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  1. Seismic Velocities Imaging around "AFA" Hydrothermal Area in West Java, Indonesia derived from Dense Seimometer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanani Akbar, Akhmad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Jousset, Philippe GM; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Gassner, Alexandra; Jaya, Makky S.; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Umar, Muksin; Indrinanto, Yudi; Erbas, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    We have deployed about 48 three component seismometers around "AFA" hydrothermal are in West Java, Indonesia from October 2012 up to October 2014 in order to detect microseismic event and to enhance our knowledge about subsurface seismic stucture. The seismometer network in this study, is the first dense seismometer array monitoring around hydrothermal area in Indonesia so far. We analyzed a huge waveform data set to distinguish microseismic, local and regional events. Then, we picked the onset of P-and S-wave arrival of microseismic events carefully visually by eye. We determined the initial microseismic event by applying Geiger's method with uniform seismic velocity model. Totally, we have been successfully determined 2,497 microseismic events around this hydrothermal area. We also improved 1D seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and simultaneously with hypocenter adjustment as input for the tomography inversion in this study. Overall, the microseismic events are concentrated around production area activities and we also found strong cluster microseismic event in Southern part of this region which still need to be investigated in more details. Now, we are going on tomographic inversion step by using double-difference method. We are going to show more information during the meeting.

  2. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

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    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  3. Vindicating Sustainable Leisure in Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hengky, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to vindicate the development of sustainable leisure in Kuningan and responding the statement of the Indonesian minister of tourism by vindicating sustainable leisure in Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia. This statement was so important for realizing the development of sustainable tourism. This study found four potential sustainable tourism based on sustainable leisure in Kuningan District: Linggarjati Natural Park is the most potential to be a sustainable leisure park...

  4. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

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    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  5. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324.

  6. A new Agelas (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) from the Thousands Islands, West-Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, de N.J.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agelas linnaei spec.nov. (Porifera: Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the Thousands Islands reef complex, West- Java, Indonesia. The new species is compared with all other Agelas species occurring in the Indo-West Pacific region. The new species differs from these other species

  7. LIPID PRODUCING MICROALGAE FROM SEVERAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST AND CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

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    DWI ANDREAS SANTOSA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to get lipid producing microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production. The microalgae were isolated from 355 collected water samples which represented many distinct ecosystems such as paddy fields, rivers, agricultural dams, ponds, swampy areas and unique ecosystem of volcano and mud-volcano craters in West- and Central Java, Indonesia. A total of 267 strains of microalgae were isolated from the samples of which 221 strains of them have capability to produce lipid. There were four promising strains that produce lipid between 14.7 – 45.7 percent dry weight in optimal condition that were identified as Chlamydomonas sp. KO-7267 and PK-7195, Chlorella sp. KS-7300 and Desmodesmus sp. BK-7291.

  8. The Chemical Compositions of Thermal Waters at Ciarinem and Cilayu, Pameungpeuk, West Java - Indonesia

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    N.R. Herdianita

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal waters at Ciarinem and Cilayu, Pameungpeuk, West Java, Indonesia have different characteristics: Ciarinem water is a steam heated sulfate type and occurs as hot springs, whereas Cilayu water discharges as hot pools and is a chloride water type. Their chemical compositions indicate that the thermal waters are outflows of a volcanic–magmatic associated geothermal system. The solute geothermometers calculate that the subsurface reservoir temperatures range from 150o to 200ºC.

  9. Herpetofaunal community structure and habitat associations in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java, Indonesia

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    AWAL RIYANTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riyanto A (2011 Herpetofaunal community structure and habitat associations in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 38-44. Community structure and habitat associations of amphibians and reptiles on both rainy and dry seasons of six habitat types of three sites in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java were investigated in March and October 2008. The data of herpetofauna was obtained by opportunistic searches. Herpetofaunal diversity for each habitat was determined by using Shannon Wiener index, the species abundance per unit area was calculated by using Margalef’s index, and the homogeneity of distribution of species in relation to other species in a sampled per unit area was evaluated using Evenness index. The similarity in herpetofauna communities among habitat types was determined using Sorensen’s coefficient, meanwhile the Jaccard’s index was used to estimate similarities in habitat utilization. Thus, both of community similarities and habitat utilization displayed in cluster dendrogram. A total of 46 amphibian and reptile taxa were recorded, comprising 16 anurans, 22 lizards and 8 snakes. Of the total taxa, four anurans are endemic and an unusual specimens probably new in sciences referred to the genus Cyrtodactylus and Eutropis. There were differed in sequential of biological indices among habitat types but not much different in their values. The result of cluster analysis showed different patterns on the community similarity among habitat type and habitat utilization during rainy and dry seasons.

  10. Geophysical observations at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia

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    Jousset, Philippe; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Gassner, Alexandra; Guichard, Sebastien; Kamil Syahbana, Devy; Abkar, Fanani; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Nugraha, Andri; Umar, Muksin; Jaya, Makky; Erbas, Kemal

    2014-05-01

    We assess geothermal resources from our understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs and hydrothermal systems in the south of Bandung. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. We deployed a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period (1 Hz) seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) from October 2012 until December 2013. We extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period seismometers. Finally, we deployed a geodetic network including a continuously recording gravity meter, a GPS station, clinometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic and geodetic networks and we discuss first observations and results. As a first estimation of this excellent data set, we performed preliminary location of earthquakes using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We use this first estimate to perform joint inversion tomography of hypocenters and velocity model. We discuss the found seismic pattern within the area.

  11. Micro-seismic earthquakes characteristics at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia

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    Jousset, P. G.; Jaya, M. S.; Sule, R.; Diningrat, W.; Gassner, A.; Akbar, F.; Ryannugroho, R.; Hendryana, A.; Kusnadi, Y.; Syahbana, D.; Nugraha, A. D.; Umar, M.; Indrinanto, Y.; Erbas, K.

    2013-12-01

    The assessment of geothermal resources requires the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The first deployment included a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) since October 2012. In a second step, we extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period (1 Hz) seismometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic networks and discuss first observations and results. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. Preliminary location of earthquakes is performed using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We discuss this seismic pattern within the geothermal fields.

  12. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami earthquake in West Java, Indonesia

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    Mori, J.; Mooney, W.D.; Afnimar,; Kurniawan, S.; Anaya, A.I.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2007-01-01

    A tsunami earthquake (Mw = 7.7) occurred south of Java on 17 July 2006. The event produced relatively low levels of high-frequency radiation, and local felt reports indicated only weak shaking in Java. There was no ground motion damage from the earthquake, but there was extensive damage and loss of life from the tsunami along 250 km of the southern coasts of West Java and Central Java. An inspection of the area a few days after the earthquake showed extensive damage to wooden and unreinforced masonry buildings that were located within several hundred meters of the coast. Since there was no tsunami warning system in place, efforts to escape the large waves depended on how people reacted to the earthquake shaking, which was only weakly felt in the coastal areas. This experience emphasizes the need for adequate tsunami warning systems for the Indian Ocean region.

