances, only a single one. In order to realize the purpose, the integrated controller must have previous preparations, because the appliances have their different IR controlling signals. Therefore, the integrated controller must “learn” the IR signals from their own controllers, and save them inside. Because the radiation range of IR signal is limited, and the appliances are distributed in different rooms, we propose a novel wireless network based on IEEE802.15.4, especially ZigBee protocol, to transmit the controlling signals from the integrated controller. The proposed scheme consists of two main parts. The one part is the hardware design, include the integrated controlled with ZigBee transmission device and the terminal control module with ZigBee-IR conversion, which converts a control signal transferred through the ZigBee network into an IR typed control signal. The terminal control module is based on CC2430 as the controller core. The other is the software design. The software part uses IAR Embedded Workbench. Based on Zstack-1.4.2-1.1.0 protocol provided by TI, man can program the control codes of the system. The proposed scheme can also provide the well-defined interface and the necessary basis for preparing the smart home system.

  18. Integrated system for management and control of energetical distribution; Sistema integrado de gestion y control de la red de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Vega, V.; Flores Canales, J.M.; Moreno Morales, J. [Sainco (Spain)

    1995-08-01

    This article presents the integrated system of management and control in the distribution network. This system permits to improve the energetical demand management. The automatized system has 4 functions. (1) Telecontrol of the network; (2) Management of the energy supplies; (3) Energetic control and user management; (4) Big corporative systems.

  19. Energy efficiency with QoS control in dynamic optical networks with SDN enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris;

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing algorithms based on a novel integrated control plane platform. The centralized control plane structure enables the use of flexible heuristic algorithms for route selection in optical networks. Differentiated routing for various traffic types is used in ...

  20. Design of energy efficient optical networks with software enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    methods and the control over quality of service (QoS). The structure is defined as an overlay generalised multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) control model. With the defined structure, the integrated control plane is able to gather information from different domains (i.e. optical core network...

  1. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  2. Fifty years of Integrated Control Concept: Moving the Model and Implementation Forward in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Fifty years ago Stern and colleagues outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control based on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This Integrated Control (IC) Concept has since been the driving force and conceptual foundation for all IPM program...

  3. Direct power control of DFIG wind turbine systems based on an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanzhi; Wang, Haoping; Tian, Yang; Aitouch, Abdel; Klein, John

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control (iPISMC) for direct power control of variable speed-constant frequency wind turbine system. This approach deals with optimal power production (in the maximum power point tracking sense) under several disturbance factors such as turbulent wind. This controller is made of two sub-components: (i) an intelligent proportional-integral module for online disturbance compensation and (ii) a sliding mode module for circumventing disturbance estimation errors. This iPISMC method has been tested on FAST/Simulink platform of a 5MW wind turbine system. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed iPISMC method outperforms the classical PI and intelligent proportional-integral control (iPI) in terms of both active power and response time.

  4. Direct power control of DFIG wind turbine systems based on an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanzhi; Wang, Haoping; Tian, Yang; Aitouch, Abdel; Klein, John

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control (iPISMC) for direct power control of variable speed-constant frequency wind turbine system. This approach deals with optimal power production (in the maximum power point tracking sense) under several disturbance factors such as turbulent wind. This controller is made of two sub-components: (i) an intelligent proportional-integral module for online disturbance compensation and (ii) a sliding mode module for circumventing disturbance estimation errors. This iPISMC method has been tested on FAST/Simulink platform of a 5MW wind turbine system. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed iPISMC method outperforms the classical PI and intelligent proportional-integral control (iPI) in terms of both active power and response time. PMID:27346331

  5. THOUGHT FOR INTEGRATION OF ENTERPRISE'S INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The introduction of the enterprise's internal control system is directly related to some well known exposures of finance and accounting scandals, such as Enron,WorldCom, and Xerox etc.. The U.S. President Bush signed Sarbanes-Oxley Act on July 30, 2002. The 404th term of the act claims that all corporations in the U.S.must establish an internal control system to avoid above mentioned financial and accounting risks. With respect to the requirements of Chinese Securities Supervisory Association and the National Capital Committee,PetroChina established its internal control system in February, 2004. CNPC has also established such a system,and has run very well until now.

  6. Renin secretion and total body sodium: Pathways of integrative control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Damkjaer, Mads

    2009-01-01

    of sodium is ingested, and balance achieved by control of renal excretion driven by multiple central nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal tubular mechanisms. Subtle changes in sodium balance are associated with parallel changes in extracellular volume (due to fast and precise osmoregulation......) proximal tubular reabsorption involving glomerulo-tubular balance (GTB) and neurohumoral control, (iii) macula densa mechanisms influencing TGF and renin secretion, and (iv) distal tubular reabsorption dominated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). 4. The review focuses on the interactive......, homeostatic operation of TBS, MABP, GTB, TGF, and RAAS. Regulation of sodium balance involves neurohumoral control of tubular sodium reabsorption, including proximal reabsorption. CNS-mediated regulation of the latter modulates renin secretion. Homeostatically, the RAAS-TGF interaction seems analogous...

  7. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Sights

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-level intelligence allows a mobile robot to create and interpret complex world models, but without a precise control system, the accuracy of the world model and the robot's ability to interact with its surroundings are greatly diminished. This problem is amplified when the environment is hostile, such as in a battlefield situation where an error in movement or a slow response may lead to destruction of the robot. As the presence of robots on the battlefield continues to escalate and the trend toward relieving the human of the low-level control burden advances, the ability to combine the functionalities of several critical control systems on a single platform becomes imperative.

  8. Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;

    2016-01-01

    A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...... constraints are identified for constructing the supervisory control layer. The fundamental problem of obtaining a stabilising control structure is addressed resulting in the regulatory control layer design. A supervisory control layer is devised and combined with the regulatory control layer. The control...

  9. Three-parameter tunable Tilt-Integral-Derivative (TID) controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A feedback control system compensator of the PID type is provided, wherein the proportional component of the compensator is replaced with a tilted component having a transfer function s to the power of -1/n. The resulting transfer function of the entire compensator more closely approximates an optimal transfer function, thereby achieving improved feedback controller. Further, as compared to conventional PID compensators, the TID compensator allows for simpler tuning, better disturbance rejection ratio, and smaller effects of plant parameter variations on closed loop response.

  10. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  11. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  12. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...

  13. Integrating Control and Fault Diagnosis: A Separation Result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Grimble, M.J

    1996-01-01

    in actuators and sensors is discussed.This unit is able to: (1) follow references and reject disturbancesrobustly, (2) control the system such that undetected failures do nothave disastrous effects, (3) reduce the number of false alarms, and (4)identify which faults have occured. The method uses a type...... the diagnosis capabilities, in contrast to common beliefs....

  14. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  15. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  16. Integrated control-system design via generalized LQG (GLQG) theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Hyland, David C.; Richter, Stephen; Haddad, Wassim M.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty years of control systems research has produced an enormous body of theoretical results in feedback synthesis. Yet such results see relatively little practical application, and there remains an unsettling gap between classical single-loop techniques (Nyquist, Bode, root locus, pole placement) and modern multivariable approaches (LQG and H infinity theory). Large scale, complex systems, such as high performance aircraft and flexible space structures, now demand efficient, reliable design of multivariable feedback controllers which optimally tradeoff performance against modeling accuracy, bandwidth, sensor noise, actuator power, and control law complexity. A methodology is described which encompasses numerous practical design constraints within a single unified formulation. The approach, which is based upon coupled systems or modified Riccati and Lyapunov equations, encompasses time-domain linear-quadratic-Gaussian theory and frequency-domain H theory, as well as classical objectives such as gain and phase margin via the Nyquist circle criterion. In addition, this approach encompasses the optimal projection approach to reduced-order controller design. The current status of the overall theory will be reviewed including both continuous-time and discrete-time (sampled-data) formulations.

  17. Factors Controlling Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics: An Integrated Analysis and Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Hunter, A.C.; Andresen, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Intravenously injected nanoparticulate drug carriers provide a wide range of unique opportunities for site-specific targeting of therapeutic agents to many areas within the vasculature and beyond. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these carriers are controlled by a complex array of interrel...

  18. On controllability of an integrated bioreactor and periodically operated membrane separation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    to understand the controlled operation of the integrated process, it is convenient to use a model based approach supported by experimental evidence. Recently, an integrated bioreactor and electrically driven membrane separation process (Reverse Electro- Enhanced Dialysis - REED) has been proposed as a method...

  19. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing predict

  20. An efficient step-size control method in numerical integration for astrodynamical equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. Z.; Cui, D. X.

    2002-11-01

    Using the curvature of the integral curve, a step-size control method is introduced in this paper. This method will prove to be the efficient scheme in the sense that it saves computation time and improve accuracy of numerical integration.

  1. First and second order optimality conditions for optimal control problems of state constrained integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnans, J Frédéric; Dupuis, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal control problems of integral equations, with initial-final and running state constraints. The order of a running state constraint is defined in the setting of integral dynamics, and we work here with constraints of arbitrary high orders. First and second-order necessary conditions of optimality are obtained, as well as second-order sufficient conditions.

  2. Control of integrating process with dead time using auto-tuning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saravanakumar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Smith predictor for controlling higher order processes with integral action and long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a dead time compensator, which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, and robust performance of tuning formulae, and to obtain a critically damped system that is as fast as possible in its set point and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  3. Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project we propose to integrate spacecraft control and vehicle health functions to improve the robustness and productivity of space operations. The...

  4. Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II effort is to develop integrated health management and control reconfiguration algorithms that allow future space systems to...

  5. Integrated Reconfigurable Aero and Propulsion Control for Improved Flight Safety of Commercial Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this project is to develop and test a novel innovative Integrated Reconfigurable Aero & Propulsion Control (IRAP) system that achieves...

