Sample records for area-wide integrated control

  1. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches. (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy


    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  2. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms. (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U


    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  3. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  4. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

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    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  5. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey. (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G


    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  6. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

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    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)


    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  7. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey. (United States)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  8. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey. (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G


    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  9. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand. (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda


    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  10. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population. (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F


    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  12. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  13. Sustained, area-wide control of Aedes aegypti using CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps. (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Verónica; Hemme, Ryan R; Félix, Gilberto


    We have shown that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO trap) reduced the Aedes aegypti population and prevented mosquito outbreaks in southern Puerto Rico. After showing treatment efficacy for 1 year, we deployed three traps per home in an area that formerly did not have traps and in a site that served as the intervention area. Two new areas were selected as reference sites to compare the density of Ae. aegypti without traps. We monitored mosquitoes and weather every week in all four sites. The hypotheses were the density of Ae. aegypti in the former reference area converges to the low levels observed in the intervention area, and mosquito density in both areas having control traps is lower than in the new reference areas. Mosquito density in the former reference area decreased 79% and mosquito density in the new reference areas was 88% greater than in the intervention areas.

  14. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M.; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P.; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M.


    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010–2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  15. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

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    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio, E-mail: [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bezerra, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sertao Pernambucano (IFSERTAO-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)


    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 {+-} 10%. From F{sub 1} to F{sub 22}, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L ({approx} 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 {+-} 3% and 0.59 {+-} 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 {+-} 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  16. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  17. Performance of a Genetically Modified Strain of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management With the Sterile Insect Technique. (United States)

    Ramírez-Santos, Edwin M; Rendón, Pedro; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo


    The genetically modified strain of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) VIENNA 8 1260 has two morphological markers that exhibit fluorescence in body and sperm. To assess the feasibility of its use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs using the sterile insect technique, its rearing performance and quality control profile under small, medium, and large scales was evaluated, as well as in field cages. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain had a lower yield than the control strains, VIENNA 8 with D53 inversion (VIENNA 8) and without D53 inversion (VIENNA 8 D53-). At mass-rearing scale, yield gradually increased in three generations without reaching the control strain values. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain was stable in the genetic sexing mechanism (>99.9%) and expression of fluorescence (100%). In field cages, the VIENNA 8 1260 males reduced the mating potential of wild males in the same magnitude as the VIENNA 8, when evaluated in independent cage tests. However, the relative sterility index and the strain male relative performance index of VIENNA 8 1260 males were significantly lower than those of the VIENNA 8. There were no significant differences in longevity of these strains. The potential application of the VIENNA 8 1260 in AW-IPM programs is further discussed.

  18. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana

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    Marc J.B. Vreysen


    Full Text Available Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are among the least developed in the world and hunger and poverty remains widespread in most of the rural communities. Reducing hunger and chronic under nourishment through the introduction of productive livestock as a source of traction and manure for crop production, transport, milk and meat is deemed to be a fundamental first step towards better rural development. The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosomosis it transmits is considered the major barrier to the development of productive livestock. Despite the yearly administration of 35 million doses of trypanocidal drugs (at US$ 1 per dose, African farmers lose 3 million cattle every year to the disease and annual direct economic losses are estimated at US$ 600 to 1200 million. Tsetse flies mainly affect the rural poor and are rightfully considered 'a root cause of poverty ' in Africa . The most desirable way of containing the disease trypanosomosis is undoubtedly the elimination of entire populations of the vector from delimited geographical areas using an integration of various control tactics, i.e. an areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approach. Efficient methods to suppress or even eliminate tsetse populations have been available for the last 50 years and are mostly based on the use of insecticides or entail devices that attract and kill. Nevertheless, despite gigantic efforts in the past century, there are only a few examples where the elimination of tsetse flies has proven to be sustainable, e.g. the elimination of Glossina pallidipes Austen from South Africa in the 1950 's using mainly aerial spraying of residual insecticides or the creation of a zone free of Glossina austeni Newstead on Unguja Island of Zanzibar (1994-1997 through the integration of various control tactics including the release of sterile insects. The decentralisation of the tsetse control offices resulting in a shift from

  19. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  20. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  1. Aedes albopictus: it's invasion, expansion of range, and the use of an area wide management project to control its population in the USA. (United States)

    Aedes albopictus invaded the U.S.A. between 1983-85. It has become a widely distributed nuisance pest. A n ARS-sponsored 5 year Area Wide Pest Management cooperative program between USDA-ARS, Mosquito and Fly Research Unit (Florida), Rutgers University (New Jersey) and Brandeis University (Massach...

  2. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Marc J.B. VREYSEN


    Full Text Available Los países del África sub-Sahariana están entre los menos desarrollados del mundo, y el hambre y la pobreza continúan siendo muy extendidos en la mayoría de las comunidades rurales. Se considera que disminuir el hambre y la sub-alimentación mediante la introducción de ganado productivo, como fuente de tracción y abono para la producción agrícola, el transporte, los lácteos y la carne, es un primer paso fundamental hacia un mejor desarrollo rural. La presencia de la mosca tse-tsé en un tercio del continente africano y la tripanosomiasis que transmite, se consideran la principal barrera para el desarrollo del ganado productivo. A pesar de la administración anual de 35 millones de dosis de drogas tripanocidas (a 1 (un dólar por dosis, los granjeros africanos pierden 3 millones de cabezas de ganado por año debido a esta enfermedad, y las pérdidas económicas directas se estiman entre 600 y 1200 millones de dólares...

  3. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

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    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.


    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most importan

  4. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

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    P. Chueca


    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  5. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

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    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)


    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.


    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G


    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach.

  7. Large-area, wide-angle, spectrally selective plasmonic absorber

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    Wu, Chihhui; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady


    A simple metamaterial-based wide-angle plasmonic absorber is introduced, fabricated, and experimentally characterized using angle-resolved infrared spectroscopy. The metamaterials are prepared by nano-imprint lithography, an attractive low-cost technology for making large-area samples. The matching of the metamaterial's impedance to that of vacuum is responsible for the observed spectrally selective "perfect" absorption of infrared light. The impedance is theoretically calculated in the single-resonance approximation, and the responsible resonance is identified as a short-range surface plasmon. The spectral position of the absorption peak (which is as high as 95%) is experimentally shown to be controlled by the metamaterial's dimensions. The persistence of "perfect" absorption with variable metamaterial parameters is theoretically explained. The wide-angle nature of the absorber can be utilized for sub-diffraction-scale infrared pixels exhibiting spectrally selective absorption/emissivity.

  8. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida (United States)


    larval control , Aedes aegypti , Aedes albopictus INTRODUCTION Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Asian tiger mosquito) and Ae. aegypti (L.) (yellow fever...Bull Fla Mosq Control Assoc 9:48– 52. Seng CM, Setha T, Nealon J, Socheat D, Nathan MB. 2008. Six months of Aedes aegypti control with a novel...TRUCK-MOUNTED AREA-WIDE APPLICATION OF PYRIPROXYFEN TARGETING AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA1 CARL W. DOUD,2,3 ANTHONY M

  9. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.


    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment

  10. Short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.


    A background paper for the seminar on short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures is presented. The seminar is restricted to safety measures, thus only countermeasures that are intended to reduce accidents are regarded. The measures should be furthermore for the short-term and area-wide.

  11. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  12. From integrated control to integrated farming, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.


    Integrated control or integrated pest management (IPM), as envisaged originally, is not being practised to any large extent in arable farming, notwithstanding considerable research efforts. The reasons for this are discussed. A more basic approach called integrated farming is suggested. Preliminary

  13. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft (United States)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)


    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  14. Research, demonstration, and extension: the ARS area-wide ecologically based invasive plant management project (United States)

    The Area-wide project is a collaborative five year effort funded in 2008 by USDA-ARS that has brought together scientists with the USDA-ARS, universities, land managers, and policy makers throughout the Great Basin. A primary goal of the project is to develop and implement a comprehensive, regional...

  15. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  16. PID controller tuning for integrating processes. (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad; Majhi, Somanath


    Minimizing the integral squared error (ISE) criterion to get the optimal controller parameters results in a PD controller for integrating processes. The PD controller gives good servo response but fails to reject the load disturbances. In this paper, it is shown that satisfactory closed loop performances for a class of integrating processes are obtained if the ISE criterion is minimized with the constraint that the slope of the Nyquist curve has a specified value at the gain crossover frequency. Guidelines are provided for selecting the gain crossover frequency and the slope of the Nyquist curve. The proposed method is compared with some of the existing methods to control integrating plant transfer functions and in the examples taken it always gave better results for the load disturbance rejection whilst maintaining satisfactory setpoint response. For ease of use, analytical expressions correlating the controller parameters to plant model parameters are also given.

  17. Integrity of subsea control umbilical


    Yasseri, R; Yasseri, S; Wang, B.


    Controlling subsea oil and gas production systems requires fibre optics, power cables and tubes for the transportation of chemical for injection and fluid for hydraulic controls. These are arranged in helical bundles in successive layers. Shaped thermoplastic fillers are used to separate components and to fill out voids in the cross section. If necessary, armour is added to provide strength for the dynamic loads. This paper describes the application of 3D finite element method to assess the s...

  18. Leprosy control: the rationale of integration. (United States)

    Loretti, A


    After considering the situation and the perspectives of integration and the drawbacks that a vertical approach can represent for leprosy control, the author proposes the framework of control programmes as a systemic model for comprehensive health care. The structure that health services in developing countries are adopting in order to implement PHC allows for an horizontal integration of specific activities; conversely, activities which have already proved their value for leprosy control can easily enlarge their scope and include other prevalent conditions. Integration leads to an improvement in patients' and health workers' attitudes; provided that the necessary supervision is guaranteed, integration is feasible and warrants more effective patients' care and a better exploitation of resources in order to reduce the specific risk in the community.

  19. Control theory and psychopathology: an integrative approach. (United States)

    Mansell, Warren


    Perceptual control theory (PCT; Powers, 1973) is presented and adapted as a framework to understand the causes, maintenance, and treatment of psychological disorders. PCT provides dynamic, working models based on the principle that goal-directed activity arises from a hierarchy of negative feedback loops that control perception through control of the environment. The theory proposes that psychological distress arises from the unresolved conflict between goals. The present paper integrates PCT, control theory, and self-regulatory approaches to psychopathology and psychotherapy and recent empirical findings, particularly in the field of cognitive therapy. The approach aims to offer fresh insights into the role of goal conflict, automatic processes, imagery, perceptual distortion, and loss of control in psychological disorders. Implications for psychological therapy are discussed, including an integration of the existing work on the assessment of control profiles and the use of assertive versus yielding modes of control.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado


    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle


    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and

  2. Integrated design approach for controlled mechanical structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriazov, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Mechanics


    This study is addressed to design problems of controlled mechanical structures (CMS) like robot manipulators and engineering systems with active vibration control that may be subject to arbitrary disturbances. Along with the basic design requirement for strength/load capacity, additional design criteria for CMS are needed to meet the continuously increasing demands for faster response, improved precision and reduced energy consumption. As a CMS is a functionally directed assembly of mutually influencing components: control, actuator, mechanical, and sensor subsystems, a conceptual framework for their integrated design is required. Parameters of these subsystems influencing the dynamic performance of CMS define a matrix that transfers the control inputs into the controlled outputs (accelerations). This transfer matrix plays the key role in the integrated structure-control design. We consider the design optimization problem for CMS having decentralized control architecture. An integrated design criterion for such systems is proposed which is based on optimal trade-off relations between bounds of model uncertainties and control force limits. Optimizing this criterion leads to CMS with maximum degree of robustness. The approach proposed makes it possible a decomposition of the overall design problem into design problems for the CMS`s components. The design concepts are applied to the mechanical subsystem of planar linkage systems. Robust decentralized controllers are designed for a two-degree-of-freedom manipulator with elastic joints. (orig.)

  3. Integrating Software Modules For Robot Control (United States)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Khosla, Pradeep; Stewart, David B.


    Reconfigurable, sensor-based control system uses state variables in systematic integration of reusable control modules. Designed for open-architecture hardware including many general-purpose microprocessors, each having own local memory plus access to global shared memory. Implemented in software as extension of Chimera II real-time operating system. Provides transparent computing mechanism for intertask communication between control modules and generic process-module architecture for multiprocessor realtime computation. Used to control robot arm. Proves useful in variety of other control and robotic applications.

  4. NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdall, P.


    This System Description introduces the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The architecture is sufficiently abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. As discussed below, over twenty software applications derived from the framework comprise the NIF control system. This document lays the essential foundation for understanding the ICCS architecture. The NIF design effort is motivated by the magnitude of the task. Figure 1 shows a cut-away rendition of the coliseum-sized facility. The NIF requires integration of about 40,000 atypical control points, must be highly automated and robust, and will operate continuously around the clock. The control system coordinates several experimental cycles concurrently, each at different stages of completion. Furthermore, facilities such as the NIF represent major capital investments that will be operated, maintained, and upgraded for decades. The computers, control subsystems, and functionality must be relatively easy to extend or replace periodically with newer technology.

  5. Control of Ideal Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克谨; 战德志; 中岩腾; 中根尧; 高松武一郎


    The operation of an ideal heat integrated dlstillation columan (HIDiC) is addressed .Five Kinds of control configurations, i.e. single-loop control, multi-loop control, multivariable internal model control (IMC), modified multlvariable internal model control (MIMC) and nonlinear process model-based control (NPMC), are designed and applied to the process. Simulation results demonstrate that all of the above control confaguratloam ere valid for product quality control. NPMC control configuration is found to be the best one among all the alternatives. It can readily realize setpoint transitions and conduct effectively against external disturbance. MIMC control configuration ranks second in the row for its regulatory responses to feed composition disturbances with relatively extended setting time, Next comes from the multi-loop control configuration, which is moee or lees handicapped by its greater deviations and overshootings. IMC control configuration can not compete with the multi-loop control configuration because it is extremely sensitive to operating condition changes. Single-ioop control configuration is the worst one among all the mentioned control configurations. Its responses for the uncoutrolled end products are extremely sluggish.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OAK-B135 Advanced tokamaks (AT) are distinguished from conventional tokamaks by their high degree of shaping, achievement of profiles optimized for high confinement and stability characteristics, and active stabilization of MHD instabilities to attain high values of normalized beta and confinement. These high performance fusion devices thus require accurate regulation of the plasma boundary, internal profiles, pumping, fueling, and heating, as well as simultaneous and well-coordinated MHD control action to stabilize such instabilities as tearing modes and resistive wall modes. Satisfying the simultaneous demands on control accuracy, reliability, and performance for all of these subsystems requires a high degree of integration in both design and operation of the plasma control system in an advanced tokamak. The present work describes the approach, benefits, and progress made in integrated plasma control with application examples drawn from the DIII-D tokamak. The approach includes construction of plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers which operate in concert with one another as well as with supervisory modules, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and iteration of the design-test loop to optimize performance.

  7. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E


    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  8. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants


    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal ControlIntegrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  9. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  10. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking


    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, a...

  11. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  12. Integrated computer control system architectural overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Arsdall, P.


    This overview introduces the NIF Integrated Control System (ICCS) architecture. The design is abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. This summary lays the essential foundation for understanding the model-based engineering approach used to execute the design.

  13. Environmental Control Unit with Integral Thermal Storage (United States)


    integrated PCM Heat Exchanger (PHX) to provide thermal energy storage. By storing thermal energy during the hottest part of the day and rejecting this stored...Environmental Control Unit (ECU) that uses an integrated PCM Heat Exchanger (PHX) to provide thermal energy storage. To aid in the development of the PHX... Thermal Storage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-14-C-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael C. Ellis Ryan McDevitt 5d

  14. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system. (United States)

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali


    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The rotating disk is a basic machine part that is u sed widely in industry. The motion equation is transformed into the dynamic equa tion in real modal space. The personating intelligent integration is introduced to improve the existing control method. These modes that affect the transverse v ibration mainly are included to simulate the vibration of rotating disk, and two methods are applied separately on condition that the sensor and the ac tuator are collocated and non-collocated. The results obtained by all-sided si mulations show that the new method can obtain better control effect, especially when the sensor and the actuator are non-collocated.

  16. Planning to Plan-Integrating Control Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In many planning situations, computation itself becomes a resource to be planned and scheduled. We model such computational resources as conventional resources which are used by control-flow actions, e.g., to direct the planning process. Control-flow actions and conventional actions are planned/scheduled in an integrated way and can interact with each other. Control-flow actions are then executed by the planning engine itself. The approach is illustrated by examples, e.g., for hierarchical planning, in which tasks that are temporally still far away impose only rough constraints on the current schedule, and control-flow tasks ensure that these tasks are refined as they approach the current time. Using the same mechanism, anytime algorithms can change appropriate search methods or parameters over time, and problems like scheduling critical time-outs for garbage collection can be made part of the planning itself.

  17. Integrated Bulding Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Control (United States)

    Dong, Bing

    Current research studies show that building heating, cooling and ventilation energy consumption account for nearly 40% of the total building energy use in the U.S. The potential for saving energy through building control systems varies from 5% to 20% based on recent market surveys. In addition, building control affects environmental performances such as thermal, visual, air quality, etc., and occupancy such as working productivity and comfort. Building control has been proven to be important both in design and operation stages. Building control design and operation need consistent and reliable static and dynamic information from multiple resources. Static information includes building geometry, construction and HVAC equipment. Dynamic information includes zone environmental performance, occupancy and outside weather information during operation. At the same time, model-based predicted control can help to optimize energy use while maintaining indoor set-point temperature when occupied. Unfortunately, several issues in the current approach of building control design and operation impede achieving this goal. These issues include: a) dynamic information data such as real-time on-site weather (e.g., temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) and occupancy (number of occupants and occupancy duration in the space) are not readily available; b) a comprehensive building energy model is not fully integrated into advanced control for accuracy and robustness; c) real-time implementation of indoor air temperature control are rare. This dissertation aims to investigate and solve these issues based on an integrated building control approach. This dissertation introduces and illustrates a method for integrated building heating, cooling and ventilation control to reduce energy consumption and maintain indoor temperature set-point, based on the prediction of occupant behavior patterns and weather conditions. Advanced machine learning methods including Adaptive Gaussian Process

  18. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl


    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  19. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems. (United States)


    system, the answer was by a comprehensive programme of simulation and rig testing. ix In the only paper in the programme deailing with systems for civil used otherwise. At one time there was an explosive growth in the application of automatic flight control to civil transport aircraft, culminating in...nombre at l’ampleur des 6quipesenta de maintenance extgrieurs a lavion, 11 faut s’efforcer I ce qua 1. mayan privil~gif pareattant lea 6changss

  20. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.


    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  1. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)


    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  2. Integrated Control of Axonemal Dynein AAA+ Motors (United States)

    King, Stephen M.


    Axonemal dyneins are AAA+ enzymes that convert ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. This leads to the sliding of doublet microtubules with respect to each other and ultimately the generation of ciliary/flagellar beating. However, in order for useful work to be generated, the action of individual dynein motors must be precisely controlled. In addition, cells modulate the motility of these organelles through a variety of second messenger systems and these signals too must be integrated by the dynein motors to yield an appropriate output. This review describes the current status of efforts to understand dynein control mechanisms and their connectivity focusing mainly on studies of the outer dynein arm from axonemes of the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas. PMID:22406539

  3. Stratum corneum barrier integrity controls skin homeostasis. (United States)

    Smith, W


    The stratum corneum water barrier controls structural and functional properties of both the epidermis and the dermis. Treatments which chronically disrupt the stratum corneum water barrier can induce changes similar to those seen with 'anti-aging' treatments such as (-Hydroxy acids (AHAs) and Retin Atrade mark. Barrier disruption via daily tape stripping increases epidermal and dermal thickness, superficial and integral skin firmness, and improves skin surface texture. Modest or transitory disruption did not produce such effects. Similar results were observed with topical application of AHAs, retinoids or mild irritants after about 4-6 weeks provided such treatments resulted in prolonged elevation in TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). Treatments that did not chronically elevate TEWL could also produce positive cosmetic effects, but such effects were in general restricted to the skin surface or epidermis. Irritation, which was observed with some treatments, was not solely responsible for the positive effects observed.

  4. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.


    The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multivariable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. In these example evaluations, the significance of these interactions was underscored. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important nonlinear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multivariable techniques, including model-following formulations of LQG and/or H infinity methods, showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods. The major contributions of the second phase of the grant was the development of conditions under which no decentralized controller could achieve closed loop system requirements on stability and/or performance. Sought were conditions that depended only on properties of the plant and the requirement, and independent of any particular control law or synthesis approach. Therefore, they could be applied a priori, before synthesis of a candidate control law. Under this grant, such conditions were found regarding stability, and encouraging initial results were obtained regarding performance.

  5. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others


    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  6. Implementation of integral feedback control in biological systems. (United States)

    Somvanshi, Pramod R; Patel, Anilkumar K; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V


    Integral control design ensures that a key variable in a system is tightly maintained within acceptable levels. This approach has been widely used in engineering systems to ensure offset free operation in the presence of perturbations. Several biological systems employ such an integral control design to regulate cellular processes. An integral control design motif requires a negative feedback and an integrating process in the network loop. This review describes several biological systems, ranging from bacteria to higher organisms in which the presence of integral control principle has been hypothesized. The review highlights that in addition to the negative feedback, occurrence of zero-order kinetics in the process is a key element to realize the integral control strategy. Although the integral control motif is common to these systems, the mechanisms involved in achieving it are highly specific and can be incorporated at the level of signaling, metabolism, or at the phenotypic levels.

  7. An approximation scheme for optimal control of Volterra integral equations


    Belbas, S. A.


    We present and analyze a new method for solving optimal control problems for Volterra integral equations, based on approximating the controlled Volterra integral equations by a sequence of systems of controlled ordinary differential equations. The resulting approximating problems can then be solved by dynamic programming methods for ODE controlled systems. Other, straightforward versions of dynamic programming, are not applicable to Volterra integral equations. We also derive the connection b...

  8. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong


    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  9. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.


    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  10. Fast, Large-Area, Wide-Bandgap UV Photodetector for Cherenkov Light Detection (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.


    Due to limited resources available for power and space for payloads, miniaturizing and integrating instrumentation is a high priority for addressing the challenges of manned and unmanned deep space missions to high Earth orbit (HEO), near Earth objects (NEOs), Lunar and Martian orbits and surfaces, and outer planetary systems, as well as improvements to high-altitude aircraft safety. New, robust, and compact detectors allow future instrumentation packages more options in satisfying specific mission goals. A solid-state ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed with a theoretical fast response time and large detection area intended for application to Cherenkov detectors. The detector is based on the wide-bandgap semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO), which in a bridge circuit can detect small, fast pulses of UV light like those required for Cherenkov detectors. The goal is to replace the role of photomultiplier tubes in Cherenkov detectors with these solid-state devices, saving on size, weight, and required power. For improving detection geometry, a spherical detector to measure high atomic number and energy (HZE) ions from any direction has been patented as part of a larger space radiation detector system. The detector will require the development of solid-state UV photodetectors fast enough (2 ns response time or better) to detect the shockwave of Cherenkov light emitted as the ions pass through a quartz, sapphire, or acrylic ball. The detector must be small enough to fit in the detector system structure, but have an active area large enough to capture enough Cherenkov light from the sphere. The detector is fabricated on bulk single-crystal undoped ZnO. Inter - digitated finger electrodes and contact pads are patterned via photolithography, and formed by sputtered metal of silver, platinum, or other high-conductivity metal.

  11. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)


    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  12. Control structure selection for energy integrated distillation column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.E.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    This paper treats a case study on control structure selection for an almost binary distillation column. The column is energy integrated with a heat pump in order to transfer heat from the condenser to the reboiler. This integrated plant configuration renders the possible control structures somewhat...

  13. Developing an Integrated Set of Production Planning and Control Models


    Wang, Hui


    This paper proposes an integrated set of production planning and control models that can be applied in the Push system (Make-to-stock). The integrated model include forecasting, aggregate planning, materials requirements planning, inventory control, capacity planning and scheduling. This integrated model solves the planning issues via three levels, which include strategic level, tactical level and operational level. The model obtains the optimal production plan for each product type in each p...

  14. Integrating Pricing and Inventory Control: Is it Worth the Effort?


    Gimpl-Heersink, Lisa; Rudloff, Christian; Fleischmann, Moritz; Taudes, Alfred


    In this paper we first show that the gains achievable by integrating pricing and inventory control are usually small for classical demand functions. We then introduce reference price models and demonstrate that for this class of demand functions the benefits of integration with inventory control are substantially increased due to the price dynamics. We also provide some analytical results for this more complex model. We thus conclude that integrated pricing/inventory models could repeat the s...

  15. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.


    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith


    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  17. Variable Structure PID Control to Prevent Integrator Windup (United States)

    Hall, C. E.; Hodel, A. S.; Hung, J. Y.


    PID controllers are frequently used to control systems requiring zero steady-state error while maintaining requirements for settling time and robustness (gain/phase margins). PID controllers suffer significant loss of performance due to short-term integrator wind-up when used in systems with actuator saturation. We examine several existing and proposed methods for the prevention of integrator wind-up in both continuous and discrete time implementations.

  18. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew


    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  19. Controllability of Urysohn integral inclusions of Volterra type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Angell


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the controllability of a system described by an integral inclusion of Urysohn type with delay. In our approach we reduce the controllability problem of the nonlinear system into solvability problem of another integral inclusion. The solvability of this integral inclusion is subsequently established by imposing suitable standard boundedness, convexity and semicontinuity conditions on the set-valued mapping defining the integral inclusion, and by employing Bohnenblust-Karlin extension of Kakutani's fixed point theorem for set-valued mappings.

  20. A Comparative Study on a Tilt-Integral-Derivative Controller with Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for a Pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysan Esgandanian


    Full Text Available The study is done to determine the comparison between proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller and tilt-integral-derivative (TID controller for cardiac pacemaker systems, which can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. The controller offers good adaption of heart to the physiological needs of the patient. The parameters of the both controllers are tuned by particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm which uses the integral of time square error as a fitness function to be minimized. Simulation results are performed on the developed cardiovascular system of humans and results demonstrate that the TID controller produces superior control performance than PID controllers. In this paper all simulations were performed in Matlab.

  1. Development and Integration of Control System Models (United States)

    Kim, Young K.


    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  2. An Overview of Aircraft Integrated Control Technology (United States)


    and stability augmentation, high hf’ system, steering and brak - ing 22 ’ . An F-15B research aircraft, modified with all-moving canard control...0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 MACH NUMBER The IFPC system responds to pilot inputs with an automatic blend of aerodynamic control surfaces and thrust...decoupling airframe translation and rotation movements). In general, it was found that a blended combination of direct force and conventional control

  3. A long time low drift integrator with temperature control (United States)

    Zhang, Donglai; Yan, Xiaolan; Zhang, Enchao; Pan, Shimin


    The output of an operational amplifier always contains signals that could not have been predicted, even with knowledge of the input and an accurately determined closed-loop transfer function. These signals lead to integrator zero-drift over time. A new type of integrator system with a long-term low-drift characteristic has therefore been designed. The integrator system is composed of a temperature control module and an integrator module. The aluminum printed circuit board of the integrator is glued to a thermoelectric cooler to maintain the electronic components at a stable temperature. The integration drift is automatically compensated using an analog-to-digital converter/proportional integration/digital-to-analog converter control circuit. Performance testing in a standard magnet shows that the proposed integrator, which has an integration time constant of 10 ms, has a low integration drift (<5 mV) over 1000 s after repeated measurements. The integrator can be used for magnetic flux measurements in most tokamaks and in the wire rope nondestructive test.

  4. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri


    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  5. Integrated System Management and Reconfigurable Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team proposes to develop an onboard, real-time health management capability that monitors a flight control system (for spacecraft, fixed or rotary wing aircraft)...

  6. Integrated low power digital gyro control electronics (United States)

    M'Closkey, Robert (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Grayver, Eugene (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor)


    Embodiments of the invention generally encompass a digital, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed to perform excitation of a selected mode within a vibratory rate gyroscope, damping, or force-rebalance, of other modes within the sensor, and signal demodulation of the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal containing the angular rate information. The ASIC filters dedicated to each channel may be individually programmed to accommodate different rate sensor designs/technology or variations within the same class of sensors. The ASIC architecture employs a low-power design, making the ASIC, particularly suitable for use in power-sensitive applications.

  7. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya


    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  8. Integrating Attributes into Role-Based Access Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.; Krishnan, Ram


    Role-based access control (RBAC) and attribute-based access control (ABAC) are currently the most prominent access control models. However, they both suffer from limitations and have features complimentary to each other. Due to this fact, integration of RBAC and ABAC has become a hot area...

  9. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    violations of voltage constraints. This voltage-sensitive controller can also operate alone, without the frequency-sensitive controller, to provide voltage regulation service and increase load diversity in any distribution network where lower voltage level corresponds to higher load.The frequency......-sensitive and voltage-sensitive autonomous load are viable alternatives to conventional frequency and voltage control devices. When used in combination, they complement each other. In systems where the operator has centrally dispatchable resources to regulate frequency, these resources can be used to dispatch otherwise...... autonomous frequency-sensitive loads. Moreover, where centrally dispatchable frequency regulation resources can rapidly change operating points, such as in a micro-grid, the energy sources can be used as transmitters for a ultra-low-bandwidth uni-directional power line communication system....

  10. Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;


    A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models...... (structure selection) issues for the integrated problems are considered. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.