  13. Arsenic and Mercury Concentrations at Several Geothermal Systems in West Java, Indonesia

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    B. Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study at several geothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia shows that thermal waters could naturally contain up to 2.6 ppm As and 6.5 ppb Hg, and the surface hydrothermal alteration could contribute up to 50 ppm As and 800 ppb Hg. The higher the chloride content, the higher the contents of As and Hg of thermal waters. The amounts of As and Hg in an active geothermal system are influenced by the type of host rock, boiling and mixing processes, and adsorption of vapor and volcanic gases into thermal waters.

  14. A new genus of arboreal rat from West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musser, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Kadarsanomys nov. gen. is proposed for Rattus sodyi Bartels, 1937, and contrasted with Rattus and Lenothrix, two genera with which sodyi has been closely connected in the past. Kadarsanomys sodyi is an arboreal rat associated with bamboo on the forested volcanoes of West Java. Kadarsanomys has no cl

  15. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

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    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  16. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

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    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  17. The effect of land use history on natural forest rehabilitation at corridor area of Gunung Halimun Salak National Park, West Java Indonesia

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    Dian Rosleine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corridor area of Gunung Halimun Salak National Park was degraded and fragmented by human activities. However, little is known about recovery process in tropical degraded forest under different land use history. To clarify vegetation structure and forest recovery related to land use history we placed 22 plots (11 of 10 × 10 m2 in abandoned plantation and 11 of 20 × 20 m2 in secondary forest, respectively. DCA (Detrended correspondence analysis discriminated the plots into three community groups. Swietenia macrophylla – Agathis dammara    community in abandoned plantation where had a land use history of clear felling.  Maesopsis eminii – Cyathea spp. community had a history of severe human disturbance. Fagaceae – Schima wallichii was in less disturbed forest. Below the plantation canopy, light tolerant species, weeds, grasses and fern of Dicranopteris linearis were dominant. Some exotic plants spread to the disturbed forest. The less disturbed forest in distant area from village remained in good    condition as indicated by dominancy of old forest species. For the forest rehabilitation in severely degraded area, human intervention by planting native species can be suggested to avoid invasive species occupancy as well as accelerate forest recovery. 

  18. Litsea cubeba Essential Oil Yield Harvested from Different Habitat Types on Mt. Papandayan, West Java, Indonesia

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    Ichsan Suwandhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the yield and chemical composition of Litsea cubeba essential oil harvested from different habitat types on Mount Papandayan, West Java, Indonesia. The methods used were determination of sample plots at each habitat, followed by laboratory testing. Leaf samples were taken from each plot, the oil was extracted in the laboratory using steam distillation, which was subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the yield of essential oil was high (2.76-9.33%. The three dominant chemical compounds found were eucalyptol (16.97-55.78%, α-terpinenyl acetate (7.27-20.44%, and sabinene (14.45-68.05%. The results confirmed the expectation that Litsea cubeba essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba trees growing in various habitats on Mount Papandayan would show a variety in yield and chemical composition.

  19. Recent uplift and hydrothermal activity at Tangkuban Parahu volcano, west Java, Indonesia

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    Dvorak, J.; Matahelumual, J.; Okamura, A.T.; Said, H.; Casadevall, T.J.; Mulyadi, D.

    1990-01-01

    Tangkuban Parahu is an active stratovolcano located 17 km north of the city of Bandung in the province west Java, Indonesia. All historical eruptive activity at this volcano has been confined to a complex of explosive summit craters. About a dozen eruptions-mostly phreatic events- and 15 other periods of unrest, indicated by earthquakes or increased thermal activity, have been noted since 1829. The last magmatic eruption occurred in 1910. In late 1983, several small phreatic explosions originated from one of the summit craters. More recently, increased hydrothermal and earthquake activity occurred from late 1985 through 1986. Tilt measurements, using a spirit-level technique, have been made every few months since February 1981 in the summit region and along the south and east flanks of the volcano. Measurements made in the summit region indicated uplift since the start of these measurements through at least 1986. From 1981 to 1983, the average tilt rate at the edges of the summit craters was 40-50 microradians per year. After the 1983 phreatic activity, the tilt rate decreased by about a factor of five. Trilateration surveys across the summit craters and on the east flank of the volcano were conducted in 1983 and 1986. Most line length changes measured during this three-year period did not exceed the expected uncertainty of the technique (4 ppm). The lack of measurable horizontal strain across the summit craters seems to contradict the several years of tilt measurements. Using a point source of dilation in an elastic half-space to model tilt measurements, the pressure center at Tangkuban Parahu is located about 1.5 km beneath the southern part of the summit craters. This is beneath the epicentral area of an earthquake swarm that occurred in late 1983. The average rate in the volume of uplift from 1981 to 1983 was 3 million m3 per year; from 1983 to 1986 it averaged about 0.4 million m3 per year. Possible causes for this uplift are increased pressure within a very

  20. Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

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    Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman

    2009-12-01

    A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.

  1. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

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    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone.

  2. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection ofCryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvia Maharani Ananta; Suharno; Adi Hidayat; Makoto Matsubayashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle inIndonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations inIndonesia have never been performed.Methods:Fecal samples from cattle at35 farms in7 districts inWestJava,Indonesia, has been examined using the floatation or sedimentation methods, and a immunofluorescence assay and experimentally inoculation to mice forCryptosporidium or Giardia spp.Results:153 of394 examined cattle(38.8%) were infected with gastrointestinal parasites.The prevalence ofEimeria spp.,Nematoda spp. (includingOesophagustomum andBunostomum-like),Fasciola gigantica andParamphistomum spp. was22.4%,11.2%,12.5% and3.8%, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni(C. andersoni) was also found in two samples.One isolate of this parasite was confirmed to be transmitted to mice, in contrast to the isolates from other countries.Conclusions:although this survey is preliminary, the results shows that the infection of gastrointestinal parasites inIndonesia was not high, but these infected cattle could be as a potential source leading to economic losses in livestock production.

  3. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

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    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  4. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  5. Combined traditional medicine and pharmacological antihypertensive drugs in a rural community of West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaman Basuki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Some hypertensive subjects in Indonesia consume traditional herbal medicines in addition to the usual pharmacological drugs. This paper studied the relationship between several traditional herbal medicines, such as morinda, star fruit, garlic, or jamu, believed to control hypertension and the risk of current pharmacological antihypertensive drug users in subjects with stage 1 and 2 hypertension in a rural community West Java, Indonesia. The data were obtained from 3 field studies by the second year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia conducted in 2001, 2002, and 2003 in a subdistrict of the Bogor regency. The subjects were selected randomly from neighborhood clusters. Interviews and blood pressure measurements were conducted at the houses of the subjects by specially trained second year medical students supervised by faculty members. There were 496 subjects with stage 1 or 2 hypertension, with 11.5% under current antihypertensive drugs. Compared with the hypertension stage 1 subjects, hypertension stage 2 subjects were 5.4 times more likely to be currently taking pharmacological antihypertensive medication (adjusted odds ratio = 5.44; 95% confidence interval = 2.64-11.27. The combined of current antihypertensive medication with traditional medicines were cucumber which being the most dominant followed by star fruit and morinda. Reasons for this were probably the strong influence of culture, the limited medical facilities, and high cost of the antihypertensive drugs. It was concluded that in a rural Indonesia, it was common for hypertensive subjects to take pharmacological drugs as well as traditional medicine for antihypertensive therapy. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 246-51Keywords: hypertension, pharmacological drugs, traditional medicine, Indonesia

  6. Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faiz Syuaib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability.