  6. Non-invasive monitoring and control in silicon photonics by CMOS integrated electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco; Ciccarella, Pietro; Annoni, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Sampietro, Marco; Melloni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    As photonics breaks away from today's device level toward large scale of integration and complex systems-on-a-chip, concepts like monitoring, control and stabilization of photonic integrated circuits emerge as new paradigms. Here, we show non-invasive monitoring and feedback control of high quality factor silicon photonics resonators assisted by a transparent light detector directly integrated inside the cavity. Control operations are entirely managed by a CMOS microelectronic circuit, hosting many parallel electronic read-out channels, that is bridged to the silicon photonics chip. Advanced functionalities, such as wavelength tuning, locking, labeling and swapping are demonstrated. The non-invasive nature of the transparent monitor and the scalability of the CMOS read-out system offer a viable solution for the control of arbitrarily reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits aggregating many components on a single chip.

  7. Inlet, engine, airframe controls integration development for supercruising aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchard, J. H.; Carlin, C. M.; Tjonneland, E.

    1983-01-01

    In connection with a consideration of advanced military aircraft systems, attention is given to research for improving the technology of the design of supersonic cruise aircraft. Syberg et al. (1981) have shown that an analytic design method is now available to accurately predict the flow characteristics of axisymmetric supersonic inlets, including off-design angle of attack operation. On the basis of information regarding the inlet flow characteristics, the control system designer can begin the inlet design and development, before wind tunnel testing has begun. The present investigation is concerned with details and status of inlet control technology. A detailed representation of a supersonic propulsion system is developed. This development demonstrates the feasibility of the selected hybrid computational concept.

  8. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  9. Integral Sliding Mode Control Design for Electronic Throttle Valve System

    OpenAIRE

    Shibly Ahmed AL-Samarraie; Alaq Sabah Badri; Mustafa H. Mishary

    2015-01-01

    One of the major components in an automobile engine is the throttle valve part. It is used to keep up with emissions and fuel efficiency low. Design a control system to the throttle valve is newly common requirement trend in automotive technology. The non-smoothness nonlinearity in throttle valve model are due to the friction model and the nonlinear spring, the uncertainty in system parameters and non-satisfying the matching condition are the main obstacles when designing a throttle plate con...

  10. A satellite digital controller or 'play that PID tune again, Sam'. [Position, Integral, Derivative feedback control algorithm for design strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.

  11. A stochastic regulator for integrated communication and control systems. I - Formulation of control law. II - Numerical analysis and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Luen-Woei; Ray, Asok

    1991-01-01

    A state feedback control law for integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is formulated by using the dynamic programming and optimality principle on a finite-time horizon. The control law is derived on the basis of a stochastic model of the plant which is augmented in state space to allow for the effects of randomly varying delays in the feedback loop. A numerical procedure for synthesizing the control parameters is then presented, and the performance of the control law is evaluated by simulating the flight dynamics model of an advanced aircraft. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

  12. Motion Capture for Puppet Control Using Integrated Sensor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byeong-yeol KIM; Hwan-ik CHUNG; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to execute puppet without restrictions by controling puppet using robot.We controling puppet in the same way as the present puppet,but we perform this by robot.It offers more advantages and lessen the weak points.It needs various actions and expressions becarse of the nature of a puppet.The biggest problem which executes this is the ways to create a system.This thesis proposes motion capture of developed methhod with solution of this problem.So,we create various contents needed by puppet.In this part,developed method means a mixed method on the basis of optical system and magnetic system used mainly for the present method of motion capture.We lessen the weak points of each method and propose solution of create motion for puppet by offering more advantages.So we solve difficulties of executing puppet and probable problems when we execute puppet by using robot.The solution of this thesis is proven by applying control of puppet.

  13. IAQ control in nursing homes using integrated desiccant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.M. [Engelhard ICC, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Miyauchi, Hikoo [Nichimen Engine Sales, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The demographics of the Japanese population indicate a need to provide a greater degree of elderly care, largely due to the long life expectancy of the Japanese people. It is explained that in response to this need Japan has embarked upon a dramatic programme to construct 5000 facilities by the year 2001. Air conditioning requirements of the elderly are somewhat different than those for other facilities and present an opportunity for the use of specialized equipment that will satisfy those requirements. A new facility care unit for the elderly has been built in Nagano, Japan and will start operation at the end of 1996. A new desiccant air conditioning unit designed for this facility is described. It combines humidity control of a desiccant sub-system and the thermal control of a conventional chiller in a single air-handling system. Regeneration of the desiccant is realized by a propane boiler at 88C, which also supplies heat in winter. It is emphasized that this new and exciting approach to air conditioning will change the expectations of society about indoor air quality and comfort control, which have been governed by the use of conventional equipment only, together with its inherent limitations. Other potential applications of desiccant technology are in supermarkets, industrial spaces, Pachinko halls, etc.

  14. Integrated Passive and Active Vibration Control of Ultra-precision Lathe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In ultra-precision cutting process, vibration is one of the key factors affecting the machining quality. In this paper, the damping methods of HCM-I Ultra-precision Lathe are discussed in both complete machine and slide. It is pointed out that integrated passive and active vibration control (IPAVC) by combining passive vibration control (PVC) and active vibration control (AVC) can not only eliminate high frequency vibration but also improve the damping effect to low frequency vibration. Experiment results show the effectiveness of the integrated passive and active vibration control.

  15. Study on Integrated Control of Vehicle Yaw and Rollover Stability Using Nonlinear Prediction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the integrated controller of the yaw and rollover stability controls based on the prediction model. A nonlinear 3-DoF vehicle model with a piecewise linearization tire model is built up as the rollover predictive model, and its accuracy is verified by vehicle tests. A yaw stability controller and a rollover stability controller are proposed, respectively. Then coordinated control strategy is investigated for the integration of vehicle yaw and roll stability controls. The additional yaw torque and braking torque of each wheel are calculated. The unified command of valves is sent combined with ABS control algorithm. Virtual tests in CarSim are carried out, including slalom condition and double-lane change condition. Results indicate that the coordinated control algorithm improves vehicle yaw and roll stability effectively.

  16. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  17. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  18. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 6: Controls and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the Space Systems and Technology Advisory Committee (SSTAC)/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on controls and guidance are included. Topics covered include: strategic avionics technology planning and bridging programs; avionics technology plan; vehicle health management; spacecraft guidance research; autonomous rendezvous and docking; autonomous landing; computational control; fiberoptic rotation sensors; precision instrument and telescope pointing; microsensors and microinstruments; micro guidance and control initiative; and earth-orbiting platforms controls-structures interaction.

  19. An integrative model of control: implications for understanding emotion regulation and dysregulation in childhood anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Silverman, Wendy K

    2006-04-01

    Theorists and investigators have emphasized an important role for control in emotional problems such as anxiety and anxiety disorders in youth. However, the term "control" is subject to theoretical ambiguities because of the broad conceptual bases for the term. In this article, we examine the concepts of locus of control, learned helplessness/attributional style, self-efficacy, and perceived control to develop an integrative model of control based on research and theory. The review emphasizes each of the theories distinguishing features in order to show how these distinctive features relate to real versus perceived control and how they may be differentially associated with childhood anxiety. We attempt to clarify the various definitions of control and the implications of these various definitions with respect to childhood anxiety, its disorders and their treatment and present a model of control that is integrative but also addresses the complexities of the different definitions of control (i.e., is multifaceted). The model developed from our review of the literature postulates that individuals differ in the extent to which they actually have control and differ, also on a continuum, in their perceptions of control. The need for this integrative model is highlighted by methodological, developmental, and clinical considerations. In particular, research has operationalized control and related constructs such as emotion regulation in ways that may be confounding actual control and perceived control. The need for an integrative but also multifaceted conceptualization of the role of control in childhood anxiety is also highlighted by clinical and developmental considerations. For instance, different facets of control may have differential relevance to clinical anxiety and at different points in childhood.

  20. ROBUST POSITIONING OF LASER BEAMS USING PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE AND BASED OBSERVER-FEEDBACK CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Kwabena A. Konadu; Sun Yi; Wonchang Choi; Taher Abu-Lebdeh

    2013-01-01

    High-precision positioning of laser beams has been a great challenge in industry due to inevitable existence of noise and disturbance. The work presented in this study addresses this problem by employing two different control strategies: Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control and state feedback control with an observer. The control strategies are intended to stabilize the position of a laser beam on a Position Sensing Device (PSD) located on a Laser Beam Stabilization (or, laser beam ...

  1. Integral Sliding Mode Control Strategy of D-STATCOM for Unbalanced Load Compensation under Various Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Mingchao Xia; Yanhui Mao

    2013-01-01

    Control strategies of D-STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation under internal and external disturbances were discussed. Linear control strategies do not have a satisfactory dynamic performance and become invalid under internal or external disturbances. To guarantee a good precision and robustness, a control strategy combining input-output feedback linearization technique with integral sliding mode control (ISMC) method was applied to D-STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation. The strategy ...

  2. Agent Cooperation Based Control Integration by Activity-Sharing and Joint Intention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高济; 林东豪

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a control integration method based on agent cooperation, called ASOJI, is proposed, which designs the architecture of integrated application systems in dis tributed computation environments as an agent community composed of nested agent fed erations in three aspects: architecture style, agent cooperation, and composition semantics.Through defining activity-sharing-oriented joint intention in the way of stepwise refinement, ASOJI can not only support the transparent specification of the architecture for software com position, but also eliminate the gap between agent theory and the engineering realization of control integration.