    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  12. Integrity control in relational database systems - an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, Paul W.P.J.; Apers, Peter M.G.


    This paper gives an overview of research regarding integrity control or integrity constraint handling in relational database management systems. The topic of constraint handling is discussed from two points of view. First, constraint handling is discussed by identifying a number of important researc

  13. Integrated Flight Trajectory Control Development Program. (United States)


    H mt4V m non 0 )w Mp t ) .4 w’ ) sOi =) U-C ) 1*- 64*- 0 L, 1 * ) *~U c 3to~ u) uO f 0w -4. O1 I4) 00 r 40 41 4.) Oc W ko .0 OC Ow 0 .41 urLu E 63 The...AFKY3200--d NO CALL 0 soYES WAI NO W/o ABORTED? AlEnIRN 1AMORTOO. Figure A-5. IFTC/Firefly II Integration Flow Charts (3 of 21) 91 860T YS EPMI Mm EO...SESS ATS-1 FC)G FiueA5YFCFrfyI an gato Flow hrs(3o1 W~m L c H" /10YE m ya W"M TUM RA= AUM AJWAT wo ITEMM-1 PC ns RM FNELATM COMKW 20 Cr*FWE PMJ. y

  14. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    control platform design. To achieve an integrated and unified control platform, enhanced signalling protocol plays an important role in gluing the two different technologies. Consequently, an integrated resource management system is developed. Furthermore, and admission control scheme for connections......The next generation of broadband access networks is expected to be heterogeneous. Multiple wired and wireless systems can be integrated, in order to simultaneously provide seamless access with an appropriate Quality of Service (QoS). Wireless networks support ubiquitous connectivity yet low data...... the complementary characteristics of the optical networks and the wireless networks, addresses motivations for their interworking, discusses the current progress in hybrid network architectures as well as the functionalities of a control system, and identifies the achieved research contributions in the integrated...

  15. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI, in collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to develop and test an efficient Integrated Damage Adaptive Control System (IDACS). The proposed system is...

  16. Hallucination focused integrative treatment : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; Nienhuis, FJ; Wiersma, D; van de Willige, G


    Improvements in psychopathology, subjective burden, and coping with voices after hallucination focused integrative treatment (HIT) were studied in chronic schizophrenic patients with persistent (> 10 years), drug-refractory auditory hallucinations. In a randomized controlled trial, routine care was

  17. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  18. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to further develop, implement and test the damage-adaptive control algorithms developed in Phase I within the framework of an Integrated Damage...

  19. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  20. Integrated Sensing and Control of Aeroelastic Deformation (ISCAD) Toolbox Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Integrated Sensing and Control of Aeroelastic Deformation (ISCAD) Toolbox is proposed. Specif-ically, this toolbox will provide a methodology, both hardware and...

  1. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  2. Joint Command and Control: Integration Not Interoperability (United States)


    he notes, “Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of...Leifler, Ola and Eriksson, Henrik. “Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision- making: A meta-study of command and control research

  3. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots (United States)


    Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots B. Sightsa, H.R. Everetta, E. Biagtan Pacisa, G. Koguta M...TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots 5a...calculation methods using encoder counts, wheel radius, and the robot’s wheelbase, as described in Sensors For Mobile Robots [5]. On top of this

  4. Predictive functional control of integrating process based on impulse response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Ping LI; Weidong ZHANG


    The predictive model is built according to the characteristics of the impulse response of integrating process. In order to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output in the presence of the load disturbance, a novel error compensation method is proposed. Then predictive functional control of integrating process is designed. The method given generates a simple control structure, which can significantly reduce online computation. Furthermore, the tuning of the controller is fairly straightforward. Simulation results indicate that the designed control system is relatively robust to the parameters variation of the process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yulong; Gao Bingzhao; Tian Hua; Ge Anlin; Yan Su


    Combining with the development of automated manual transmission (AMT), the various throttle control demands are analyzed under different working conditions of AMT such as tracking acceleration pedal, start, shift and so on. Based on simulation, the responding throttle control strategies are proposed, and a simple but effective throttle control method is presented. The testing results have proved that the strategies are effective for improving the pedal tracking precision and the qualities of start and shift.

  6. Integrating Pricing and Inventory Control: Is it Worth the Effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gimpl-Heersink


    Full Text Available In this paper we first show that the gains achievable by integrating pricing and inventory control are usually small for classical demand functions. We then introduce reference price models and demonstrate that for this class of demand functions the benefits of integration with inventory control are substantially increased due to the price dynamics. We also provide some analytical results for this more complex model. We thus conclude that integrated pricing/inventory models could repeat the success of revenue management in practice if reference price effects are included in the demand model and the properties of this new model are better understood.

  7. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J


    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Construction cost control is a complex system engineering. Thetraditional controlling method cannot dynamically control in advance the construction cost because of its hysteresis. This paper proposes a computer simulation based construction cost integrated control method, which combines the cost with PERT systematically, so that the construction cost can be predicted and optimized systematically and effectively. The new method overcomes the hysteresis of the traditional systems, and is a distinct improvement over them in effect and practicality.

  9. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.


    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local cont

  10. Key technologies for the novel distributed numerical control integrated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Guibao; LlU Fei; WANG Shilong


    A novel distributed numerical control (DNC) integrated system based on plug-in software technology is proposed. It connects new or old numerical control (NC) machine tools which haveinhomogeneous numerical control systems with CAD/CAM system by CANbus network. A DNC computer is able to control 15 sets of NC machine tools reliably at the same time. The novel DNC system increases the efficiency of machine tools and improve the production management level by realizing non-paper production, agile manufacturing, networked manufacturing and so on in the near future. Key technologies to construct the novel DNC integrated system include the integration of inhomogeneous numerical control systems, NC program restart, and algorithm for communication competition. Such system has demonstrated successful applications in some corporations that have acquired good economic benefits and social effects.

  11. Development of the HIDEC inlet integration mode. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (United States)

    Chisholm, J. D.; Nobbs, S. G.; Stewart, J. F.


    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) development program conducted at NASA-Ames/Dryden will use an F-15 test aircraft for flight demonstration. An account is presently given of the HIDEC Inlet Integration mode's design concept, control law, and test aircraft implementation, with a view to its performance benefits. The enhancement of performance is a function of the use of Digital Electronic Engine Control corrected engine airflow computations to improve the scheduling of inlet ramp positions in real time; excess thrust can thereby be increased by 13 percent at Mach 2.3 and 40,000 ft. Aircraft supportability is also improved through the obviation of inlet controllers.

  12. Impact of active controls technology on structural integrity (United States)

    Noll, Thomas; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry


    This paper summarizes the findings of The Technical Cooperation Program to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting the loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle. The potential for active controls to adversely affect structural integrity is described, and load predictions obtained using two state-of-the-art analytical methods are given.

  13. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept (United States)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.


    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  14. Embedded integrated servo-controllers for intelligent modular actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the development of an embedded integrated servo-controller (EISC) for servomotors. Comprising of mainly servo-controller and servo-amplifiers, this EISC is capable of controlling a wide range of servomotors to perform complicated tasks. Hence, integration of this EISC with a servomotor forms an intelligent modular actuator (IMA) that is essential to modern manufacturing industries. The development of such an EISC involves two major tasks: first, designing the hardware of a compact-sized and highly compatible EISC, and second, developing the software functions to facilitate its functionalities and capabilities. The developed EISC hence forms an integrated-servo-control module, which determines the capability, functionality, flexibility and responsiveness of these IMAs.

  15. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery (United States)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang


    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  16. Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;


    A systematic analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. It is shown that the same set of process (control) variables and design (manipulative) variables is employed with different objectives in design and control. Analysis of t...... processes with mass and/or energy recycle. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Slide Mode Control for Integrated Electric Parking Brake System


    Bin Wang; Xuexun Guo; Chengcai Zhang; Zhe Xiong; Huan Xia; Jie Zhang


    The emerging integrated electric parking brake (IEPB) system is introduced and studied. Through analyzing the various working stages, the stages switched IEPB system models are given with the consideration of the friction and system idle inertia. The sliding mode control (SMC) method is adopted to control the clamping force by the widely used motor angle and clamping force relationship method. Based on the characteristics of the state equations, two sliding surfaces are built to control the m...

  18. Global satisfactory control for nonlinear integrator processes with long delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqun YANG; Guobo XIANG


    Integrator processes with long delay are difficult to control. Nonlinear characteristics of actuators make the control problem more challenging. A technique is proposed in this paper for global satisfactory control (GSC) of such processes with relay-type nonlinearity. An oscillatory control signal is injected into the nonlinear process; the amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory signal are designed to linearise the nonlinear process in the sense of harmonic analysis; and a state feedback controller is configured to implement GSC over the linearised process. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Linear Quadratic Integral Control for the Active Suspension of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The quarter model of an active suspension is established in the form of controllable autoregressive moving average (CARMA) model. An accelerometer can be mounted on the wheel hub for measuring road disturbance; this signal is used to identify the CARMA model parameters by recursive forgetting factors least square method. The linear quadratic integral (LQI) control method for the active suspension is presented. The LQI control algorithm is fit for vehicle suspension control, for the control performance index can comprise multi controlled variables. The simulation results show that the vertical acceleration and suspension travel both are decreased with the LQI control in the low frequency band, and the suspension travel is increased with the LQI control in the middle or high frequency band. The suspension travel is very small in the middle or high frequency band, the suspension bottoming stop will not happen, so the vehicle ride quality can be improved apparently by the LQI control.

  20. Position control of linear induction motor using an adaptive fuzzy integral: Back stepping controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousserhane I.K.


    Full Text Available In this paper the position control of a linear induction motor using adaptive fuzzy back stepping design with integral action is proposed. First, the indirect field oriented control for LIM is derived. Then, an integral back stepping design for indirect field oriented control of LIM is proposed to compensate the uncertainties which occur in the control. Finally, the fuzzy integral-back stepping controller is investigated, where a simple fuzzy inference mechanism is used to achieve a position tracking objective under the mechanical parameters uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by numerical simulation. The numerical validation results of the proposed scheme have presented good performances compared to the conventional integral back stepping control.

  1. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh


    in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants’ thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via design of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart...... adapted to the modeling of the sub-floor heating system. In order to minimize the electric power consumption of the integrated heating system, a novel hypothesis is proposed and further investigated via experimental and simulation studies. The idea is to minimize the forward temperature of hot water...... which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...

  2. Integrated seismic design of structure and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldo, Paolo


    The structural optimization procedure presented in this book makes it possible to achieve seismic protection through integrated structural/control system design. In particular, it is explained how slender structural systems with a high seismic performance can be achieved through inclusion of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an integral part of the system. Readers are provided with essential introductory information on passive structural control and passive energy dissipation systems. Dynamic analyses of both single and multiple degree of freedom systems are performed in order to verify the achievement of pre-assigned performance targets, and it is explained how the optimal integrated design methodology, also relevant to retrofitting of existing buildings, should be applied. The book illustrates how structural control research is opening up new possibilities in structural forms and configurations without compromising structural performance.

  3. Integration of multiple sensor fusion in controller design. (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Kandasamy, Parameshwaran


    The main focus of this research is to reduce the risk of a catastrophic response of a feedback control system when some of the feedback data from the system sensors are not reliable, while maintaining a reasonable performance of the control system. In this paper a methodology for integrating multiple sensor fusion into the controller design is presented. The multiple sensor fusion algorithm produces, in addition to the estimate of the measurand, a parameter that measures the confidence in the estimated value. This confidence is integrated as a parameter into the controller to produce fast system response when the confidence in the estimate is high, and a slow response when the confidence in the estimate is low. Conditions for the stability of the system with the developed controller are discussed. This methodology is demonstrated on a cupola furnace model. The simulations illustrate the advantages of the new methodology.

  4. Unlocking Flexibility: Integrated Optimization and Control of Multienergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mancarella, Pierluigi; Monti, Antonello


    Electricity, natural gas, water, and dis trict heating/cooling systems are predominantly planned and operated independently. However, it is increasingly recognized that integrated optimization and control of such systems at multiple spatiotemporal scales can bring significant socioeconomic, operational efficiency, and environmental benefits. Accordingly, the concept of the multi-energy system is gaining considerable attention, with the overarching objectives of 1) uncovering fundamental gains (and potential drawbacks) that emerge from the integrated operation of multiple systems and 2) developing holistic yet computationally affordable optimization and control methods that maximize operational benefits, while 3) acknowledging intrinsic interdependencies and quality-of-service requirements for each provider.

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  6. A simple nonlinear PD controller for integrating processes. (United States)

    Dey, Chanchal; Mudi, Rajani K; Simhachalam, Dharmana


    Many industrial processes are found to be integrating in nature, for which widely used Ziegler-Nichols tuned PID controllers usually fail to provide satisfactory performance due to excessive overshoot with large settling time. Although, IMC (Internal Model Control) based PID controllers are capable to reduce the overshoot, but little improvement is found in the load disturbance response. Here, we propose an auto-tuning proportional-derivative controller (APD) where a nonlinear gain updating factor α continuously adjusts the proportional and derivative gains to achieve an overall improved performance during set point change as well as load disturbance. The value of α is obtained by a simple relation based on the instantaneous values of normalized error (eN) and change of error (ΔeN) of the controlled variable. Performance of the proposed nonlinear PD controller (APD) is tested and compared with other PD and PID tuning rules for pure integrating plus delay (IPD) and first-order integrating plus delay (FOIPD) processes. Effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified on a laboratory scale servo position control system.

  7. Generalized Proportional Integral Control for an Unmanned Quadrotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero


    Full Text Available In this article, a generalized proportional integral (GPI control approach is presented for regulation and trajectory tracking problems in a nonlinear, multivariable quadrotor system model. In the feedback control law, no asymptotic observers or time discretizations are needed in the feedback loop. The GPI controller guarantees the asymptotically and exponentially stable behaviour of the controlled quadrotor position and orientation, as well as the possibilities of carrying out trajectory tracking tasks. The simulation results presented in the paper show that the proposed method exhibits very good stabilization and tracking performance in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and noise measurements.

  8. Exact controllability of generalized Hammerstein type integral equation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimplekumar N. Chalishajar


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the exact controllability of an abstract model described by the controlled generalized Hammerstein type integral equation $$ x(t = int_0^t h(t,su(sds+ int_0^t k(t,s,xf(s,x(sds, quad 0 leq t leq T less than infty, $$ where, the state $x(t$ lies in a Hilbert space $H$ and control $u(t$ lies another Hilbert space $V$ for each time $t in I=[0,T]$, $T$ greater than 0. We establish the controllability result under suitable assumptions on $h, k$ and $f$ using the monotone operator theory.

  9. Adaptive robust controller based on integral sliding mode concept (United States)

    Taleb, M.; Plestan, F.


    This paper proposes, for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, an adaptive controller based on adaptive second-order sliding mode control and integral sliding mode control concepts. The adaptation strategy solves the problem of gain tuning and has the advantage of chattering reduction. Moreover, limited information about perturbation and uncertainties has to be known. The control is composed of two parts: an adaptive one whose objective is to reject the perturbation and system uncertainties, whereas the second one is chosen such as the nominal part of the system is stabilised in zero. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an application on an academic example is shown with simulation results.

  10. Transient response characteristics in a biomolecular integral controller. (United States)

    Sen, Shaunak


    The cellular behaviour of perfect adaptation is achieved through the use of an integral control element in the underlying biomolecular circuit. It is generally unclear how integral action affects the important aspect of transient response in these biomolecular systems, especially in light of the fact that it typically deteriorates the transient response in engineering contexts. To address this issue, the authors investigated the transient response in a computational model of a simple biomolecular integral control system involved in bacterial signalling. They find that the transient response can actually speed up as the integral gain parameter increases. On further analysis, they find that the underlying dynamics are composed of slow and fast modes and the speed-up of the transient response is because of the speed-up of the slow-mode dynamics. Finally, they note how an increase in the integral gain parameter also leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the transient response, consistent with the overall improvement in the transient response. These results should be useful in understanding the overall effect of integral action on system dynamics, particularly for biomolecular systems.

  11. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚燕安[1; 颜鸿森[2; 张策[3; 邹慧君[4


    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  12. TICS-24 --- an Integrated Telescope Control System Using Hypercard (United States)

    Hawkins, R. L.; Ratcliff, S. J.


    Starting from scripts generously provided by Ratcliff, the author has developed an integrated telescope and instrumentation control system for Hypercard on the Macintosh. The Telescope Integrated Control System (TICS-24) uses Hypercard scripts, HyperBASIC XFCN's, and APDA serial port XFCN's to control a telescope and another instrument over the built-in serial ports on a Macintosh. Additionally, TICS-24 has the ability to act as an object database with finder charts for frequently observed targets. The system is expandable, since new functions simply become new scripts and/or ``cards''. The system is also easily adaptable to other telescopes and instrumentation, since controlling a different telescope or instrument only requires rewriting the actual serial commands to match those expected by the new instrument.

  13. Dispersion-enabled quantum state control in integrated photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchildon, Ryan P


    Integrated optics has brought unprecedented levels of stability and performance to quantum photonic circuits. However, integrated devices are not merely micron-scale equivalents of their bulk-optics counterparts. By exploiting the inherently dispersive characteristics of the integrated setting, such devices can play a remarkably more versatile role in quantum circuit architectures. We show this by examining the implications of linear dispersion in an ordinary directional coupler. Dispersion unlocks several novel capabilities for this device, including in-situ control over photon spectral and polarization entanglement, tunable photon time-ordering, and entanglement-sensitive two-photon coincidence generation. Also revealed is an ability to maintain perfect two-photon anti-coalescence while tuning the interference visibility, which has no equivalent in bulk-optics. The outcome of this work adds to a suite of state engineering and characterization tools that benefit from the advantages of integration. It also pa...

  14. Integration of management control tools. Analysis of a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Comas Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to design and to implement a procedure that integrates management control tools focusing on process, to improve the efficiency and the efficacy. It was carried out an experimental study where is defined a procedure, based in the Balanced Scorecard, which integrates the process management into the strategic planning and their evaluation. As results of this work, we define the key factors of success associated with the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard that are linked through the cause-effect relations obtaining the strategic map that allows visualizing and communicating the enterprise strategy. The indicators evaluate the key factor of success, integrating the process with the assistance of a software. The implementation of the procedure in a commercialization enterprise contributed to integrate the process definition into the strategic planning. The alignment was evaluated and the efficiency and efficacy indicators improved the company´s performance.

  15. Controllable growth of dielectric/semiconductor integrated films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YangRong; ZHU Jun; LUO WenBo; LIU XingZhao; ZHANG WanLi


    Currently,electronic information systems are developing quickly towards further miniaturization and monolithic integration so as to realize smaller volume,higher velocity and lower power consumption.For this purpose,the integration of all sorts of active devices (mainly fabricated by semiconductors) with passive devices (fabricated by functional materials) is particularly important and impendent.Therefore,it is necessary to integrate multifunctional oxide dielectrics possessing electric,magnetic,acoustic,optical and thermal properties characterized by spontaneous polarization with semiconductors bearing the characters of carrier transportation to form artificial structures via deposition of solid films.This kind of integrated films may have two characters,i.e.,the all-in-one multifunction and modulation of electromagnetic properties by hetero-interface.This makes it possible to realize monolithic integration of detecting,processing,transmission,executing and storing of electronic information.Meanwhile,possible integrated coupling effects will be pursued instead of exploring the limited physical properties of the related materials.In this paper,we put forward a new direction of developing electronic devices with higher performances,and demonstrate some results concerning our recent research on the interface-controllable integrated growth of dielectrics and GaN.Recent progresses of the related research in the world are also reviewed.

  16. The Integrated Control-Mechanism in ATM-Based Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Survivability is one of the important issues in ATM-based networks since even a single network element failure may cause a serious data loss. This paper introduces a new restoration mechanism based on multi-layer ATM survivable network management architecture. This mechanism integrates the general control and restoration control by establishing the Working VPs logical network, Backup VPs logical network and spare logical network in order to optimally utilize the network resources while maintaining the restoration requirements.

  17. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.


    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  18. Propulsion control experience used in the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.


    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will integrate the propulsion and flight control systems on an F-15 airplane at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Ames-Dryden has conducted several propulsion control programs that have contributed to the HIDEC program. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) flight evaluation investigated the performance and operability of the F100 engine equipped with a full-authority digital electronic control system. Investigations of nozzle instability, fault detection and accommodation, and augmentor transient capability provided important information for the HIDEC program. The F100 engine model derivative (EMD) was also flown in the F-15 airplane, and airplane performance was significantly improved. A throttle response problem was found and solved with a software fix to the control logic. For the HIDEC program, the F100 EMD engines equipped with DEEC controls will be integrated with the digital flight control system. The control modes to be implemented are an integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine control system mode. The engine control experience that will be used in the HIDEC program is discussed.

  19. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manges, W.W.


    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized.

  20. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica]. (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo


    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  1. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert A.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to o

  2. Integrated product definition representation for agile numerical control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, W.R. Jr.; Brooks, S.L.; Kirk, W.J. III; Brown, C.W.


    Realization of agile manufacturing capabilities for a virtual enterprise requires the integration of technology, management, and work force into a coordinated, interdependent system. This paper is focused on technology enabling tools for agile manufacturing within a virtual enterprise specifically relating to Numerical Control (N/C) manufacturing activities and product definition requirements for these activities.

  3. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.


    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this m

  4. Integrated assurance assessment of a reconfigurable digital flight control system (United States)

    Ness, W. G.; Davis, R. M.; Benson, J. W.; Smith, M. K.; Eldredge, D.


    The integrated application of reliability, failure effects and system simulator methods in establishing the airworthiness of a flight critical digital flight control system (DFCS) is demonstrated. The emphasis was on the mutual reinforcement of the methods in demonstrating the system safety.

  5. Assessment of electrosurgical hand controls integrated into a laparoscopic grasper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Clerk, B.; Rousek, J.B.; Lowndes, B.R.; Eikhout, S.M.; Balogh, B.J.; Hallbeck, M.S.


    The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the optimal ergonomic placement of novel electrosurgical hand controls integrated into a standard laparoscopic grasper to optimize functionality. This device will allow laparoscopic surgeons to hand-operate standard electrosurgi

  6. Analysis of Basic Transmission Networks for Integrated Ship Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Granum-Jensen, M.


    Description of a computer network for Integrated Ship Control Systems which is going to be developed as part of an EC-project. Today equipment of different make are not able to communicate with each other because most often each supplier of ISC systems has got their own proprietary network.....

  7. Tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode controller: equivalent control method. (United States)

    Zhao, Guoliang; Sun, Kaibiao; Li, Hongxing


    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model.

  8. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Longhua; Peng, Zhe


    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly time-consuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms ...

  9. Fault tolerant control schemes using integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamayun, Mirza Tariq; Alwi, Halim


    The key attribute of a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is its ability to maintain overall system stability and acceptable performance in the face of faults and failures within the feedback system. In this book Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) Control Allocation (CA) schemes for FTC are described, which have the potential to maintain close to nominal fault-free performance (for the entire system response), in the face of actuator faults and even complete failures of certain actuators. Broadly an ISM controller based around a model of the plant with the aim of creating a nonlinear fault tolerant feedback controller whose closed-loop performance is established during the design process. The second approach involves retro-fitting an ISM scheme to an existing feedback controller to introduce fault tolerance. This may be advantageous from an industrial perspective, because fault tolerance can be introduced without changing the existing control loops. A high fidelity benchmark model of a large transport aircraft is u...

  10. Robust output LQ optimal control via integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Leonid; Bejarano, Francisco Javier


    Featuring original research from well-known experts in the field of sliding mode control, this monograph presents new design schemes for implementing LQ control solutions in situations where the output system is the only information provided about the state of the plant. This new design works under the restrictions of matched disturbances without losing its desirable features. On the cutting-edge of optimal control research, Robust Output LQ Optimal Control via Integral Sliding Modes is an excellent resource for both graduate students and professionals involved in linear systems, optimal control, observation of systems with unknown inputs, and automatization. In the theory of optimal control, the linear quadratic (LQ) optimal problem plays an important role due to its physical meaning, and its solution is easily given by an algebraic Riccati equation. This solution turns out to be restrictive, however, because of two assumptions: the system must be free from disturbances and the entire state vector must be kn...

  11. Slide Mode Control for Integrated Electric Parking Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang


    Full Text Available The emerging integrated electric parking brake (IEPB system is introduced and studied. Through analyzing the various working stages, the stages switched IEPB system models are given with the consideration of the friction and system idle inertia. The sliding mode control (SMC method is adopted to control the clamping force by the widely used motor angle and clamping force relationship method. Based on the characteristics of the state equations, two sliding surfaces are built to control the motor angle and current, respectively. And in every working stage, the control stability is guaranteed by choosing the control parameters based on Lyapunov theory and SMC reachability. The effectiveness of the proposed control system has been validated in Matlab/Simulink.

  12. Assessment of electrosurgical hand controls integrated into a laparoscopic grasper. (United States)

    Brown-Clerk, Bernadette; Rousek, Justin B; Lowndes, Bethany R; Eikhout, Sandra M; Balogh, Bradley J; Hallbeck, M Susan


    The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the optimal ergonomic placement of novel electrosurgical hand controls integrated into a standard laparoscopic grasper to optimize functionality. This device will allow laparoscopic surgeons to hand-operate standard electrosurgical equipment, eliminating the use of electrosurgical foot pedals, which are prone to activation errors and cause uncomfortable body positions for the physician. Three hand control designs were evaluated by 26 participants during the performance of four basic inanimate laparoscopic electrosurgical tasks. Task completion time, actuation force, forearm electromyography (EMG) and user preference were evaluated for each hand control design. Task speed was controlled using a metronome to minimize subject variability, and resulted in no significant completion time differences between task types (P > 0.05). Hand control design 1 (CD 1) resulted in the ability to generate significantly greater actuation force for three of the four tasks (P electrosurgical hand controls.

  13. Proportional integral derivative controller design using Legendre orthogonal functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Moradi; Mohammad Tabatabaei


    The Legendre orthogonal functions are employed to design the family of PID controllers for a variety of plants. In the proposed method, the PID controller and the plant model are represented with their corresponding Legendre series. Matching the first three terms of the Legendre series of the loop gain with the desired one gives the PID controller parameters. The closed loop system stability conditions in terms of the Legendre basis function pole (λ) for a wide range of systems including the first order, second order, double integrator, first order plus dead time, and first order unstable plants are obtained. For first order and double integrator plants, the closed loop system stability is preserved for all values ofλ and for the other plants, an appropriate range in terms ofλis obtained. The optimum value ofλ to attain a minimum integral square error performance index in the presence of the control signal constraints is achieved. The numerical simulations demonstrate the benefits of the Legendre based PID controller.

  14. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev


    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  15. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system (United States)

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G. A.


    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis.

  16. Challenges and opportunities in integration of design and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted


    , advancements in control algorithms and software have widened the range of feasible operation and control for strongly interconnected production systems. In light of these advances in different areas of the field, recommendations for further research and initiatives for development of an integrated approach......Process synthesis and design of plant operation are related topics but current industrial practice solves these problems sequentially. The implication of this sequential strategy may result in design of processing systems which are very hard to control. This paper presents a discussion on drivers...

  17. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.


    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for area-wide assessment of water use efficiency and ecohydrology outcomes among mixed land uses (United States)

    Burgess, S. S. O.; Nguyen, M. L.


    Managing water use efficiency and ecohydrology is important for providing food, water and essential ecosystem services. Many agricultural, ecological, atmospheric and hydrological processes cannot be meaningfully managed without an area-wide or catchment-level perspective. However a vast number of factors, including mixed land uses are incorporated at such scales. There is a need for integrative, mobile and adaptable techniques to make water related measurements over large areas and mixed land uses. Nuclear techniques and analogous non-nuclear techniques may be deployed in a number of spheres within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (e.g. rhizosphere and above-canopy microclimate) with nuclear techniques having a distinct contribution owing to their unique ability to trace biogeochemical processes including the movement and transformation of water, nutrients and agrochemicals. 1) Soils. Isotopes can be used to trace water sources to understand groundwater dependence, rooting depth, etc. but not at all sites: early success in central USA studies has not always been repeatable in climates which produce more uniform isotopic signatures in various water sources. Soil water resources available to crops can also be studied using neutron moisture meters, but training, transport and safety issues argue for stringent management and inclusion of electrical capacitance probes for routine or automated applications. Results from capacitance probes can benefit from benchmarking against neutron probe measurements, which remain more powerful for sampling larger volumes in cases of heterogenous soils or where salinity levels are problematic. Because interpretation of soil water content in terms of plant available water also requires knowledge of soil organic matter characteristics, 13C and compound specific stable isotopes can help to identify changes in soil organic matter composition and hence water and plant nutrient availability. 2) Plants. Analysis of carbon isotope

  19. Development of Quality Control Procedures for Lepidoptera (United States)

    Lepidopteran species are among the most destructive insect pests throughout the world. The sterile insect technique (SIT), within an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach, has proven to be a valuable tactic for controlling and eradicating important moth pests. Improving laboratory...