  7. Remotely-sensed land use patterns and the presence of Anopheles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman

    2008-06-01

    Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.

  8. Paraji and Bidan in Rancaekek : integrated medicine for advanced partnerships among traditional birth attendants and community midwives in the Sunda region of West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambaretnani, Prihatini

    2012-01-01

    The study about paraji (Traditional Birth Attendants - TBA) and bidan (Community Midwives -CMW) in Rancaekek, a subdistrict in West Java, Indonesia, aimed to contribute to the knowledge and understanding about the relationships between traditional and modern Maternal and Child Health (MCH) systems.

  9. Pesticide usage and its association with health symptoms among farmers in rural villages in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Tanaka, Mika; Gunawan, Budhi; Abdoellah, Oekan; Watanabe, Chiho

    2007-01-01

    The improper handling of pesticides in agriculture has caused serious health problems in many developing countries. In this study, we report the pesticide usage condition among Indonesian farmers and its association with symptoms of pesticide toxicity. A questionnaire survey on personal history regarding agricultural labor, pesticide storage and disposal, pesticide use and health history was conducted using a structured questionnaire in rural Sundanese villages in West Java, Indonesia. The most frequently used pesticides included dithiocarbamates, pyrethroids and organophosphates. In approximately 80% of sprayings, category II pesticides (World Health Organization (WHO) categorization; "moderately hazardous") were used. Many of the subject farmers worked in a highly unsafe occupational environment; protective measures and safe handling were rarely observed, whereas smoking and drinking during spraying were frequently practiced. Correlation analysis revealed that farmers who wore a long sleeve shirt and headgear showed health symptoms less frequently. Moreover, farmers who had skin contact with the spray solution during measuring or mixing (excluding the hands), who wore wet clothing (skin exposure to pesticide), and who smoked and rubbed their eyes during spraying showed more symptoms. Among these factors, headgear use, wearing wet clothing (skin exposure to pesticide), and smoking during spraying were the significant determining factors for developing health symptoms. Preventing such behaviors will be an effective method of reducing health problems among the subject farmers.

  10. On the use of terrestrial laser scanner for deformation analysis of the Talaga Bodas Crater West Java (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, Irwan; Basith, Muhammad N. A.; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Haerani, Nia

    2016-05-01

    Talaga Bodas Volcano, located near the border of Garut and Tasikmalaya regencies, West Java, Indonesia, is an active stratovolcano whose apparent shape is mainly dominated by the steep-side-cone type. Hence, monitoring Talaga Bodas Volcano to mitigate its potential hazard is extremely necessary. In this research, potential hazards are studied by observing and monitoring the deformation of the Talaga Bodas Crater using the geodetic Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) tool. TLS is a relatively new positioning method in geodesy. TLS is able to obtain the position of the object points (point clouds) in a huge amount and high precision in a relatively short time. This research aims at identifying the deformation and also rock textures and structure around the Crater of Talaga Bodas. The methodology used in this research is by obtaining the scanning data using TLS in 2012 and 2015 and GPS measurements to obtain the coordinates of the reference points. The data processing methods consist of several steps, namely target to target registration, filtering, georeference, and analysis of the registered point clouds. These steps were done using the cyclone 8 software. Registered point clouds show the 3 dimension of the crater. It was found that the average values for the down-lift and up-lift deformation around the crater are about -6.4 cm and 5.1 cm, respectively. Reflected point clouds show the differences of the intensity color of the surface around the crater. This result indicates the differences of the rocks texture and structure around the crater.

  11. Combined DC Resistivity Survey and Electric Conductivity- Dielectric Permittivity Measurement at Sag Pond near Lembang Fault, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanti, Mimin; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Bijaksana, Satria; Setiawan, Tedy

    2016-08-01

    Lembang Fault is a normal fault situated at the southern flank of Tangkuban Parahu Volcano in West Java Indonesia. The fault's movement may have caused the formation of sag pond in the vicinity of its which is characterized by the soil layers of the sag pond. The characteristics of the soil can be examined based on its electrical properties such as conductivity (the inverse of resistivity) and dielectric permittivity. Direct field measurement was conducted using DC-resistivity Wenner-Schlumberger method on the sag pond as well as laboratory resistivity measurement of cores taken from the sag pond. Two resistivity crosssections were obtained after performing 2D inversion of the data which reveal that the resistivity distribution consist of a resistive layer (40-60 ohm.m) overlying a medium resistive layer (30-35 ohm.m). The third layer has relatively low resistivity of 16-25 ohm.m. At the intersection of these two lines we took coring samples down to depth of 5 m below surface and measured the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity for each 1 cm of sample using EM-50 data logger. Results from both field and laboratory measurement were analysed to get a better understanding of the sag pond.

  12. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  13. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  14. Metal concentrations of river water and sediments in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masaomi; Yustiawati; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shunitz; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2011-12-01

    To determine the water environment and pollutants in West Java, the contents of metals and general water quality of the Ciliwung River in the Jakarta area were measured. High Escherichia coli number (116-149/mL) was detected downstream in the Ciliwung River. In addition to evaluate mercury pollution caused by gold mining, mercury contents of water and sediment samples from the Cikaniki River, and from paddy samples were determined. The water was not badly polluted. However, toxic metals such as mercury were detected at levels close to the baseline environmental standard of Indonesia (0.83-1.07 μg/g of sediments in the Cikaniki River). From analyses of the paddy samples (0.08 μg/g), it is considered that there is a health risk caused by mercury.

  15. Environmental factors associated with spatial and temporal distribution of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Bangs, Michael J; Sukowati, Supratman

    2007-07-01

    A 12-mo ecological study of the spatial-temporal distribution of immature stages of Anopheles species was conducted in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia. The study characterized 1,600 sites from a contiguous coastal and hill zone (0-800-m elevation) of which 64% contained Anopheles larvae. Principal component and multiple logistic regression analyses identified ecological parameters associated with presence of nine [Anopheles aconitus Doenitz, Anopheles annularis Van de Wulp, Anopheles barbirostris Van der Wulp, Anopheles flavirostris (Ludlow), Anopheles insulaeflorum (Swellengrebel and Swellengrebel de Graaf), Anopheles kochi Doenitz, Anopheles maculatus Theobald, Anopheles sundaicus (Rodenwaldt), and Anopheles vagus Doenitz] of 15 Anopheles species collected. Combined data for all nine species showed increased Anopheles presence associated with wet season periods and higher elevation habitats exhibiting reduced tree canopy coverage, higher water temperatures, and shallower water depths. Habitat variables measured included topography (elevation), water conditions (temperature, pH, salinity depth, and velocity), habitat characteristics (substrate and canopy cover), density and type of aquatic vegetation coverage (riparian, floating, and emergent), and distance from nearest human habitation. Significant relationships were found for nine species when using all habitats in the analysis. Habitat characteristics for three species were refined. An. aconitus and An. barbirostris were associated with higher elevation rice, Oryza savita L., paddies with relatively shallow water depths, higher water temperatures, higher acidity and salinity concentrations, and a greater average distance from human habitation. An. vagus presence in rice paddies was associated with lower elevation fields, deeper and cooler water, less acidic and saline conditions, and habitats closer to human dwellings. Overall, the distribution of Anopheles species in Sukabumi was found to be nonrandom