  3. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia. (Author)

  4. Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock - Alternative control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Paul1

    Full Text Available Internal parasites are considered by some to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock. The growing concern about the resistance of internal parasites to all classes of dewormers has caused people to look for alternatives. As dewormers lose their effectiveness, the livestock community fears increasing economic losses from worms. There is no one thing that can be given or done to replace chemical dewormers. It will take a combination of extremely good management techniques and possibly some alternative therapies. It is not wise to think that one can just stop deworming animals with chemical dewormers. It is something one will need to change gradually, observing and testing animals and soil, in order to monitor the progress. Alternative parasite control is an area that is receiving a lot of interest and attention. Programs and research will continue in the pursuit of parasite control, using alternative and more management-intensive methods. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 431-435

  5. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA EMPHASIZING THE CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata, Siam weed, a very important weed of Java Island (Indonesia is native to Central and South America. In the laboratory it showed rapid growth (1.15 g/g/week in the first 8 weeks of its growth. The biomass was mainly as leaves (LAR : 317.50 cm'/g total weight. It slowed down in the following month as the biomass was utilized for stem and branch formation. This behavior supported the growth of C. odorata into a very dense stand. It flowered, fruited during the dry season, and senesced following maturation of seeds from inflorescence branches. These branches dried out, but soon the stem resumed aggressive growth following the wet season. Leaf biomass was affected by the size of the stem in its early phase of regrowth, but later on it was more affected by the number of branches. The introduction of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata to Indonesia, was successful only in North Sumatera. In Java it has not been reported to establish succesfully. The introduction of another biological control agent, Procecidochares conneca to Indonesia was shown to be sp ecific and upon release in West Java it established immediately. It spread exponentia lly in the first 6 months of its release. Field monitoring continues to eval uate the impact of the agents. Other biocontrol agents (Actmole anteas and Conotrachelus wilt be introduced to Indonesia in 1997 through ACIAR Project on the Biological Control of Chromolaena odorata in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

  6. Performance improvements of a highly integrated digital electronic control system for an F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Andries, M. G.; Kelly, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program is structured to conduct flight research into the benefits of integrating an aircraft flight control system with the engine control system. A brief description of the HIDEC system installed on an F-15 aircraft is provided. The adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode is described in detail, together with simulation results and analyses that show the significant excess thrust improvements achievable with the ADECS mode. It was found that this increased thrust capability is accompanied by reduced fan stall margin and can be realized during flight conditions where engine face distortion is low. The results of analyses and simulations also show that engine thrust response is improved and that fuel consumption can be reduced. Although the performance benefits that accrue because of airframe and engine control integration are being demonstrated on an F-15 aircraft, the principles are applicable to advanced aircraft such as the advanced tactical fighter and advanced tactical aircraft.

  7. Stochastic optimal control of partially observable nonlinear quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic optimal control of partially observable nonlinear quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems is investigated. First, the stochastic optimal control problem of a partially observable nonlinear quasi-integrable Hamiltonian system is converted into that of a completely observable linear system based on a theorem due to Charalambous and Elliot. Then, the converted stochastic optimal control problem is solved by applying the stochastic averaging method and the stochastic dynamical programming principle. The response of the controlled quasi Hamiltonian system is predicted by solving the averaged Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the Riccati equation for the estimated error of system states. As an example to illustrate the procedure and effectiveness of the proposed method, the stochastic optimal control problem of a partially observable two-degree-of-freedom quasi-integrable Hamiltonian system is worked out in detail.

  8. Vibration suppression of distributed parameter flexible structures by Integral Consensus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Ehsan; Mahmoodi, S. Nima

    2016-03-01

    Integral Consensus Control (ICC) is proposed and implemented in this paper for the first time, as a novel approach for vibration control in distributed parameter flexible structures. The ICC consists of multiple parallel first-order lossy integrators, with the goal of targeting all major participating resonant modes in the oscillation of the structure. The vibration control design is taken to a different level, by integrating the concept of consensus control design into the new dynamics. Each control patch on the flexible structure is considered as a node of a network, and a communication topology with consensus control terms are augmented in the controller design dynamics. The result is an effective vibration controller, which is also robust to failures and inconsistencies in the control system. A cantilever is used as a sample flexible structure to investigate the control method. Multi-agent representation of the system, state estimator dynamics and the ICC model are designed for the structure. Extensive numerical simulations have been conducted to show the suppression performance of the ICC under different input disturbances. A comparative study is presented to show the advantage of the decentralized design over the conventional centralized approach. The new consensus control design provides new possibilities to vibration control problems, where an effective, robust and synchronized suppression is needed.

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  10. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  12. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  13. Integration Between Enterprise Process Monitoring and Controlling System and Enterprise Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bi-long; ZHANG Li; WANG Xiao-hua

    2005-01-01

    The relationships and the features of integration between Enterprise Process Monitoring and Controlling System (EPMCS) and Enterprise Process Related Applications (EPRA) were analyzed. An integration architecture centered on EPMCS was presented, in which there were four layers to connect from EPMCS to EPRA:EPMCS, application integration layer, transport layer and EPRA, and there were four layers used to etstablish integration: presentation layer, function layer, data layer and system layer. The frameworks to connect EPMCS and EPRA were designed, that Enterprise-Independent Model (EIM), Enterprise-Specific Model (ESM) and meta-model to describe these two models were defined. The method to integrate data based on XML was designed to exchange data from EPMCS to EPRA according to the mapping between EIM and ESM. The approches are suitable for integrating EPMCS and systems in Product Data Management (PDM), project management and enterprise business management.

  14. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  15. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

  16. Improving electrical equipment and control systems for shield integrated mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Z.M.; Starikov, B.Ya.; Kibrik, I.S.

    1984-06-01

    The design and operation are discussed for electrical equipment and control systems for the 1AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield integrated face systems consisting of shield supports, coal plow and chain conveyor. The shield system is used for mining inclined and steep coal seams endangered by coal dust explosions, methane or rock bursts. Control and electrical system for 3 types of shield face mining systems is similar. It cuts energy supply when methane content at working faces exceeds the maximum permissible level, controls haulage rate and cutting rate of a coal plow, controls operation of shield supports (using the Sirena system), controls dust suppression system and its water consumption. The system is also equipped with communications equipment. Tests of the control and electrical system for the integrated shield system carried out in the im. Gagarin mine in the Ukraine are described. The VAUS III control system developed by Dongiprouglemash was tested.

  17. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-01

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  18. Integrating Geohydrological Models In ATES-Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    1) Purpose. Accomplish optimal and sustainable use of subsurface for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). 2) Scope. A heat pump in combination with an ATES system can efficiently and sustainably provide heating and cooling for user comfort within buildings. ATES systems are popular in moderate climate in which ATES systems are exploited as they are able to save primary energy. While storing warm and cold groundwater, ATES systems occupy a significant amount of the subsurface space, making that the space in the aquifers below cities is becoming scarce [1]. With the rapid growth of the number of ATES systems, the use of the subsurface intensifies, which raises additional questions regarding its sustainability and the long term profitability of the individual systems. In practice considerable difficulties regarding A) the performance of these installations and B) optimal and sustainable use of the subsurface are met. 3) Approach. Recently it was confirmed [2] that ATES systems can be placed closer to each other with limited effect on their energy efficiency. By placing them closer together we introduce the risk of a tragedy of the commons [3]. Therefore it is of importance to know where the warm and cold zones are over time and enable ATES-controllers to use the subsurface optimal and sustainably. From the field of multi agent systems and complex adaptive systems we use approaches and techniques to make an operation and control system that enables to adapt their control not only based on current demand, but also on current aquifer status and expected future demand. We are developing a numerical groundwater model structure which is fed with operational data of different ATES-systems. While doing this we run into challenges and opportunities like; spatial and temporal scale issues, sustaining the storage with balancing thermal storage and extraction at area level, dynamics and relation between hydrological and thermal influence and consequences for spreading of

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  20. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  1. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    system where the upper level controller directly controls the lower level subordinated nodes, this study aims to integrate two common indirect control methods:market-based control and price-based control into the hierarchical electric vehicles management system. Specifically, on the lower level...... of the hierarchy, the FOs coordinate the charging behaviors of their EV users using a price-based control method. A parametric utility model is used on the lower level to characterize price elasticity of electric vehicles and thus used by the FO to coordinate the individual EV charging. On the upper level...

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  4. Recent Advances in Understanding Integrative Control of Potassium Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jang H.; McDonough, Alicia A.

    2016-01-01

    The potassium homeostatic system is very tightly regulated. Recent studies have shed light on the sensing and molecular mechanisms responsible for this tight control. In addition to classic feedback regulation mediated by a rise in extracellular fluid (ECF) [K+], there is evidence for a feedforward mechanism: Dietary K+ intake is sensed in the gut, and an unidentified gut factor is activated to stimulate renal K+ excretion. This pathway may explain renal and extrarenal responses to altered K+ intake that occur independently of changes in ECF [K+]. Mechanisms for conserving ECF K+ during fasting or K+ deprivation have been described: Kidney NADPH oxidase activation initiates a cascade that provokes the retraction of K+ channels from the cell membrane, and muscle becomes resistant to insulin stimulation of cellular K+ uptake. How these mechanisms are triggered by K+ deprivation remains unclear. Cellular AMP kinase–dependent protein kinase activity provokes the acute transfer of K+ from the ECF to the ICF, which may be important in exercise or ischemia. These recent advances may shed light on the beneficial effects of a high-K+ diet for the cardiovascular system. PMID:18759636

  5. Integrated analytical approaches for food traceability and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It developed in the laboratory of Food Science of the Montevideo commissariat a regional workshop with the following aims:To evaluate the effect of vegetable matrices on the determination of pesticides through analysis by GC / M S. For the implementation and application of these tests, it was applied the Laboratory s protocol which it was distributed to all members of the working group. It worked with a matrix lettuce, chard and a mix of green leafy vegetables , evaluating the matrix effect in the following pesticides: chloropyrifos, procimidione, L-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, trifluralin and fenbuconazole, using heptachlor as internal standard.They carried out in five concentration levels, in triplicate tests, applying the techniques of extraction by QuEChERS (kit agile nt). Prepared samples are injected into the GC / M S equipment, an analysis of the results were evaluated by the working group. Furthermore this regional workshop was about nuclear techniques role in agricultural practice, the traceability and pollution control, laboratory services and farmers relationships, environmental, economic, social and political impact, pest prevention and animal diseases, risk, the human health, environment protection in the agricultural and the pesticides uses.