  20. High-resolution area-wide sea-floor mapping: The paleo Elbe valley (S North Sea) revisited (United States)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian


    The North Sea Basin is shaped by multiple glacial advances and retreats that left complex sequences of glacio-fluvial and sub-glacial deposits, cut by sub-glacial tunnel valleys. Today, the submerged valley of the Elbe forms one of the most prominent structures of the southern North Sea. Flanked by huge moraine deposits of older glacials, the valley developed to its present form during the Weichselian sea-level lowstand (-130 m below present). Melt waters that discharged in north-westerly directions along the Scandinavian Ice Sheet fed the paleo Elbe at that time. During the Holocene the valley drowned in the rising sea. Here we present an area-wide high-resolution map of the seafloor and high-resolution shallow seismic data covering 1,600 km2 of the paleo Elbe valley (PEV) including its eastern levee. The data allow to shed new light on the PEV development including the historical process of sedimentary infill with the successive Holocene sea level rise in detail. Shallow seismic data with transect distances of 400 m and several cross sections allow 3-D visualization. The eastern flank of the valley is characterized by a relatively steep slope with one or more terraces. At its levee a significant sediment change is present on the modern sea floor, representing moraine and marine deposits. High resolution sidescan sonar data of this area show a much higher heterogeneity and complexity in sediment and habitat distribution as assumed before. Holocene marine sediments form a patchy and thin drape east of the valley floor. The western slip-off slope of the valley slope is much smoother than the eastern undercut slope. As yet, significant sedimentological changes at the present seafloor are not known for the western side of the PEV. Shallow seismic data show the base of the PEV. There are conspicuous internal seismic reflectors above the base, inclined in northeastern direction. They indicate a sedimentary infill of the valley from the southwest when the southern part

  1. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.


    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  2. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe


    This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  3. Error Control Strategies for Numerical Integrations in Fast Collocation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲英; 巫斌; 许跃生


    We propose two error control techniques for numerical integrations in fast multiscale collocation methods for solving Fredholm integral equations of the second kind with weakly singular kernels. Both techniques utilize quadratures for singular integrals using graded points. One has a polynomial order of accuracy if the integrand has a polynomial order of smoothness except at the singular point and the other has exponential order of accuracy if the integrand has an infinite order of smoothness except at the singular point. We estimate the order of convergence and computational complexity of the corresponding approximate solutions of the equation. We prove that the second technique preserves the order of convergence and computational complexity of the original collocation method. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the theoretical estimates.

  4. Integral control concept of buildings; Integrales Steuerungskonzept von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabben, L.; Schmitz, H.J. [e2 energieberatung GmbH, Essen (Germany)


    Each existing building is unique in its function, appearance, users and location regarding to local climatic conditions and in case of an existing building also in its history. Therefore a custom-made control-concept is to be prepared in form of requirement specifications compellingly necessarily for each building. The building simulation is a powerful tool for the optimization of a coordinated control processes for heating, cooling and ventilation including the control of solar shading and lighting. Basic conditions for the design of a successful control concept are realistic assumptions of the user behaviour and in the realisation the application of the found results of the simulation. This article shows by example of the reconstruction of the main building of the Dortmund energy and water supply GmbH (DEW21), how important a building and user-specific HVAC control concept is. Only by a consistent application of the integrated concept and the monitoring by the specialized consultants contradictory controls for users and environment can be avoided. The example shows that the successful integrated design process does not only achieve substantial energy conservation, but also substantially improved user comfort. (orig.)

  5. An Integrated Control and Scheduling Optimization Method of Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-qiang; ZHANG Huan-chun; JING Ya-zhi


    Feedback control systems wherein the control loops are closed through a real-time network are called networked control systems (NCSs). The limitation of communication bandwidth results in transport delay, affects the property of real-time system, and degrades the performance of NCSs. An integrated control and scheduling optimization method using genetic algorithm is proposed in this paper.This method can synchronously optimize network scheduling and improve the performance of NCSs. To illustrate its effectiveness, an example is provided.

  6. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management (United States)

    Daniels, James


    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  7. A PI-PD controller design for control of unstable and integrating processes. (United States)

    Kaya, Ibrahim


    A model-based PI-PD controller design, where the PD feedback is used to change the poles of the plant transfer function to more desirable locations for control by a PI controller, is proposed. Several procedures for obtaining the parameters of the PI-PD controller are possible but one of the simplest approaches, which is used in this paper, is to employ integral squared time error standard forms as this enables the design to be completed using simple algebra. Also, an exact method for model extraction of some integrating processes which may or may not have a time delay is presented. The method is compared with several existing methods to control integrating processes and it is shown that the proposed method is superior to existing ones.

  8. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)


    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  9. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  10. System design and control integration for advanced manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Han-Xiong


    Most existing robust design books address design for static systems, or achieve robust design from experimental data via the Taguchi method. Little work considers model information for robust design particularly for the dynamic system. This book covers robust design for both static and dynamic systems using the nominal model information or the hybrid model/data information, and also integrates design with control under a large operating region. This design can handle strong nonlinearity and more uncertainties from model and parameters.

  11. Importance of Integrated Control in the Use of Pesticide


    İstem TÜRKTEMEL; Burçak, Aydan Alev; Yaşaer, A. Haluk; Furat, Binnur; Karaoğlu, Sibel


    Today, with the increasing awareness of the environment human health, environmental and biodiversity protection come to the forefront in all studies. The agricultural protection application in crop plants, the reduction of pesticide consumption is in the set objectives. Thus; the sustainable control methods taking into account human health, biodiversity and natural balance is intended to be carried out against disease, pest and weeds in crops. In integrated management; priority is given to al...

  12. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;


    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  13. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;


    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  14. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems (United States)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen


    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  15. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC) (United States)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner


    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  16. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study (United States)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.


    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  17. Integrated Modeling and Intelligent Control Methods of Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang


    Full Text Available The grinding process is a typical complex nonlinear multivariable process with strongly coupling and large time delays. Based on the data-driven modeling theory, the integrated modeling and intelligent control method of grinding process is carried out in the paper, which includes the soft-sensor model of economic and technique indexes, the optimized set-point model utilizing case-based reasoning, and the self-tuning PID decoupling controller. For forecasting the key technology indicators (grinding granularity and mill discharge rate of grinding process, an adaptive soft-sensor modeling method based on wavelet neural network optimized by the improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA is proposed. Then, a set point optimization control strategy of grinding process based on case-based reasoning (CBR method is adopted to obtain the optimized velocity set-point of ore feed and pump water feed in the grinding process controlled loops. Finally, a self-tuning PID decoupling controller optimized is used to control the grinding process. Simulation results and industrial application experiments clearly show the feasibility and effectiveness of control methods and satisfy the real-time control requirements of the grinding process.

  18. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots (United States)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.


    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  19. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system. (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K


    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  20. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl


    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  1. [Controllability pyramid: an integrated control system of quality for traditional Chinese medicines]. (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-He; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wang, Jia-Bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng


    Quality control is one of the key scientific tissues in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In order to overcome the deficiencies of assessment indexes, including little systematization and quantification, as well as loose association with clinical efficacy and dosage, a new integrated method named controllability pyramid ( CP) is first proposed in this paper. In addition, some study cases are used to explain how this model is constructed. We hope the establishment of CP could promote the clinical-orien- ted integrated innovation research of TCM, and provide control strategy and technology examples for improving the quality of Chinese medicines and clinical efficacy.

  2. Structural integrated sensor and actuator systems for active flow control (United States)

    Behr, Christian; Schwerter, Martin; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Wierach, Peter; Dietzel, Andreas; Sinapius, Michael


    An adaptive flow separation control system is designed and implemented as an essential part of a novel high-lift device for future aircraft. The system consists of MEMS pressure sensors to determine the flow conditions and adaptive lips to regulate the mass flow and the velocity of a wall near stream over the internally blown Coanda flap. By the oscillating lip the mass flow in the blowing slot changes dynamically, consequently the momentum exchange of the boundary layer over a high lift flap required mass flow can be reduced. These new compact and highly integrated systems provide a real-time monitoring and manipulation of the flow conditions. In this context the integration of pressure sensors into flow sensing airfoils of composite material is investigated. Mechanical and electrical properties of the integrated sensors are investigated under mechanical loads during tensile tests. The sensors contain a reference pressure chamber isolated to the ambient by a deformable membrane with integrated piezoresistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge, which outputs voltage signals depending on the ambient pressure. The composite material in which the sensors are embedded consists of 22 individual layers of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) prepreg. The results of the experiments are used for adapting the design of the sensors and the layout of the laminate to ensure an optimized flux of force in highly loaded structures primarily for future aeronautical applications. It can be shown that the pressure sensor withstands the embedding process into fiber composites with full functional capability and predictable behavior under stress.

  3. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab. (United States)

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Peng, Zhe


    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  4. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control (United States)

    Patrick, Brian R.; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn; Summers, Cathy Ann; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul Chandler


    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  5. Path integrals and symmetry breaking for optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J


    This paper considers linear-quadratic control of a non-linear dynamical system subject to arbitrary cost. I show that for this class of stochastic control problems the non-linear Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation can be transformed into a linear equation. The transformation is similar to the transformation used to relate the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation to the Schr\\"odinger equation. As a result of the linearity, the usual backward computation can be replaced by a forward diffusion process, that can be computed by stochastic integration or by the evaluation of a path integral. It is shown, how in the deterministic limit the PMP formalism is recovered. The significance of the path integral approach is that it forms the basis for a number of efficient computational methods, such as MC sampling, the Laplace approximation and the variational approximation. We show the effectiveness of the first two methods in number of examples. Examples are given that show the qualitative difference between stochastic and d...

  6. Integrated windows-based control system for an electron microscope (United States)

    Ruan, Shengyang; Kapp, Oscar H.


    A Windows application has been developed for management and operation of beam instruments such as electron or ion microscopes. It provides a facility that allows an operator to manage a complicated instrument with minimal effort, primarily under mouse control. The hardware control components used on similar instruments (e.g., the scanning transmission electron microscopes in our lab), such as toggles, buttons, and potentiometers for adjustments on various scales, are all replaced by the controls of the Windows application and are addressable on a single screen. The new controls in this program (via adjustable software settings) offer speed of response and smooth operation providing tailored control of various instrument parameters. Along with the controls offering single parameter adjustment, a two-dimensional control was developed that allows two parameters to be coupled and addressed simultaneously. This capability provides convenience for such tasks as ``finding the beam'' and directing it to a location of interest on the specimen. Using an icon-based display, this Windows application provides better integrated and more robust information for monitoring instrument status than the indicators and meters of the traditional instrument controls. As a Windows application, this program is naturally able to share the resources of the Windows system and is thus able to link to many other applications such as our image acquisition and processing programs. Computer control provides automatic protection and instant diagnostics for the experimental instrument. This Windows application is fully functional and is in daily use to control a new type of electron microscope developed in our lab.

  7. Integrated windows-based control system for an electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, S. (The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Kapp, O.H. (The Department of Radiology and The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))


    A Windows application has been developed for management and operation of beam instruments such as electron or ion microscopes. It provides a facility that allows an operator to manage a complicated instrument with minimal effort, primarily under mouse control. The hardware control components used on similar instruments (e.g., the scanning transmission electron microscopes in our lab), such as toggles, buttons, and potentiometers for adjustments on various scales, are all replaced by the controls of the Windows application and are addressable on a single screen. The new controls in this program (via adjustable software settings) offer speed of response and smooth operation providing tailored control of various instrument parameters. Along with the controls offering single parameter adjustment, a two-dimensional control was developed that allows two parameters to be coupled and addressed simultaneously. This capability provides convenience for such tasks as finding the beam'' and directing it to a location of interest on the specimen. Using an icon-based display, this Windows application provides better integrated and more robust information for monitoring instrument status than the indicators and meters of the traditional instrument controls. As a Windows application, this program is naturally able to share the resources of the Windows system and is thus able to link to many other applications such as our image acquisition and processing programs. Computer control provides automatic protection and instant diagnostics for the experimental instrument. This Windows application is fully functional and is in daily use to control a new type of electron microscope developed in our lab.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new fuzzy controllers are designed,one's control rules are adjusted by error integral,another are with feedforward of error integral. If only the control rules and parameters are selected felicitously,the static errors of the system will be eliminated. The test results show that the controllers can assuredly improve static performances of the controlled system.

  9. Somatosensory integration controlled by dynamic thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition. (United States)

    Gabernet, Laetitia; Jadhav, Shantanu P; Feldman, Daniel E; Carandini, Matteo; Scanziani, Massimo


    The temporal features of tactile stimuli are faithfully represented by the activity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex. However, the cellular mechanisms that enable cortical neurons to report accurate temporal information are not known. Here, we show that in the rodent barrel cortex, the temporal window for integration of thalamic inputs is under the control of thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition and can vary from 1 to 10 ms. A single thalamic fiber can trigger feed-forward inhibition and contacts both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons. The dynamics of feed-forward inhibition exceed those of each individual synapse in the circuit and are captured by a simple disynaptic model of the thalamocortical projection. The variations in the integration window produce changes in the temporal precision of cortical responses to whisker stimulation. Hence, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, classically known to sharpen spatial contrast of tactile inputs, also increase the temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex.

  10. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.


    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  11. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durkee, Jr., Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  12. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  13. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle


    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  14. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li


    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  15. Technology Integration in the LHC EXperiments Joint Controls Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Barillere; M.Beharrell; 等


    The development and maintenance of the control systems of the four LHC experiments will require a non-negligible amount of resources and effort.The Joint Controls Project(JCOP)[1] has been set-up as a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find common solutions for the LHC experiments' control systems.Although the JCOP general principle is to promote the use of industrial ssoluitions wherever possible,custom solutions are still required when non-standard devices or very large numbers of devices have to be ease the development and integration of both standard and non-standard devices into the control system a number of software Frameworks are under development.This paper will describe the various solutions being proposed by JCOP including the Supervisory and Front-End frameworks as well as the various industrial and custom components.In addition,It will also describe where these fit into the foreseen JCOP controls architecture.The paper will then highlight in more detail the Front-End Framework.

  16. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra


    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  17. On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio


    Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.

  18. Integrity Based Access Control Model for Multilevel XML Document

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Fan; FENG Xue-bin; HUANO Zhi; ZHENG Ming-hui


    XML's increasing popularity highlights the security demand for XML documents. A mandatory access control model for XML document is presented on the basis of investigation of the function dependency of XML documents and discussion of the integrity properties of multilevel XML document. Then, the algorithms for decomposition/recovery multilevel XML document into/from single level document are given, and the manipulation rules for typical operations of XQuery and XUpdate: QUERY, INSERT,UPDATE, and REMOVE, are elaborated. The multilevel XML document access model can meet the requirement of sensitive information processing application.

  19. Real-time integrated process supervision for autotuners and modified cerebellar model articulation controller (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, H. C.; Lim, B. H.


    This paper presents the use of a micro-controller-based Integrated Process Supervision as a tool for investigate work in expert control. Two different control theories integrated within process serve as examples of structured approach to expert control. The Integrated Process Supervision is a refinement of the Expert Control Architecture as proposed by Karl J. Astrom by allowing integration of several control techniques in a single generic framework. Specifically, the paper presents the result for experiments performed on an implementation of the Integrated Process Supervision on a PC and micro-controller environment. Autotuning techniques were first integrated within the process supervision. Three Autotuners based on specification of phase and amplitude margins were investigated. A modified version of Cerebellar MOdel Articulation Controller was then implemented in IPS as a direct controller. Results collected verify its integration in the integrated process supervision and also provide evidence of improved performance as compared to Autotuning.

  20. Diving control of underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle using integral-fast terminal sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浙平; 于浩淼; 侯恕萍


    The problem of diving control for an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) considering the presence of parameters perturbations and wave disturbances was addressesed. The vertical motion of an UUV was divided into two noninteracting subsystems for surge velocity control and diving. To stabilize the vertical motion system, the surge velocity and the depth control controllers were proposed using backstepping technology and an integral-fast terminal sliding mode control (IFTSMC). It is proven that the proposed control scheme can guarantee that all the error signals in the whole closed-loop system globally converge to the sliding surface in finite time and asymptotically converge to the origin along the sliding surface. With a unified control parameters for different motion states, a series of numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the above designed control scheme, which also shows strong robustness against parameters perturbations and wave disturbances.

  1. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project. (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A


    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described.

  2. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang


    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  3. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.


    Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...... actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate...

  4. Factors Controlling Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics: An Integrated Analysis and Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Hunter, A.C.; Andresen, T.L.


    Intravenously injected nanoparticulate drug carriers provide a wide range of unique opportunities for site-specific targeting of therapeutic agents to many areas within the vasculature and beyond. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these carriers are controlled by a complex array...... of interrelated core and interfacial physicochemical and biological factors. Pertinent to realizing therapeutic goals, definitive maps that establish the interdependency of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface characteristics in relation to interfacial forces, biodistribution, controlled drug release, excretion......, and adverse effects must be outlined. These concepts are critically evaluated and an integrated perspective is provided on the basis of the recent application of nanoscience approaches to nanocarrier design and engineering. The future of this exciting field is bright; some regulatory-approved products...

  5. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel


    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  6. Integrated Control Plane for IP Enabled Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhengbin; YINHongxi; YUDeming; XUAnshi


    With the exponential growth of the Internet traffle for the intense demand for broadband services,providing bandwidth and connectivity on demand has risen to be a hot topic involving establishing connections from client ent systems to another through the optical backbone.So that,control plane and signaling in the optical network seems to be a critical component.This paper proposes and integrated control plane(ICP)and signaling related in IP enabled optical networks.Signaling processing for ensuring dynamic end-to-end lightpath setup has also been presented.Path provisioning comprises a string of operations like service & neighbor discovery,route computation,signaling requests,and path setup.

  7. Integrating a commercial industrial control system to the accelerator control system: a case study (United States)

    Momal, F.; Brahy, J.; Saban, R.; Sollander, P.


    At CERN a large number of systems providing services (cooling and ventilation, cryogenics, electricity distribution, personnel and building safety, etc.) are controlled by industrial PLCs. A commercial supervision package is used as a gateway to the accelerator control system. The integration of such a system in the CERN accelerator control environment addresses issues such as the connection to control-rooms and desktop computers, alarm logging and remote or alien man-machine interfaces. The paper describes the components of the system and reports the first operational experience.

  8. Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.


    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

  9. Chaos Control and Synchronization of a Hyperchaotic Zhou System by Integral Sliding Mode control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Toopchi


    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive integral sliding mode control scheme is proposed for synchronization of hyperchaotic Zhou systems. In the proposed scheme, an integral sliding mode control is designed to stabilize a hyperchaotic Zhou system with known parameters to its unstable equilibrium at the origin. The control is then applied to the synchronization of two identical systems, i.e., a slave and a master hyperchaotic Zhou system with unknown parameters. The adaptive control mechanism introduced synchronizes the systems by estimating the unknown parameters. Simulation results have shown that the proposed method has an excellent convergence from both speed and accuracy points of view, and it outperforms Vaidyanathan’s scheme, which is a well-recognized scheme in this area.

  10. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko


    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  11. Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling (United States)

    Viitanen, Jouko O.; Haverinen, Janne; Mattila, Pentti; Maekelae, Hannu; von Numers, Thomas; Stanek, Zbigniev; Roening, Juha


    We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kumile


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Manufacturing companies of today face unpredictable, high frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must have the characteristics of cost-effective rapid response to the market needs. As an engineering discipline, mechatronics strives to integrate mechanical, electronic, and computer systems optimally in order to create high precision products and manufacturing processes. This paper presents a methodology of increasing flexibility and reusability of a generic computer integrated manufacturing (CIM cell-control system using simulation and modelling of mechatronic sensory system (MSS concepts. The utilisation of sensors within the CIM cell is highlighted specifically for data acquisition, analysis, and multi-sensor data fusion. Thus the designed reference architecture provides comprehensive insight for the functions and methodologies of a generic shop-floor control system (SFCS, which consequently enables the rapid deployment of a flexible system.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hedendaagse vervaardigingsondernemings ervaar gereeld onvoorspelbare markveranderinge wat aangedryf word deur wêreldwye mededinging. Om kompeterend te bly moet hierdie ondernemings die eienskappe van kosteeffektiwiteit en snelle-respons op markfluktuasies toon. Megatronika streef daarna om meganiese, elektroniese en rekenaarstelsels optimaal te integreer om hoëpresisieprodukte en produksieprosesse daar te stel. Hierdie artikel suggereer 'n metodologie vir toenemende aanpasbaarheid en herbruikbaarheid van 'n generiese rekenaargeïntegreerde vervaardigingsel-beheersisteem deur die gebruik van simulasie en die modellering van megatroniese sensorsisteemkonsepte. Die aanwending van sensors binne die sel fasiliteer datavaslegging, ontleding en multisensordatafusie. Sodoende verskaf die ontwerpte argitektuur insig in die funksie en metodologie van 'n generiese stukwerkwinkelbeheersisteem wat die vinnige

  13. Improvement of one-cycle controller by use of proportional integral differential controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUZBEHANI Mohsen; ZHOU Luowei; WANG Mingyu


    The main advantage of one-cycle control is its ability to reject input disturbance in one-cycle. Despite this great ability,it can not provide good responses in following commands and rejecting load disturbance. This study explores the way toovercome these problems by using another controller. Although the idea of using output feedback has been used in previousworks, by considering a simple model for one-cycle controller, the design of the controller has become simpler in this work. In theproposed method, difficult mathematical modeling is avoided. Based on decupling of effects of feedback and input voltagedisturbance, a simple model for one-cycle controller has been given. Therefore, by employing a conventional averaging methodand the model of one-cycle controller, design of proportional integral differential controller has become straightforward.

  14. Engine Torque Control of SI Engine using Linear Quadratic Integral Tracking (LQIT Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Triwiyatno


    Full Text Available Due to the needs of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions, it is increasingly important to achieve control over robustness behavior and meet performance objectives over the life of the vehicle. This requires the development of high performance and optimal power train controllers. The performance objectives are often conflicting, or at least interrelated. One way to potentially meet these performance requirements is to introduce a method of controlling engine torque of Spark Ignition (SI engine using Linear Quadratic Integral Tracking (LQIT optimal control. The goal is to develop simple algorithms which can control engine torque well, thus providing fuel control more efficient and simultaneously improving engine performance due to the needs of the driver based on throttle opening information. In this case, spark ignition engine with automatic transmission simulation model is used to meet a good performance under this controller design.

  15. Research on Integration of Coal Mine Monitoring and Control System with Field Bus Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to the construction of current coal mine monitoring and control systems in China, the paper proposes three kinds of applicable schemes of integrating PLC and DCS systems with field bus technology to digitize the system and to improve the flexibility and extent of the system. Essentially, the paper introduces the integration of FCS on I/O layers. Based on a real coal mine safety-monitoring and control system applied with a CAN field bus, the major technology of system relays and extensions is discussed. We believe that one of the most applicable methods is currently replacing the connection between function-stations and field-sensors with a CAN bus on I/O layers for system integration.

  16. Singularity-free integral-augmented sliding mode control for combined energy and attitude control system (United States)

    Eshghi, Samira; Varatharajoo, Renuganth


    A combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is a synergized system in which flywheels are used as attitude control actuators and simultaneously as a power storage system. This paper, a subsequent to previous research on CEACS, addresses the attitude-tracking problem. Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL), a locally asymptotically stable controller, is developed to provide a robust and accurate solution for the CEACS's attitude-tracking problem. The controller alleviates the chattering phenomenon associated with the sliding mode using a boundary-layer technique. Simultaneously, it reduces the steady-state error using an integral action. This paper highlights the uncertainty of inertia matrix as a contributing factor to singularity problem. The inversion of the uncertain inertia matrix in simulation of a spacecraft dynamics is also identified as a leading factor to a singular situation. Therefore, an avoidance strategy is proposed in this paper to guarantee a singular-free dynamics behavior in faces of the uncertainties. This maiden work attempts to employ the singularity-free Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL) to provide a robust, accurate and nonsingular attitude-tracking solution for CEACS.

  17. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications. (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A


    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  18. Integrated flora management and pest control in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.; Tucker, K. [Game Conservancy Trust (United Kingdom)


    Weeds and insect pests can reduce yields and hence the profitability of short rotation coppice crops. Control becomes prudent when the cost of controlling the pests is exceeded by the yield loss (the economic threshold). This frequently happens when establishing the crop because of weed competition. Economic yield losses due to insect pest damage and weed competition in established SRC plots are less obvious but probably still occur. Traditional methods of control using pesticides is often logistically difficult and expensive. However there may be opportunities for controlling pest populations through cultural practices as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. Insect pests have a range of natural enemy species that could be encouraged through habitat and crop manipulations while the occurrence of weeds could be reduced by providing a ground cover of other less competitive plants. These cultural practices can lead to environmental benefits by reducing chemical applications and mechanical movements and increasing floral diversity, wildlife use and the landscape and amenity value of the crop. (Author)

  19. Integrating Usage Control with SIP-Based Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barka


    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol used for establishing and maintaining communication sessions involving two or more participants. SIP was initially designed for voice over IP and multimedia conferencing, and then was extended to support other services such as instant messaging and presence management. Today, SIP is also adopted to be used with 3G wireless networks, thus it becomes an integral protocol for ubiquitous environment. SIP has various methods that support a variety of applications such as subscribing to a service, notification of an event, status update, and location and presence services. However, when it comes to security, the use of wireless and mobile communication technologies and the pervasive nature of this environment introduce higher risks to security than that of the old simple environment. In this paper, we introduce new architecture that implements a new type of access control called usage access control (UCON to control the access to the SIP-based communication at preconnection, during connection, and postconnection. This will enable prescribers of SIP services to control who can identify their locations to approve or disapprove their subsequent connections, and to also set some parameters to determine whether a certain communication can continue or should terminate.

  20. Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems for Space Station (United States)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.


    Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. The paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. A system and component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but offers substantial savings in mass, and life-cycle cost.

  1. Effective use of proportional-integral controllers for stabilization and tuning of load-frequency control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Carlos Alberto D. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletronica


    In load-frequency control loops of electric power systems, the use of purely integral controllers to eliminate steady-state frequency deviations is a well established practice. However, the use of controllers which have only integral action always make transient behaviour worse, as compared to proportional controllers. Integral action for steady-state error elimination should be introduced in parallel with proportional action, thus forming a Proportional-Integral (PI) Controller. In this work a systematic procedure for including and setting of PI controllers in load-frequency control systems is suggested. An example is included, in which the procedure is illustrated, and a comparison between the result obtained with a PI controller and that obtained with a purely integral controller is made. It is verified that the PI controller, besides eliminating the steady-state frequency deviation, gives a better transient behaviour. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller (United States)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.


    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  3. Adaptive Contingency Control: Wind Turbine Operation Integrated with Blade Condition Monitoring (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report here on first steps towards integrating systems health monitoring with adaptive contingency controls. In the scenario considered, the adaptive controller...

  4. Point-Source and Area-Wide Field Studies of Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Against Urban Container-Inhabiting Mosquitoes (United States)


    Inset shows tire pile consisting of >100 discarded automobile tires. (Map not to scale). Stihl SR 420 backpack sprayers (Andreas Stihl Ag & Co . KG...baited with BG-Lure which contains ammonia , lactic acid, and fatty acids (Biogents AG, Regens- burg, Germany). The plots, treatment and control, were...Mosquitoes were reared as described by Gaugler et al. (2012). Animals for blood feeding were cared for as per Animal Use Protocol #86-129 of Rutgers

  5. Integrating attentional control theory and the strength model of self-control. (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex


    In the present article, we argue that it may be fruitful to incorporate the ideas of the strength model of self-control into the core assumptions of the well-established attentional control theory (ACT). In ACT, it is assumed that anxiety automatically leads to attention disruption and increased distractibility, which may impair subsequent cognitive or perceptual-motor performance, but only if individuals do not have the ability to counteract this attention disruption. However, ACT does not clarify which process determines whether one can volitionally regulate attention despite experiencing high levels of anxiety. In terms of the strength model of self-control, attention regulation can be viewed as a self-control act depending on the momentary availability of self-control strength. We review literature that has revealed that self-control strength moderates the anxiety-performance relationship, discuss how to integrate these two theoretical models, and offer practical recommendations of how to counteract negative anxiety effects.

  6. Deployment and Integration of Industrial Controls The Case of LHC Cryogenics Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gayet, P


    The new cryogenics controls for LHC (UNICOS) are implemented in an open architecture based on SCADA and PLC industrial components, with Ethernet as Fieldnetwork. Its development was outsourced to industry and since mid-2001 several applications have been produced and delivered for refrigerators in the accelerator and experiment domains. This has allowed to validatedetailed performance requirements in terms of communication and distributed architecture. The second phase of this project will involve its integration with the LHC accelerator controls, both at the information exchange level (alarms, data logging) and at the device configuration level. This phase takes advantage of the integrated design at PLC and SCADA level, leading to the use of configuration tools which can be easily connected to the generic device configuration model of the accelerator controls.

  7. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A


    in NW Europe and a table of the specific attributes of the most important fungicides in Europe are presented. The development and use of decision support systems (DSSs) in NW Europe are described. In The Netherlands, it is estimated that almost 40% of potato growers use recommendations based...... 20 years. The relative importance of the different primary inoculum sources and specific measures for reducing their role, such as covering dumps with plastic and preventing seed tubers from becoming infected, is described for the different regions. In NW Europe, varieties with greater resistance...... tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...