  16. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish in cage aquaculture at Cirata Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Indah Rachmatiah Siti; Rahmawati, Suphia; Sutarto, Ratri Indri Hapsari; Jaya, Pinilih Marendra

    2008-10-01

    Freshwater fish demand in West Java is supported by cage aquaculture in reservoirs. Cirata Reservoir is one of three cascading hydropower reservoirs built along the Citarum River that receives domestic and industrial wastes. Water pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, increases the health risk of humans who consume the fish. The study was aimed to evaluate the concentration of copper and lead in fish, specifically on Cyprinus carpio, that are widely cultivated in the Cirata Reservoir. Two sizes of fish were collected from five sampling points around floating-cage area. The liver of the fish was found to contain the highest copper level, followed by gills, skin, and muscle. In contrast, lead was also high in the liver, followed by skin, gills, and the muscle, but the copper concentration found in the tissues studied was much higher (31.111 +/- 17.911 mg/kg dry wt) than the lead content (0.290 +/- 0.346 mg/kg dry wt). The concentration of metals in smaller fish was always higher than than that in bigger fish. The metals content was also compared to those in fish exposed in a semistatic laboratory-scale study using Oreochromis niloticus. After 28 days exposure with 0.01 mg Cu/L, fish accumulated 21.53 mg Cu/kg dry wt, whereas for Pb exposure of 0.016 mg/L, fish accumulated up to 7 mg/kg dry wt. However, estimates of Cu and Pb intake from C. carpio consumption were still below the average daily intake (ADI) limit. This study suggested that monitoring of water quality and heavy metals in cultured fish is important in protecting human health.

  18. The Ancestral Heritage: Sundanese Traditional Houses Of Kampung Naga, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darmayanti Tessa Eka

    2016-01-01

    Sundanese are the largest indigenous ethnic group in the western part of Java Island. Sundanese culture closely relates to Animist, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islam philosophies. It led to the unique creation of the Sundanese traditional houses called Rumah Adat in Kampung Naga where the ancient tradition from their ancestor were upheld until today. Kampung Naga was listed as one of the Sundanese traditional villages known as Kampung Adat in West Java. This village has its own characteristics which ...

  19. Heterogeneous Hydrogeological Control on Volcanic Aquifers at Mount Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, D. E.; Sumintadireja, P.; Irawan, D.; Saepulloh, A.; Rachmi, C. N.

    2012-04-01

    Mount Ciremai's spring zone exhibits complex relationships among modern and solitaire topography, lava flow geometries, and groundwater flow patterns. As many as 161 springs were observed (140 on east slope and 21 on west slope). The majority of springs show hypothermal signal, on both slopes. TDS-Water temperature shows more homogeneous plot on east slope, representing identical geological control on the three volcanic aquifers. Scattered points on west slope signify heterogeneous geological control, including faults from previous geophysical mapping. Elevation-EC chart on both slopes show larger EC readings on lower elevation. East slope plot shows value range from 19 to 200 μSiemens with scattered anomaly from 300 to 620 μSiemens, indicating less mineralization in the system, from geothermal or older marine sediments. West slope plots show similar range with EC reading not more than 300 μSiemens, indicating less influence of additional mineralization.Elevation-Q chart demonstrates scattered points on east slope indicating there are at least two systems: captive system aquifer with no water leakage from the above aquifer and open system aquifer with leakage between aquifers. West slope illustrates more regular trend indicating interaction between aquifers towards lower elevation and positive break demonstrating possible fault boundary. In young volcanic deposits with large amounts of annual precipitation, high recharge rates coupled with fractured volcanic aquifers that have large near-surface hydraulic conductivity lead to broad systems. The aquifer is locally guided by the extent of permeable lava flows. The air and water temperature in most of the springs are close to atmospheric, implying shallow flow paths. Water discharging at large and hypothermal springs have limited interaction with geothermal system. Anomalously large springs suggest that topographically defined watersheds may not correspond to aquifer boundaries. The field observations reveal that

  20. Protection of Paddy Field and Recommendation of Regional Planning in Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munibah, Khursatul; Yudarwati, Rani; Dwi Wahyunie, Enni; Wijaya, Hermanu

    2016-11-01

    Cianjur Regency is one of “lumbung” paddies in West Java Province that can contribute to rice sufficiency for West Java 13.5%. However conversion of paddy field into other land use still happen in Indonesia because of land rent of paddy field less than other land use and also the low commitment of Government to protect the paddy field to get food self-sufficiency. Objectives are analysis of paddy field protection and recommendation of regional planning. Paddy field protection was determined based on existing paddy field, land suitability, economic value and Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW). Recommendation of regional planning was determined based on priority level of paddy field protection, Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) and rice sufficiency status. The results showed that land suitability, economic value and also allocating land for paddy field in the RTRW can support realization of paddy field protection. The paddy field that included into the first and third priority is 30.14% and 38.45%, respectively. The other priorities of paddy field protection are around 15%. This research is recommended that 87.5% of the paddy field existing can be protected to get rice sufficiency with surplus around 48.782 ton.

  1. Solar Radio Observation using Callisto Spectrometer at Sumedang West Java Indonesia: Current Status and Future Development Plan in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, T.; Sitompul, P.; Batubara, M.; Harjana, T.; Yatini, C. Y.; Monstein, C.

    2016-04-01

    Sumedang Observatory (6.91°S, 107,84°E) was established in 1975 and is one of the solar observation facilities of the Space Science Center of Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), located around 40 km, east part of Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. Several instrumentations for solar and space observation such as optical telescopes, radio solar spectrograph, flux gate magnetometer, etc. are operated there, together with an ionosphere sounding system (ionosonde) that was set up later. In July 2014, a standard Callisto (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) spectrometer was installed at Sumedang Observatory for solar radio activity monitoring. Callisto has been developed in the framework of IHY2007 and ISWI, supported by UN and NASA. Callisto spectrometer has observation capability in the frequency range of 45-870 MHz. The Callisto spectrometer receives signal by using a set of 21 elements log-periodic antenna, model CLP5130-1N, pointed to the Sun and equipped with a low noise pre-amplifier. With respect to the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) measurements, the Callisto spectrometer is operated individually in frequency ranges of 45-80 MHz and 180-450 MHz. Observation status and data flow are monitored in on-line from center office located in Bandung. The data was transferred to central database at FHNW (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz) server every 15 minutes to appear on e-Callisto network subsequently. A real time data transfer and data processing based on Python software also has been developed successfully to be used as an input for Space Weather Information and Forecasting Services (SWIFtS) provided by LAPAN. On 5th November 2014, Callisto spectrometer at Sumedang observed the first clear solar radio event, a solar radio burst type II corresponding to a coronal mass ejection (CME), indicated by a strong X-ray event of M7.9 that was informed on by Space Weather