  6. Chemical and physical processes for integrated temperature control in microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, Rosanne M.; Dodge, Arash; Van Dedem, Gijs W. K.; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are a promising new tool for studying and optimizing (bio)chemical reactions and analyses. Many (bio)chemical reactions require accurate temperature control, such as for example thermocycling for PCR. Here, a new integrated temperature control system for microfluidic devices is

  7. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  8. Beyond Rigid Body: Integrated Structural Control of Extremely Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated structural control of extremely lightweight vehicles will open a new paradigm and allow for performance increases. The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed (MUTT) vehicle will be used to evaluate and advance the state-of-the-art in modeling and control of this new class of aerospace vehicle.

  9. Results of an integrated structure-control law design sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Next generation air and space vehicle designs are driven by increased performance requirements, demanding a high level of design integration between traditionally separate design disciplines. Interdisciplinary analysis capabilities have been developed, for aeroservoelastic aircraft and large flexible spacecraft control for instance, but the requisite integrated design methods are only beginning to be developed. One integrated design method which has received attention is based on hierarchal problem decompositions, optimization, and design sensitivity analyses. This paper highlights a design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changess in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient that finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.

  10. Postural Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Sensory Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; McKenna, Roisin; Murphy, Blain

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the nature of sensory integration deficits in postural control of young adults with ASD. Postural control was assessed in a fixed environment, and in three environments in which sensory information about body sway from visual, proprioceptive or both channels was inaccurate. Furthermore, two levels of inaccurate information were…

  11. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  12. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates

  13. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  14. Preliminary paper - Integrated control process for the development of the mined geologic disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, begins to focus DOE Programs and Projects on the total system life cycle instead of looking at project execution or operation as individual components. As DOE begins to implement this order, the DOE Management and Operating contractors must develop a process to control not only the contract baseline but also the overall life cycle baseline. This paper presents an integrated process that is currently being developed on the Yucca Mountain Project for DOE. The process integrates the current contract/project baseline management process with the management control process for design and the configuration management change control process

  15. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  16. Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Brodersen, Mark Laier; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the d......A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control...... realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction....

  17. Development of design support tool using integrated hierarchical control chart (HCC) and IEC61131 for nuclear power plant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, E.; Gabbar, H.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a new intelligent and highly automated Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) and operations mapping solution for nuclear power plant operators that provides control system designers, developers and operators with a single view of all elements and systems across a power plant with the integrated interactive data access and information retrieval capabilities that enables a faster fault diagnostics as well aids in a more efficient decision making for the routine daily tasks. (author)

  18. PID Controller Stabilization for First-order Integral Processes with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Due to the widespread application of the PID controller in industrial control systems, it is desirable to know the complete set of all the stabilizing PID controllers for a given plant before the controller design and tuning. In this paper,the stabilization problems of the classical proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) controller and the singleparameter PID controller (containing only one adjustable parameter) for integral processes with time delay are investigated, respectively. The complete set of stabilizing parameters of the classical PID controller is determined using a version of the Hermite-Biehler Theorem applicable to quasipolynomials. Since the stabilization problem of the single-parameter PID controller cannot be treated by the Hermite-Biehler Theorem, a simple method called duallocus diagram is employed to derive the stabilizing range of the single-parameter PID controller. These results provide insight into the tuning of the PID controllers.

  19. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  20. Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself

  1. Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself.

  2. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  3. Anti-windup Scheme for the Controller of Integrating Processes with Dead-time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-hui; QIAN Feng; SHAO Hui-he

    2006-01-01

    For the first-order integrating processes with long delay, the disturbance observer-based 2DoF control scheme is analyzed in detail with regard to the control input limitation. After that, a simple anti-windup scheme, without an additional parameter, is proposed to compen~te for the adverse effects of the input saturation. The proposed method can properly keep the control signal saturated for an optimum length of time without discarding the control energy. The simulation results show that the control input saturation can dramatically degrade the closed loop system performance.Under the nominal and model uncertainty cases, the controller with anti-windup strategy will obtain fast and smooth responses. Furthermore, the simulation results illustrate that the proposed anti-windup scheme may achieve good performance for the high order integrating processes with long delay.

  4. Model Predictive Control for Integration of Industrial Consumers to the Smart Grid under a Direct Control Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a three-level hierarchical control framework for integration of industrial consumers to the future smart grid. With this structure, a balance responsible party (BRP) at the top level will be able to provide regulating power from the consumer side to help the power grid...

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  6. Compensation for time-delayed feedback bang-bang control of quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The stochastic averaging method for quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems with time-delayed feedback bang-bang control is first introduced. Then, two time delay compensation methods, namely the method of changing control force amplitude (CFA) and the method of changing control delay time (CDT), are proposed. The conditions applicable to each compensation method are discussed. Finally, an example is worked out in detail to illustrate the application and effectiveness of the proposed methods and the two compensation methods in combination.

  7. Anti-windup design for the controllers of integrating processes with long delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guanghui; Shao Huihe

    2007-01-01

    For several superior controllers of the first-order integrating processes with long delay, the windup problems are analyzed in detail when the control signal saturates.The results show that these controllers have similar characteristics about the process input limitation.And then, a simple and effective anti-windup scheme, without an additional parameter, is designed for these controllers.Simulations run with three main controllers, and the results illustrate that the proposed method may achieve good performance under the nominal and model uncertainty cases.

  8. Power-based control with integral action for wind turbines connected to the grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, R. R.; Fernández, R. D.; Mantz, R. J.; Battaiotto, P. E.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a power shaping control with integral action is employed to control active and reactive powers of wind turbines connected to the grid. As it is well known, power shaping allows finding a Lyapunov function which ensures stability. In contrast to other passivity-based control theories, the power shaping controller design allows to use easily measurable variables, such as voltages and currents which simplify the physical interpretation and, therefore, the controller synthesis. The strategy proposed is evaluated in the context of severe operating conditions, such as abrupt changes in the wind speed and voltage drops.

  9. Control-oriented Automatic System for Transport Analysis (ASTRA)-Matlab integration for Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exponential growth in energy consumption has led to a renewed interest in the development of alternatives to fossil fuels. Between the unconventional resources that may help to meet this energy demand, nuclear fusion has arisen as a promising source, which has given way to an unprecedented interest in solving the different control problems existing in nuclear fusion reactors such as Tokamaks. The aim of this manuscript is to show how one of the most popular codes used to simulate the performance of Tokamaks, the Automatic System For Transport Analysis (ASTRA) code, can be integrated into the Matlab-Simulink tool in order to make easier and more comfortable the development of suitable controllers for Tokamaks. As a demonstrative case study to show the feasibility and the goodness of the proposed ASTRA-Matlab integration, a modified anti-windup Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)-based controller for the loop voltage of a Tokamak has been implemented. The integration achieved represents an original and innovative work in the Tokamak control area and it provides new possibilities for the development and application of advanced control schemes to the standardized and widely extended ASTRA transport code for Tokamaks. -- Highlights: → The paper presents a useful tool for rapid prototyping of different solutions to deal with the control problems arising in Tokamaks. → The proposed tool embeds the standardized Automatic System For Transport Analysis (ASTRA) code for Tokamaks within the well-known Matlab-Simulink software. → This allows testing and combining diverse control schemes in a unified way considering the ASTRA as the plant of the system. → A demonstrative Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)-based case study is provided to show the feasibility and capabilities of the proposed integration.

  10. Sterility method of pest control and its potential role in an integrated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  11. A Local Controller for Discrete-Time Large-Scale System by Using Integral Variable Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Chai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new local controller for discrete-time integral variable structure control of a large-scale system with matched and unmatched uncertainty is presented. The local controller is able to bring the large-scale system into stability by using only the states feedback from individual subsystem itself. A new theorem is established and proved that the controller is able to handle the effect of interconnection for the large-scale system with matched and unmatched uncertainty, and the system stability is ensured. The controller is able to control the system to achieve the quasi-sliding surface and remains on it. The results showed a fast convergence to the desired value and the attenuation of disturbance is achieved.

  12. Speed synchronization control for integrated automotive motor-transmission powertrain system with random delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Zongde

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a robust speed synchronization controller design for an integrated motor-transmission powertrain system in which the driving motor and multi-gearbox are directly coupled. As the controller area network (CAN) is commonly used in the vehicle powertrain system, the possible network-induced random delays in both feedback and forward channel are considered and modeled by using two Markov chains in the controller design process. For the application perspective, the control law adopted here is a generalized proportional-integral (PI) control. By employing the system-augmentation technique, a delay-free stochastic closed-loop system is obtained and the generalized PI controller design problem is converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem. Since there are external disturbances involved in the closed-loop system, the energy-to-peak performance is considered to guarantee the robustness of the controller. And the controlled output is chosen as the speed synchronization error. To further improve the transient response of the closed-loop system, the pole placement is also employed in the energy-to-peak performance based speed synchronization control. The mode-dependent control gains are obtained by using an iterative linear matrix inequality (LMI) algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  13. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  14. Integration of Multiple Organic Light Emitting Diodes and a Lens for Emission Angle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahadian, Fanny; Masada, Tatsuya; Fujieda, Ichiro

    We propose to integrate a single lens on top of multiple OLEDs. Angular distribution of the light emitted from the lens surface is altered by turning on the OLEDs selectively. We can use such a light source as a backlight for a liquid crystal display to switch its viewing angle range and/or to display multiple images in different directions. Pixel-level integration would allow one to construct an OLED display with a similar emission angle control.