  8. Attacker Control and Impact for Confidentiality and Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Askarov, Aslan


    Language-based information flow methods offer a principled way to enforce strong security properties, but enforcing noninterference is too inflexible for realistic applications. Security-typed languages have therefore introduced declassification mechanisms for relaxing confidentiality policies, and endorsement mechanisms for relaxing integrity policies. However, a continuing challenge has been to define what security is guaranteed when such mechanisms are used. This paper presents a new semantic framework for expressing security policies for declassification and endorsement in a language-based setting. The key insight is that security can be characterized in terms of the influence that declassification and endorsement allow to the attacker. The new framework introduces two notions of security to describe the influence of the attacker. Attacker control defines what the attacker is able to learn from observable effects of this code; attacker impact captures the attacker's influence on trusted locations. This ap...

  9. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distribution Feeder Voltage Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Overview fact sheet about the Smarter Grid Solutions Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  10. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Grid-Edge Control Hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Overview fact sheet about the OMNETRIC Group Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  11. Status of the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagin, L; Bryant, R; Carey, R; Casavant, D; Edwards, O; Ferguson, W; Krammen, J; Larson, D; Lee, A; Ludwigsen, P; Miller, M; Moses, E; Nyholm, R; Reed, R; Shelton, R; Van Arsdall, P J; Wuest, C


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. When completed, NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing an international center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's 192 energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). ICCS is a layered architecture of 300 front-end processors attached to nearly 60,000 control points and coordinated by supervisor subsystems in the main control room. The functional subsystems--beam control including automatic beam alignment and wavefront correction, laser pulse generation and pre-amplification, diagnostics, pulse power, and timing--implement automated shot control, archive data, and support the actions of fourteen operators at graphic consoles. Object-oriented software development uses a mixed language environment of Ada (for functional controls) and Java (for user interface and database backend). The ICCS distributed software framework uses CORBA to communicate between languages and processors. ICCS software is approximately 3/4 complete with over 750 thousand source lines of code having undergone off-line verification tests and deployed to the facility. NIF has entered the first phases of its laser commissioning program. NIF has now demonstrated the highest energy 1{omega}, 2{omega}, and 3{omega} beamlines in the world

  12. Hybrid neural network fraction integral terminal sliding mode control of an Inchworm robot manipulator (United States)

    Rahmani, Mehran; Ghanbari, Ahmad; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad


    This paper proposes a control scheme based on the fraction integral terminal sliding mode control and adaptive neural network. It deals with the system model uncertainties and the disturbances to improve the control performance of the Inchworm robot manipulator. A fraction integral terminal sliding mode control applies to the Inchworm robot manipulator to obtain the initial stability. Also, an adaptive neural network is designed to approximate the system uncertainties and unknown disturbances to reduce chattering phenomena. The weight matrix of the proposed adaptive neural network can be updated online, according to the current state error information. The stability of the proposed control method is proved by Lyapunov theory. The performance of the adaptive neural network fraction integral terminal sliding mode control is compared with three other conventional controllers such as sliding mode control, integral terminal sliding mode control and fraction integral terminal sliding mode control. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  13. Integrated Detector Control and Calibration Processing at the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Münnich, A; Heisen, B C; Januschek, F; Kuster, M; Lang, P M; Raab, N; Rüter, T; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Turcato, M


    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser is a high-intensity X-ray light source currently being constructed in the area of Hamburg, that will provide spatially coherent X-rays in the energy range between $0.25\\,\\mathrm{keV}$ and $25\\,\\mathrm{keV}$. The machine will deliver $10\\,\\mathrm{trains/s}$, consisting of up to $2700\\,\\mathrm{pulses}$, with a $4.5\\,\\mathrm{MHz}$ repetition rate. The LPD, DSSC and AGIPD detectors are being developed to provide high dynamic-range Mpixel imaging capabilities at the mentioned repetition rates. A consequence of these detector characteristics is that they generate raw data volumes of up to $15\\,\\mathrm{Gbyte/s}$. In addition the detector's on-sensor memory-cell and multi-/non-linear gain architectures pose unique challenges in data correction and calibration, requiring online access to operating conditions and control settings. We present how these challenges are addressed within XFEL's control and analysis framework Karabo, which integrates access to hardware conditions, acqui...

  14. Integrated controlling technique of ecological environment in Shendong Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-sheng; LIU Yu-de; WANG An; WANG Yi


    To enclose the interactive relation between the underground mining with suitable protection for surface ecological environments and surface prevention of ecological environments adapting to mining disturbing was researched and developed core of this technique. There are three aspects of controlling ecological environments, to dispose and renew before exploitation, to protect surface ecological environments in the exploitative process and to repair and build up after exploitation. Based on the moving law of overburden strata in shallow seam, the surface subsidence law and the growth law of vegetation in subsidence mine area, the integrated controlling technique has been developed synthetically by methods of theoretic analysis, laboratory simulation, numerical calculation,commercial test etc.. It includes the key techniques of aquifer-protective mining, filtering and purging of mine water through goaf, preventing and extinguishing fire in shallow seam,no-rock roadway layout and waste disposal in underground, frame-building ecological functional sphere before exploitation, frame-building the ecological cycle using system after mining and so on.

  15. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe


    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  16. Integral Radiators for Next Generation Thermal Control Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integral radiators integrate the primary structural system and the thermal rejection system into a dual function subsystem allowing for reduced weight. The design of...

  17. Fault Tolerant Control Using Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller Tuned by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanthalakshmi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing demand for reliability, maintainability and survivability in industrial processes has drawn significant research in fault detection and fault tolerant control domain. A fault is usually defined as an unexpected change in a system, such as component malfunction and variations in operating condition, which tends to degrade the overall system performance. The purpose of fault detection is to detect these malfunctions to take proper action in order to prevent faults from developing into a total system failure. Approach: In this study an effective integrated fault detection and fault tolerant control scheme was developed for a class of LTI system. The scheme was based on a Kalman filter for simultaneous state and fault parameter estimation, statistical decisions for fault detection and activation of controller reconfiguration. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control schemes continue to provide the simplest and yet effective solutions to most of the control engineering applications today. Determination or tuning of the PID parameters continues to be important as these parameters have a great influence on the stability and performance of the control system. In this study GA was proposed to tune the PID controller. Results: The results reflect that proposed scheme improves the performance of the process in terms of time domain specifications, robustness to parametric changes and optimum stability. Also, A comparison with the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method proves the superiority of GA based system. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of genetic algorithm in tuning of a PID controller with optimum parameters. It is, moreover, proved to be robust to the variations in plant dynamic characteristics and disturbances assuring a parameter-insensitive operation of the process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motor drives are increasingly popular in industrial applications due to rapid progress of technologies in power electronics and the growing demand for energy saving. The increasing demand of energy saving from society is the external force for the development of PMBLDC motor drives. It is however driven by a hard-switching Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverter, which has low switching frequency, high switching loss, high Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI, high acoustic noise and low efficiency, etc. To solve these problems of the hard-switching inverter, many soft-switching inverters have been designed in the past. Unfortunately, high device voltage stress, large dc link voltage ripples, complex control scheme and so on are noticed in the soft-switching inverters. This study introduces a novel genetic-proportional Plus Integral (PI controller based resonant pole inverter using transformer, which can generate dc link voltage notches during chopping which minimize the drawbacks of soft-switching. Hence all switches work in zero-voltage switching condition. The performance of the genetic-based PI controller is compared with conventional PI controller. The experimental results show that the genetic-based PI controller renders a better transient response than the conventional PI controller resulting in negligible overshoot, smaller settling time and rise time. Moreover the proposed controller provides low torque ripples and high starting torque. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the proposed GA-PI controller based resonant pole inverter.

  19. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics. (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E


    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  20. Role of the Controller in an Integrated Pilot-Controller Study for Parallel Approaches (United States)

    Verma, Savvy; Kozon, Thomas; Ballinger, Debbi; Lozito, Sandra; Subramanian, Shobana


    Closely spaced parallel runway operations have been found to increase capacity within the National Airspace System but poor visibility conditions reduce the use of these operations [1]. Previous research examined the concepts and procedures related to parallel runways [2][4][5]. However, there has been no investigation of the procedures associated with the strategic and tactical pairing of aircraft for these operations. This study developed and examined the pilot s and controller s procedures and information requirements for creating aircraft pairs for closely spaced parallel runway operations. The goal was to achieve aircraft pairing with a temporal separation of 15s (+/- 10s error) at a coupling point that was 12 nmi from the runway threshold. In this paper, the role of the controller, as examined in an integrated study of controllers and pilots, is presented. The controllers utilized a pairing scheduler and new pairing interfaces to help create and maintain aircraft pairs, in a high-fidelity, human-in-the loop simulation experiment. Results show that the controllers worked as a team to achieve pairing between aircraft and the level of inter-controller coordination increased when the aircraft in the pair belonged to different sectors. Controller feedback did not reveal over reliance on the automation nor complacency with the pairing automation or pairing procedures.

  1. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki


    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  2. Nonlinear control for global stabilization of multiple-integrator system by bounded controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Guangren DUAN; Liu ZHANG


    The global stabilization problem of the multiple-integrator system by bounded controls is considered.A nonlinear feedback law consisting of nested saturation functions is proposed.This type of nonlinear feedback law that is a modification and generalization of the result given in[1] needs only[(n+1)/2](n is the dimensions of the system)saturation elements,which is fewer than that which the other nonlinear laws need.Funhermore.the poles of the closedloop system Can be placed on any location on the left real axis when none of the saturafion elements in the control laws is saturated.This type of nonlinear control law exhibits a simpler structure and call significantly improve the transient performances of the closed-loop system,and is very superior to the other existing methods.Simulation on a fourth-order system is used to validate the proposed method.

  3. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility (United States)

    Stewart, James F.


    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  4. Exploring integral controllers in actively-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar


    investigation of integral controllers for feedback-controlled lubrication with the aim of: a) presetting the static journal center and consequently exploring the changes of bearing dynamic properties; b) obtaining an integral controller capable of re-positioning the static journal eccentricity for matching...

  5. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii. (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle


    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  6. Integrated Auto-Tuning PID Control of Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    PID controllers were used for the hydraulic servo system of sliding gate and the tundish weight control system in continuous caster. These two loops were synthesized in mould level controller based on model reduction and internal model control strategy. Satisfactory control performance of this synthetic mould level controller was demonstrated by simulations and on-line experiments.

  7. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project (United States)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.


    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  8. Maintaining control while delegating trust: Integrity constraints in trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.


    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust management-style authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then, we address the fact that not all participants in a trust-ma

  9. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Subba Rami Reddy


    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Integrated fuzzy logic controller (IFLC for brushless dc (BLDC motor drives using advanced simulation model and presents a comparative study of performances of PID controller and IFLC. The dynamic characteristics of speed and torque are effectively monitored and analyzed using the proposed model. The aim of IFLC is to obtain improved performance in terms of disturbance rejection or parameter variation than obtained using PID controller. The IFLC is constructed by using Fuzzy logic controller (FLC and PID controller. A performance comparison of the controllers is also given based on the integral of the absolute value of the error (IAE, the integral of the squared error (ISE, the integral of the time-weighted absolute error (ITAE and the integral of the time-weighted squared error (ITSE. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  11. Flatness and Profile Integration Control Model for Tandem Cold Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using the effective matrix methods of flatness and profile control synthetically, the flatness and profile in- tegration control scheme for tandem cold mills is built in order to increase flatness and profile control precision of tan- dem cold mills. Corresponding control strategies are adopted for various control objectives of different stands and the coordination control strategies of various stands are given, which makes the on-line flatness control cooperate with on-line profile control and implements the parallel control of different stands. According to the measured flatness and profile data of some 1550 mm tandem cold mills, the control scheme is verified and the result indicates that the scheme has high flatness and profile control precision with steady and reliable control process. A new way and method is supplied for researching shade control of tandem cold mills.

  12. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor (United States)

    Le, Dong Tuan


    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  13. Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan


    . The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes.......Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction...

  14. Systematic targeted integration to study Albumin gene control elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available To study transcriptional regulation by distant enhancers, we devised a system of easily modified reporter plasmids for integration into single-copy targeting cassettes in clones of HuH7, a human hepatocellular carcinoma. The plasmid constructs tested transcriptional function of a 35-kb region that contained the rat albumin gene and its upstream flanking region. Expression of integrants was analyzed in two orientations, and compared to transient expression of non-integrated plasmids. Enhancers were studied in their natural positions relative to the promoter and localized by deletion. All constructs were also analyzed by transient transfection assays. In addition to the known albumin gene enhancer (E1 at -10 kb, we demonstrated two new enhancers, E2 at -13, and E4 at +1.2 kb. All three enhancers functioned in both transient assays and integrated constructs. However, chromosomal integration demonstrated several differences from transient expression. For example, analysis of E2 showed that enhancer function within the chromosome required a larger gene region than in transient assays. Another conserved region, E3 at -0.7 kb, functioned as an enhancer in transient assays but inhibited the function of E1 and E2 when chromosomally integrated. The enhancers did not show additive or synergistic behavior,an effect consistent with competition for the promoter or inhibitory interactions among enhancers. Growth arrest by serum starvation strongly stimulated the function of some integrated enhancers, consistent with the expected disruption of enhancer-promoter looping during the cell cycle.

  15. An efficient method for multiobjective optimal control and optimal control subject to integral constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ajeet


    We introduce a new and efficient numerical method for multicriterion optimal control and single criterion optimal control under integral constraints. The approach is based on extending the state space to include information on a "budget" remaining to satisfy each constraint; the augmented Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman PDE is then solved numerically. The efficiency of our approach hinges on the causality in that PDE, i.e., the monotonicity of characteristic curves in one of the newly added dimensions. A semi-Lagrangian "marching" method is used to approximate the discontinuous viscosity solution efficiently. We compare this to a recently introduced "weighted sum" based algorithm for the same problem. We illustrate our method using examples from flight path planning and robotic navigation in the presence of friendly and adversarial observers.

  16. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.


    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  17. Machining Error Control by Integrating Multivariate Statistical Process Control and Stream of Variations Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pei; ZHANG Dinghua; LI Shan; CHEN Bing


    For aircraft manufacturing industries,the analyses and prediction of part machining error during machining process are very important to control and improve part machining quality.In order to effectively control machining error,the method of integrating multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) and stream of variations (SoV) is proposed.Firstly,machining error is modeled by multi-operation approaches for part machining process.SoV is adopted to establish the mathematic model of the relationship between the error of upstream operations and the error of downstream operations.Here error sources not only include the influence of upstream operations but also include many of other error sources.The standard model and the predicted model about SoV are built respectively by whether the operation is done or not to satisfy different requests during part machining process.Secondly,the method of one-step ahead forecast error (OSFE) is used to eliminate autocorrelativity of the sample data from the SoV model,and the T2 control chart in MSPC is built to realize machining error detection according to the data characteristics of the above error model,which can judge whether the operation is out of control or not.If it is,then feedback is sent to the operations.The error model is modified by adjusting the operation out of control,and continually it is used to monitor operations.Finally,a machining instance containing two operations demonstrates the effectiveness of the machining error control method presented in this paper.

  18. Damage Adaptation Using Integrated Structural, Propulsion, and Aerodynamic Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR Phase I plan of research seeks to develop and demonstrate an integrated architecture designed to compensate for combined propulsion, airframe,...

  19. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang


    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human‐like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context‐aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long‐term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  20. Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas;


    pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene......-toluene mixture. The efficiency of the ADRC technique is demonstrated by comparing with the conventional PI controller in terms of set-point trackingand external disturbance rejection capability. The results show that the ADRC gives much improved control performance than the PID control....

  1. Dynamic Sliding Mode Control Design Based on an Integral Manifold for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems


    Qudrat Khan; Aamer Iqbal Bhatti; Antonella Ferrara


    An output feedback sliding mode control law design relying on an integral manifold is proposed in this work. The considered class of nonlinear systems is assumed to be affected by both matched and unmatched uncertainties. The use of the integral sliding manifold allows one to subdivide the control design procedure into two steps. First a linear control component is designed by pole placement and then a discontinuous control component is added so as to cope with the uncertainty presence. In c...

  2. Integral input-to-state stability of nonlinear control systems with delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Wenli [Department of Economics Mathematics, South Western University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China)]. E-mail:; Yi Zhang [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)]. E-mail:


    Integral input-to-state stability is an interesting concept that has been recently introduced to nonlinear control systems. This paper generalizes this concept to nonlinear control systems with delays. These delays can be bounded, unbounded, and even infinite. Theorems for integral input-to-state stability are derived by developing the method of Razumikhin technique in the theory of functional differential equations.

  3. Integrated Optimal Model of Structure and Control of the Single Arm Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Deng-lin; JIANG Tao; WEI Jun-hua; WANG An-lin; WANG Shi-gang


    The integrated optimal design of mechanical and control system is discussed in terms of the performance requirement and configuration for the single arm flexible manipulator. By combination of dynamics of flexible structure and control theory, a PD feedback control system, which minimizes the settling time, has been designed. Then, the viable region of poles of the PD closed-loop control system is decided according to overshoot and the settling time, and an integrated optimal model of structure and control of single arm manipu lator is presented. Finally, the parameters of structure and control system are simultaneously optimized withrespect to objective function including the moment of inertia and the control effort of system.

  4. Design of energy efficient optical networks with software enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars


    methods and the control over quality of service (QoS). The structure is defined as an overlay generalised multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) control model. With the defined structure, the integrated control plane is able to gather information from different domains (i.e. optical core network...... energy consumption by proposing a new integrated control plane structure utilising Software Defined Networking technologies. The integrated control plane increases the efficiencies of exchanging control information across different network domains, while introducing new possibilities to the routing...... and the access networks), and enable energy efficiency networking over a wider area. In the case presented, the integrated control plane collects the network energy related information and the QoS requirements of different types of traffic. This information is used to define the specific group of traffic's (flow...

  5. Integrated structural control design of large space structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.


    Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.

  6. Equivalence Between Approximate Dynamic Inversion and Proportional-Integral Control (United States)


    Hovakimyan, E. Lavretsky, and C. Cao, “Dynamic inversion of multi- input nonaffine systems via time-scale separation,” in Proceedings of the American Control Conference , Minneapolis...Adaptive dynamic inversion for nonaffine-in-control systems via time-scale separation: Part II,” in Proceedings of the American Control Conference , Portland

  7. Integration simulation method concerning speed control of ultrasonic motor (United States)

    Miyauchi, R.; Yue, B.; Matsunaga, N.; Ishizuka, S.


    In this paper, the configuration of control system of the ultrasonic motor (USM) from finite element method (FEM) model by applying the nonlinear model order reduction (MOR) is proposed. First, the USM and the FEM model is introduced. Second, FEM model order reduction method is described. Third, the result of comparing the computing time and accuracy of the FEM model and reduced order model is shown. Finaly, nominal model for control is derived by system identification from reduced order model. Nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is applied to the nominal model, and speed is controlled. the controller effect is comfirmed by applying the proposed reduced order model.

  8. Integrated guidance and control design for missile with terminal impact angle constraint based on sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wu; Ming Yang


    Aimed at the guidance requirements of some missiles which attack targets with terminal impact angle at the terminal point,a new integrated guidance and control design scheme based on variable structure control approach for missile with terminal impact angle constraint is proposed.First,a mathematical model of an integrated guidance and control model in pitch plane is established,and then nonlinear transformation is employed to transform the mathematical model into a standard form suitable for sliding mode control method design.A sufficient condition for the existence of linear sliding surface is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities(LMIs),based on which the corresponding reaching motion controller is also developed.To verify the effectiveness of the proposed integrated design scheme,the numerical simulation of missile is made.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance and control law can guide missile to hit the target with desired impact angle and desired flight attitude angle simultaneously.

  9. Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Jun LI; R. M. Goodall


    This paper studies the development of inte-grated control strategies for railway vehicles with inde-pendently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are pre-sented, which are followed by an investigation of the inte-grated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and prac-ticality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.

  10. State feedback integral control for a rotary direct drive servo valve using a Lyapunov function approach. (United States)

    Yu, Jue; Zhuang, Jian; Yu, Dehong


    This paper concerns a state feedback integral control using a Lyapunov function approach for a rotary direct drive servo valve (RDDV) while considering parameter uncertainties. Modeling of this RDDV servovalve reveals that its mechanical performance is deeply influenced by friction torques and flow torques; however, these torques are uncertain and mutable due to the nature of fluid flow. To eliminate load resistance and to achieve satisfactory position responses, this paper develops a state feedback control that integrates an integral action and a Lyapunov function. The integral action is introduced to address the nonzero steady-state error; in particular, the Lyapunov function is employed to improve control robustness by adjusting the varying parameters within their value ranges. This new controller also has the advantages of simple structure and ease of implementation. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve higher control accuracy and stronger robustness.

  11. An integrated computer control system for the ANU linac (United States)

    Davidson, P. M.; Foote, G. S.


    One facet of the installation of the superconducting linac at the ANU is the need for computer control of a variety of systems, such as beam transport, resonator RF, cryogenics and others. To accommodate this, a number of control interfaces (for example, analogue signals and RS232 serial lines) must be employed. Ideally, all of the systems should be able to be controlled from a central location, remote from the actual devices. To this end a system based around VAX computers and VME crates has been designed and is currently being developed and implemented. A VAXstation is used to issue control messages and perform high-level functions, while VME crates containing appropriate modules (primarily DACs, ADCs and digital I/O boards) control the devices. The controllers in the VME crates are AEON rtVAX modules running a real-time operating system. Communication with the VAXstation is via DECnet, on a private ethernet to allow communication rates unaffected by unrelated network activity and potentially increasing the security of the system by providing a possible network isolation point. Also on this ethernet are a number of terminal servers to control RS232 devices. A central database contains all device control and monitoring parameters. The main control process running on the VAXstation is responsible for maintaining the current values of the parameters in the database and for dispatching control messages to the appropriate VME crate or RS232 serial line. Separate graphical interface processes allow the operator to interact with the control process, communicating through shared memory. Many graphics processes can be active simultaneously, displaying either on a single or on multiple terminals. Software running on the rtVAX controllers handles the low-level device-specific control by translating messages from the main control process to VME commands which set hardware outputs on VME modules. Similarly, requests for the value of a parameter result in the rtVAX program

  12. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.


    Research dealt with the general area of optimal flight control synthesis for manned flight vehicles. The work was generic; no specific vehicle was the focus of study. However, the class of vehicles generally considered were those for which high authority, multivariable control systems might be considered, for the purpose of stabilization and the achievement of optimal handling characteristics. Within this scope, the topics of study included several optimal control synthesis techniques, control-theoretic modeling of the human operator in flight control tasks, and the development of possible handling qualities metrics and/or measures of merit. Basic contributions were made in all these topics, including human operator (pilot) models for multi-loop tasks, optimal output feedback flight control synthesis techniques; experimental validations of the methods developed, and fundamental modeling studies of the air-to-air tracking and flared landing tasks.

  13. HTGR-GT and electrical load integrated control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.; Openshaw, F.; Pfremmer, D.


    A discussion of the control and operation of the HTGR-GT power plant is presented in terms of its closely coupled electrical load and core cooling functions. The system and its controls are briefly described and comparisons are made with more conventional plants. The results of analyses of selected transients are presented to illustrate the operation and control of the HTGR-GT. The events presented were specifically chosen to show the controllability of the plant and to highlight some of the unique characteristics inherent in this multiloop closed-cycle plant.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko


    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  15. A Multi-Modal Control Using a Hybrid Pole-Placement-Integral Resonant Controller (PPIR) with Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit


    Control of multi-modal structural vibrations has been an important and challenging problem in flexible structural systems. This paper proposes a new vibration control algorithm for multi-modal structural control. The proposed algorithm combines a pole-placement controller with an integral resonant...... controller. The pole-placement controller is used to achieve a target equivalent modal viscous damping in the system and helps in the suppression of higher modes, which contribute to the vibration response of flexible structures. The integral resonant controller successfully reduces the low frequency...... vibrations e.g. caused by broad-band turbulent wind excitations. Hence, the proposed hybrid controller can effectively suppress complex multi-modal vibrations in flexible systems. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm using...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jianhua; Guan Cheng


    The velocity tracking control of a hydraulic servo system is studied. Since the dynamics of the system are highly nonlinear and have large extent of model uncertainties, such as big changes in load and parameters, a derivation and integral sliding mode variable structure control scheme (DI-SVSC) is proposed. An integral controller is introduced to avoid the assumption that the derivative of desired signal must be known in conventional sliding mode variable structure control, a nonlinear derivation controller is used to weaken the chattering of system. The design method of switching function in integral sliding mode control, nonlinear derivation coefficient and controllers of DI-SVSC is presented respectively. Simulation shows that the control approach is of nice robustness and improves velocity tracking accuracy considerably.

  17. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    of electrical energy. A smart grid can also be dened as an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both - in order to eciently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. This thesis focuses......Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar...... strategies supported by an increased use of information and communication technology. This is the idea of the smart grid. The smart grid is a next-generation electrical power system that is typied by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption...

  18. Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Matthew; Brush, Charles; Chung, Francis; Dogrul, Emin; Kadir, Tariq


    An open problem that arises when using modern iterative linear solvers, such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method or Generalized Minimum RESidual method (GMRES) is how to choose the residual tolerance in the linear solver to be consistent with the tolerance on the solution error. This problem is especially acute for integrated groundwater models which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models, and resolve both multiple scales of flow and temporal interaction terms, giving rise to linear systems with variable scaling. This article uses the theory of 'forward error bound estimation' to show how rescaling the linear system affects the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using examples of linear systems from models developed using the USGS GSFLOW package and the California State Department of Water Resources' Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), we observe that this error bound guides the choice of a prac...

  19. Nonparametric Representations for Integrated Inference, Control, and Sensing (United States)


    guided composite of markov random fields for image modeling. In IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pages 2176–2183, June...of uncertainty. The feasibility and aspects of the value of the theory were demonstrated via integrated software and hardware experiments. Phase I...a system of graphical models. During, phase 2 algorithmic development emphasized transitioning from ensor–centric to scene–centric processing. As such

  20. Control and automation of multilayered integrated microfluidic device fabrication. (United States)

    Kipper, Sarit; Frolov, Ludmila; Guy, Ortal; Pellach, Michal; Glick, Yair; Malichi, Asaf; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Avrahami, Dorit; Yavets-Chen, Yehuda; Levanon, Erez Y; Gerber, Doron


    Integrated microfluidics is a sophisticated three-dimensional (multi layer) solution for high complexity serial or parallel processes. Fabrication of integrated microfluidic devices requires soft lithography and the stacking of thin-patterned PDMS layers. Precise layer alignment and bonding is crucial. There are no previously reported standards for alignment of the layers, which is mostly performed using uncontrolled processes with very low alignment success. As a result, integrated microfluidics is mostly used in academia rather than in the many potential industrial applications. We have designed and manufactured a semiautomatic Microfluidic Device Assembly System (μDAS) for full device production. μDAS comprises an electrooptic mechanical system consisting of four main parts: optical system, smart media holder (for PDMS), a micropositioning xyzθ system and a macropositioning XY mechanism. The use of the μDAS yielded valuable information regarding PDMS as the material for device fabrication, revealed previously unidentified errors, and enabled optimization of a robust fabrication process. In addition, we have demonstrated the utilization of the μDAS technology for fabrication of a complex 3 layered device with over 12 000 micromechanical valves and an array of 64 × 64 DNA spots on a glass substrate with high yield and high accuracy. We increased fabrication yield from 25% to about 85% with an average layer alignment error of just ∼4 μm. It also increased our protein expression yields from 80% to over 90%, allowing us to investigate more proteins per experiment. The μDAS has great potential to become a valuable tool for both advancing integrated microfluidics in academia and producing and applying microfluidic devices in the industry.

  1. An integrated architecture of adaptive neural network control for dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Liu; Tokar, R.; Mcvey, B.


    In this study, an integrated neural network control architecture for nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. Most of the recent emphasis in the neural network control field has no error feedback as the control input which rises the adaptation problem. The integrated architecture in this paper combines feed forward control and error feedback adaptive control using neural networks. The paper reveals the different internal functionality of these two kinds of neural network controllers for certain input styles, e.g., state feedback and error feedback. Feed forward neural network controllers with state feedback establish fixed control mappings which can not adapt when model uncertainties present. With error feedbacks, neural network controllers learn the slopes or the gains respecting to the error feedbacks, which are error driven adaptive control systems. The results demonstrate that the two kinds of control scheme can be combined to realize their individual advantages. Testing with disturbances added to the plant shows good tracking and adaptation.

  2. Integration and Control of a Battery Balancing System (United States)


    23 have been named V1,control and V2,control. To further explain the nomenclature , if the battery string had n battery cells and associated SLR...specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. LM231AILM231

  3. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise (United States)

    Coy, Steven P.


    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  4. Aquatic weed control within an integrated water management framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.


    Aquatic weed control, carried out by the water boards in the Netherlands, is required to maintain sufficient discharge capacity of the surface water system. Weed control affects the conditions of both surface water and groundwater. The physically based model MOGROW was developed to simulate the flow

  5. Physical constraints on biological integral control design for homeostasis and sensory adaptation. (United States)

    Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R


    Synthetic biology includes an effort to use design-based approaches to create novel controllers, biological systems aimed at regulating the output of other biological processes. The design of such controllers can be guided by results from control theory, including the strategy of integral feedback control, which is central to regulation, sensory adaptation, and long-term robustness. Realization of integral control in a synthetic network is an attractive prospect, but the nature of biochemical networks can make the implementation of even basic control structures challenging. Here we present a study of the general challenges and important constraints that will arise in efforts to engineer biological integral feedback controllers or to analyze existing natural systems. Constraints arise from the need to identify target output values that the combined process-plus-controller system can reach, and to ensure that the controller implements a good approximation of integral feedback control. These constraints depend on mild assumptions about the shape of input-output relationships in the biological components, and thus will apply to a variety of biochemical systems. We summarize our results as a set of variable constraints intended to provide guidance for the design or analysis of a working biological integral feedback controller.