  2. Talun-Huma, Swidden Agriculture, and Rural Economy in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Kosuke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Talun-huma is an intensified land use system for swidden agriculture in Indonesia. Talun is a productive fallow system that is meaningful from ecological, social, and economic perspectives. Although it is considered a typical practice in West Java, this study proves that the term talun was used in many places in Indonesia besides West Java during colonial times.  This study also shows that talun-huma and agroforestry practice in the surveyed village is closely linked to the socioeconomic structure of the rural society based on the data collected in 2000–1. Huma is more likely to be practiced by the lower strata owning little agricultural and forestry land. The economic development reflected in the growth of banana leaf production and income from the non-­agricultural sector income has not excluded or diminished talun-huma and agro­forestry practices. Sharecropping practices and agricultural labor relations among the villagers have established huma practice. The social forestry program implemented in this region also supports the continuity of huma practice. Increase in banana leaf production does not diminish the practice of huma and talun agro­forestry, although banana leaf production tends to shorten the duration of the cycle. Moreover, the development of non-agricultural sectors and wet rice cultivation has had a positive impact on the existence of huma practices and the continuation of slash-and-burn practices.  Talun-huma and permanent forests with or without talun are good practices that keep the system sustainable from an economic and social point of view. Diversified farming, balanced rotation of land use, and diversity of plants, as well as the planting of leguminous land conservation trees such as kaliandra and gamal, play an important role in sustaining the system.  The introduction of banana leaf plants to the village in the 1990s has contributed significantly to the continuity of the system because the plants are a

  3. Characterization of Bacteriophage Specific to Bacillus pumilus from Ciapus River in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Kusmiatun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus pumilus is a spore-forming bacteria that is rod-shaped, gram positive, and aerobic. B. pumilus produced pumilacidins, known to have toxic effects on epithelial cells. Antibiotics were usually used to treat the disease caused by bacteria. Antibiotic typing test of B. pumilus indigenous from sewage water showed that this isolate was resistant to ampicillin and clindamycin. An alternative way was by application of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents to reduce B. pumilus in environment. The aim of this study were to isolate and characterize B. pumilus bacteriophage isolated from Ciapus River in Bogor, West Java. Bacteriophages infecting B. pumilus were isolated from river water using the double agar overlay method. Phages were defined by plaque morphology, structure, host range, and characteristic of molecular weight protein phage. Phage FBa1, FBa2, and FBa3 had narrow host range and they were specific for infecting B. pumilus. Electron microscope observation showed that phage FBa1 had icosahedral head without tail (166.67 nm in diameter, so it is called phage-like particles. Characterization of phage FBa1 by SDS-PAGE showed five proteins band. Molecular weight of FBa1 proteins was 70.9, 54.9, 33.8, 28.3, and 21.4 kDa.

  4. The Ancestral Heritage: Sundanese Traditional Houses Of Kampung Naga, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayanti Tessa Eka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sundanese are the largest indigenous ethnic group in the western part of Java Island. Sundanese culture closely relates to Animist, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islam philosophies. It led to the unique creation of the Sundanese traditional houses called Rumah Adat in Kampung Naga where the ancient tradition from their ancestor were upheld until today. Kampung Naga was listed as one of the Sundanese traditional villages known as Kampung Adat in West Java. This village has its own characteristics which enable the conveyance of tremendous tradition from the past, since the reign of Padjajaran Kingdom to the present. Additionally, it has the ability to accelerate globalization of culture these days. The objectives of this paper are to reintroduce and observe the in-depth meaning of Sundanese traditional houses within Kampung Naga. This paper employed qualitative investigation with the support of exploratory literature review. The result of this study portrayed that Sundanese traditional village are depicted as sacred spaces when the founder, the belief, and the nature spirit are interrelated. Thus, the creation of traditional houses in Kampung Naga does not only serve as shelters, but it also has “breath”, “soul” and may embody cosmological value. This paper is prominent in the documentation of Sundanese traditional buildings as one of cultural identity of Indonesia, which will deliver the cultural knowledge to the world wide.

  5. Improved milk production performance of smallholder farms in West Java (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembada, Pria; Duteurtre, Guillaume; Purwanto, Bagus Priyo; Suryahadi

    2016-04-01

    In Indonesia, because of the rapidly growing demand for dairy products, the development of milk production in rural communities can play a strong role in reducing poverty. However, the development of smallholder dairy production requires adequate support from the government, development organizations, and private firms. To assess the needs and situations of poor dairy farmers, we conducted a study in Ciater sub-district in West Java Province to compare the current situation with the situation that prevailed 4 years ago, i.e., before the implementation of a dairy development project. Data were collected from 61 farms in June 2014. The average number of cows on the farms surveyed was three to four, and each relied on cultivating an average of 0.4 ha of forage. Results showed that thanks to the project activities, milk productivity per cow and net income from milk production increased by 25% between 2010 and 2014. These results underline the importance of providing training and technical support for the development of the livelihoods of dairy smallholders.

  6. Application Performance Management Impact On Organizational Performance Local Company Studies In West Java - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teni Listiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the effect on the performance of the companys performance management area. Management performance is measured through three dimensions performance planning performance assessment and feeding it behind. While organizational performance is measured through four dimensions financial perspective customer perspective internal business processes and learning and growth perspective. The unit of analysis in this research area comprising 30 companies from 23 taps 6 PD Market and 1 PD Health. Meanwhile the unit of observation is the top-middle-level managers-down of a total of 360 people. To determine the influence of the variables studied used Structural Equation Model SEM based on the model variant with Partial Least Square PLS. The results showed that in the enterprise area performance management affect the performance of the organization but the effect is not too large.

  7. FOOD CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS AMONG FARMER HOUSEHOLDS IN SUBANG, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Sufiani Suhanda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The objectives of this study were : 1 to analyze the consumption of various types of foods (meat, milk, fish, fruit, and others and the methods of getting the foods among farmer households, 2 To analyze the nutritional status (fathers, mothers and children among farmer households, and 3 To analyze the health status (fathers, mothers and children among farmer households. This research was of a retrospective and cross sectional design. This research was conducted in Subang Farming Regency, West Java. There are two types of population (farmer households, namely, those of horticultural region and those of rice field region. The sample size at each location was 261 households, so the total sample was 522 households.  The results of this research show that in general the frequency and quantity of food consumed by the non poor households are relatively better than those of the poor households. Further, as the centers of agricultural production, both regions (rice and horticulture will produce certain foods in abundance and will affect the patterns of food consumption among the local community and households.  Children’s nutritional status is in general of good category (based on W/A and H/A. Husband’s and wives’ nutritional status is normal. The length of upper respiratory tract infection on wives and children is quite low (. Key words: Farmer, food consumption, nutritional and health status

  8. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Mapping: Study Case in Karawang District, West Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Eryando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The DHF prevention efforts have been continually conducted by the local health office, but some technical obstacles such as surveillance system is still very weak, and this is known as an important part in decision making process to handle the problem using evidence based information. The research objective is to obtain information on dengue endemic mapping through GIS (Geographic Information Systems to strengthen district surveillance system in district level. Most DHF cases occur in the productive age and located in urban areas with the larva-free rate is low. The direction of movement of the case are local diffusion. Karawang district is a low-lying areas prone to flooding. The rainy season occurs in late October to early May, but the rise of dengue cases at the turn of the rainy season to dry season, this indicates that the humidity in Karawang district supports the mosquito vector breeding. Foging will only kill adult mosquitoes, dengue control programs need to involve community participation and emphasized on public areas like schools and offices because a lot of dengue cases occurred in the productive age. GIS is capable of producing a map factors of risk and map of the case to allow for planning and evaluation of area-based dengue eradication program. GIS is useful in surveillance environmentally based disease, health interventions, and disease prevention strategies.