  15. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years.

  16. Sensorless control of salient PMSM with adaptive integrator and resistance online identification using strong tracking filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaokang; Wu, Peijun; Ji, Jinhu; Li, Xuchun

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a sensorless control approach of salient PMSM with an online parameter identifier. Adaptive Integrator is proposed and utilised for the estimation of active flux and rotor position. As a result, integrator overflow caused by DC offset is avoided. Meanwhile, an online stator resistance identification algorithm using strong tracking filter is employed, and the identified stator resistance is fed back to the estimating algorithm. Thus, the estimating algorithm can calculate the rotor position correctly. Simulations and experimental results validate the feasibility of both adaptive integrator and the parameter identification method.

  17. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-03-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  18. Integrated Methodology for Information System Change Control Based on Enterprise Architecture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirta Ruta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The information system (IS change management and governance, according to the best practices, are defined and described in several international methodologies, standards, and frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, ValIT etc.. These methodologies describe IS change management aspects from the viewpoint of their particular enterprise resource management area. The areas are mainly viewed in a partly isolated environment, and the integration of the existing methodologies is insufficient for providing unified and controlled methodological support for holistic IS change management. In this paper, an integrated change management methodology is introduced. The methodology consists of guidelines for IS change control by integrating the following significant resource management areas – information technology (IT governance, change management and enterprise architecture (EA change management. In addition, the methodology includes lists of controls applicable at different phases. The approach is based on re-use and fusion of principles used by related methodologies as well as on empirical observations about typical IS change management mistakes in enterprises.

  19. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms. PMID:25137682

  20. The Design Performance of the Integrated Spallation Neutron Source Vacuum Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Johnny Y; Ladd, Peter; Williams, Derrick

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source vacuum control systems have been developed within a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(TJNAF), and Brookhaven National Laboratory(BNL). Each participating lab is responsible for a different section of the machine. Although a great deal of effort has been made to standardize vacuum instrumentation components and the global control system interfaces, the varied requirements of the different sections of the machine made horizontal integration of the individual vacuum control systems both interesting and challenging. To support commissioning, the SNS control system team and the vacuum group developed a set of test strategies and the interlock schemes that allowed horizontal vacuum system integration to be effectively achieved. The design of the vacuum control interlock scheme developed will be presented together with the results of performance measurements made on these sch...

  1. Exploring integral controllers in actively-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    Active tilting-pad journal bearings with radial oil injection combine good stability properties of conventional tilting-pad journal bearings with the capability of improving their dynamic properties even more by control techniques. The main contribution of this work is the experimental...... investigation of integral controllers for feedback-controlled lubrication with the aim of: a) presetting the static journal center and consequently exploring the changes of bearing dynamic properties; b) obtaining an integral controller capable of re-positioning the static journal eccentricity for matching...... equilibria under conventional hydrodynamic and feedback-controlled lubrication regimes. A novel application is proposed, that tries to build non-invasive perturbation forces and uses the active fluid film forces of the bearing as a calibrated shaker....

  2. Control of dengue: Consensus views of Endemic Disease Control Agents and Community Health Agents on their integrated action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, João Paulo de Morais; Oliveira, Ellen Synthia Fernandes de; Teixeira, Ricardo Antônio Gonçalves; Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2016-08-01

    Dengue is one of Brazil's most important public health challenges. Activities for its prevention and control have been based on the strategy of integrated management proposed in health policies, in which the central actors are the Endemic Disease Control Agent(ACE) and the Community Health Agent (ACS). This study analyzes consensus opinions produced by ACSs and ACEs on theactions for incorporating ACEs into the teams of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). It is a qualitative study from a large municipality in Brazil in which dengue is endemic, using a focus group of professionals that is subsequently analyzed using Collective Subject Discourse Analysis, supported by WebQDA. The results indicate consensus positions in relation to the following subjects: I) difficulty in the process of integration of ACSs and ACEs for control of dengue; II) inclusion of ACEs in the primary healthcare of the ESF; and III) absence of monitoring and assessment of the integrated actions. In conclusion, there are needs: to make participants more aware, seeking changes in behavior; to offer an environment of support to those involved with training courses about dengue; and to monitor the process of integration, and evaluate it periodically, creating indicators of quality and quantity. PMID:27557006

  3. Adaptive Integral-type Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Attitude Maneuvering Under Actuator Stuck Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qinglei; ZHANG Youmin; HUO Xing; XIAO Bing

    2011-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) design technique against actuator stuck faults is investigated using integral-type sliding mode control (ISMC) with application to spacecraft attitude maneuvering control system. The principle of the proposed FTC scheme is to design an integral-type sliding mode attitude controller using on-line parameter adaptive updating law to compensate for the effects of stuck actuators. This adaptive law also provides both the estimates of the system parameters and external disturbances such that a prior knowledge of the spacecraft inertia or boundedness of disturbances is not required. Moreover, by including the integral feedback term, the designed controller can not only tolerate actuator stuck faults, but also compensate the disturbances with constant components. For the synthesis of controller, the fault time, patterns and values are unknown in advance, as motivated from a practical spacecraft control application. Complete stability and performance analysis are presented and illustrative simulation results of application to a spacecraft show that high precise attitude control with zero steady-error is successfully achieved using various scenarios of stuck failures in actuators.

  4. Physiological hemostasis based intelligent integrated cooperative controller for precise fault-tolerant control of redundant parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kuangrong; Guo, Chongbin; Ding, Yongsheng

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on precise fault-tolerant control for actual redundant parallel manipulator. Based on kinematic redundancy, some unnoticed influences such as mechanical clearance have been considered to design a more precise and intelligent fault-tolerant plan for actual plants. According to regulation principles in human hemostasis system, a bio-inspired intelligent integrated cooperative controller (BIICC) is developed including system structure, algorithm and step in parameter tuning. The proposed BIICC optimises partial error signal and improves control performance in each sub-channel. Moreover, the new controller transfers and disposes cooperative control signals among different sub-channels to achieve an intelligent integrated fault-tolerant system. The proposed BIICC is applied to an actual 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new controller is demonstrated. The BIICC is beneficial to control precision and fault-tolerant capability of redundant plant. The improvements are more obvious in cases where extra actuators of redundant manipulator are broken.

  5. State of the Art Authentication, Access Control, and Secure Integration in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetesh Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid (SG is a promising platform for providing more reliable, efficient, and cost effective electricity to the consumers in a secure manner. Numerous initiatives across the globe are taken by both industry and academia in order to compile various security issues in the smart grid network. Unfortunately, there is no impactful survey paper available in the literature on authentications in the smart grid network. Therefore, this paper addresses the required objectives of an authentication protocol in the smart grid network along with the focus on mutual authentication, access control, and secure integration among different SG components. We review the existing authentication protocols, and analyze mutual authentication, privacy, trust, integrity, and confidentiality of communicating information in the smart grid network. We review authentications between the communicated entities in the smart grid, such as smart appliance, smart meter, energy provider, control center (CC, and home/building/neighborhood area network gateways (GW. We also review the existing authentication schemes for the vehicle-to-grid (V2G communication network along with various available secure integration and access control schemes. We also discuss the importance of the mutual authentication among SG entities while providing confidentiality and privacy preservation, seamless integration, and required access control with lower overhead, cost, and delay. This paper will help to provide a better understanding of current authentication, authorization, and secure integration issues in the smart grid network and directions to create interest among researchers to further explore these promising areas.

  6. Linear matrix inequality-based proportional-integral control design with application to F-16 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Zachary B.

    A robust proportional-integral (PI) controller was synthesized for the F-16 VISTA (Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, with the goal of eventually designing and implementing a linear parameter-varying PI controller on high performance aircraft. The combination of classical and modern control theory provides theoretically guaranteed stability and performance throughout the flight envelope and ease of implementation due to the simplicity of the PI controller structure. The controller is designed by solving a set of LMIs with pole placement constraints. This closed-loop system was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to analyze the performance of the controller. A robust Hinfinity controller was also developed to compare performance with PI controller. The simulation results showed stability, albeit with poor performance compared to the Hinfinity controlle.

  7. Discussion on Muskingum versus Integrator-Delay Models for Control Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bolea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study about two models, Muskingum and integrator-delay (ID models, for canal control is presented. The former is a simplified hydrological model which is very simple and extensively used in hydraulic engineering for simulation and prediction. The latter is also a model with physical meaning and is widely used for irrigation canals control. Due to a lack of general awareness of Muskingum prediction model in regulation from the control community, authors present this comparative study with the ID control model. Both models have been studied and analyzed for control purposes. This study has been carried out and validated in a real irrigation canal, at Aghili irrigation district in Iran, using two traditional control approaches, PID with feedback and predictive control. The results demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of both models, showing the benefits and limitations of using the widespread Muskingum model among the hydraulics scientific community for control design.