  6. Pipeline integrity management: integration of geotechnical and mechanical assessment to control potential risks due to external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpartida Moya, John E.; Sota, Giancarlo Massucco de la; Seri, Walter [Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)


    Every pipeline integrity management system evaluates and controls various threats. On pipelines which have particular characteristics as it is the case of the Andean pipelines and pipelines crossing jungles, one of the main threats are the external forces. Even, this threat causes a greater number of failures than other threats like corrosion or the third part damage. Facing this situation, the pipeline integrity management system of TgP has achieved an important development in the use and suitable handling of the information provided by diverse techniques of pipeline mechanical inspection and geotechnical inspection of the right-of-way (ROW). This document presents our methodology, which interrelate information of the in-line inspection, information of geotechnical inspections of the ROW, instrumentation (Strain Gages), topographic monitoring, among others. All this information is supported in a Geographic Information System (GIS) which allows us to integrate the information. By means of the pipeline integrity management system we control potential risks due to external forces, we have been able to act before events become critical, with no occurrence of failures. This system allows us simultaneously to optimize efforts and preserve the mechanical integrity of our pipelines, not producing neither personal nor environmental nor economical affectation. (author)

  7. Finite-time control of DC-DC buck converters via integral terminal sliding modes (United States)

    Chiu, Chian-Song; Shen, Chih-Teng


    This article presents novel terminal sliding modes for finite-time output tracking control of DC-DC buck converters. Instead of using traditional singular terminal sliding mode, two integral terminal sliding modes are introduced for robust output voltage tracking of uncertain buck converters. Different from traditional sliding mode control (SMC), the proposed controller assures finite convergence time for the tracking error and integral tracking error. Furthermore, the singular problem in traditional terminal SMC is removed from this article. When considering worse modelling, adaptive integral terminal SMC is derived to guarantee finite-time convergence under more relaxed stability conditions. In addition, several experiments show better start-up performance and robustness.

  8. Integrated control of sun shades, daylight and artificial light; Integreret regulering af solafskaermning, dagslys og kunstlys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Christoffersen, J.; Soerensen, Henrik; Jessen, G.


    The project established a basis of calculation and a practical basis for optimum choice of solar shading and integrated control strategies for both new buildings and for office, commercial and institutional buildings to be renovated with new calculation models for controlling solar shading integrated in the BSim program. A complete and applicable model for optimum, integrated solar shading control was established, focusing on thermal and visual comfort criteria towards energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting. A prototype was tested in the daylight laboratory at Danish Building Research Institute-Aalborg University and at University of Southern Denmark. (LN)

  9. Effect of diluents on tablet integrity and controlled drug release. (United States)

    Zhang, Y E; Schwartz, J B


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diluents and wax level on tablet integrity during heat treatment and dissolution for sustained-release formulations and the resultant effect on drug release. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and lactose were evaluated for their effect on tablet integrity during drug dissolution and heat treatment in wax matrix formulations. A newly developed direct compression diluent, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), was also evaluated. Compritol 888 ATO was used as the wax matrix material, with phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA) as a model drug. Tablets were made by direct compression and then subjected to heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 30 min. The results showed that MCC, lactose, and DCPA could maintain tablets intact during heat treatment above the melting point of wax (70 degrees C-75 degrees C). However, DCPD tablets showed wax egress during the treatment. MCC tablets swelled and cracked during drug dissolution and resulted in quick release. DCPD and lactose tablets remained intact during dissolution and gave slower release than MCC tablets. DCPA tablets without heat treatment disintegrated very quickly and showed immediate release. In contrast, heat-treated DCPA tablets remained intact through the 24-hr dissolution test and only released about 80% PPA at 6 hr. In the investigation of wax level, DCPD was used as the diluent. The drug release rate decreased as the wax content increased from 15% to 81.25%. The dissolution data were best described by the Higuchi square-root-of-time model. Diluents showed various effects during heat treatment and drug dissolution. The integrity of the tablets was related to the drug release rate. Heat treatment retarded drug release if there was no wax egress.

  10. Fault tolerance and reliability in integrated ship control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Schiøler, Henrik


    Various strategies for achieving fault tolerance in large scale control systems are discussed. The positive and negative impacts of distribution through network communication are presented. The ATOMOS framework for standardized reliable marine automation is presented along with the corresponding...

  11. Genetic Algorithm Based Proportional Integral Controller Design for Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanasundaram Kuppusamy


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study has expounded the application of evolutionary computation method namely Genetic Algorithm (GA for estimation of feedback controller parameters for induction motor. GA offers certain advantages such as simple computational steps, derivative free optimization, reduced number of iterations and assured near global optima. The development of the method is well documented and computed and measured results are presented. Approach: The design of PI controller parameter for three phase induction motor drives was done using Genetic Algorithm. The objective function of motor current reduction, using PI controller, at starting is formulated as an optimization problem and solved with Genetic Algorithm. Results: The results showed the selected values of PI controller parameter using genetic algorithm approach, with objective of induction motor starting current reduction. Conclusions/Recommendation: The results proved the robustness and easy implementation of genetic algorithm selection of PI parameters for induction motor starting.

  12. Strain-optic active control for quantum integrated photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, Peter C; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A


    We present a practical method for active phase control on a photonic chip that has immediate applications in quantum photonics. Our approach uses strain-optic modification of the refractive index of individual waveguides, effected by a millimeter-scale mechanical actuator. The resulting phase change of propagating optical fields is rapid and polarization-dependent, enabling quantum applications that require active control and polarization encoding. We demonstrate strain-optic control of non-classical states of light in silica, showing the generation of 2-photon polarisation N00N states by manipulating Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We also demonstrate switching times of a few microseconds, which are sufficient for silica-based feed-forward control of photonic quantum states.

  13. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......Process design and process control have been considered as independent problems for many years. In this context, a sequential approach is used where the process is designed first, followed by the control design. However, this sequential approach has its limitations related to dynamic constraint...... violations, for example, infeasible operating points, process overdesign or under-performance. Therefore, by using this approach, a robust performance is not always guaranteed. Furthermore, process design decisions can influence process control and operation. To overcome these limitations, an alternative...

  14. Man's role in integrated control and information management systems (United States)

    Nevins, J. L.; Johnson, I. S.


    Display control considerations associated with avionics techniques are discussed. General purpose displays and a prototype interactive display/command design featuring a pushplate CRT overlay for command input are considered.

  15. Optimal Control of Vertically Transmitted Disease: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Bhattacharyya


    horizontal transmission, administration of the antiviral drug to infected individuals lessens the chance of vertical transmission. Thus the vaccine and antiviral drug play different roles in controlling the disease, which has both vertical and horizontal transmission. We develop a 3D model with Susceptible–Infected–Recovered under vaccination to the susceptible and antiviral treatment to the infected and consider a control theoretic approach using the Pontryagin maximum principle to analyse the costeffectiveness of the control process. Our results demonstrate that a mixed intervention strategy of vaccination and antiviral drug in a proper ratio is the most effective way to control the disease. We show that cost-effectiveness of both intervention strategies intimately depends on disease-related parameters, such as force of infection, probability of being infected to offspring from infected mothers, loss of immunity or reinfection and also on cost of treatment.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of spacecraft thermal control systems is to maintain internal and external temperature within acceptable boundaries while minimizing impact on vehicle...

  17. Integrated intelligent control analysis on semi-active structures by using magnetorheological dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The control strategy is very important for semiactive control or active control systems. An integrated intelligent control strategy for building structures incorpo rated with magnetorheological (MR) dampers subjected to earthquake excitation is proposed. In this strategy, the time-delay problem is solved by a neural network and the control currents of the MR dampers are determined quickly by a fuzzy controller. Through a numerical example of a three-storey structure with one MR damper installed in the first floor, the seismic responses of the uncontrolled, the intelligently controlled, the passiveon controlled, and the passive-off controlled structures under different earthquake excitations are analyzed. Based on the numerical results, it can be found that the time domain and the frequency domain responses are reduced effectively when the MR damper is added in the structure, and the integrated intelligent control strategy has a better earthquake mitigation effect.

  18. Computing Systems Configuration for Highly Integrated Guidance and Control Systems (United States)


    interactives (notamment de tableau de bord d’aeronef pour 1’entrainement des equipages); du logiciel LANST concu pour la simulation ae reseau locaux; des...performances generales, par les nouveaux systimes integres de guidage et de pilotage ; d’avionique et de tir d’armes, ainsi que par lea systimes de... Pilotage . Accession For NTIS OFA&I J, t I f I ca, i r Ditrilutiozi/ K AvA11,billty Codes jAvnil and/or s~t I5spe-ila _ i LIST OF AUTHORS/SPEAKERS

  19. Integrated control of honey bee diseases in apiculture


    Al Toufailia, Hasan


    The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is important both ecologically and economically. Pests and diseases are arguably the greatest current challenge faced by honey bees and beekeeping. This PhD thesis is focused on honey bee disease control including natural resistance by means of hygienic behaviour. It contains eleven independent experiments, ten on honey bee pests and diseases and their control and resistance, and one on stingless bees. Each is written as a separate chapter, Chapters 4 and 14 of ...

  20. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores (United States)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher


    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  1. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes. (United States)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus


    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions.

  2. Coordinated Control of Multi-terminal DC Grid for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yu; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei


    Multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) technology using voltage source converter (VSC) is a good option for wind power integration. Compared with point to point DC connection, MTDC provide better controllability based on different control strategies. In this paper, proportional-integral (PI) controllers...... with tuned PI parameters are designed to coordinate DC flow among the DC grid with good dynamic performance. In order to overcome the disadvantages of the conventional PI control, a simple adaptive PI control strategy is proposed based on the system transfer function. Case studies were conducted with PowerFactory....

  3. Design of an Integrated Controller based on ZigBee Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Ji


    Full Text Available There are many different home appliances in our home, for example Lamps, Television, DVD player, etc. Moreover, the appliances are usually controlled by different controller using IR (Infra-Red signal. This brings our life many inconveniences, and many resources are wasted. Therefore, we propose an integrated controller. It can control these various appliances, only a single one. In order to realize the purpose, the integrated controller must have previous preparations, because the appliances have their different IR controlling signals. Therefore, the integrated controller must “learn” the IR signals from their own controllers, and save them inside. Because the radiation range of IR signal is limited, and the appliances are distributed in different rooms, we propose a novel wireless network based on IEEE802.15.4, especially ZigBee protocol, to transmit the controlling signals from the integrated controller. The proposed scheme consists of two main parts. The one part is the hardware design, include the integrated controlled with ZigBee transmission device and the terminal control module with ZigBee-IR conversion, which converts a control signal transferred through the ZigBee network into an IR typed control signal. The terminal control module is based on CC2430 as the controller core. The other is the software design. The software part uses IAR Embedded Workbench. Based on Zstack-1.4.2-1.1.0 protocol provided by TI, man can program the control codes of the system. The proposed scheme can also provide the well-defined interface and the necessary basis for preparing the smart home system.

  4. Highly integrated digital engine control system on an F-15 airplane (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Haering, E. A., Jr.


    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine/airframe control systems. This system is being used on the F-15 airplane. An integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine stall margin mode are implemented into the system. The adaptive stall margin mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the engine stall margin are continuously computed; the excess stall margin is used to uptrim the engine for more thrust. The integrated flightpath management mode optimizes the flightpath and throttle setting to reach a desired flight condition. The increase in thrust and the improvement in airplane performance is discussed.

  5. Energy efficiency with QoS control in dynamic optical networks with SDN enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris;


    The paper presents energy efficient routing algorithms based on a novel integrated control plane platform. The centralized control plane structure enables the use of flexible heuristic algorithms for route selection in optical networks. Differentiated routing for various traffic types is used...

  6. Integrated system for management and control of energetical distribution; Sistema integrado de gestion y control de la red de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Vega, V.; Flores Canales, J.M.; Moreno Morales, J. [Sainco (Spain)


    This article presents the integrated system of management and control in the distribution network. This system permits to improve the energetical demand management. The automatized system has 4 functions. (1) Telecontrol of the network; (2) Management of the energy supplies; (3) Energetic control and user management; (4) Big corporative systems.

  7. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  8. Integrated power and single axis attitude control system with two flywheels (United States)

    Han, Bangcheng


    The existing research of the integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS) in satellites mainly focuses on the IPACS concept, which aims at solving the coupled problem between the attitude control and power tracking. In the IPACS, the configuration design of IPACS is usually not considered, and the coupled problem between two flywheels during the attitude control and energy storage has not been resolved. In this paper, an integrated power and single axis attitude control system using two counter rotating magnetically suspended flywheels mounted to an air table is designed. The control method of power and attitude control using flywheel is investigated and the coupling problem between energy storage and attitude control is resolved. A computer simulation of an integrated power and single axis attitude control system with two flywheels is performed, which consists of two counter rotating magnetically suspended flywheels mounted to an air rotary table. Both DC bus and a single axis attitude are the regulation goals. An attitude & DC bus coordinator is put forward to separate DC bus regulation and attitude control problems. The simulation results of DC bus regulation and attitude control are presented respectively with a DC bus regulator and a simple PD attitude controller. The simulation results demonstrate that it is possible to integrate power and attitude control simultaneously for satellite using flywheels. The proposed research provides theory basis for design of the IPACS.

  9. Direct power control of DFIG wind turbine systems based on an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control. (United States)

    Li, Shanzhi; Wang, Haoping; Tian, Yang; Aitouch, Abdel; Klein, John


    This paper presents an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control (iPISMC) for direct power control of variable speed-constant frequency wind turbine system. This approach deals with optimal power production (in the maximum power point tracking sense) under several disturbance factors such as turbulent wind. This controller is made of two sub-components: (i) an intelligent proportional-integral module for online disturbance compensation and (ii) a sliding mode module for circumventing disturbance estimation errors. This iPISMC method has been tested on FAST/Simulink platform of a 5MW wind turbine system. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed iPISMC method outperforms the classical PI and intelligent proportional-integral control (iPI) in terms of both active power and response time.

  10. Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;


    A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...... constraints are identified for constructing the supervisory control layer. The fundamental problem of obtaining a stabilising control structure is addressed resulting in the regulatory control layer design. A supervisory control layer is devised and combined with the regulatory control layer. The control...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The introduction of the enterprise's internal control system is directly related to some well known exposures of finance and accounting scandals, such as Enron,WorldCom, and Xerox etc.. The U.S. President Bush signed Sarbanes-Oxley Act on July 30, 2002. The 404th term of the act claims that all corporations in the U.S.must establish an internal control system to avoid above mentioned financial and accounting risks. With respect to the requirements of Chinese Securities Supervisory Association and the National Capital Committee,PetroChina established its internal control system in February, 2004. CNPC has also established such a system,and has run very well until now.

  12. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Sights


    Full Text Available High-level intelligence allows a mobile robot to create and interpret complex world models, but without a precise control system, the accuracy of the world model and the robot's ability to interact with its surroundings are greatly diminished. This problem is amplified when the environment is hostile, such as in a battlefield situation where an error in movement or a slow response may lead to destruction of the robot. As the presence of robots on the battlefield continues to escalate and the trend toward relieving the human of the low-level control burden advances, the ability to combine the functionalities of several critical control systems on a single platform becomes imperative.

  13. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control (United States)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.


    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  14. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe


    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  15. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.


    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing predict

  16. Adaptive control of event integration : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, Elkan G.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Toffanin, Paolo; Hommel, Bernhard


    We investigated whether it is possible to control the temporal window of attention used to rapidly integrate visual information. To study the underlying neural mechanisms, we recorded ERPs in an attentional blink task, known to elicit Lag-1 sparing. Lag-1 sparing fosters joint integration of the two

  17. Control of integrating process with dead time using auto-tuning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saravanakumar


    Full Text Available A modification of Smith predictor for controlling higher order processes with integral action and long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a dead time compensator, which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, and robust performance of tuning formulae, and to obtain a critically damped system that is as fast as possible in its set point and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengMaolin; HongMingchao; ZhuWeiqiu


    A strategy is proposed based on the stochastic averaging method for quasi nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic dynamical programming principle. The proposed strategy can be used to design nonlinear stochastic optimal control to minimize the response of quasi non-integrable Hamiltonian systems subject to Gaussian white noise excitation. By using the stochastic averaging method for quasi non-integrable Hamiltonian systems the equations of motion of a controlled quasi non-integrable Hamiltonian system is reduced to a one-dimensional averaged Ito stochastic differential equation. By using the stochastic dynamical programming principle the dynamical programming equation for minimizing the response of the system is formulated.The optimal control law is derived from the dynamical programming equation and the bounded control constraints. The response of optimally controlled systems is predicted through solving the FPK equation associated with It5 stochastic differential equation. An example is worked out in detail to illustrate the application of the control strategy proposed.

  19. Tuning PID and FOPID Controllers using the Integral Time Absolute Error Criterion

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Deepyaman; Chakraborty, Mithun; Konar, Amit; Janarthanan, Ramadoss


    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is extensively used for real parameter optimization in diverse fields of study. This paper describes an application of PSO to the problem of designing a fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative (FOPID) controller whose parameters comprise proportionality constant, integral constant, derivative constant, integral order (lambda) and derivative order (delta). The presence of five optimizable parameters makes the task of designing a FOPID controller more challenging than conventional PID controller design. Our design method focuses on minimizing the Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) criterion. The digital realization of the deigned system utilizes the Tustin operator-based continued fraction expansion scheme. We carry out a simulation that illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach especially for realizing fractional-order plants. This paper also attempts to study the behavior of fractional PID controller vis-a-vis that of its integer order counterpart and ...

  20. Non-invasive monitoring and control in silicon photonics by CMOS integrated electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco; Ciccarella, Pietro; Annoni, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Sampietro, Marco; Melloni, Andrea


    As photonics breaks away from today's device level toward large scale of integration and complex systems-on-a-chip, concepts like monitoring, control and stabilization of photonic integrated circuits emerge as new paradigms. Here, we show non-invasive monitoring and feedback control of high quality factor silicon photonics resonators assisted by a transparent light detector directly integrated inside the cavity. Control operations are entirely managed by a CMOS microelectronic circuit, hosting many parallel electronic read-out channels, that is bridged to the silicon photonics chip. Advanced functionalities, such as wavelength tuning, locking, labeling and swapping are demonstrated. The non-invasive nature of the transparent monitor and the scalability of the CMOS read-out system offer a viable solution for the control of arbitrarily reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits aggregating many components on a single chip.

  1. Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project we propose to integrate spacecraft control and vehicle health functions to improve the robustness and productivity of space operations. The main...

  2. Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II effort is to develop integrated health management and control reconfiguration algorithms that allow future space systems to...

  3. Integrated Reconfigurable Aero and Propulsion Control for Improved Flight Safety of Commercial Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this project is to develop and test a novel innovative Integrated Reconfigurable Aero & Propulsion Control (IRAP) system that achieves...

  4. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Sandia + Johnson Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    NREL and Sandia National Laboratories partnered with Johnson Controls to deploy the company's BlueStream Hybrid Cooling System at ESIF's high-performance computing data center to reduce water consumption seen in evaporative cooling towers.

  5. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  6. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  7. Integration of Predictive Routing Information with Dynamic Traffic Signal Control (United States)


    vehicles without the on-board guidance aid (Harris, S., Rabone , A.,, 1992). The simulation developed was called ROute GUidance Simulation (ROGUS...Florida. Harris, S., Rabone , A., 1992. ROGUS: A Simulation of Dynamic Route Guidance Systems. Traffic Engineering and Control(33)327-329

  8. Integrating Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum (United States)

    Parker, Robert S.; Doyle, Francis J.; Henson, Michael A.


    The evolution of the chemical engineering discipline motivates a re-evaluation of the process dynamics and control curriculum. A key requirement of future courses will be the introduction of theoretical concepts and application examples relevant to emerging areas, notably complex biological systems. We outline the critical concepts required to…

  9. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.


    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...

  10. Integral Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Class of Nonaffine Nonlinear Systems with Uncertainty


    Qiang Zhang; Hongliang Yu; Xiaohong Wang


    This paper is concerned with an integral terminal sliding mode tracking control for a class of uncertain nonaffine nonlinear systems. Firstly, the nonaffine nonlinear systems is approximated to facilitate the desired control design via a novel dynamic modeling technique. Next, for the unmeasured disturbance of nonlinear systems, integral terminal sliding mode disturbance observer is presented. The developed disturbance observer can guarantee the disturbance approximation error to converge to ...

  11. A Modular Integrated RFID System for Inventory Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bunker


    Full Text Available Recent advances in single-board computer technology have allowed for lightweight, power-efficient devices, such as the Raspberry Pi, to take the place of desktop PCs in certain applications. This has the potential to disrupt the way many current systems are structured, particularly for inventory management and control applications. In this paper, we explore the design and topology of a modular Radio frequency identification (RFID system for inventory management comprised of self-contained, autonomous scanning, and stationary control PCs in a handheld/portable configuration. While similar solutions for such a system may exist on the commercial market, this proposed development provides a template for an open source flexible, low-cost solution that can be easily expanded to meet the needs of businesses with large and small inventories.

  12. Integrated Passive and Active Vibration Control of Ultra-precision Lathe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In ultra-precision cutting process, vibration is one of the key factors affecting the machining quality. In this paper, the damping methods of HCM-I Ultra-precision Lathe are discussed in both complete machine and slide. It is pointed out that integrated passive and active vibration control (IPAVC) by combining passive vibration control (PVC) and active vibration control (AVC) can not only eliminate high frequency vibration but also improve the damping effect to low frequency vibration. Experiment results show the effectiveness of the integrated passive and active vibration control.

  13. On controllability of an integrated bioreactor and periodically operated membrane separation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    -Rubio et al., 2011b). The main purpose of this first attempt of process integration was to predict the productivity improvements and to reveal to which extend the REED module can facilitate the pH control in the fermenter. There, the membrane and reactor unit interactions are exploited to substantially....... Use multiple REED units activated sequentially or iii. Try to avoid the controllers fighting by a more appropriate control structure design. Hopefully merging those ideas, an improved strategy for the integrated process design and control development can be proposed....

  14. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots


    Brandon Sights; H.R. Everett; Estrellina Pacis; Greg Kogut; Michael Thompson


    High-level intelligence allows a mobile robot to create and interpret complex world models, but without a precise control system, the accuracy of the world model and the robot's ability to interact with its surroundings are greatly diminished. This problem is amplified when the environment is hostile, such as in a battlefield situation where an error in movement or a slow response may lead to destruction of the robot. As the presence of robots on the battlefield continues to escalate and the ...

  15. Integrated Electrical Power Supply System for Propulsion and Service Control. (United States)


    propellers with hydraulically controlled pitch for ship propulsion . In such arrangement of equipment, two gas turbines customarily drive each of two...availability of commercial technology presently utilized on cruise ships having service equipment loads larger than their ship propulsion loads. However...accentuated on naval combat ships wherein a larger proportion of the power is utilized for ship propulsion purposes and operational efficiency is of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter


    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  17. Integration and control of metabolic systems: Pure and applied aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.T.H.; Kon, O.L.; Chung, M.C.M.; Hwang, P.L.H.; Leong, S.F.; Loke, K.H.; Thiyagarajah, P.


    This volume brings together recent findings in many growing areas of biochemical research including molecular mechanisms of disease, drug design, gene structure and function, chemical signaling, metabolic control mechanisms, neurochemistry, immunology, the molecular biology of plants, marine biochemistry, oncogenes, growth factors, membrane functions, novel enzymes, applied biochemistry, and molecular engineering. It also contains contributions on powerful research techniques such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, automated DNA sequencing, photoaffinity labeling, recent advances in plant cell culture, and high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. A Modular Integrated RFID System for Inventory Control Applications


    Ross Bunker; Atef Elsherbeni


    Recent advances in single-board computer technology have allowed for lightweight, power-efficient devices, such as the Raspberry Pi, to take the place of desktop PCs in certain applications. This has the potential to disrupt the way many current systems are structured, particularly for inventory management and control applications. In this paper, we explore the design and topology of a modular Radio frequency identification (RFID) system for inventory management comprised of self-contained, a...

  19. Integrating Planning and Control for Constrained Dynamical Systems (United States)


    Planning for Underactuated Mechanical Systems . PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, 2006. [113] Reid Simmons. The Curvature-Velocity Method for Local...the system execute. If the mechanical system is incapable responding to the controls, the properties of composable policies will be violated. Thus...shape space. Mixed- Mechanical Systems Another natural extension is to apply the approach to so called mixed- mechanical systems , such as the snake

  20. Integrated Human Behavior Modeling and Stochastic Control (IHBMSC) (United States)


    may be considered reasonable. A sequential inspection problem is formulated with elementary probability theory and a closed form solution of a...unlimited. CCA CCA Top Level Vehicle Description Vigilant Spirit Control Station Interface Mission Objectives Process Algebra Visibility Graph...restricted. The effect of IET was less orderly than the other variables. A linear fit to IET yields a slope of almost 0 and an intercept at the average

  1. A stochastic regulator for integrated communication and control systems. I - Formulation of control law. II - Numerical analysis and simulation (United States)

    Liou, Luen-Woei; Ray, Asok


    A state feedback control law for integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is formulated by using the dynamic programming and optimality principle on a finite-time horizon. The control law is derived on the basis of a stochastic model of the plant which is augmented in state space to allow for the effects of randomly varying delays in the feedback loop. A numerical procedure for synthesizing the control parameters is then presented, and the performance of the control law is evaluated by simulating the flight dynamics model of an advanced aircraft. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

  2. A satellite digital controller or 'play that PID tune again, Sam'. [Position, Integral, Derivative feedback control algorithm for design strategy (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.


    The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.

  3. Motion Capture for Puppet Control Using Integrated Sensor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byeong-yeol KIM; Hwan-ik CHUNG; Hern-soo HAHN


    The paper aims to execute puppet without restrictions by controling puppet using robot.We controling puppet in the same way as the present puppet,but we perform this by robot.It offers more advantages and lessen the weak points.It needs various actions and expressions becarse of the nature of a puppet.The biggest problem which executes this is the ways to create a system.This thesis proposes motion capture of developed methhod with solution of this problem.So,we create various contents needed by puppet.In this part,developed method means a mixed method on the basis of optical system and magnetic system used mainly for the present method of motion capture.We lessen the weak points of each method and propose solution of create motion for puppet by offering more advantages.So we solve difficulties of executing puppet and probable problems when we execute puppet by using robot.The solution of this thesis is proven by applying control of puppet.

  4. IAQ control in nursing homes using integrated desiccant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.M. [Engelhard ICC, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Miyauchi, Hikoo [Nichimen Engine Sales, Tokyo (Japan)


    The demographics of the Japanese population indicate a need to provide a greater degree of elderly care, largely due to the long life expectancy of the Japanese people. It is explained that in response to this need Japan has embarked upon a dramatic programme to construct 5000 facilities by the year 2001. Air conditioning requirements of the elderly are somewhat different than those for other facilities and present an opportunity for the use of specialized equipment that will satisfy those requirements. A new facility care unit for the elderly has been built in Nagano, Japan and will start operation at the end of 1996. A new desiccant air conditioning unit designed for this facility is described. It combines humidity control of a desiccant sub-system and the thermal control of a conventional chiller in a single air-handling system. Regeneration of the desiccant is realized by a propane boiler at 88C, which also supplies heat in winter. It is emphasized that this new and exciting approach to air conditioning will change the expectations of society about indoor air quality and comfort control, which have been governed by the use of conventional equipment only, together with its inherent limitations. Other potential applications of desiccant technology are in supermarkets, industrial spaces, Pachinko halls, etc.

  5. Improving the sterile sperm identification method for its implementation in the Area-wide Sterile Insect Technique Program against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Spain. (United States)

    Juan-Blasco, M; Urbaneja, A; San Andrés, V; Castañera, P; Sabater-Muñoz, B


    The success of sterile males in area-wide sterile insect technique (aw-SIT) programs against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is currently measured by using indirect methods as the wild:sterile male ratio captured in monitoring traps. In the past decade, molecular techniques have been used to improve these methods. The development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based method to identify the transfer of sterile sperm to wild females, the target of SIT, was considered a significant step in this direction. This method relies on identification of sperm by detecting the presence of Y chromosomes in spermathecae DNA extract complemented by the identification of the genetic origin of this sperm: Vienna-8 males or wild haplotype. However, the application of this protocol to aw-SIT programs is limited by handling time and personnel cost. The objective of this work was to obtain a high-throughput protocol to facilitate the routine measurement in a pest population of sterile sperm presence in wild females. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism markers previously developed were validated in Mediterranean fruit fly samples collected from various locations worldwide. A laboratory protocol previously published was modified to allow for the analysis of more samples at the same time. Preservation methods and preservation times commonly used for Mediterranean fruit fly female samples were assessed for their influence on the correct molecular detection of sterile sperm. This high-throughput methodology, as well as the results of sample management presented here, provide a robust, efficient, fast, and economical sterile sperm identification method ready to be used in all Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs.

  6. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  7. Numerical solution of optimal control problems using multiple-interval integral Gegenbauer pseudospectral methods (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojun


    The main purpose of this work is to provide multiple-interval integral Gegenbauer pseudospectral methods for solving optimal control problems. The latest developed single-interval integral Gauss/(flipped Radau) pseudospectral methods can be viewed as special cases of the proposed methods. We present an exact and efficient approach to compute the mesh pseudospectral integration matrices for the Gegenbauer-Gauss and flipped Gegenbauer-Gauss-Radau points. Numerical results on benchmark optimal control problems confirm the ability of the proposed methods to obtain highly accurate solutions.