  9. Geohazard and geological condition overview of Sekeloa-Bojongkoneng, Bandung, West Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Mohamad Sapari D.; Azzy, Fikri Noor; Sophian, R. Irvan

    2016-05-01

    Bandung is a densely populated and rapidly growing city, especially in the Northern Area, with many rivers flowing through it. Infrastructure development if not taken into account the geo hazard potential of the river can cause disaster to occur resulting in damages and casualties. The inundation named "Cileuncang Flood" periodically occurred in the rainy season. Landslide disaster also occurred in 2015 at Mekarsaluyu, Cimenyan and Bukit Dago Selatan. This study explores the phenomena that occurred in the region. The research objectives are to: identify geological conditions contributing to geo hazard, conduct geo hazard assessment in the area and recommend mitigation activities. Research area ranges from Sekeloa to Bojongkoneng, where there are three rivers: Cirapohan, Cidurian, and Cilimus. The research method used mixed method, field observation and desk study (secondary data). Geospatial data and geological field observation was conducted. Lithology layers coring well data was used to determine the detailed geological condition and characteristic. Research results show geological condition that can trigger disaster. There are some locations, which have disasters in the past, this occurrence is connected with geological conditions to determine the potential disaster that may occur in the future. The first site is located on the western part of the Cidurian river consisted of Cikidang Formation. Geo hazard that occurred in this zone is flood. Second site is located on the eastern part of the Cidurian river, has the presence of volcanic eruption product. Geo hazard that can potentially occur in this zone is a landslide. The city stakeholder needs to conduct structural and nonstructural mitigation activities to reduce the risks.

  10. Tree culture of smallholder farmers practicing agroforestry in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2016-01-01

    groups, followed by household survey of a sample of 20 agroforestry farmers. Five main agroforestry systems (homegardens, fruit tree system, timber tree system, mixed fruit–timber system, and cropping in the forest understory) exist in the study area, and all of them exhibit a noticeable diversity...... include not only a form of forest dominated by ‘cultivated trees’, but also an anthropogenic vegetation formation derived from agricultural antecedents. In land-use classifications agroforestry systems are not recognized as forestry, but like forests they provide tree products and services. Classification...

  11. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation.

  12. 1D and 2D Occam's Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data Applied in Volcano-Geothermal Area In Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Elsi; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) magnetotelluric data inversion were conducted to reveal the subsurface resistivity structure beneath the eastern part of a volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. Fifteen magnetotelluric sounding data spanning two lines of investigation were inverted using Occam's inversion scheme. The result depict that there are extensively conductive layer (2-10 ohm meter) below the volcanic overburden. This conductive layer is interpreted as the clay cap resulted from thermal alteration. A higher resistivity layer (10-80 ohm meter) underlies the clay cap and is interpreted as the reservoir whose top boundaries vary between 1000 m above and 2000 m below sea level.

  13. Bacterial community composition and predicted functional ecology of sponges, sediment and seawater from the thousand islands reef complex, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Nicole J; Cleary, Daniel F R; Polónia, Ana R M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we assessed the composition of Bacteria in four biotopes namely sediment, seawater and two sponge species (Stylissa massa and Xestospongia testudinaria) at four different reef sites in a coral reef ecosystem in West Java, Indonesia. In addition to this, we used a predictive metagenomic approach to estimate to what extent nitrogen metabolic pathways differed among bacterial communities from different biotopes. We observed marked differences in bacterial composition of the most abundant bacterial phyla, classes and orders among sponge species, water and sediment. Proteobacteria were by far the most abundant phylum in terms of both sequences and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Predicted counts for genes associated with the nitrogen metabolism suggested that several genes involved in the nitrogen cycle were enriched in sponge samples, including nosZ, nifD, nirK, norB and nrfA genes. Our data show that a combined barcoded pyrosequencing and predictive metagenomic approach can provide novel insights into the potential ecological functions of the microbial communities. Not only is this approach useful for our understanding of the vast microbial diversity found in sponges but also to understand the potential response of microbial communities to environmental change.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index (HIS) of Surili (Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822) in mixed forest of Kuningan District, West Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Supartono, Toto; Priyono Kartono, Agus; Hikmat, Agus; Ramdhoni, Syahru

    2017-01-01

    Java has been experiencing deforestation due to high population pressure. A lot of natural forests which play an important role as wildlife habitat are loss. The remaining natural forest distribute in mountainous areas in the form natural conservation area, meanwhile the others have been converted into settlement andinfrastructure, food crops, cash crops plantation, estate and private forest plantation. Javan langur (Presbytiscomata) is an endemic species of Java and used to utilize natural forest as their habitat. However, in a recent observation the species isfound inside plantation forest in Kuningan district, West Java. This is a unique finding, due to the fact that a plantation forest is not suitable habitat for Javan langur. The research is aimed to develop Habitat Suitability for this species based on physical, biological and human disturbance factors. Data on Javan langur presence and its habitat component were derived from field observation and secondary data/map. Result showed HSI could be developed based on 4 PC and showed that the study area mostly is occupied by low HIS Index or not suitable area for surili.

  15. Hydrothermal system of the Papandayan Volcano, West Java, Indonesia and its geochemistry evolution of thermal water after the November 2002 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Mazot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no1.20072Papandayan is a strato volcano situated in West Java, Indonesia. After the last magmatic eruptionin 1772, only few phreatic explosions have been occurring. At the present time, the activity is centeredin the northeast crater manifested by the presence of fumaroles and hot springs. In November 2002an explosive eruption occurred and ejected ash and altered rocks. Study of the altered rocks revealedthat an advanced argillic alteration took place in the hydrothermal system by an interaction betweenacid fl uids and rocks. Four zones of alteration have been formed as a limited extension along faults oracross permeable structures at different levels beneath the active crater of the volcano.Two types of acid fl uids are distinguished in the crater of the Papandayan Volcano: (1 acidsulphate-chloride water with pH values between 1.6 and 4.6, and (2 acid sulphate water with pHvalues between 1.2 and 2.5. The samples collected after the eruption revealed an increase in the SO4/Cl and Mg / Cl ratios. This evolution is likely explained by an increase in the neutralization of acidfl uids which tends to show that water-rock interactions were more signifi cant after the eruption. Thechanges in chemistry observed in 2003 were the consequence of the opening of new fractures whereunaltered or less altered volcanic rocks were in contact with the ascending acid water. The high δ34Svalues (9-17‰ observed in the acid sulphate-chloride water before the November 2002 eruptionsuggest that dissolved sulphates were mainly formed by the disproportionation of magmatic SO2. Onthe other hand, the low δ34S values (-0.3-7 ‰ observed in acid sulphate-chloride water sampled afterthe eruption suggest that the origin of dissolved sulphates for these waters is the surfi cial oxidation ofhydrogen sulphide.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the state of CO2 soil degassing on the flanks of Gede volcano (West Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunrat, S. L.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    Gede Volcano (West Java) is part of an andesitic stratovolcano complex consisting of Pangrango in the north-west and Gede in the south-east. The last recorded eruptive activity was a phreatic subvolcanian ash eruption in 1957. Current activity is characterized by episodic swarms at 2-4 km depth, and low-temperature (~160°C) crater degassing in two distinct summit crater fumarolic areas. Hot springs occur in the saddle between the Gede and Pangrango edifice, as well as on the NE flank base. The most recent eruptive events produced pyroclastic material, their flow deposits concentrate toward the NE. A collaborative effort between the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Geological Agency and the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) is since 2010 aimed at upgrading the geophysical and geochemical monitoring network at Gede Volcano. To support the monitoring instrumentation upgrades under way, surveys of soil CO2 degassing have been performed on the flanks of Gede, in circular and radial traverses.The goal was to establish a spatial distribution of flank CO2 fluxes, and to allow smart siting for continuous gas monitoring stations. Crater fluxes were not surveyed, as its low-temperature hydrothermal system is likely prone to large hydraulic changes in this tropical environment, resulting in variable permeability effects that might mask signals from deeper reservoir or conduit degassing. The high precipitation intensity in the mountains of tropical Java pose challenges to this method, since soil gas permeability is largely controlled by soil moisture content. Simultaneous soil moisture measurements were undertaken. The soil CO2 surveys were carried out using a LI-8100A campaign flux chamber instrument (LICOR Biosciences, Lincoln, Nebraska). This instrument has a very precise and highly stable sensor and an atmospheric pressure equilibrator, making it highly sensitive to low fluxes. It is the far superior choice for higher precision low