  8. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambregts, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

  9. Multicriteria Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Control Strategies Using the Choquet Integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, J; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2016-02-01

    An outbreak of the highly contagious animal disease classical swine fever (CSF) requires the selection of an optimal control strategy. The choice of a control strategy is a decision process depending on different aspects. Besides epidemiology, economic and ethical/social aspects must be taken into account. In this study, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) was used to evaluate six control strategies for two regions with different farm densities. A strategy including only the minimum EU control measures and the traditional control strategy based on preventive culling were compared to alternative control strategies using emergency vaccination and/or rapid PCR testing ('emergency vaccination', 'test to slaughter', 'test to control' and 'vaccination in conjunction with rapid testing'). The MACBETH approach was used in order to assess the three main criteria (epidemiology, economics and ethical/social aspects). Subcriteria with both quantitative and qualitative performance levels were translated into a normalized scale. The Choquet integral approach was adopted to obtain a ranking of the six CSF control strategies based on the three main criteria, taking interactions into account. Three different rankings of the importance of the main criteria, which were to reflect the potential perceptions of stakeholders, were examined. Both the region under investigation and the ranking of the main criteria had an influence on the 'best' choice. Alternative control strategies were favourable to the minimum EU control and the traditional control measures independent of the farm density. Because the choice of the 'best' control strategy does not solely depend on the epidemiological efficiency, MCDM can help to find the best solution. Both MACBETH and the Choquet integral approach are feasible MCDM approaches. MACBETH only needs a qualitative evaluation and is therefore a comparatively intuitive approach. The Choquet integral does not only take the importance of the criteria into

  10. Integrated digital control and man-machine interface for complex remote handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed communication network provide a real-time distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A Man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer system control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments

  11. Integrated digital control and man-machine interface for complex remote handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, J.C.; Spille, R.F.; Zimmermann, S.D.

    1986-12-01

    The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed communication network provide a real-time distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A Man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer system control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments.

  12. Tuning of IMC based PID controllers for integrating systems with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D B Santosh; Padma Sree, R

    2016-07-01

    Design of Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controllers based on IMC principles for various types of integrating systems with time delay is proposed. PID parameters are given in terms of process model parameters and a tuning parameter. The tuning parameter is IMC filter time constant. In the present work, the IMC filter (Q) is chosen in such a manner that the order of the denominator of IMC controller is one less than the order of the numerator. The IMC filter time constant (λ) is tuned in such a way that a good compromise is made between performance and robustness for both servo and regulatory problems. To improve servo response of the controller a set point filter is designed such that the closed loop response is similar to that of first order plus time delay system. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the non-linear model equations of jacketed CSTR to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with the recently reported methods in terms of IAE and ITAE. The smooth functioning of the controller is determined in terms of total variation and compared with recently reported methods. Simulation studies are carried out on various integrating systems with time delay to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controllers.

  13. Tuning of IMC based PID controllers for integrating systems with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D B Santosh; Padma Sree, R

    2016-07-01

    Design of Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controllers based on IMC principles for various types of integrating systems with time delay is proposed. PID parameters are given in terms of process model parameters and a tuning parameter. The tuning parameter is IMC filter time constant. In the present work, the IMC filter (Q) is chosen in such a manner that the order of the denominator of IMC controller is one less than the order of the numerator. The IMC filter time constant (λ) is tuned in such a way that a good compromise is made between performance and robustness for both servo and regulatory problems. To improve servo response of the controller a set point filter is designed such that the closed loop response is similar to that of first order plus time delay system. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the non-linear model equations of jacketed CSTR to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with the recently reported methods in terms of IAE and ITAE. The smooth functioning of the controller is determined in terms of total variation and compared with recently reported methods. Simulation studies are carried out on various integrating systems with time delay to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controllers. PMID:27087135

  14. Fast control technique for high frequency (5MHz) DC/DC integrated converter

    OpenAIRE

    Viejo de Frutos, Miriam del; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; García Suárez, Oscar; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A switching frequency of 5 MHz allows the integration in a chip of a low power (10W) DC/DC converter. Although this switching frequency would make feasible a voltage mode control with 1MHz bandwidth, the parasitics and robustness don't allow such a high frequency bandwidth. This paper proposes a fast control technique that helps to optimize the dynamic response of high frequency DC/DC converter. The control proposed and analyzed in this paper is based on the peak current mode control of the o...

  15. Bottom-following control for an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle using integral-terminal sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浙平; 于浩淼; 李本银

    2015-01-01

    The bottom-following problem of an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle(UUV) is addressed. A robust nonlinear controller is developed by using integral-terminal sliding mode control(ITSMC), which can exponentially drive an UUV onto a predefined path at a constant forward speed. The kinematic error equations are first derived in the Serret-Frenet frame. Using the line of sight(LOS) method, Lyapunov’s direct technique and tracking differentiator, the guidance law is established. Then, the kinematic controller, the guidance law, is expanded to cope with vehicle dynamics by resorting to introduce two integral-terminal sliding surfaces. Robustness to parameter perturbation is addressed by incorporating the reaching laws associated with the upper bound of the parameter perturbation. The proposed control law can guarantee that all error signals globally exponentially converge to the origin. Finally, a series of numerical simulation results are presented and discussed. In these simulations, wave, constant unknown ocean currents(for the purposes of the controller) and the parameter perturbation are added to illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the bottom-following control scheme.

  16. Bottom-following control for an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle using integral-terminal sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浙平; 于浩淼; 李本银

    2015-01-01

    The bottom-following problem of an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) is addressed. A robust nonlinear controller is developed by using integral-terminal sliding mode control (ITSMC), which can exponentially drive an UUV onto a predefined path at a constant forward speed. The kinematic error equations are first derived in the Serret-Frenet frame. Using the line of sight (LOS) method, Lyapunov’s direct technique and tracking differentiator, the guidance law is established. Then, the kinematic controller, the guidance law, is expanded to cope with vehicle dynamics by resorting to introduce two integral-terminal sliding surfaces. Robustness to parameter perturbation is addressed by incorporating the reaching laws associated with the upper bound of the parameter perturbation. The proposed control law can guarantee that all error signals globally exponentially converge to the origin. Finally, a series of numerical simulation results are presented and discussed. In these simulations, wave, constant unknown ocean currents (for the purposes of the controller) and the parameter perturbation are added to illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the bottom-following control scheme.

  17. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Lee, J. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTIN

  18. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  19. Dynamical Adaptive Integral Sliding Backstepping Control of Nonlinear Nontriangular Uncertain Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Pervaiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a control strategy for nonlinear nontriangular uncertain systems. The proposed control method is a synergy between the dynamic adaptive backstepping (DAB and integral sliding mode (ISM and is referred to as DAB-ISMC. Our main objective is to find a recursive procedure to transform a nontriangular system into an implementable form that enables designing a control law which almost eliminates the reaching-phase. The proposed method further facilitates minimization of chattering which is believed to be a shortcoming of the sliding mode control. In this methodology, the ISM, as an integrated subsystem of DAB, is introduced at the final stage of backstepping. This strategy works very well to obtain a system that is robust against model imperfections, matching and unmatching uncertainties. The DAB-ISMC method is applied on a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and simulation results obtained on Matlab are found to be very promising.

  20. Integrated structures/controls optimization of a smart composite plate with segmented active constrained layer damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Rajan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Nam, Changho

    2000-06-01

    A rigorous multi-objective optimization procedure, is developed to address the integrated structures/control design of composite plates with surface bonded segmented active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. The Kresselmeier- Steinhauser function approach is used to formulate this multidisciplinary problem. The goal is to control vibration without incorporating a weight penalty. Objective functions and constraints include damping ratios, structural weight and natural frequencies. Design variables include the ply stacking sequence, dimensions and placement of segmented ACL. The optimal designs show improved plate vibratory characteristics and reduced structural weight. The results of the multi- objective optimization problem are compared to those of a single objective optimization with vibration control as the objective. Results establish the necessity for developing the integrated structures/controls optimization procedure.

  1. A Systematic Computer-Aided Framework for Integrated Design and Control of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;

    Chemical processes are conventionally designed through a sequential approach. In this sequential approach, first, a steady-state process design is obtained and then, control structure synthesis that, in most of the cases, is based on heuristics is performed. Therefore, process design and process......-defined operational conditions whereas controllability is considered to maintain desired operating points of the process at any kind of imposed disturbance under normal operating conditions. In this work, a systematic hierarchical computer-aided framework for integrated process design and control of chemical...... processes including process intensification is proposed. Note however, because of integration of functions/operations into one system the controllability region of intensified equipment may become smaller (Nikačević et al., 2012). The methodology developed in this work, employs a decomposition...

  2. An integrated model of statistical process control and maintenance based on the delayed monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops an integrated model of statistical process control and maintenance decision. The proposal of delayed monitoring policy postpones the sampling process till a scheduled time and contributes to ten-scenarios of the production process, where equipment failure may occur besides quality shift. The equipment failure and the control chart alert trigger the corrective maintenance and the predictive maintenance, respectively. The occurrence probability, the cycle time and the cycle cost of each scenario are obtained by integral calculation; therefore, a mathematical model is established to minimize the expected cost by using the genetic algorithm. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment is conducted and compared with the integral calculation in order to ensure the analysis of the ten-scenario model. Another ordinary integrated model without delayed monitoring is also established as comparison. The results of a numerical example indicate satisfactory economic performance of the proposed model. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of model parameters. - Highlights: • We develop an integrated model of statistical process control and maintenance. • We propose delayed monitoring policy and derive an economic model with 10 scenarios. • We consider two deterioration mechanisms, quality shift and equipment failure. • The delayed monitoring policy will help reduce the expected cost

  3. Control and Diagnosis in Integrated Product Development - Observations during the Development of an AGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of integrated product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, it is generally observed that product development processes of complex systems can only be successful if the activities in the different domains are well connected and synchronised and if an ongoing communication is present - an ongoing communication spanning the technical domains and also including functions such as production planning, marketing/distribution, quality assurance, service and project planning. Obviously, numerous approaches to tackle this challenge are present in scientific literature and in industrial practice, as well. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The main source of insight of the presented research is the product development process of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) which is intended to be used on rough terrain. The paper starts with a background describing Integrated Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part summarizes some insights and formulates first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Integrated Product Development.