  8. An integrative model of control: implications for understanding emotion regulation and dysregulation in childhood anxiety. (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Silverman, Wendy K


    Theorists and investigators have emphasized an important role for control in emotional problems such as anxiety and anxiety disorders in youth. However, the term "control" is subject to theoretical ambiguities because of the broad conceptual bases for the term. In this article, we examine the concepts of locus of control, learned helplessness/attributional style, self-efficacy, and perceived control to develop an integrative model of control based on research and theory. The review emphasizes each of the theories distinguishing features in order to show how these distinctive features relate to real versus perceived control and how they may be differentially associated with childhood anxiety. We attempt to clarify the various definitions of control and the implications of these various definitions with respect to childhood anxiety, its disorders and their treatment and present a model of control that is integrative but also addresses the complexities of the different definitions of control (i.e., is multifaceted). The model developed from our review of the literature postulates that individuals differ in the extent to which they actually have control and differ, also on a continuum, in their perceptions of control. The need for this integrative model is highlighted by methodological, developmental, and clinical considerations. In particular, research has operationalized control and related constructs such as emotion regulation in ways that may be confounding actual control and perceived control. The need for an integrative but also multifaceted conceptualization of the role of control in childhood anxiety is also highlighted by clinical and developmental considerations. For instance, different facets of control may have differential relevance to clinical anxiety and at different points in childhood.

  9. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions...... portfolio case study show that the hierarchical algorithm reduces the computation to solve the OCP by several orders of magnitude. The improvement in computation time is achieved without a significant increase in the overall cost of operation....

  10. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance (United States)


    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  11. Stochastic optimal control of partially observable nonlinear quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The stochastic optimal control of partially observable nonlinear quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems is investigated. First, the stochastic optimal control problem of a partially observable nonlinear quasi-integrable Hamiltonian system is converted into that of a completely observable linear system based on a theorem due to Charalambous and Elliot. Then, the converted stochastic optimal control problem is solved by applying the stochastic averaging method and the stochastic dynamical programming principle. The response of the controlled quasi Hamiltonian system is predicted by solving the averaged Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the Riccati equation for the estimated error of system states. As an example to illustrate the procedure and effectiveness of the proposed method, the stochastic optimal control problem of a partially observable two-degree-of-freedom quasi-integrable Hamiltonian system is worked out in detail.

  12. Performance improvements of a highly integrated digital electronic control system for an F-15 airplane (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Andries, M. G.; Kelly, J. B.


    The NASA highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program is structured to conduct flight research into the benefits of integrating an aircraft flight control system with the engine control system. A brief description of the HIDEC system installed on an F-15 aircraft is provided. The adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode is described in detail, together with simulation results and analyses that show the significant excess thrust improvements achievable with the ADECS mode. It was found that this increased thrust capability is accompanied by reduced fan stall margin and can be realized during flight conditions where engine face distortion is low. The results of analyses and simulations also show that engine thrust response is improved and that fuel consumption can be reduced. Although the performance benefits that accrue because of airframe and engine control integration are being demonstrated on an F-15 aircraft, the principles are applicable to advanced aircraft such as the advanced tactical fighter and advanced tactical aircraft.

  13. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases. (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J


    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  14. Integrating multiple sensory systems to modulate neural networks controlling posture. (United States)

    Lavrov, I; Gerasimenko, Y; Burdick, J; Zhong, H; Roy, R R; Edgerton, V R


    In this study we investigated the ability of sensory input to produce tonic responses in hindlimb muscles to facilitate standing in adult spinal rats and tested two hypotheses: 1) whether the spinal neural networks below a complete spinal cord transection can produce tonic reactions by activating different sensory inputs and 2) whether facilitation of tonic and rhythmic responses via activation of afferents and with spinal cord stimulation could engage similar neuronal mechanisms. We used a dynamically controlled platform to generate vibration during weight bearing, epidural stimulation (at spinal cord level S1), and/or tail pinching to determine the postural control responses that can be generated by the lumbosacral spinal cord. We observed that a combination of platform displacement, epidural stimulation, and tail pinching produces a cumulative effect that progressively enhances tonic responses in the hindlimbs. Tonic responses produced by epidural stimulation alone during standing were represented mainly by monosynaptic responses, whereas the combination of epidural stimulation and tail pinching during standing or epidural stimulation during stepping on a treadmill facilitated bilaterally both monosynaptic and polysynaptic responses. The results demonstrate that tonic muscle activity after complete spinal cord injury can be facilitated by activation of specific combinations of afferent inputs associated with load-bearing proprioception and cutaneous input in the presence of epidural stimulation and indicate that whether activation of tonic or rhythmic responses is generated depends on the specific combinations of sources and types of afferents activated in the hindlimb muscles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata, Siam weed, a very important weed of Java Island (Indonesia is native to Central and South America. In the laboratory it showed rapid growth (1.15 g/g/week in the first 8 weeks of its growth. The biomass was mainly as leaves (LAR : 317.50 cm'/g total weight. It slowed down in the following month as the biomass was utilized for stem and branch formation. This behavior supported the growth of C. odorata into a very dense stand. It flowered, fruited during the dry season, and senesced following maturation of seeds from inflorescence branches. These branches dried out, but soon the stem resumed aggressive growth following the wet season. Leaf biomass was affected by the size of the stem in its early phase of regrowth, but later on it was more affected by the number of branches. The introduction of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata to Indonesia, was successful only in North Sumatera. In Java it has not been reported to establish succesfully. The introduction of another biological control agent, Procecidochares conneca to Indonesia was shown to be sp ecific and upon release in West Java it established immediately. It spread exponentia lly in the first 6 months of its release. Field monitoring continues to eval uate the impact of the agents. Other biocontrol agents (Actmole anteas and Conotrachelus wilt be introduced to Indonesia in 1997 through ACIAR Project on the Biological Control of Chromolaena odorata in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

  16. Vibration suppression of distributed parameter flexible structures by Integral Consensus Control (United States)

    Omidi, Ehsan; Mahmoodi, S. Nima


    Integral Consensus Control (ICC) is proposed and implemented in this paper for the first time, as a novel approach for vibration control in distributed parameter flexible structures. The ICC consists of multiple parallel first-order lossy integrators, with the goal of targeting all major participating resonant modes in the oscillation of the structure. The vibration control design is taken to a different level, by integrating the concept of consensus control design into the new dynamics. Each control patch on the flexible structure is considered as a node of a network, and a communication topology with consensus control terms are augmented in the controller design dynamics. The result is an effective vibration controller, which is also robust to failures and inconsistencies in the control system. A cantilever is used as a sample flexible structure to investigate the control method. Multi-agent representation of the system, state estimator dynamics and the ICC model are designed for the structure. Extensive numerical simulations have been conducted to show the suppression performance of the ICC under different input disturbances. A comparative study is presented to show the advantage of the decentralized design over the conventional centralized approach. The new consensus control design provides new possibilities to vibration control problems, where an effective, robust and synchronized suppression is needed.

  17. Integration Between Enterprise Process Monitoring and Controlling System and Enterprise Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bi-long; ZHANG Li; WANG Xiao-hua


    The relationships and the features of integration between Enterprise Process Monitoring and Controlling System (EPMCS) and Enterprise Process Related Applications (EPRA) were analyzed. An integration architecture centered on EPMCS was presented, in which there were four layers to connect from EPMCS to EPRA:EPMCS, application integration layer, transport layer and EPRA, and there were four layers used to etstablish integration: presentation layer, function layer, data layer and system layer. The frameworks to connect EPMCS and EPRA were designed, that Enterprise-Independent Model (EIM), Enterprise-Specific Model (ESM) and meta-model to describe these two models were defined. The method to integrate data based on XML was designed to exchange data from EPMCS to EPRA according to the mapping between EIM and ESM. The approches are suitable for integrating EPMCS and systems in Product Data Management (PDM), project management and enterprise business management.

  18. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth


    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  19. The Integrated Web Portal for Escalation with Overdose Control (EWOC). (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Tighiouart, Mourad; Huang, Shao-Chi; Berel, Dror; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bresee, Catherine; Li, Quanlin; Rogatko, André


    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a novel web portal for the cancer phase I clinical trial design method Escalation with Overdose Control (EWOC). The web portal has two major components: a web-based dose finding calculator; and a standalone and downloadable dose finding software which can be installed on Windows operating systems. The web-based dose finding calculator uses industry standards and is a database-driven and distributed computing platform for designing and conducting dose finding in cancer phase I clinical trials utilizing EWOC methodology. The web portal is developed using open source software: PHP, JQuery, R and OpenBUGS. It supports any standard browsers with internet connection. The web portal can be accessed at:

  20. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.


    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  1. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt


    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  2. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.


    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  3. Improving electrical equipment and control systems for shield integrated mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Z.M.; Starikov, B.Ya.; Kibrik, I.S.


    The design and operation are discussed for electrical equipment and control systems for the 1AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield integrated face systems consisting of shield supports, coal plow and chain conveyor. The shield system is used for mining inclined and steep coal seams endangered by coal dust explosions, methane or rock bursts. Control and electrical system for 3 types of shield face mining systems is similar. It cuts energy supply when methane content at working faces exceeds the maximum permissible level, controls haulage rate and cutting rate of a coal plow, controls operation of shield supports (using the Sirena system), controls dust suppression system and its water consumption. The system is also equipped with communications equipment. Tests of the control and electrical system for the integrated shield system carried out in the im. Gagarin mine in the Ukraine are described. The VAUS III control system developed by Dongiprouglemash was tested.

  4. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function. (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D


    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

  5. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems. (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B


    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  6. Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter (United States)


    The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

  7. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa


    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  8. Intelligent Integrated Control of Underactuated Mechanical Systems with Second-order Nonholonomic Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Xuzhi(赖旭芝); Wu Min; Cai Zixing; She Jinhua


    This paper describes an intelligent integrated control of an acrobot, which is an underactuated mechanical system with second-order nonholonomic constraints. The control combines a model-free fuzzy control, a fuzzy sliding-mode control and a model-based fuzzy control. The model-free fuzzy controller designed for the upswing ensures that the energy of the acrobot increases with each swing. Then the fuzzy sliding-mode controller is employed to control the movement that the acrobot enters the balance area from the swing-up area. The model-based fuzzy controller, which is based on a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model, is used to balance the acrobot. The stability of the fuzzy control system for balance control is guaranteed by a common symmetric positive matrix, which satisfies linear matrix inequalities.

  9. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker


    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  10. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu


    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  11. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten


    of the hierarchy, the FOs coordinate the charging behaviors of their EV users using a price-based control method. A parametric utility model is used on the lower level to characterize price elasticity of electric vehicles and thus used by the FO to coordinate the individual EV charging. On the upper level...... system where the upper level controller directly controls the lower level subordinated nodes, this study aims to integrate two common indirect control methods:market-based control and price-based control into the hierarchical electric vehicles management system. Specifically, on the lower level...


    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...


    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  14. A comparison of two integrated approaches of controlling nematode parasites in small ruminants (United States)

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants in regions of the world where anthelmintic resistance is prevalent must rely on more than just chemical deworming strategies. The objective of this experiment was to compare two integrated treatment protocols for control of GIN (primari...

  15. Chemical and physical processes for integrated temperature control in microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, Rosanne M.; Dodge, Arash; Van Dedem, Gijs W. K.; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    Microfluidic devices are a promising new tool for studying and optimizing (bio)chemical reactions and analyses. Many (bio)chemical reactions require accurate temperature control, such as for example thermocycling for PCR. Here, a new integrated temperature control system for microfluidic devices is

  16. Postural Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Sensory Integration (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; McKenna, Roisin; Murphy, Blain


    We investigated the nature of sensory integration deficits in postural control of young adults with ASD. Postural control was assessed in a fixed environment, and in three environments in which sensory information about body sway from visual, proprioceptive or both channels was inaccurate. Furthermore, two levels of inaccurate information were…

  17. Time-minimal control of dissipative two-level quantum systems: The Integrable case

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, B


    The objective of this article is to apply recent developments in geometric optimal control to analyze the time minimum control problem of dissipative two-level quantum systems whose dynamics is governed by the Lindblad equation. We focus our analysis on the case where the extremal Hamiltonian is integrable.

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding


    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker


    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  20. Nonlinear Integral Sliding Mode Control for a Second Order Nonlinear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zheng


    Full Text Available A nonlinear integral sliding-mode control (NISMC scheme is proposed for second order nonlinear systems. The new control scheme is characterized by a nonlinear integral sliding manifold which inherits the desired properties of the integral sliding manifold, such as robustness to system external disturbance. In particular, compared with four kinds of sliding mode control (SMC, the proposed control scheme is able to provide better transient performances. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the zero steady-state error in the presence of a constant disturbance or an asymptotically constant disturbance is proved by Lyapunov stability theory and LaSalle invariance principle. Finally, both the theoretical analysis and simulation examples demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  1. A small-gain method for integrated guidance and control in terminal phase of reentry (United States)

    Yan, Han; Tan, Shuping; He, Yingzi


    The guidance and control systems of reentry vehicles are usually designed separately and then integrated, but the scheme can be argued that synergistic relationships between the two subsystems are not fully exploited. In order to improve the performance of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), this paper proposes an integrated guidance and control law for approach and landing of a RLV. According to the idea of reference-trajectory guidance, the angle of attack and bank angle commands are designed using sliding mode control (SMC) method to make the reference-trajectory tacking error converge into a small neighborhood of zero. An integrated guidance and control (IGC) law is developed utilizing generalized small-gain theorem to enforce the commands, and theoretical analysis shows that the law can guarantee the stability of the overall system. The Monte Carlo simulation confirms the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter


    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter


    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  4. Development of design support tool using integrated hierarchical control chart (HCC) and IEC61131 for nuclear power plant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, E.; Gabbar, H.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)


    This paper proposes a new intelligent and highly automated Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) and operations mapping solution for nuclear power plant operators that provides control system designers, developers and operators with a single view of all elements and systems across a power plant with the integrated interactive data access and information retrieval capabilities that enables a faster fault diagnostics as well aids in a more efficient decision making for the routine daily tasks. (author)

  5. PID Controller Stabilization for First-order Integral Processes with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Due to the widespread application of the PID controller in industrial control systems, it is desirable to know the complete set of all the stabilizing PID controllers for a given plant before the controller design and tuning. In this paper,the stabilization problems of the classical proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) controller and the singleparameter PID controller (containing only one adjustable parameter) for integral processes with time delay are investigated, respectively. The complete set of stabilizing parameters of the classical PID controller is determined using a version of the Hermite-Biehler Theorem applicable to quasipolynomials. Since the stabilization problem of the single-parameter PID controller cannot be treated by the Hermite-Biehler Theorem, a simple method called duallocus diagram is employed to derive the stabilizing range of the single-parameter PID controller. These results provide insight into the tuning of the PID controllers.

  6. Nonlinear adaptive control using the Fourier integral and its application to CSTR systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguang; Cai, Lilong


    This paper presents a new nonlinear adaptive tracking controller for a class of general time-variant nonlinear systems. The control system consists of an inner loop and an outer loop. The inner loop is a fuzzy sliding mode control that is used as the feedback controller to overcome random instant disturbances. The stability of the inner loop is designed by the sliding mode control method. The other loop is a Fourier integral-based control that is used as the feedforward controller to overcome the deterministic type of uncertain disturbance. The asymptotic convergence condition of the nonlinear adaptive control system is guaranteed by the Lyapunov direct method. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is illustrated by its application to composition control in a continuously stirred tank reactor system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter


    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  8. Design and Control of Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production and Power Generation (United States)

    Georgis, Dimitrios

    Growing concerns on CO2 emissions have led to the development of highly efficient power plants. Options for increased energy efficiencies include alternative energy conversion pathways, energy integration and process intensification. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) constitute a promising alternative for power generation since they convert the chemical energy electrochemically directly to electricity. Their high operating temperature shows potential for energy integration with energy intensive units (e.g. steam reforming reactors). Although energy integration is an essential tool for increased efficiencies, it leads to highly complex process schemes with rich dynamic behavior, which are challenging to control. Furthermore, the use of process intensification for increased energy efficiency imposes an additional control challenge. This dissertation identifies and proposes solutions on design, operational and control challenges of integrated systems for hydrogen production and power generation. Initially, a study on energy integrated SOFC systems is presented. Design alternatives are identified, control strategies are proposed for each alternative and their validity is evaluated under different operational scenarios. The operational range of the proposed control strategies is also analyzed. Next, thermal management of water gas shift membrane reactors, which are a typical application of process intensification, is considered. Design and operational objectives are identified and a control strategy is proposed employing advanced control algorithms. The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated and compared with classical control strategies. Finally SOFC systems for combined heat and power applications are considered. Multiple recycle loops are placed to increase design flexibility. Different operational objectives are identified and a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated. Optimal designs are obtained and their features are discussed and compared

  9. Design of integrated systems for control and detection of actuator/sensor faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Grimble, M.J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    Consider control systems operating under potentially faulty conditions. Discusses the problems of designing a single unit which not only handle the required control but also identified faults occuring in actuators and sensors. In common practice, unites for control and for diagnosis are designed...... separately. Attempts to identify situations in which this is a reasonable approach and cases in which the design of each unit should take the other into consideration, presents a complete characterization for each case and gives systematic design procedures for both the integrated and the non-integrated...... design of control and diagnosis unit. Shows how a combined module for control and diagnosis can be designed which is able to follow references and reject disturbances robustly, control the system so that the undertected faults do not have disastrous effect, reduce the number of false alarams and indetify...

  10. PD plus error-dependent integral nonlinear controllers for robot manipulators with an uncertain Jacobian matrix. (United States)

    Huang, C Q; Xie, L F; Liu, Y L


    In framework of traditional PID controllers, there are only three parameters available to tune, as a result, performance of the resulting system is always limited. As for Cartesian regulation of robot manipulators with uncertain Jacobian matrix, a scheme of PID controllers with error-dependent integral action is proposed. Compare with traditional PID controllers, the error-dependent integration is employed in the proposed PID controller, in which more parameters are available to be tuned. It provides additional flexibility for controller characteristics and tuning as well, and hence makes better transient performance. In addition, asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system is guaranteed. All signals in the system are bounded when exogenous disturbances and measurement noises are bounded. Numerical example demonstrates the superior transient performance of the proposed controller over the traditional one via Cartesian space set-point manipulation of two-link robotic manipulator.

  11. Model Predictive Control for Integration of Industrial Consumers to the Smart Grid under a Direct Control Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik


    In this paper, we propose a three-level hierarchical control framework for integration of industrial consumers to the future smart grid. With this structure, a balance responsible party (BRP) at the top level will be able to provide regulating power from the consumer side to help the power grid i...

  12. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding


    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  13. Universal fuzzy integral sliding-mode controllers for stochastic nonlinear systems. (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Liu, Lu; Feng, Gang; Wang, Yong


    In this paper, the universal integral sliding-mode controller problem for the general stochastic nonlinear systems modeled by Itô type stochastic differential equations is investigated. One of the main contributions is that a novel dynamic integral sliding mode control (DISMC) scheme is developed for stochastic nonlinear systems based on their stochastic T-S fuzzy approximation models. The key advantage of the proposed DISMC scheme is that two very restrictive assumptions in most existing ISMC approaches to stochastic fuzzy systems have been removed. Based on the stochastic Lyapunov theory, it is shown that the closed-loop control system trajectories are kept on the integral sliding surface almost surely since the initial time, and moreover, the stochastic stability of the sliding motion can be guaranteed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Another main contribution is that the results of universal fuzzy integral sliding-mode controllers for two classes of stochastic nonlinear systems, along with constructive procedures to obtain the universal fuzzy integral sliding-mode controllers, are provided, respectively. Simulation results from an inverted pendulum example are presented to illustrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  14. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study (United States)

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans


    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  15. Compensation for time-delayed feedback bang-bang control of quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The stochastic averaging method for quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems with time-delayed feedback bang-bang control is first introduced. Then, two time delay compensation methods, namely the method of changing control force amplitude (CFA) and the method of changing control delay time (CDT), are proposed. The conditions applicable to each compensation method are discussed. Finally, an example is worked out in detail to illustrate the application and effectiveness of the proposed methods and the two compensation methods in combination.

  16. Modeling, control and integration of a portable solid oxide fuel cell system (United States)

    Adhikari, Puran

    This thesis presents an innovative method for the modeling, control and integration of a portable hybrid solid oxide fuel cell system. The control and integration of the fuel cell system is important not only for its efficient operation, but also for issues related to safety and reliability. System modeling is needed in order to facilitate the controller design. Mathematical models of the various components of the system are built in the matlab/simulink environment. Dynamic modeling of the fuel cell stack, catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reformer, heat exchanger, tail gas combustor and tail gas splitter of the balance of plant system is performed first. Followed by, modeling of the three input DC/DC converter and energy storage devices (battery and supercapacitor). A two-level control approach, higher level and lower level, is adopted in this research. Each of the two major subsystems, balance of plant subsystem and power electronics subsystem, has its own local level controller (called lower level controller) that are designed such that they follow exactly the command reference from a higher level controller. The higher level controller is an intelligent controller that makes decisions about how the lower level or local controllers should perform based on the status of fuel cell, energy storage device and external load demand. Linear analysis has been done for the design and development of the local controllers as appropriate. For the higher level controller, a finite state machine model is developed and implemented using stateflow and fuzzy logic toolboxes of matlab. Simulations are carried out for the integrated system. The simulation results verify that the controllers are robust in performance during the transient condition when the energy storage devices supplement fuel cells. The temperature and flow rates of the fuel and air are controlled as desired. The output from the designed fuel cell system is a regulated DC voltage, which verifies the overall

  17. Optimal control strategies for stochastically excited quasi partially integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronghua Huan; Maolin Deng; Weiqiu Zhu


    In this paper two different control strategies designed to alleviate the response of quasi partially integrable Hamiltonian systems subjected to stochastic excitation are proposed. First, by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi partially integrable Hamiltonian systems, an n-DOF controlled quasi partially integrable Hamiltonian system with stochastic excitation is converted into a set of partially averaged Ito stochastic differential equations. Then, the dynamical programming equation associated with the partially averaged Ito equations is formulated by applying the stochastic dynamical programming principle. In the first control strategy, the optimal control law is derived from the dynamical programming equation and the control constraints without solving the dynamical programming equation. In the second control strategy, the optimal control law is obtained by solving the dynamical programming equation. Finally, both the responses of controlled and uncontrolled systems are predicted through solving the Fokker-Plank-Kolmogorov equation associated with fully averaged Ito equations. An example is worked out to illustrate the application and effectiveness of the two proposed control strategies.

  18. Integrated control system of transverse flow CO II laser and its application (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Tang, Xiahui; Zhang, Yang; Peng, Hao; Wang, Youqing


    Aiming to the special high power CO II laser surface treatment, the paper developed the integrated control system based on S7-200 PLC of transverse flow CO II laser. The selection of key technology and components, detection and control of signals, integrated control of complete circuit, technology of human machine interface and process control of system have been researched. Double closed loop power control system was realized, so that the stability of the laser power was in +/-2%. Also, the giving power can be controlled by the laser controller or by the processing machine, thus, the users can control the laser more efficiently when processing. A series of experiments have been performed on 5kW transverse flow CO II laser, the output laser power was stable at discharge current of 9A for 8 hours, and the maximal power was 5.42 kW. The new type of transverse flow CO II Laser with Integrated Control System has been applied for special laser cladding with power-modulating on the metallic surface of the oil industry production.

  19. Integration of Piezoelectric Sensing and Control for Nano-Scale Vibration Suppression in Hard Disk Drives


    Felix, Sarah Helen


    This work takes an integrated mechatronic approach to combine a novel sensing scheme with appropriate control methods to improve vibration suppression in hard disk drives (HDDs). Thin-film piezoelectric ZnO strain sensors were integrated into a PZT-actuated HDD suspension by fabricating the sensors directly onto the steel suspension structure that carries the read/write head. This technology allowed for the addition of sensors at arbitrary locations without significantly altering the dynami...

  20. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E


    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  1. Status of a digital integrated propulsion/flight control system for the YF-12 airplane (United States)

    Reukauf, P. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Holzman, J. K.


    The NASA Flight Research Center is engaged in a program with the YF-12 airplane to study the control of interactions between the airplane and the propulsion system. The existing analog air data computer, autothrottle, autopilot, and inlet control system are to be converted to digital systems by using a general purpose airborne computer and interface unit. First, the existing control laws will be programmed in the digital computer and flight tested. Then new control laws are to be derived from a dynamic propulsion model and a total force and moment aerodynamic model to integrate the systems. These control laws are to be verified in a real time simulation and flight tested.

  2. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona. (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C


    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years.

  3. A Local Controller for Discrete-Time Large-Scale System by Using Integral Variable Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Chai


    Full Text Available A new local controller for discrete-time integral variable structure control of a large-scale system with matched and unmatched uncertainty is presented. The local controller is able to bring the large-scale system into stability by using only the states feedback from individual subsystem itself. A new theorem is established and proved that the controller is able to handle the effect of interconnection for the large-scale system with matched and unmatched uncertainty, and the system stability is ensured. The controller is able to control the system to achieve the quasi-sliding surface and remains on it. The results showed a fast convergence to the desired value and the attenuation of disturbance is achieved.

  4. Feedback control system simulator for the control of biological cells in microfluidic cross slots and integrated microfluidic systems. (United States)

    Curtis, Michael D; Sheard, Gregory J; Fouras, Andreas


    Control systems for lab on chip devices require careful characterisation and design for optimal performance. Traditionally, this involves either extremely computationally expensive simulations or lengthy iteration of laboratory experiments, prototype design, and manufacture. In this paper, an efficient control simulation technique, valid for typical microchannels, Computed Interpolated Flow Hydrodynamics (CIFH), is described that is over 500 times faster than conventional time integration techniques. CIFH is a hybrid approach, utilising a combination of pre-computed flows and hydrodynamic equations and allows the efficient simulation of dynamic control systems for the transport of cells through micro-fluidic devices. The speed-ups achieved by using pre-computed CFD solutions mapped to an n-dimensional control parameter space, significantly accelerate the evaluation and improvement of control strategies and chip design. Here, control strategies for a naturally unstable device geometry, the microfluidic cross-slot, have been simulated and optimal parameters have been found for proposed devices capable of trapping and sorting cells.

  5. Tuning of PID controllers for integrating systems using direct synthesis method. (United States)

    Anil, Ch; Padma Sree, R


    A PID controller is designed for various forms of integrating systems with time delay using direct synthesis method. The method is based on comparing the characteristic equation of the integrating system and PID controller with a filter with the desired characteristic equation. The desired characteristic equation comprises of multiple poles which are placed at the same desired location. The tuning parameter is adjusted so as to achieve the desired robustness. Tuning rules in terms of process parameters are given for various forms of integrating systems. The tuning parameter can be selected for the desired robustness by specifying Ms value. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the nonlinear model equations of jacketed CSTR to show its effectiveness and applicability.

  6. Integrated Methodology for Information System Change Control Based on Enterprise Architecture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirta Ruta


    Full Text Available The information system (IS change management and governance, according to the best practices, are defined and described in several international methodologies, standards, and frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, ValIT etc.. These methodologies describe IS change management aspects from the viewpoint of their particular enterprise resource management area. The areas are mainly viewed in a partly isolated environment, and the integration of the existing methodologies is insufficient for providing unified and controlled methodological support for holistic IS change management. In this paper, an integrated change management methodology is introduced. The methodology consists of guidelines for IS change control by integrating the following significant resource management areas – information technology (IT governance, change management and enterprise architecture (EA change management. In addition, the methodology includes lists of controls applicable at different phases. The approach is based on re-use and fusion of principles used by related methodologies as well as on empirical observations about typical IS change management mistakes in enterprises.

  7. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems. (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng


    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  8. The Design Performance of the Integrated Spallation Neutron Source Vacuum Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Johnny Y; Ladd, Peter; Williams, Derrick


    The Spallation Neutron Source vacuum control systems have been developed within a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(TJNAF), and Brookhaven National Laboratory(BNL). Each participating lab is responsible for a different section of the machine. Although a great deal of effort has been made to standardize vacuum instrumentation components and the global control system interfaces, the varied requirements of the different sections of the machine made horizontal integration of the individual vacuum control systems both interesting and challenging. To support commissioning, the SNS control system team and the vacuum group developed a set of test strategies and the interlock schemes that allowed horizontal vacuum system integration to be effectively achieved. The design of the vacuum control interlock scheme developed will be presented together with the results of performance measurements made on these sch...

  9. Adaptive Integral-type Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Attitude Maneuvering Under Actuator Stuck Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qinglei; ZHANG Youmin; HUO Xing; XIAO Bing


    A fault tolerant control (FTC) design technique against actuator stuck faults is investigated using integral-type sliding mode control (ISMC) with application to spacecraft attitude maneuvering control system. The principle of the proposed FTC scheme is to design an integral-type sliding mode attitude controller using on-line parameter adaptive updating law to compensate for the effects of stuck actuators. This adaptive law also provides both the estimates of the system parameters and external disturbances such that a prior knowledge of the spacecraft inertia or boundedness of disturbances is not required. Moreover, by including the integral feedback term, the designed controller can not only tolerate actuator stuck faults, but also compensate the disturbances with constant components. For the synthesis of controller, the fault time, patterns and values are unknown in advance, as motivated from a practical spacecraft control application. Complete stability and performance analysis are presented and illustrative simulation results of application to a spacecraft show that high precise attitude control with zero steady-error is successfully achieved using various scenarios of stuck failures in actuators.