  17. Developing a playground as catchment area in effort to maintaining groundwater in Jaten village of Karanganyar district of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowo, Budi; Darsono; Wahyuningsih, Daru

    2016-11-01

    Changes in land use for housing indirectly disturb the hydrology balance of the area. Groundwater conservation efforts can be done by keeping the function the catchment area. One of the housing developer's obligations is providing open spaces (the playground) to play or activity of the residents. Playground in Bumi Graha Indah Housing, Jaten village, Karanganyar district, Central Java, Indonesia has a fundamental issue, that is, in the rainy season the water is difficult to seep due landfill process are not well planned. It causes the playground become in muddy conditions with tall grass, so that reduces the function as a playground and or activity the residents. In the dry season, the soil dry of landfill caused dust scattering and disrupt the activities of people around the playground. Lack of water resources lead watering process for solving the problem of dust during the dry season was considered ineffective. Structuring drainage combined with modified recharge wells can be used to catch water runoff housing. This modification of water catchment areas can make playground dry quickly after rain so the activities of people are not bothered when utilizing the open space provided. Surface runoff water absorbed in open aquifer so that the hydrological balance always be maintained. Adequacy groundwater in the area playground can be used to sprinkler dust and backup needs clean water residents by creating wells and reservoir stocks.

  18. A comparison of lineament and fracture trace extraction from LANDSAT ETM+ panchromatic band and panchromatic aerial photograph in Gunungsewu karst area, Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, E.; Widartono, B. S.; Lukito, H.; Kusumayuda, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims at exploring interpretability of the panchromatic band of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) compared to the panchromatic aerial photograph in lineament and fracture trace extraction. Special interest is addressed to karst terrain where lineaments and fracture traces are expressed by aligned valleys and closed depressions. The study area is an single aerial photographic coverage in the Gunungsewu Karst, Java-Indonesia which is characterized by a lineament-controlled cone karst and labyrinth-cone karst. The result shows that the recording time of the Landsat ETM+ with respect to the shadow resulting from the sun illumination angle is the key factor in the performance of lineament and fracture traces extraction. Directional filtering and slicing techniques significantly enhance the lineament interpretability of the panchromatic band of Landsat ETM+. The two methods result in more lineaments and fracture traces which T-test affirm in 0.001 and 0.004 significant levels. Length based lineament analysis attains a better result compared to frequency based analysis.

  19. Subsurface Determination Of Cavities In Limestone Rock Area By Geoelectric Method In Tinapan Village Todanan Blora District Central Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Santoso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two Dimensional of geoelectric method can be used to find out the conductive formation in the earth surface. The purpose of this research is to give the description about the geological subsurface formation, that the high resistivity value is indicate the potential area of cave and void in the limestone rocks. The dipole dipolegeoelectric method is used in this research with the path of lines is 250 m with 10 m electrode spacing. The total lines is 7 and the azimuth is from east to west. Resistivity method is started with inject the electrical current into the earth by current electrode, then potential difference will arise and measured by potential electrode. Variation value of resistance for each layer rock can calculated by divided potential defference with current value. The existence of the cavity is known by the resistivity value is more than 2500 ohm-m, while the cracks have a resistivity of 1500 to 2500 ohm-m

  20. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.

    2016-05-01

    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  1. Significant effects of birth-related biological factors on pre-adolescent nutritional status among rural Sundanese in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2005-07-01

    The Sundanese inhabiting West Java, the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia, are characterized by a high prevalence of child malnutrition, together with high fertility. Based on an anthropometric measurement and interview survey of 310 children aged 5-12 years in a rural Sundanese village, this study examined the relative significance of the effects of eight biological, eight socioeconomic status (SES) and four health behavioural factors on their Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) in particular. Three biological factors, i.e. birth interval, birth weight and mother's body weight, and one SES factor, i.e. mother's occupation, were selected as the predictors of the two Z scores by regression analysis, indicating more significant effects of the biological factors than the other factors. This pattern is judged to occur in less-developed and high-fertility populations. Since these two Z scores were worse in the subject children than in the under-5-year-old children from the same village, more attention should be paid to the long-lasting effects of birth-related biological factors up to pre-adolescent ages, as an insufficient nutritional status tends to damage growth and health in adolescence and adulthood.

  2. Analysis of respirable particulate exposure and its effect to public health around lead smelter and e-waste processing industry in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselina, M.; Roosmini, D.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ayu A, M.; Cahyadi, W.

    2016-03-01

    Respirable particulate exposure strongly affects human health, especially for children who lived around industrial area. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of respirable particulate exposure to lung capacity of children. Study location in this study was Parung Panjang District, area of lead smelter industry and also in Astana Anyar District, area of e-waste processing industry. Thirty children were involved in Astana Anyar District and also thirty children in Parung Panjang District. The control groups were also studied in both areas. Predicted average daily intake (ADD) of respirable particulate was estimated and lung or respiration condition of children was measured by using spirometer. The lung condition of respondents was estimated by FEV1.0 and FVC values. As the result, the predicted ADD of children in lead smelter area is 3 times higher than the predicted ADD of children in e-waste processing area. It was correlated positively with the higher PM2.5 concentration in Parung Panjang District than the PM2.5 concentration in Astana Anyar District. Metals concentration in Parung Panjang was also measured with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in this study and it was clearly state that metals concentration in location study were higher than metals concentration in control area.