  4. Precision Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) in the Presence of Dynamic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; MacKunis, W.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Dixon, W. E.

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive robust integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS) is presented for a variable speed control moment gyroscope (VSCMG)-actuated satellite. The developed IPACS method is capable of achieving precision attitude control while simultaneously achieving asymptotic power tracking for a rigid-body satellite in the presence of uncertain friction in the VSCMG gimbals and wheels. In addition, the developed controller compensates for the effects of uncertain, time-varying satellite inertia properties. Some challenges encountered in the control design are that the control input is premultiplied by a nonsquare, time-varying, nonlinear, uncertain matrix and is embedded in a discontinuous nonlinear. Globally uniformly ultimately bounded attitude tracking and asymptotic power tracking results are proven via Lyapunov stability analyses, and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the controller.

  5. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system: integrated system test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Program, is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the final phase of the test program, in which the overall performance of the integrated system was evaluated. Previous testing has shown that the goal of 70 percent NO{sub x} removal was easily achieved with the combination of low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and urea-based SNCR. Similarly, the ability of the sodium-based DSI system to achieve 70 percent SO{sub 2} removal was also demonstrated previously. The integrated tests demonstrated the synergistic benefit of operating the SNCR and sodium-based DSI systems concurrently. With the automatic control system set to limit the NH{sub 3} emissions to less than 8 ppm, the NO{sub 2} emissions from the sodium-based DSI system were reduced by nominally 50 percent compared to operation with the DSI system alone. Comparably, the combined operation reduced NH{sub 3} emissions, as reflected by a higher urea injection rate for a fixed NH{sub 3} emission limit. With combined DSI and SNCR operation, an ammonia odor problem was encountered around the Unit 4 ash silo (this did not occur with the SNCR system operated alone at comparable NH{sub 3} slip levels). This odor problem is attributed to the sodium changing the rate at which NH{sub 3} is released from the ash when it is wetted for truck transport to the disposal site.

  6. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations. PMID:25776190

  7. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations.

  8. The sterile insect technique and its role in integrated Trypanosomiasis control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper an attempt is made to define the rationale for using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for tsetse fly eradication within the global concept of trypanosomiasis control. Against the background of past and present research and development, and particularly the success of integrated tsetse fly control campaigns in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the paper identifies problems to be overcome before further major action programmes with an SIT component are undertaken. (author). 33 refs

  9. Integrated and Distributed Adaptive Metacomposites for vibroacoustic control of Aerospace Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Collet, Manuel; Ouisse, Morvan; Tateo, Flaviano; Ichchou, Mohamed Najib

    2013-01-01

    Research activities in smart materials and structures represent a significant potential for technological innovation in mechanics and electronics. The necessity of controlling vibroacoustic behavior of industrial systems motivates a broad research effort for introducing active or passive technologies to control noise and vibrations. New processes are now available which allow active transducers and their driving electronics to be directly integrated into otherwise passive structures. This new...

  10. Telecommunications networks, home integrated systems and remote control applications; Reseaux de telecommunications, domotique et teleaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregut, F.; Treheux, M.

    1996-12-31

    Energy savings in residential sector can be performed by home integrated control systems. Remote controlled interfaces allow electric appliances consumption matching effective needs. Nevertheless, the uses of those techniques are stagnating since several years. The first reason is an awkward human factors engineering, that is now improving. The second reason is an lack of definition of the needs, that lead to commercialization problems. (D.L.)

  11. Off-road mobile robot control: An adaptive approach for accuracy and integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Lenain, R.; Thuilot, B.; Bouton, N.; P. Martinet

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes an algorithm dedicated to the control of off-road mobile robots at high speed. Based on adaptive and predictive principles, it first proposes a control law to preserve a high level of accuracy in the path tracking problem. Next, the dynamic model used for grip condition estimation is considered to address also robot integrity preservation thanks to the velocity limitation.

  12. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Pimenta; J.F.M. Silva; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P B; Rosa, C.A.; Corrêa Jr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in ass...

  13. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  14. An Introduction to Control of Chaos for Quasi-Integrable Hamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Vilarbo da

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems are of great interest in many research fields of physics and mathematics. In these systems, the phase space has regular and chaotic trajectories. These trajectories depend in part on the magnitude of perturbation that breaks the integrability of the system. The value of the critical perturbation responsible for this transition is a key element in the control of chaos . In this paper, we explore a procedure for the control in quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems via canonical map. Initially, we present the basic tools for this study: Hamiltonian map, linearization of the map and Chirikov criterion. Subsequently, we investigated the behavior of a wave-particle interaction front perturbation. Finally, we confront with a numerical analytical approach (iteration of the map) results, showing a good agreement.

  15. A NOVEL CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME IN CELLULAR/WLAN INTEGRATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Weiwei; Shen Lianfeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning and efficient resource utilization in cellular network and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) integration, an Integrated Service-Based Call Admission Control (ISB-CAC) scheme is proposed in this paper. The integrated network is modeled by using multi-dimensional Markov chains. The numerical analysis is presented to evaluate the important performance measures such as the blocking probability of originating calls, the dropping probability, and the average transfer time, etc. The steady-state probabilities of the multi-dimensional Markov chains are obtained by using an iterative approach, and the CAC parameters are optimally designed. The analytical model is validated by the computer simulation. It is shown that compared with the conventional WLAN-First Call Admission Control (WF-CAC) scheme, the proposed ISB-CAC scheme not only provides better QoS for mobile users but also utilizes the bandwidth resources more efficiently.

  16. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemente into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  17. Integrated chassis control for vehicle rollover prevention with neural network time-to-rollover warning metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rollover of road vehicles is one of the most serious problems related to transportation safety. In this article, a novel rollover prevention control system composed of rollover warning and integrated chassis control algorithm is proposed. First, a conventional time-to-rollover warning algorithm was presented based on the 3-degree of freedom vehicle model. In order to improve the precision of vehicle rollover prediction, a back-propagation neural network was adopted to regulate time to rollover online by considering multi-state parameters of the vehicle. Second, a rollover prevention algorithm based on integrated chassis control was investigated, where the active front steering and the active yaw moment control were coordinated by model predictive control methodology. Finally, the algorithms were evaluated under several typical maneuvers utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and Carsim co-simulation. The results show that the proposed neural network time-to-rollover metrics can be a good measure of the danger of rollover, and the roll stability of the simulated vehicle is improved significantly with reduced side slip angle and yaw rate by the proposed integrated chassis control rollover prevention system.

  18. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  19. Binaural Integrated Active Noise Control and Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizel, Romain; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a binaural approach to integrated active noise control and noise reduction in hearing aids and aims at demonstrating that a binaural setup indeed provides significant advantages in terms of the number of noise sources that can be compensated for and in terms of the causality...

  20. Finite element based design of software for integrated passive and active vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the design scheme developed for design of software forIntegrated Passive and Active Vibration Control(IPAVC) and the coding of a prototyne system, and the selection of the famous finite element program MSC/NASTRAN as an important module of software to deal with large and complicated structures and systems with an example to demonstrate the prototype system.

  1. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laboratory...

  2. Dynamics and Control During Start-Up of Energy Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the inherent effects of process integration upon a start-up procedure. In particular the effect of energy recycle upon the possible start-up sequence, and the effect of using an actuator for control purposes, i.e. the heat pump, which in itself requires significant start-up time. The experimental application...

  3. Integrated S-band transmitter with on-chip DC-DC converter and control loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouzes, H.; Geurts, S.; Besselink, M.; Telli, A.; Hek, A.P. de; Bent, G. van der; Vliet, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    A highly integrated high-power transmitter has been designed in a high breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. The transmitter includes, on top of an S-Band 10 W class-F HPA, a DC/DC converter and its associated gate driver, the full voltage regulation control loop, which provides a significant step for pha

  4. Global optimization for integrated design and control of computationally expensive process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egea, J.A.; Vries, D.; Alonso, A.A.; Banga, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of integrated design and control optimization of process plants is discussed in this paper. We consider it as a nonlinear programming problem subject to differential-algebraic constraints. This class of problems is frequently multimodal and "costly" (i.e., computationally expensive to ev

  5. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  6. Feasibility study of an integrated stroke self-management programme : a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Fiona; Gage, Heather; Drummond, Avril; Bhalla, Ajay; Grant, Robert; Lennon, Sheila; McKevitt, Christopher; Riazi, Afsane; Liston, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the feasibility of conducting a controlled trial into the effectiveness of a self-management programme integrated into stroke rehabilitation. DESIGN: A feasibility cluster-randomised design was utilised with stroke rehabilitation teams as units of randomisation. SETTING: Community-based stroke rehabilitation teams in London. PARTICIPANTS: 78 patients with a diagnosis of stroke requiring community based rehabilitation. INTERVENTION: The interv...

  7. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    1999-01-01

    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effecti

  8. Visuomotor Integration and Inhibitory Control Compensate for Each Other in School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Hatfield, Bridget E.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Rubinstein, Elise; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Grissmer, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Visuomotor integration (VMI), or the ability to copy designs, and 2 measures of executive function were examined in a predominantly low-income, typically developing sample of children (n = 467, mean age 4.2 years) from 5 U.S. states. In regression models controlling for age and demographic variables, we tested the interaction between visuomotor…

  9. Design of a Production Activity Control System for the Computer Integrated Manufacturing Enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, lain Carlyle.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of research into provision of Production Activity Control (PAC) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems for manufacture of discrete parts. The role and environment of PAC systems is described, against the background of development of the discrete parts manufacturing industry. Strategies and architectures for building PAC systems are reviewed, in terms of the goals of PAC ...