  10. Adaptive fuzzy integral sliding mode velocity control for the cutting system of a trench cutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-yan TIAN; Jian-hua WEI; Jin-hui FANG‡; Kai GUO


    This paper presents a velocity controller for the cutting system of a trench cutter (TC). The cutting velocity of a cutting system is affected by the unknown load characteristics of rock and soil. In addition, geological conditions vary with time. Due to the complex load characteristics of rock and soil, the cutting load torque of a cutter is related to the geological conditions and the feeding velocity of the cutter. Moreover, a cutter’s dynamic model is subjected to uncertainties with unknown effects on its function. In this study, to deal with the particular characteristics of a cutting system, a novel adaptive fuzzy integral sliding mode control (AFISMC) is designed for controlling cutting velocity. The model combines the robust characteristics of an integral sliding mode controller with the adaptive adjusting characteristics of an adaptive fuzzy controller. The AFISMC cutting velocity con-troller is synthesized using the backstepping technique. The stability of the whole system including the fuzzy inference system, integral sliding mode controller, and the cutting system is proven using the Lyapunov theory. Experiments have been conducted on a TC test bench with the AFISMC under different operating conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed AFISMC cutting velocity controller gives a superior and robust velocity tracking performance.

  11. Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests (United States)

    Fleischer, Van Tran


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.

  12. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings (United States)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  13. A New Hybrid Control Scheme for an Integrated Helicopter and Engine System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haibo; WANG Jiankang; CHEN Guoqiang; YAN Changkai


    A new hybrid control scheme is presented with a robust multiple model fusion control (RMMFC) law for a UH-60 helicopter and an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) controller for its engines.This scheme is a control design method with every subsystem designed separately but fully considering the couplings between them.With three subspaces with respect to forward flight velocity,a RMMFC is proposed to devise a four-loop reference signal tracing control for the helicopter,which escapes the closed-loop system from unstable state due to the extreme complexity of this integrated nonlinear system.The engines are controlled by the proposed ADRC decoupling controller,which fully takes advantage of a good compensation ability for unmodeled dynamics and extra disturbances,so as to compensate torque disturbance in power turbine speed loop.By simulating a forward acceleration flight task,the RMMFC for the helicopter is validated.It is apparent that the integrated helicopter and engine system (IHES) has much better dynamic performance under the new control scheme.Especially in the switching process,the large transient is significantly weakened,and smooth transition among candidate controllers is achieved.Over the entire simulation task,the droop of power turbine speed with the proposed ADRC controller is significantly slighter than with the conventional PID controller,and the response time of the former is much faster than the latter.By simulating a rapid climb and descent flight task,the results also show the feasibility for the application of the proposed multiple model fusion control.Although there is aggressive power demand in this maneuver,the droop of power turbine speed with an ADRC controller is smaller than using a PID controller.The control performance for helicopter and engine is enhanced by adopting this hybrid control scheme,and simulation results in other envelope stale give proofs of robustness for this new scheme.

  14. Physiological hemostasis based intelligent integrated cooperative controller for precise fault-tolerant control of redundant parallel manipulator (United States)

    Hao, Kuangrong; Guo, Chongbin; Ding, Yongsheng


    This paper focuses on precise fault-tolerant control for actual redundant parallel manipulator. Based on kinematic redundancy, some unnoticed influences such as mechanical clearance have been considered to design a more precise and intelligent fault-tolerant plan for actual plants. According to regulation principles in human hemostasis system, a bio-inspired intelligent integrated cooperative controller (BIICC) is developed including system structure, algorithm and step in parameter tuning. The proposed BIICC optimises partial error signal and improves control performance in each sub-channel. Moreover, the new controller transfers and disposes cooperative control signals among different sub-channels to achieve an intelligent integrated fault-tolerant system. The proposed BIICC is applied to an actual 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new controller is demonstrated. The BIICC is beneficial to control precision and fault-tolerant capability of redundant plant. The improvements are more obvious in cases where extra actuators of redundant manipulator are broken.

  15. Exponential stability of a PI plus reset integrator controller by a sampled-data system approach


    Davó, M. A.; Gouaisbaut, F.; Baños, A; Tarbouriech, S.; Seuret, A.


    The paper deals with the stability analysis of time-delay reset control systems, for which the resetting law is assumed to satisfy a time-dependent condition. A stability analysis of the closed-loop system is performed based on an appropriate sampled-data system. New linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions are proposed to ensure the exponential stability of the closed-loop resulting of the connection of a plant with a proportional and integral controller together with a reset integrator (PI...

  16. Eigensensitivity in integrated design. [of earth-pointing satellite's control system (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Hou, Gene J.; Belvin, W. K.


    An application of eigensensitivity analysis to the control-structure integrated design process is presented with an emphasis placed on computational efficiency improvement of the overall design optimization process. The computational efficiency of eigenvalue/vector sensitivity analysis is demonstrated using the Earth Pointing Satellite in the context of a control-structure integrated design program. Results for a 2 percent design variable perturbation with and without the effects of the actuator mass show a 42 and 52 percent reduction in CPU time, respectively.

  17. A practical predictive control algorithm for integral processes and a case study in boiler level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) algorithm for integral processes is investigated in this paper. The reason why the original DMC algorithm cannot be applied to these processes is analyzed. The shifting matrix is transformed into another form and the corresponding theorem is proved, then its applicable range is extended. Compared with other algorithms on the integral processes, this algorithm is more practical and simple to implement. Simulation results also prove its validity. Applying this algorithm, we succeed in the control of the boiler level system in power units.

  18. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes. (United States)

    Bentley, Walter J


    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.

  19. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles (United States)

    Lambregts, A. A.


    A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

  20. Determining a Method of Enabling and Disabling the Integral Torque in the SDO Science and Inertial Mode Controllers (United States)

    Vess, Melissa F.; Starin, Scott R.


    During design of the SDO Science and Inertial mode PID controllers, the decision was made to disable the integral torque whenever system stability was in question. Three different schemes were developed to determine when to disable or enable the integral torque, and a trade study was performed to determine which scheme to implement. The trade study compared complexity of the control logic, risk of not reenabling the integral gain in time to reject steady-state error, and the amount of integral torque space used. The first scheme calculated a simplified Routh criterion to determine when to disable the integral torque. The second scheme calculates the PD part of the torque and looked to see if that torque would cause actuator saturation. If so, only the PD torque is used. If not, the integral torque is added. Finally, the third scheme compares the attitude and rate errors to limits and disables the integral torque if either of the errors is greater than the limit. Based on the trade study results, the third scheme was selected. Once it was decided when to disable the integral torque, analysis was performed to determine how to disable the integral torque and whether or not to reset the integrator once the integral torque was reenabled. Three ways to disable the integral torque were investigated: zero the input into the integrator, which causes the integral part of the PID control torque to be held constant; zero the integral torque directly but allow the integrator to continue integrating; or zero the integral torque directly and reset the integrator on integral torque reactivation. The analysis looked at complexity of the control logic, slew time plus settling time between each calibration maneuver step, and ability to reject steady-state error. Based on the results of the analysis, the decision was made to zero the input into the integrator without resetting it. Throughout the analysis, a high fidelity simulation was used to test the various implementation methods.

  1. Integrated digital control and man-machine interface for complex remote handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, J.C.; Spille, R.F.; Zimmermann, S.D.


    The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed communication network provide a real-time distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A Man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer system control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments.

  2. Multicriteria Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Control Strategies Using the Choquet Integral. (United States)

    Brosig, J; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J


    An outbreak of the highly contagious animal disease classical swine fever (CSF) requires the selection of an optimal control strategy. The choice of a control strategy is a decision process depending on different aspects. Besides epidemiology, economic and ethical/social aspects must be taken into account. In this study, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) was used to evaluate six control strategies for two regions with different farm densities. A strategy including only the minimum EU control measures and the traditional control strategy based on preventive culling were compared to alternative control strategies using emergency vaccination and/or rapid PCR testing ('emergency vaccination', 'test to slaughter', 'test to control' and 'vaccination in conjunction with rapid testing'). The MACBETH approach was used in order to assess the three main criteria (epidemiology, economics and ethical/social aspects). Subcriteria with both quantitative and qualitative performance levels were translated into a normalized scale. The Choquet integral approach was adopted to obtain a ranking of the six CSF control strategies based on the three main criteria, taking interactions into account. Three different rankings of the importance of the main criteria, which were to reflect the potential perceptions of stakeholders, were examined. Both the region under investigation and the ranking of the main criteria had an influence on the 'best' choice. Alternative control strategies were favourable to the minimum EU control and the traditional control measures independent of the farm density. Because the choice of the 'best' control strategy does not solely depend on the epidemiological efficiency, MCDM can help to find the best solution. Both MACBETH and the Choquet integral approach are feasible MCDM approaches. MACBETH only needs a qualitative evaluation and is therefore a comparatively intuitive approach. The Choquet integral does not only take the importance of the criteria into

  3. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Lee, J. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Ribbe, M.W.


    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTIN

  4. Tuning of IMC based PID controllers for integrating systems with time delay. (United States)

    Kumar, D B Santosh; Padma Sree, R


    Design of Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controllers based on IMC principles for various types of integrating systems with time delay is proposed. PID parameters are given in terms of process model parameters and a tuning parameter. The tuning parameter is IMC filter time constant. In the present work, the IMC filter (Q) is chosen in such a manner that the order of the denominator of IMC controller is one less than the order of the numerator. The IMC filter time constant (λ) is tuned in such a way that a good compromise is made between performance and robustness for both servo and regulatory problems. To improve servo response of the controller a set point filter is designed such that the closed loop response is similar to that of first order plus time delay system. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the non-linear model equations of jacketed CSTR to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with the recently reported methods in terms of IAE and ITAE. The smooth functioning of the controller is determined in terms of total variation and compared with recently reported methods. Simulation studies are carried out on various integrating systems with time delay to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controllers.

  5. Integrated shell approach to vertical position control on PBX-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.E.; Okabayashi, M.


    The PBX-M device produces highly shaped discharges that, because of the negative external magnetic field decay index required, are vertically unstable. Vertical positional stability in PBX-M has been achieved by directly controlling the n = 0 component of the eddy current in the passive shell instead of the commonly used function of magnetic flux signals. Because the active coil is controlled via currents in the passive shell we call this an ``integrated shell`` approach to vertical position control. We present results of these experiments and make comparisons between the two methods of control.

  6. Vehicle Chassis Integrated Control Based on Multimodel and Multilevel Hierarchical Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-en Zhao


    Full Text Available Aiming at the differences of vehicle chassis key subsystems influence on vehicle handling stability and effective acting regions, comprehensive considering of the nonlinear characteristic of the tires and the dynamic coupling among suspension, steering, and braking subsystems in vehicle chassis, the 14-DOF full vehicle model is built. Based on the control characteristic local optimum of each subsystem, multilevel hierarchical control theory is adopted and the vehicle stability coordinated control system including organization, coordination, and execution level is established. Using sliding mode control theory and the inverse tire model, the generalized target forces and moments from organization level are translated into the tire sideslip angle and slip ratio. And then, based on the principle of functional allocation, the control functions of each subsystem are coordinated and the function decoupling of vehicle chassis complex system is realized. The Matlab/Simulink platform is used and the full vehicle stability coordinated control system is simulated. The results show that the full vehicle coordinated control system based on multilevel hierarchical control theory can improve the vehicle stability preferably than the subsystem combined control and uncontrolled system.

  7. Geometric Integrators for Higher-Order Variational Systems and Their Application to Optimal Control (United States)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Ferraro, Sebastián; Martín de Diego, David


    Numerical methods that preserve geometric invariants of the system, such as energy, momentum or the symplectic form, are called geometric integrators. In this paper we present a method to construct symplectic-momentum integrators for higher-order Lagrangian systems. Given a regular higher-order Lagrangian L:T^{(k)}Q→ R with k≥ 1, the resulting discrete equations define a generally implicit numerical integrator algorithm on T^{(k-1)}Q× T^{(k-1)}Q that approximates the flow of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations for L. The algorithm equations are called higher-order discrete Euler-Lagrange equations and constitute a variational integrator for higher-order mechanical systems. The general idea for those variational integrators is to directly discretize Hamilton's principle rather than the equations of motion in a way that preserves the invariants of the original system, notably the symplectic form and, via a discrete version of Noether's theorem, the momentum map. We construct an exact discrete Lagrangian L_d^e using the locally unique solution of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations for L with boundary conditions. By taking the discrete Lagrangian as an approximation of L_d^e, we obtain variational integrators for higher-order mechanical systems. We apply our techniques to optimal control problems since, given a cost function, the optimal control problem is understood as a second-order variational problem.

  8. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control (United States)

    Budianto, A.; Tawi, K. B.; Hussein, M.; Supriyo, B.; Ariyono, S.; Che Kob, M. S.; Ezlamy Zulkifli, Mohd; K, Khairuldean A.; Daraoh, Aishah


    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  9. Bottom-following control for an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle using integral-terminal sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浙平; 于浩淼; 李本银


    The bottom-following problem of an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) is addressed. A robust nonlinear controller is developed by using integral-terminal sliding mode control (ITSMC), which can exponentially drive an UUV onto a predefined path at a constant forward speed. The kinematic error equations are first derived in the Serret-Frenet frame. Using the line of sight (LOS) method, Lyapunov’s direct technique and tracking differentiator, the guidance law is established. Then, the kinematic controller, the guidance law, is expanded to cope with vehicle dynamics by resorting to introduce two integral-terminal sliding surfaces. Robustness to parameter perturbation is addressed by incorporating the reaching laws associated with the upper bound of the parameter perturbation. The proposed control law can guarantee that all error signals globally exponentially converge to the origin. Finally, a series of numerical simulation results are presented and discussed. In these simulations, wave, constant unknown ocean currents (for the purposes of the controller) and the parameter perturbation are added to illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the bottom-following control scheme.

  10. Bottom-following control for an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle using integral-terminal sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浙平; 于浩淼; 李本银


    The bottom-following problem of an underactuated unmanned undersea vehicle(UUV) is addressed. A robust nonlinear controller is developed by using integral-terminal sliding mode control(ITSMC), which can exponentially drive an UUV onto a predefined path at a constant forward speed. The kinematic error equations are first derived in the Serret-Frenet frame. Using the line of sight(LOS) method, Lyapunov’s direct technique and tracking differentiator, the guidance law is established. Then, the kinematic controller, the guidance law, is expanded to cope with vehicle dynamics by resorting to introduce two integral-terminal sliding surfaces. Robustness to parameter perturbation is addressed by incorporating the reaching laws associated with the upper bound of the parameter perturbation. The proposed control law can guarantee that all error signals globally exponentially converge to the origin. Finally, a series of numerical simulation results are presented and discussed. In these simulations, wave, constant unknown ocean currents(for the purposes of the controller) and the parameter perturbation are added to illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the bottom-following control scheme.

  11. Control and Diagnosis in Integrated Product Development - Observations during the Development of an AGV (United States)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.


    This paper is concerned with the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of integrated product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, it is generally observed that product development processes of complex systems can only be successful if the activities in the different domains are well connected and synchronised and if an ongoing communication is present - an ongoing communication spanning the technical domains and also including functions such as production planning, marketing/distribution, quality assurance, service and project planning. Obviously, numerous approaches to tackle this challenge are present in scientific literature and in industrial practice, as well. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The main source of insight of the presented research is the product development process of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) which is intended to be used on rough terrain. The paper starts with a background describing Integrated Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part summarizes some insights and formulates first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Integrated Product Development.

  12. Current control for a shunt hybrid active power filter using recursive integral PI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHAO; An LUO; Ke PENG; Xia DENG


    This paper presents a current control method for a shunt hybrid active power filter(HAPF) using recursive integral Pl algorithm.The method improves the performance of the HAPF system by reducing the influence of detection accuracy,time delay of instruction current calculation and phase displacement of output filter.Fuzzy logic based set-point weighing algorithm is combined in the control scheme to enhance its robustness and anti-interference ability.The proposed algorithm is easy to implement for engineering applications and easy to compute.Experiment results have verified the validity of the proposed controller.Furthermore,the proposed recursive integral PI algorithm can also be applied in the control of periodic current as in AC drivers.

  13. Integrated structures/controls optimization of a smart composite plate with segmented active constrained layer damping (United States)

    Beri, Rajan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Nam, Changho


    A rigorous multi-objective optimization procedure, is developed to address the integrated structures/control design of composite plates with surface bonded segmented active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. The Kresselmeier- Steinhauser function approach is used to formulate this multidisciplinary problem. The goal is to control vibration without incorporating a weight penalty. Objective functions and constraints include damping ratios, structural weight and natural frequencies. Design variables include the ply stacking sequence, dimensions and placement of segmented ACL. The optimal designs show improved plate vibratory characteristics and reduced structural weight. The results of the multi- objective optimization problem are compared to those of a single objective optimization with vibration control as the objective. Results establish the necessity for developing the integrated structures/controls optimization procedure.

  14. Man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition: integration to a virtual control desk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Aghina, Mauricio Alves C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nomiya, Diogo V., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)


    This work reports the implementation of a man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition, and its integration to a virtual nuclear power plant control desk. The later is aimed to reproduce a real control desk using virtual reality technology, for operator training and ergonomic evaluation purpose. An automatic speech recognition system was developed to serve as a new interface with users, substituting computer keyboard and mouse. They can operate this virtual control desk in front of a computer monitor or a projection screen through spoken commands. The automatic speech recognition interface developed is based on a well-known signal processing technique named cepstral analysis, and on artificial neural networks. The speech recognition interface is described, along with its integration with the virtual control desk, and results are presented. (author)

  15. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn


    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  16. Dynamical Adaptive Integral Sliding Backstepping Control of Nonlinear Nontriangular Uncertain Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Pervaiz


    Full Text Available We present a control strategy for nonlinear nontriangular uncertain systems. The proposed control method is a synergy between the dynamic adaptive backstepping (DAB and integral sliding mode (ISM and is referred to as DAB-ISMC. Our main objective is to find a recursive procedure to transform a nontriangular system into an implementable form that enables designing a control law which almost eliminates the reaching-phase. The proposed method further facilitates minimization of chattering which is believed to be a shortcoming of the sliding mode control. In this methodology, the ISM, as an integrated subsystem of DAB, is introduced at the final stage of backstepping. This strategy works very well to obtain a system that is robust against model imperfections, matching and unmatching uncertainties. The DAB-ISMC method is applied on a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and simulation results obtained on Matlab are found to be very promising.

  17. An express method for optimally tuning an analog controller with respect to integral quality criteria (United States)

    Golinko, I. M.; Kovrigo, Yu. M.; Kubrak, A. I.


    An express method for optimally tuning analog PI and PID controllers is considered. An integral quality criterion with minimizing the control output is proposed for optimizing control systems. The suggested criterion differs from existing ones in that the control output applied to the technological process is taken into account in a correct manner, due to which it becomes possible to maximally reduce the expenditure of material and/or energy resources in performing control of industrial equipment sets. With control organized in such manner, smaller wear and longer service life of control devices are achieved. A unimodal nature of the proposed criterion for optimally tuning a controller is numerically demonstrated using the methods of optimization theory. A functional interrelation between the optimal controller parameters and dynamic properties of a controlled plant is numerically determined for a single-loop control system. The results obtained from simulation of transients in a control system carried out using the proposed and existing functional dependences are compared with each other. The proposed calculation formulas differ from the existing ones by a simple structure and highly accurate search for the optimal controller tuning parameters. The obtained calculation formulas are recommended for being used by specialists in automation for design and optimization of control systems.

  18. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.


    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  19. Integration of multiplexing with controls simplifies installation of air quality control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuss, J.A.; Makuch, J.A.


    The design and operation of the 4-module spray tower scrubber system for the 1100-MW Coal Creek Station in North Dakota are described and the requirements for and selection of a control system for the scrubber system are discussed. A multiprocessor distributed network digital control system was selected as most advantageous, flexible, and reliable, and is being installed. (LCL)

  20. A leaky-integrator model as a control mechanism underlying flexible decision making during task switching. (United States)

    Mitani, Akinori; Sasaki, Ryo; Oizumi, Masafumi; Uka, Takanori


    The ability to switch between tasks is critical for animals to behave according to context. Although the association between the prefrontal cortex and task switching has been well documented, the ultimate modulation of sensory-motor associations has yet to be determined. Here, we modeled the results of a previous study showing that task switching can be accomplished by communication from distinct populations of sensory neurons. We proposed a leaky-integrator model where relevant and irrelevant information were stored separately in two integrators and task switching was achieved by leaking information from the irrelevant integrator. The model successfully explained both the behavioral and neuronal data. Additionally, the leaky-integrator model showed better performance than an alternative model, where irrelevant information was discarded by decreasing the weight on irrelevant information, when animals initially failed to commit to a task. Overall, we propose that flexible switching is, in part, achieved by actively controlling the amount of leak of relevant and irrelevant information.

  1. Model of Integration of Material Flow Control System with MES/ERP System via Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peniak


    Full Text Available This article deals with a model of application gateway for integration of Material Flow Control System with ERP/MES systems, which are provided by Cloud Computing and Software as Service delivery model. The developed gateway interface is supposed to cover fundamental requirements of production systems for customization and real-time control of material flow within manufacturing processes. Designed solution has been tested and evaluated for High Bay Storage system in a real production environment

  2. A Message Exchange Protocol in Command and Control Systems Integration, using the JC3IEDM (United States)


    19TH International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium C2 Agility: Lessons Learned from Research and Operations. A Message...overhead during packets reading. The service-oriented architecture (SOA) with the use of Web Services technology was chosen because of ease of learning ... Enviroments . IEEE Communications Magazine (Feb. 1997), 46-55. A Message Exchange Protocol in Command and Control Systems Integration, using the

  3. An integrated approach to the design of an aircraft gain scheduled controller


    Berglund, Erik


    This thesis addresses the problem of integrated design of the aircraft plant parameters and of the corresponding feedback controller. The plant parameters are typically the sizes of the control surfaces or other aerodynamical surfaces of the aircraft. The approach is to rewrite the aircraft dynamic requirements as linear matrix inequalities (LMI's) and to optimize a linear cost function associated with aircraft plant parameters, while meeting the LMI constraints. An algorithm using Matlab and...

  4. Telecommunications networks, home integrated systems and remote control applications; Reseaux de telecommunications, domotique et teleaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregut, F.; Treheux, M.


    Energy savings in residential sector can be performed by home integrated control systems. Remote controlled interfaces allow electric appliances consumption matching effective needs. Nevertheless, the uses of those techniques are stagnating since several years. The first reason is an awkward human factors engineering, that is now improving. The second reason is an lack of definition of the needs, that lead to commercialization problems. (D.L.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国平; 黄金枝


    A new active control method was proposed, in which the analytical control law was deduced by using astep-by-step integral method to differential equation of motion under the condition of static error being zero. Thiscontrol law is terse in mathematical expression and convenient for practical use. The simulation results demon-strate that the proposed method can provide much more remarkable peak-response reduction of seismically excitedstructures than the classical LQR method.

  6. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez


    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laboratory...... system supervision, advanced secondary and tertiary management are realized in a microgrid central controller. The software and hardware schemes are described. Several example case studies are introduced and performed in order to achieve power quality regulation, energy management and flywheel energy...

  7. Off-road mobile robot control: An adaptive approach for accuracy and integrity


    Lenain, R.; Thuilot, B.; Bouton, N.; P. Martinet


    International audience; This paper proposes an algorithm dedicated to the control of off-road mobile robots at high speed. Based on adaptive and predictive principles, it first proposes a control law to preserve a high level of accuracy in the path tracking problem. Next, the dynamic model used for grip condition estimation is considered to address also robot integrity preservation thanks to the velocity limitation.

  8. Observer design for compensation of network-induced delays in integrated communication and control systems (United States)

    Luck, R.; Ray, A.


    A method for compensating the effects of network-induced delays in integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is proposed, and a finite-dimensional time-invariant ICCS model is developed. The problem of analyzing systems with time-varying and stochastic delays is circumvented by the application of a deterministic observer. For the case of controller-to-actuator delays, the observed design must rely on an extended model which represents the delays as additional states.

  9. Integrated Flight Mechanic and Aeroelastic Modelling and Control of a Flexible Aircraft Considering Multidimensional Gust Input (United States)


    INTEGRATED FLIGHT MECHANIC AND AEROELASTIC MODELLING AND CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT CONSIDERING MULTIDIMENSIONAL GUST INPUT Patrick Teufel, Martin Hanel...the lateral separation distance have been developed by ’ = matrix of two dimensional spectrum function Eichenbaum 4 and are described by Bessel...Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1993 Relations to Risk Sensitivity, System & Control Letters 11, [4] Eichenbaum F.D., Evaluation of 3D

  10. KLF2 and KLF4 control endothelial identity and vascular integrity (United States)

    Sangwung, Panjamaporn; Zhou, Guangjin; Nayak, Lalitha; Chan, E. Ricky; Kang, Dong-Won; Zhang, Rongli; Lu, Yuan; Sugi, Keiki; Fujioka, Hisashi; Shi, Hong; Lapping, Stephanie D.; Ghosh, Chandra C.; Higgins, Sarah J.; Parikh, Samir M.; Jain, Mukesh K.


    Maintenance of vascular integrity in the adult animal is needed for survival, and it is critically dependent on the endothelial lining, which controls barrier function, blood fluidity, and flow dynamics. However, nodal regulators that coordinate endothelial identity and function in the adult animal remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that endothelial KLF2 and KLF4 control a large segment of the endothelial transcriptome, thereby affecting virtually all key endothelial functions. Inducible endothelial-specific deletion of Klf2 and/or Klf4 reveals that a single allele of either gene is sufficient for survival, but absence of both (EC-DKO) results in acute death from myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. EC-DKO animals exhibit profound compromise in vascular integrity and profound dysregulation of the coagulation system. Collectively, these studies establish an absolute requirement for KLF2/4 for maintenance of endothelial and vascular integrity in the adult animal. PMID:28239661

  11. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control for aircraft (United States)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.


    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemente into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  12. Improved stability and stabilization design for networked control systems using new quadruple-integral functionals. (United States)

    Li, Zhichen; Bai, Yan; Li, Tianqi


    This paper investigates stability analysis and stabilization for networked control systems. By a refined delay decomposition approach, slightly different Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) with quadruple-integral terms and augmented vectors containing triple-integral forms of state are constructed. New integral inequalities are proposed to estimate the cross terms from derivatives of the LKFs, which can be proved to offer tighter bounds than what the Jensen one produces theoretically. Moreover, the non-strictly proper rational functions in deriving process are fully handled via reciprocally convex approach. A state feedback controller design approach is also developed. Numerical examples and applications to practical power and oscillator systems demonstrate the superiority of the proposed criteria in conservatism reduction compared to some existing ones.

  13. a Method to Correct Yield Surface Drift in Soil Plasticity Under Mixed Control and Explicit Integration (United States)

    Mattsson, Hans; Axelsson, Kennet; Klisinski, Marek


    When applying an explicit integration algorithm in e.g. soil plasticity, the predicted stress point at the end of an elastoplastic increment of loading might not be situated on the updated current yield surface. This so-called yield surface drift could generally be held under control by using small integration steps. Another possibility, when circumstances might demand larger steps, is to adopt a drift correction method. In this paper, a drift correction method for mixed control in soil plasticity, under drained as well as undrained conditions, is proposed. By simulating triaxial tests in a Constitutive Driver, the capability and efficiency of this correction method, under different choices of implementation, have been analysed. It was concluded that the proposed drift correction method, for quite marginal additional computational cost, was able to correct successfully for yield surface drift giving results in close agreement to those obtained with a very large number of integration steps.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Weiwei; Shen Lianfeng


    In order to achieve the Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning and efficient resource utilization in cellular network and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) integration, an Integrated Service-Based Call Admission Control (ISB-CAC) scheme is proposed in this paper. The integrated network is modeled by using multi-dimensional Markov chains. The numerical analysis is presented to evaluate the important performance measures such as the blocking probability of originating calls, the dropping probability, and the average transfer time, etc. The steady-state probabilities of the multi-dimensional Markov chains are obtained by using an iterative approach, and the CAC parameters are optimally designed. The analytical model is validated by the computer simulation. It is shown that compared with the conventional WLAN-First Call Admission Control (WF-CAC) scheme, the proposed ISB-CAC scheme not only provides better QoS for mobile users but also utilizes the bandwidth resources more efficiently.

  15. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO. (United States)

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang


    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations.

  16. New 2DOF PI and PID Controllers Tuning Method for Integrating Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miluše VÍTEČKOVÁ


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new 2DOF PI and PID controllers tuning method for integrating plants. The described approach is derived from the multiple dominant pole method and it enables the achievement of an aperiodic servo and regulatory step responses.

  17. The effectiveness of integrated care for patients with hand eczema: Results of a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, R.F. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Knol, D.L.; Rustemeyer, T.; Mechelen, W. van; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Anema, J.R.