  10. Computer software design description for the integrated control and data acquisition system LDUA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Computer Software Design Description (CSDD) document provides the overview of the software design for all the software that is part of the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). It describes the major software components and how they interface. It also references the documents that contain the detailed design description of the components

  11. The effectiveness of integrated care for patients with hand eczema: Results of a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, R.F. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Knol, D.L.; Rustemeyer, T.; Mechelen, W. van; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Anema, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of integrated, multidisciplinary care as compared with usual care for patients with moderate to severe, chronic hand eczema after 26 weeks of follow-up. Background. This study was designed as a randomized, controlled trial. Methods. Patients who visited one

  12. Implementing preventive chemotherapy through an integrated National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massitan Dembélé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mali is endemic for all five targeted major neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. As one of the five 'fast-track' countries supported with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID funds, Mali started to integrate the activities of existing disease-specific national control programs on these diseases in 2007. The ultimate objectives are to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma as public health problems and to reduce morbidity caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis through regular treatment to eligible populations, and the specific objectives were to achieve 80% program coverage and 100% geographical coverage yearly. The paper reports on the implementation of the integrated mass drug administration and the lessons learned. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated control program was led by the Ministry of Health and coordinated by the national NTD Control Program. The drug packages were designed according to the disease endemicity in each district and delivered through various platforms to eligible populations involving the primary health care system. Treatment data were recorded and reported by the community drug distributors. After a pilot implementation of integrated drug delivery in three regions in 2007, the treatment for all five targeted NTDs was steadily scaled up to 100% geographical coverage by 2009, and program coverage has since been maintained at a high level: over 85% for lymphatic filariasis, over 90% for onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, around 90% in school-age children for schistosomiasis, and 76-97% for trachoma. Around 10 million people have received one or more drug packages each year since 2009. No severe cases of adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mali has scaled up the drug treatment to national coverage through integrated drug delivery involving the primary health care system. The successes and lessons

  13. METHODICAL TUNING OF PROPORTIONAL PLUS INTEGRAL CONTROLLERS FOR CASCADE CONTROL OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cascade control of DC motors by PI controllers was extensively used in industry. Approximation rules based on plotting the output of the system or on computer simulation were used to determine the parameters of these controllers. This study was done to develop mathematical expressions to calculate the parameters of these controllers. Output time functions of the system and there derivatives were used to obtain mathematical relationships relating directly the motor parameters and the controller parameters. These relationships were used in tuning process of the cascade system. The dynamic performances of the system were examined in single loop form and in closed loop form for a step change in control variable (the input voltage as well as for step change in disturbance (mechanical load. The performances of current closed loop system and the speed closed loop were acceptable. The steady state error was zero and the maximum overshoot was less than 20%. The developed relationships can be used in design and analysis of cascade DC drive systems and cascade AC drive systems.

  14. Zero-Disturbance Control of Free-Floating Space Manipulators Using Integral-Type Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A free-floating space manipulator is an underactuated system, of which the spacecraft is permitted to rotate freely in response to the manipulator motions. The dynamic coupling property between the spacecraft and the manipulator makes motion control of such systems a significant challenge. In the paper, a zero-disturbance control method for free-floating space manipulators operating in task space is presented. An explicit direct relationship between the spacecraft attitude quaternions and the manipulator joint variables is established using nonholonomic constraints of the angular momentum conservation. By this means the kinematic redundancy of the system is used to adjust the spacecraft attitude. An integral-type sliding mode controller with adaptive switching gains is developed for coordinated motion control of the spacecraft and the manipulator. Simulations on three-link planar model show that the spacecraft remains undisturbed during the whole process of manipulations, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Uninterruptible Power Supply Integrating Renewable Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo A. Beltran Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available —The control and operation of electronic systems relies and depends on the availability of the power supply. Rechargeable batteries have been more pervasively used as the energy storage and power source for various electrical and electronic systems and devices, such as communication systems, electronic devices, renewable power systems, electric vehicles, etc. However, the rechargeable batteries are subjected to the availability of the external power source when it is drained out. Because of the concern of battery life, environmental pollution and a possible energy crisis, the renewable solar energy has received an increasing attention in recent years. A fuzzy logic control based grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating renewable solar energy can be used for electrical and electronic systems to produce power generation. This paper presents the design and implementation of fuzzy logic control based grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating the renewable solar power energy system. The uninterruptible power supply (UPS system is characterized by the rechargeable battery that is connected with the Photovoltaic Panel through the DC/DC converter, the utility AC through the AC/DC converter and the load is connected through the DC/AC converter. The whole operation is controlled by the fuzzy logic algorithm. A complete hardware prototype system model of the fuzzy logic control based on the grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating with the renewable solar energy is designed and implemented. The operation and effectiveness of the proposed system is then demonstrated by the actual and real time implementation of the fuzzy logic control grid tied operation uninterruptible power supply integrating renewable solar energy connected to the rechargeable battery bank and a PIC microcontroller platform for fuzzy logic control and operation

  16. A Closed-Loop Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Software for Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-23

    A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control software is provided for fully mechanically controlled automated electron microscopic tomography. The software is developed based on Gatan DigitalMicrograph�, and is compatible with Zeiss LIBRA� 120 transmission electron microscope. However, it can be expanded to other TEM instrument with modification. The software consists of a graphical user interface, a digital PI controller, an image analyzing unit, and other drive units (i.e.: image acquire unit and goniometer drive unit). During a tomography data collection process, the image analyzing unit analyzes both the accumulated shift and defocus value of the latest acquired image, and provides the results to the digital PI controller. The digital PI control compares the results with the preset values and determines the optimum adjustments of the goniometer. The goniometer drive unit adjusts the spatial position of the specimen according to the instructions given by the digital PI controller for the next tilt angle and image acquisition. The goniometer drive unit achieves high precision positioning by using a backlash elimination method. The major benefits of the software are: 1) the goniometer drive unit keeps pre-aligned/optimized beam conditions unchanged and achieves position tracking solely through mechanical control; 2) the image analyzing unit relies on only historical data and therefore does not require additional images/exposures; 3) the PI controller enables the system to dynamically track the imaging target with extremely low system error.

  17. Automatic Tuning Of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (Pid Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Bassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers are the most popular controllers used in industry because of their remarkable effectiveness, simplicity of implementation and broad applicability. However, manual tuning of these controllers is time consuming, tedious and generally lead to poor performance. This tuning which is application specific also deteriorates with time as a result of plant parameter changes. This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI method of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for tuning the optimal proportional-integral derivative (PID controller parameters for industrial processes. This approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency over the conventional methods. Ziegler- Nichols, tuning method was applied in the PID tuning and results were compared with the PSO-Based PID for optimum control. Simulation results are presented to show that the PSO-Based optimized PID controller is capable of providing an improved closed-loop performance over the Ziegler- Nichols tuned PID controller Parameters. Compared to the heuristic PID tuning method of Ziegler-Nichols, the proposed method was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics such as, reducing the steady-states error; rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot in speed control of DC motor.

  18. Investigation of proportional integral based technique for controlling PWR pressurizer water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system in the pressurizer water level is necessary for the safety of the operation of pressurizer water reactors (PWRs). It will compensate t the primary loop volume changes while keeping the existing pressure of the primary loop at a certain set point. Some researchers have proposed both an intelligent system of neural network and a fuzzy logic to improve the capability of the common conventional control systems used in PWR, i.e. Proportional-Integral (PI) or Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID). However, those studies did not comprehensively assess the potential of the conventional control systems. It has been confirmed that if the parameters of the Pi based control system are determined more carefully, its results will be equivalent to the results of other control systems or even better. This study aims to address this challenging topic by examining and testing control parameters more closely to obtain the best configuration of the PI-based control system. Compared to the results of the artificial neural network-based control system, the PI results of this study provide an increase of rise time around 280 times, better settling time for approximately 293 times, a decrease of overshoot about 1.1 times, and a reduction of the peak around 0.2%. The configuration has also been validated to be stable and able to overcome disturbances for about 10 seconds with a maximum peak level of 0.005%. Moreover, it can track the set point changes very well. (author)

  19. Integrated Multiobjective Optimal Design for Active Control System Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yong-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated multiobjective optimal design method for structural active control system is put forward based on improved Pareto multiobjective genetic algorithm, through which the position of actuator is synchronously optimized with active controller. External excitation is simulated by stationary filtered white noise. The root-mean-square (RMS of structural response and active control force can be achieved by solving Lyapunov equation in the state space. The design of active controller adopts linear quadratic regulator (LQR control algorithm. Minimum ratio of the maximum RMS of controlled structural displacement divided by the maximum RMS of uncontrolled structural displacement and minimum ratio of the maximum RMS of controlled structural shear divided by the maximum RMS of uncontrolled structural shear, together with minimization of the sum of RMS of active control force, are used as the three objective functions of multiobjective optimization. The optimization process takes the impact of structure and excitation parameter on the optimized results. An eight-storey six-span plane steel frame was used as an emulational example to demonstrate the validity of this optimization method. Results show that the proposed integrated multiobjective optimal design method is simple, efficient, and practical with good universality.

  20. Integral Sliding Mode Control for Helicopter via Disturbance Observer and Quantum Information Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel self-repairing control scheme is proposed for a helicopter with unknown disturbance. Firstly, a disturbance observer is introduced to observe the disturbance of the system, which can produce corresponding control signals according to the disturbance signals. Secondly, an integral sliding mode controller is designed to compensate the unobserved disturbance and uncertainties. All of the closed-loop poles can be arbitrarily placed and the output errors converge to zero effectively through the controller. Besides, a robust closed-loop system against disturbance and parameter uncertainties is achieved. In addition, quantum information technique is used to increase the self-repairing control accuracy of helicopter. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed self-repairing control scheme.