    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of integrated, multidisciplinary care as compared with usual care for patients with moderate to severe, chronic hand eczema after 26 weeks of follow-up. Background. This study was designed as a randomized, controlled trial. Methods. Patients who visited one

  18. Finite element based design of software for integrated passive and active vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Presents the design scheme developed for design of software forIntegrated Passive and Active Vibration Control(IPAVC) and the coding of a prototyne system, and the selection of the famous finite element program MSC/NASTRAN as an important module of software to deal with large and complicated structures and systems with an example to demonstrate the prototype system.

  19. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin


    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  20. Binaural Integrated Active Noise Control and Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizel, Romain; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan;


    This paper presents a binaural approach to integrated active noise control and noise reduction in hearing aids and aims at demonstrating that a binaural setup indeed provides significant advantages in terms of the number of noise sources that can be compensated for and in terms of the causality...

  1. An Integrated Spreadsheet Approach to Production Planning and Control in the Introductory POM Course. (United States)

    Newman, William


    Discusses an integrated approach for presenting production planning and control fundamentals at the survey level using a Lotus 1-2-3 template. This approach provides an overview of the relationships between the problem components and highlights managerial decision-making points. (Author/JOW)

  2. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC


    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effecti

  3. Dynamics and Control During Start-Up of Energy Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    To advocate the usage of process integration in industrial practice, it is important to be able to guarantee not only robust control during near steady state operation, but also to provide procedures for generating fast and reliable start-up sequences. This contribution concentrates on describing...... of a generated start-up sequence illustrates that safe and reliable startups are...

  4. Integrated S-band transmitter with on-chip DC-DC converter and control loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouzes, H.; Geurts, S.; Besselink, M.; Telli, A.; Hek, A.P. de; Bent, G. van der; Vliet, F.E. van


    A highly integrated high-power transmitter has been designed in a high breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. The transmitter includes, on top of an S-Band 10 W class-F HPA, a DC/DC converter and its associated gate driver, the full voltage regulation control loop, which provides a significant step for pha

  5. Global optimization for integrated design and control of computationally expensive process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egea, J.A.; Vries, D.; Alonso, A.A.; Banga, J.R.


    The problem of integrated design and control optimization of process plants is discussed in this paper. We consider it as a nonlinear programming problem subject to differential-algebraic constraints. This class of problems is frequently multimodal and "costly" (i.e., computationally expensive to ev

  6. Implementing preventive chemotherapy through an integrated National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massitan Dembélé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mali is endemic for all five targeted major neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. As one of the five 'fast-track' countries supported with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID funds, Mali started to integrate the activities of existing disease-specific national control programs on these diseases in 2007. The ultimate objectives are to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma as public health problems and to reduce morbidity caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis through regular treatment to eligible populations, and the specific objectives were to achieve 80% program coverage and 100% geographical coverage yearly. The paper reports on the implementation of the integrated mass drug administration and the lessons learned. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated control program was led by the Ministry of Health and coordinated by the national NTD Control Program. The drug packages were designed according to the disease endemicity in each district and delivered through various platforms to eligible populations involving the primary health care system. Treatment data were recorded and reported by the community drug distributors. After a pilot implementation of integrated drug delivery in three regions in 2007, the treatment for all five targeted NTDs was steadily scaled up to 100% geographical coverage by 2009, and program coverage has since been maintained at a high level: over 85% for lymphatic filariasis, over 90% for onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, around 90% in school-age children for schistosomiasis, and 76-97% for trachoma. Around 10 million people have received one or more drug packages each year since 2009. No severe cases of adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mali has scaled up the drug treatment to national coverage through integrated drug delivery involving the primary health care system. The successes and lessons

  7. Zero-Disturbance Control of Free-Floating Space Manipulators Using Integral-Type Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Li


    Full Text Available A free-floating space manipulator is an underactuated system, of which the spacecraft is permitted to rotate freely in response to the manipulator motions. The dynamic coupling property between the spacecraft and the manipulator makes motion control of such systems a significant challenge. In the paper, a zero-disturbance control method for free-floating space manipulators operating in task space is presented. An explicit direct relationship between the spacecraft attitude quaternions and the manipulator joint variables is established using nonholonomic constraints of the angular momentum conservation. By this means the kinematic redundancy of the system is used to adjust the spacecraft attitude. An integral-type sliding mode controller with adaptive switching gains is developed for coordinated motion control of the spacecraft and the manipulator. Simulations on three-link planar model show that the spacecraft remains undisturbed during the whole process of manipulations, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Uninterruptible Power Supply Integrating Renewable Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo A. Beltran Jr.


    Full Text Available —The control and operation of electronic systems relies and depends on the availability of the power supply. Rechargeable batteries have been more pervasively used as the energy storage and power source for various electrical and electronic systems and devices, such as communication systems, electronic devices, renewable power systems, electric vehicles, etc. However, the rechargeable batteries are subjected to the availability of the external power source when it is drained out. Because of the concern of battery life, environmental pollution and a possible energy crisis, the renewable solar energy has received an increasing attention in recent years. A fuzzy logic control based grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating renewable solar energy can be used for electrical and electronic systems to produce power generation. This paper presents the design and implementation of fuzzy logic control based grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating the renewable solar power energy system. The uninterruptible power supply (UPS system is characterized by the rechargeable battery that is connected with the Photovoltaic Panel through the DC/DC converter, the utility AC through the AC/DC converter and the load is connected through the DC/AC converter. The whole operation is controlled by the fuzzy logic algorithm. A complete hardware prototype system model of the fuzzy logic control based on the grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating with the renewable solar energy is designed and implemented. The operation and effectiveness of the proposed system is then demonstrated by the actual and real time implementation of the fuzzy logic control grid tied operation uninterruptible power supply integrating renewable solar energy connected to the rechargeable battery bank and a PIC microcontroller platform for fuzzy logic control and operation

  9. Cross-coupling integral adaptive robust posture control of a pneumatic parallel platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左赫; 陶国良


    A pneumatic parallel platform driven by an air cylinder and three circumambient pneumatic muscles was considered. Firstly, a mathematical model of the pneumatic servo system was developed for the MIMO nonlinear model-based controller designed. The pneumatic muscles were controlled by three proportional position valves, and the air cylinder was controlled by a proportional pressure valve. As the forward kinematics of this structure had no analytical solution, the control strategy should be designed in joint space. A cross-coupling integral adaptive robust controller (CCIARC) which combined cross-coupling control strategy and traditional adaptive robust control (ARC) theory was developed by back-stepping method to accomplish trajectory tracking control of the parallel platform. The cross-coupling part of the controller stabilized the length error in joint space as well as the synchronization error, and the adaptive robust control part attenuated the adverse effects of modelling error and disturbance. The force character of the pneumatic muscles was difficult to model precisely, so the on-line recursive least square estimation (RLSE) method was employed to modify the model compensation. The projector mapping method was used to condition the RLSE algorithm to bound the parameters estimated. An integral feedback part was added to the traditional robust function to reduce the negative influence of the slow time-varying characteristic of pneumatic muscles and enhance the ability of trajectory tracking. The stability of the controller designed was proved through Laypunov’s theory. Various contrast controllers were designed to testify the newly designed components of the CCIARC. Extensive experiments were conducted to illustrate the performance of the controller.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Abbas


    Full Text Available The cascade control of DC motors by PI controllers was extensively used in industry. Approximation rules based on plotting the output of the system or on computer simulation were used to determine the parameters of these controllers. This study was done to develop mathematical expressions to calculate the parameters of these controllers. Output time functions of the system and there derivatives were used to obtain mathematical relationships relating directly the motor parameters and the controller parameters. These relationships were used in tuning process of the cascade system. The dynamic performances of the system were examined in single loop form and in closed loop form for a step change in control variable (the input voltage as well as for step change in disturbance (mechanical load. The performances of current closed loop system and the speed closed loop were acceptable. The steady state error was zero and the maximum overshoot was less than 20%. The developed relationships can be used in design and analysis of cascade DC drive systems and cascade AC drive systems.

  11. Automatic Tuning Of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (Pid Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Bassi


    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers are the most popular controllers used in industry because of their remarkable effectiveness, simplicity of implementation and broad applicability. However, manual tuning of these controllers is time consuming, tedious and generally lead to poor performance. This tuning which is application specific also deteriorates with time as a result of plant parameter changes. This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI method of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for tuning the optimal proportional-integral derivative (PID controller parameters for industrial processes. This approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency over the conventional methods. Ziegler- Nichols, tuning method was applied in the PID tuning and results were compared with the PSO-Based PID for optimum control. Simulation results are presented to show that the PSO-Based optimized PID controller is capable of providing an improved closed-loop performance over the Ziegler- Nichols tuned PID controller Parameters. Compared to the heuristic PID tuning method of Ziegler-Nichols, the proposed method was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics such as, reducing the steady-states error; rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot in speed control of DC motor.

  12. A Closed-Loop Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Software for Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control software is provided for fully mechanically controlled automated electron microscopic tomography. The software is developed based on Gatan DigitalMicrograph�, and is compatible with Zeiss LIBRA� 120 transmission electron microscope. However, it can be expanded to other TEM instrument with modification. The software consists of a graphical user interface, a digital PI controller, an image analyzing unit, and other drive units (i.e.: image acquire unit and goniometer drive unit). During a tomography data collection process, the image analyzing unit analyzes both the accumulated shift and defocus value of the latest acquired image, and provides the results to the digital PI controller. The digital PI control compares the results with the preset values and determines the optimum adjustments of the goniometer. The goniometer drive unit adjusts the spatial position of the specimen according to the instructions given by the digital PI controller for the next tilt angle and image acquisition. The goniometer drive unit achieves high precision positioning by using a backlash elimination method. The major benefits of the software are: 1) the goniometer drive unit keeps pre-aligned/optimized beam conditions unchanged and achieves position tracking solely through mechanical control; 2) the image analyzing unit relies on only historical data and therefore does not require additional images/exposures; 3) the PI controller enables the system to dynamically track the imaging target with extremely low system error.

  13. Integrated Feedback Scheduling and Control Codesign for Motion Coordination of Networked Induction Motor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezong Zhao


    of multiple induction motors through a shared communication network. An integrated feedback scheduling algorithm is designed to allocate the optimal sampling period and priority to each control loop to optimize the global performance of a networked control system (NCS, while satisfying the constraints of stability and schedulability. A speed synchronization method is incorporated into the scheduling algorithm to improve the speed synchronization performance of multiple induction motors. The rational gain of the network speed controllers is calculated using the Lyapunov theorem and tuned online by fuzzy logic to guarantee the robustness against complicated variations on the communication network. Furthermore, a state predictor is designed to compensate the time delay which occurred in data transmission from the sensor to the controller, as a part of the networked controller. Simulation results support the effectiveness of the proposed control-and-scheduling codesign approach.

  14. Integral Sliding Mode Control Strategy of D-STATCOM for Unbalanced Load Compensation under Various Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia


    Full Text Available Control strategies of D-STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation under internal and external disturbances were discussed. Linear control strategies do not have a satisfactory dynamic performance and become invalid under internal or external disturbances. To guarantee a good precision and robustness, a control strategy combining input-output feedback linearization technique with integral sliding mode control (ISMC method was applied to D-STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation. The strategy has features of simple structure and is easy to implement. A 10 MVar/10 kV D-STATCOM simulation system was built in PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the control strategy proposed. Simulation results show that the control strategy can compensate reactive power and eliminate unbalance simultaneously under various disturbances.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The front steering angle control and its integration with the direct yaw moment control are suggested to enhance the handling performance for heavyduty vehicles based on a 3D vehicle modelThe doublecostf unction LQR methodology (DLQR) which extends the concept and the applicable field of LQR to express the practical requirements more plainly,is proposed to determine the control input value:compensation value of front steering angle in the optimal model A simple autotuning proportion controller is employed in direct yaw moment control to regulate the moment timely The simulation results show that front steering angle control using DLQR,has good ability to achieve the desired steering output in the different running conditionsDLQR is more powerful to balance many factors effectively based on the explicit mathematics expression of the physics of the problem than LQR does

  16. Energetically efficient proportional-integral-differential (PID) control of wake vortices behind a circular cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Pramode K; Mathew, Sam; Shaiju, A J; Patnaik, B S V, E-mail: [Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)


    The control of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder is a precursor to a wide range of external shear flow problems in engineering, in particular the flow-induced vibrations. In the present study, numerical simulation of an energetically efficient active flow control strategy is proposed, for the control of wake vortices behind a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number of 100. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian with negligible variation in properties. Reflectionally symmetric controllers are designed such that, they are located on a small sector of the cylinder over which, tangential sliding mode control is imparted. In the field of modern controls, proportional (P), integral (I) and differential (D) control strategies and their numerous combinations are extremely popular in industrial practice. To impart suitable control actuation, the vertically varying lift force on the circular cylinder, is synthesised for the construction of an error term. Four different types of controllers considered in the present study are, P, I, PI and PID. These controllers are evaluated for their energetic efficiency and performance. A linear quadratic optimal control problem is formulated, to minimise the cost functional. By performing detailed simulations, it was observed that, the system is energetically efficient, even when the twin eddies are still persisting behind the circular cylinder. To assess the adaptability of the controllers, the actuators were switched on and off to study their dynamic response. (paper)

  17. Control architecture for human-robot integration: application to a robotic wheelchair. (United States)

    Galindo, Cipriano; Gonzalez, Javier; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio


    Completely autonomous performance of a mobile robot within noncontrolled and dynamic environments is not possible yet due to different reasons including environment uncertainty, sensor/software robustness, limited robotic abilities, etc. But in assistant applications in which a human is always present, she/he can make up for the lack of robot autonomy by helping it when needed. In this paper, the authors propose human-robot integration as a mechanism to augment/improve the robot autonomy in daily scenarios. Through the human-robot-integration concept, the authors take a further step in the typical human-robot relation, since they consider her/him as a constituent part of the human-robot system, which takes full advantage of the sum of their abilities. In order to materialize this human integration into the system, they present a control architecture, called architecture for human-robot integration, which enables her/him from a high decisional level, i.e., deliberating a plan, to a physical low level, i.e., opening a door. The presented control architecture has been implemented to test the human-robot integration on a real robotic application. In particular, several real experiences have been conducted on a robotic wheelchair aimed to provide mobility to elderly people.

  18. Integration of the instrument control electronics for the ESPRESSO spectrograph at ESO-VLT (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mégevand, D.; Riva, M.; Santin, P.


    ESPRESSO, the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations of the ESO - Very Large Telescope site, is now in its integration phase. The large number of functions of this complex instrument are fully controlled by a Beckhoff PLC based control electronics architecture. Four small and one large cabinets host the main electronic parts to control all the sensors, motorized stages and other analogue and digital functions of ESPRESSO. The Instrument Control Electronics (ICE) is built following the latest ESO standards and requirements. Two main PLC CPUs are used and are programmed through the TwinCAT Beckhoff dedicated software. The assembly, integration and verification phase of ESPRESSO, due to its distributed nature and different geographical locations of the consortium partners, is quite challenging. After the preliminary assembling and test of the electronic components at the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste and the test of some electronics and software parts at ESO (Garching), the complete system for the control of the four Front End Unit (FEU) arms of ESPRESSO has been fully assembled and tested in Merate (Italy) at the beginning of 2016. After these first tests, the system will be located at the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) until the Preliminary Acceptance Europe (PAE) and finally shipped to Chile for the commissioning. This paper describes the integration strategy of the ICE workpackage of ESPRESSO, the hardware and software tests that have been performed, with an overall view of the experience gained during these project's phases.

  19. Real-time feedback control of pH within microfluidics using integrated sensing and actuation. (United States)

    Welch, David; Christen, Jennifer Blain


    We demonstrate a microfluidic system which applies engineering feedback principles to control the pH of a solution with a high degree of precision. The system utilizes an extended-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) along with an integrated pseudo-reference electrode to monitor pH values within a microfluidic reaction chamber. The monitored reaction chamber has an approximate volume of 90 nL. The pH value is controlled by adjusting the flow through two input channels using a pulse-width modulated signal applied to on-chip integrated valves. We demonstrate real-time control of pH through the feedback-controlled stepping of 0.14 pH increments in both the increasing and decreasing direction. The system converges to the pH setpoint within approximately 20 seconds of a step change. The integration of feedback theory into a microfluidic environment is a necessary step for achieving complete control over the microenvironment.

  20. Advanced control strategies to integrate German offshore wind potential into electrical energy sypply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrig, K.; Schloegl, F.; Jursa, R.; Wolff, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Fischer, F.; Hartge, S. [ENERCON GmbH, Aurich (Germany); Valov, B.; Heier, S. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)


    The paper describes the technical status and presents new concepts, models and approaches for the technical assistance of large scale wind power integration into the electrical energy supply system in Germany. It shows the technical and economic problems with the integration of high penetration of wind power plant in the network and the total electrical system. After an analysis of the effects of increased wind power generation on system planning and grid operation, we discuss innovative operational control concepts for large (offshore) wind farms. These concepts will provide a multitude of new possibilities to enable simple, flexible and undisturbed reaction to the demands of participants (wind farm operators, grid operators). These operational control strategies are mainly based on ISETs successful employed wind power prediction tools, operated by all German TSO's, and will enable energy and power control, as well as the provision of reactive power, in order to achieve comparable properties to conventional power plant types. (orig.)

  1. Saturations-based nonlinear controllers with integral term: validation in real-time (United States)

    Alatorre, A. G.; Castillo, P.; Mondié, S.


    Popular saturations-based nonlinear controller usually include proportional and derivative components of the state or output. The fact that in many applications, these components do not suffice to insure the convergence to the desired output values, motivate the addition of an integral term. In this paper, three configurations of nonlinear controllers based on saturation functions are improved with an integral component. The stability of the three algorithms is analysed using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results validate the proposed control laws when they are applied to nonlinear systems with constant and unknown perturbations. Real-time experiments realised with a quad-rotor aerial vehicle and a hovercraft vehicle show that the proposed scheme can follow autonomously some trajectories, and that it could be robust with respect to delays.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of Lyapunov and Riccati equations with application to controls-structures integrated design (United States)

    Hou, Gene; Koganti, Gopichand


    Controls-structure integrated design is a complicated multidisciplinary design optimization problem which involves the state equations pertaining to open-loop eigenvalues and control laws. In order to alleviate the intensity of the computation, this study uses the adjoint variable method to derive sensitivity equations for the eigenvalue, Liapunov, and Riccati equations. These individual sensitivity equations are then combined together to form the multidisciplinary sensitivity equations for the control structure integrated design problems. A set of linear sensitivity equations, proportional in number to the number of performance functions involved in the optimization process, are solved. This proposed approach may provide a great saving in computer resources. The validity of the newly developed sensitivity equations is verified by numerical examples.

  3. Integrated Guidance and Control of Homing Missiles Against Ground Fixed Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Mingzhe; Duan Guangren


    This paper presents a scheme of integrated guidance and autopilot design for homing missiles against ground fixed targets. An in- tegrated guidance and control model in the pitch plane is formulated and further changed into a normal form by nonlinear coordinate transformation. By adopting the sliding mode control approach, an adaptive nonlinear control law of the system is designed so that the missile can hit the target accurately with a desired impact attitude angle. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is also con- ducted. The numerical simulation has confirmed the usefulness of the proposed design scheme.

  4. [Demand-Control model and occupational stress among nursing professionals: integrative review]. (United States)

    Schmidt, Denise Rodrigues Costa


    The Demand Control model aims to evaluate the occupational stress. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the Demand Control Model to investigation occupational stress among nursing professionals from 2000 to 2011.Of the 16 selected studies, five were published in 2009. Of these studies, 56.25% assessed the Demand and Control dimensions and their correlations with workers' health problems; 37.5% of these studies were related with mental health. The results showed a lack of national publications. We recommend that authors conduct experimental studies to reduce the occupational stress for better conditions of workers' mental health.

  5. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;


    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended....... It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...... results in a feasible and reliable design of the process as well as the controller structure....

  6. A Distributed Model Predictive Control approach for the integration of flexible loads, storage and renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso


    This paper presents an innovative solution based on distributed model predictive controllers to integrate the control and management of energy consumption, energy storage, PV and wind generation at customer side. The overall goal is to enable an advanced prosumer to autoproduce part of the energy...... he needs with renewable sources and, at the same time, to optimally exploit the thermal and electrical storages, to trade off its comfort requirements with different pricing schemes (including real-time pricing), and apply optimal control techniques rather than sub-optimal heuristics....

  7. Electronic Unit Pump Diesel Engine Control Unit Design for Integrated Powertrain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; ZHAO Chang-lu; ZHANG Fu-jun; HUANG Ying


    The performance of the electronic unit pump (EUP) diesel engine is studied, it will be used in the integrated powertrain and its multi parameters are controllable. Both the theoretical analysis and experiment research are taken. A control unit for the fuel quantity and timing in crankshaft domain is designed on this basis and the engine experiment test has been done. For the constant speed camshaft driving EUP system, the fuel quantity will increase as the supply angle goes up and injection timing has no effect. The control precision can reach 1°CA. The full injection timing MAP and engine peak performance curves are made successfully.

  8. Extended temporal integration in rapid serial visual presentation: Attentional control at Lag 1 and beyond. (United States)

    Akyürek, Elkan G; Wolff, Michael J


    In the perception of target stimuli in rapid serial visual presentations, the process of temporal integration plays an important role when two targets are presented in direct succession (at Lag 1), causing them to be perceived as a singular episodic event. This has been associated with increased reversals of target order report and elevated task performance in classic paradigms. Yet, most current models of temporal attention do not incorporate a mechanism of temporal integration and it is currently an open question whether temporal integration is a factor in attentional processing: It might be an independent process, perhaps little more than a sensory sampling rate parameter, isolated to Lag 1, where it leaves the attentional dynamics otherwise unaffected. In the present study, these boundary conditions were tested. Temporal target integration was observed across sequences of three targets spanning an interval of 240ms. Integration rates furthermore depended strongly on bottom-up attentional filtering, and to a lesser degree on top-down control. The results support the idea that temporal integration is an adaptive process that is part of, or at least interacts with, the attentional system. Implications for current models of temporal attention are discussed.

  9. [Integrated strategy for dengue prevention and control in the Region of the Americas]. (United States)

    San Martín, José Luis; Brathwaite-Dick, Olivia


    During the last 22 years, the Region of the Americas has seen an upward trend in dengue incidence, with epidemics peaking ever higher and recurring every 3-5 years, almost regularly. A major factor in the spread of the disease has been the diminished capacity of national programs to respond with dengue prevention and control. This paper evaluates the Integrated Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control-approved by the 44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization in September 2003- and its preliminary results. The Integrated Strategy for Dengue is a management model designed to strengthen national programs, with a focus on reducing morbidity, mortality, and the societal and economic burdens produced by outbreaks and epidemics. Currently, 11 of the countries in the Region have developed a plan for or implemented a national strategy. In addition, a sub-Regional plan has been developed for Central America and the Dominican Republic. The Integrated Strategy for Dengue is expected to produce a qualitative leap forward in prevention and control through stronger partnerships among the State, its various ministries, and governing bodies, at all levels; private companies; and the range of community and civil groups. Once implemented, this strategy will reduce risk factors for dengue transmission, establish an integrated epidemiological surveillance system, decrease Aedes aegypti mosquito populations, prepare laboratories to better detect and identify the virus, optimize diagnosis and treatment, and, as a result, decrease the frequency, magnitude, and severity of dengue outbreaks and epidemics.

  10. [Integrated Management Area of Vascular Risk: A new organisational model for global control of risk factors]. (United States)

    Armario, P; Jericó, C; Vila, L; Freixa, R; Martin-Castillejos, C; Rotllan, M


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that increases the cost of care. Currently there is a low degree of control of the main cardiovascular risk factors, although we have a good therapeutic arsenal. To achieve the improvement of this reality, a good coordination and multidisciplinary participation are essential. The development of new organizational models such as the Integrated Management Area of Vascular Risk can facilitate the therapeutic harmonization and unification of the health messages offered by different levels of care, based on clinical practice guidelines, in order to provide patient-centred integrated care.

  11. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BPL Global


    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at

  12. Adaptive Recurrent Network Network Uncertainty Observer Based Integral Backstepping Control for a PMSM Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin


    Full Text Available The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is suitable for high-performance servo applications and has been used widely for the industrial robots, computer-numerically-controlled (CNC machine tools and elevators. The control performance of the actual PMSM drive system depends on many parameters, such as parameter variations, external load disturbance, and friction force. Their relationships are complex and the actual PMSM drive system has the properties of nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics. It is difficult to establish an accurate model for the nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics of the actual PMSM drive system Therefore, an adaptive recurrent neural network uncertainty observer (ARNNUO based integral backstepping control system is developed to overcome this problem in this paper. The proposed control strategy is based on integral backstepping control combined with RNN uncertainty observer to estimate the required lumped uncertainty. An adaptive rule of the RNN uncertainty observer is employed to on-line adjust the weights of sigmoidal functions by using the gradient descent method and the backpropagation algorithm in according to Lyapunov function. This ARNNUO has the on-line learning ability to respond to the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Experimental results are executed to show the control performance of the proposed control scheme.

  13. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali


    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  14. The Assessment of Postural Control, Reflex Integration, and Bilateral Motor Coordination of Young Handicapped Children. Final Report. (United States)

    DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.

    A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…

  15. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays. (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K


    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV).

  16. Integral evaluation of the external corrosion control system for buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)


    The External Corrosion Control System of a 16 inch diameter (406 mm), 70 miles long (113 km) pipeline, was evaluated using the Direct Current Voltage Gradient DCVG, Close Interval Potential Survey CIPS and Continuous Soil Resistivity Evaluation CSRE techniques. Sixteen thousand five hundred meters (16,500 meters) of the pipeline were evaluated using the three techniques simultaneously and the rest was inspected separately in previous years. The results from the survey were taken as parameters to classify all defects found on the protective coating. A Defect Severity Classification (DSC) was established and used as an input for a maintenance program for the rehabilitation of the pipeline integrity. The parameters taken to establish the DSC were: (a) Instant Off Potential, (b) %IR, (c) Soil Resistivity, (d) defect shape, (e) Geographic location, (f) Distance from drain point. A Maintenance Program for the Pipeline External Corrosion Control System was designed by implementing the Integral Evaluation of the Corrosion Control System for Buried Pipelines (IEECCSBP). The priority was to achieve pipeline integrity and then, gradually improve the protection level of the system. The implementation of IEECCSBP will help to reduce the frequency of Electromagnetic Metal Loss Inspections, which in the future will serve only as an audit of the External Corrosion Control System performance.

  17. Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Brodersen, Mark Laier; Krenk, Steen


    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the d......A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control...... with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia...... realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction....

  18. Sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping control of a piezoelectric nano-manipulator (United States)

    Zhang, Yangming; Yan, Peng


    This paper investigates a systematic modeling and control methodology for a multi-axis PZT (piezoelectric transducer) actuated servo stage supporting nano-manipulations. A sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping control method with an estimated inverse model compensation scheme is proposed to achieve ultra high precision tracking in the presence of the hysteresis nonlinearities, model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By introducing a time rate of the input signal, an enhanced rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is developed to describe the hysteresis behaviors, and its inverse is also constructed to mitigate their adverse effects. In particular, the corresponding inverse compensation error is analyzed and its boundedness is proven. Subsequently, the sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping controller is designed to guarantee the convergence of the tracking error, where the sliding mode disturbance observer can track the total disturbances in a finite time, while the integral action is incorporated into the adaptive backstepping design to improve the steady-state control accuracy. Finally, real time implementations of the proposed algorithm are applied on the PZT actuated servo system, where excellent tracking performance with tracking precision error around 6‰ for circular contour tracking is achieved in the experimental results.

  19. Toxicological assessment of spinosad: Implications for integrated control of Aedes aegypti using larvicides and larvivorous fish. (United States)

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Freitas, Priscila Costa; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Campos, Carlos Fernando; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Rodrigues, Tamiris Sabrina; Morelli, Sandra


    Integration of larvivorous fish and biolarvicides at low concentrations to control of mosquito larvae in field situations may result in a safer and more effective tool. However, the usefulness of integrated approach depends upon survival and ecological fitness of fish employed. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic effects of combining different sublethal concentrations of spinosad, a naturally occurring neurotoxic insecticide, with male adult poecilid larvivorous guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) fish on Aedes larvae mosquitos. Both fish species have been used for biological control of Aedes larvae in Brazil. Sublethal spinosad exposures were predetermined based on CL50-96hr. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill cells were measured after 14 d of exposure. Behavioral changes were monitored over 96 h. Although genotoxic effects were not markedly different from control, behavioral changes evaluated based upon the no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC). Adverse effects were noted at concentrations of 12.6 mg/L (NOEC) and 25.3 mg/L (LOEC) spinosad. Therefore, these insecticide concentrations may be considered as being safe to these fish species and have important implications for integrated approach to control Aedes larvae using natural larvicides and larvivorous fish.

  20. Two-acceleration-error-input proportional -integral-derivative control for vehicle active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucai Zhou


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present a new two-acceleration-error-input (TAEI proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy for active suspension. The novel strategy lies in the use of sprung mass acceleration and unsprung mass acceleration signals simultaneously, which are easily measured and obtained in engineering practice. Using a quarter-car model as an example, a TAEI PID controller for active suspension is established and its control parameters are optimized based on the genetic algorithm (GA, in which the fitness function is a suspension quadratic performance index. Comparative simulation shows that the proposed TAEI PID controller can achieve better comprehensive performance, stability, and robustness than a conventional single-acceleration-error-input (SAEI PID controller for the active suspension.