  3. ASPERGILLUS FLA VUS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUTS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE DELIVERY CHAINS IN CIANJUR REGENCY, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey to obtain information on pre- and postharvest handling of peanuts at farmer, collector, wholesaler and retailer levels, including Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin BI contamination of peanuts collected in Cianjur regency, West Java, was conducted during the harvest period of the wet season of February 2004. The moisture contents and physical qualities of the peanuts were also determined. Thirteen and 40 dry pod samples were collected randomly from 12 farmers and 23 co llectors, respectively. Seven dry kernel samples were also collected from collectors. Five and 45 dry kernel samples were collected randomly from 2 wholesalers and 45 retailers in traditional markets, resp ectively. Thus, a total of 110 dry peanut pod and kernel samples were collected. The results of interviews with farmers, collectors, wholes alers and retailers, and also the moisture contents and physical qualities of the peanuts arc described in this article. The percentages of samples infected by A. flavus were highest at the wholesaler as well as at retailer levels (100%, respectively, followed by those sampled at the collectors (85.0 and 85.7%, respectively, and farmers (84.6%. The mean percentage of infected kernels in infect ed samples of peanuts collected from retailers was the highest (87.6%, followed by those collected from wholesalers (72.4%, collectors in the form of kernels (23.3% and pods (17.7%, and farmers (15.2%. The range of aflatoxin BI contents in peanut samples collected from farmers (dry pods, collectors (dry pods, wholesalers (dry pods and kernels and retailers (dry kernels were < 3.6 -114.2, < 3.6 -2999.5 and < 3,6 - 34.1, < 3.6 - 6065.9, and < 3.6 - 6073.0 ppb, respectively. The highest aflatoxin B, contents at the wholesaler and retailer levels were 6065.9 ppb (in one sample and 6073.0 ppb (in one sample, respectively. The percentage of samples contaminated with more than 15 ppb of aflatoxin BI was the highest in peanuts collected from

  4. The implementation of the risk approach on pregnancy outcome by traditional birth attendants : the Tanjungsari study in West-Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Alisjahbana-Kartadiredja (Anna)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIndonesia is made up of more than 13000 islands with defined ecological, ethnic, socioeconomic and cultural co nditions and which developed rapidly. Much has been achieved but maternal and child health remains still a problem especially in rural areas. So far the problem of perinatal car

  5. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  6. Identification of recently active faults and folds in Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the spatial pattern of active deformation in Java, Indonesia with the aim of characterizing the deformation of the upper plate of the subduction zone in this region. The lack of detailed neotectonic studies in Java is mostly because of its relatively low rate of deformation in spite of significant historical seismic activity. In addition, the abundance of young volcanic materials as well as the region's high precipitation rate and vegetation cover obscure structural relationships and prevent reliable estimates of offset along active faults as well as exhumed intra-arc faults. Detailed maps of active faults derived from satellite and field-based neotectonic mapping, paleoseismic data, as well as new data on the fault kinematics and estimates of orientation of principal stresses from volcano morphology characterize recently active faults and folds. The structures in West Java are dominated by strike-slip faulting, while Central and northern part of East Java are dominated by folds and thrusting with minor normal faulting. The structures vary in length from hundreds meters to tens of kilometers and mainly trend N75°E, N8°E with some minor N45°W. Our preliminary mapping indicates that there are no large scale continuous structures in Java, and that instead deformation is distributed over wide areas along small structures. We established several paleoseismic sites along some of the identified structures. We excavated two shallow trenches along the Pasuruan fault, a normal fault striking NW-SE that forms a straight 13 km scarp cutting Pleistocene deltaic deposits of the north shore of East Java. The trenches exposed faulted and folded fluvial, alluvial and colluvial strata that record at least four ground-rupturing earthquakes since the Pleistocene. The Pasuruan site proves its potential to provide a paleoseismic record rarely found in Java. Abundant Quaternary volcanoes are emplaced throughout Java; most of the volcanoes show elongation in N100°E and N20

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (raegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  8. Ants in Tropical Urban Habitats: The Myrmecofauna in a Densely Populated Area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKHMAD RIZALI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ants are the most abundant animals in tropical habitats and have been widely studied in natural and semi-natural tropical systems. However, species in urban tropical habitats remain poorly studied, despite their abundance and potentially important roles in urban ecosystems and pest dynamics. We investigated the ant fauna of Bogor and its surroundings to contribute to the characterization of the myrmecofauna of one of Southeast Asia’s most densely populated regions. Ants were collected both by hand collection and from honey baits in the most common habitats: garbage dumps, households, and home gardens. In total, 94 species were recorded, over two thirds of which occurred in home gardens, which underlines the importance of vegetated habitats for urban planning to support complex ant assemblages. Twelve sampled species are well-known as tramp species that occur primarily in human-dominated landscapes. The two tramp species Anoplolepis gracilipes and Paratrechina longicornis dominated ant assemblages in all locations and most habitat types. The assemblages of tramp species were affected by habitat type, whereas that of non tramp species were not. Forty-five species were also recorded in the Bogor Botanical Garden and five species are also known to be common in cacao agroforests. Hence, research in urban tropical habitats can increase our knowledge of the occurrence of ant species, allowing us to better assess the biodiversity and conservation potential of semi-natural habitats.

  9. Capability Approach for well-being Evaluation in Regional Development Planning : Case Study in Magelang Regency. Central java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramono, Retno Widodo Dwi

    2016-01-01

    The thesis uses Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (1993, 2000) to devise a set of criteria to evaluate the well-being and quality of life of economic groups in a case study of Magelang, a small rural area in Central Java, Indonesia. In applying this method, the researcher examines how the spatial ch

  10. A new species of Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rooijen; G. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the colubrid snake genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890, Dendrelaphis underwoodi, new species is described herein. Dendrelaphis underwoodi is endemic to Java, Indonesia. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the differences between D. underwoodi and the congeneric taxa D. cyanochlor

  11. Cinder cones of Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. SutawIdjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20096The Mount Slamet volcanic field in Central Java, Indonesia, contains thirty five cinder cones within an area of 90 sq. km in the east flank of the volcano. The cinder cones occur singly or in small groups, with diameter of the base ranges from 130 - 750 m and the height is around 250 m. Within the volcanic field, the cinder cones are spread over the volcanic area at the distance of 4 to 14 km from the eruption center of the Slamet Volcano. They are concentrated within latitudes 7°11’00” - 7°16’00” S,, and longitudes 109°15’00” - 109°18’00” E. The density of the cinder cones is about 1.5 cones/km2. Most of the cinder cones lie on the Tertiary sedimentary rocks along the NW-trending fault system and on radial fractures. The structural pattern may be related to the radial faults in this region. The cone surfaces are commonly blanketed by Slamet air-falls and lava flows. The deposits consist of poorly bedded, very coarse-grained, occasionally overlain by oxidized scoria, and large-sized of ballistic bombs and blocks. There are various kind of volcanic bombs originating from scoriae ballistic rock fragments. The other kind of volcanic bombs are breadcrust bomb, almond seed or contorted shape. All of the cinder cones have undergone degradation, which can be observed from the characters of gully density and surface morphology. By using Porter parameters, Hco is equal to 0.25 Wco, whilst Wcr is equal to 0.40 Wco. The Hco/Wco ratio is higher than Hco = 0.2 Wco reference line. A radiometric dating using K-Ar method carried out on a scoria bomb yields the age of 0.042 + 0.020 Ma.  

  12. Short Communication: A new record of naturalized Selaginella uncinata (Desv. Spring (Selaginellaceae from Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2014. A new record of naturalized Selaginella uncinata (Desv. Spring (Selaginellaceae from Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 261-268. During extensive field researches on the diversity and distribution of Selaginella in Java, between 2007 and 2014, an alien species has been found in nature, i.e. Selaginella uncinata. This species is a trailing herb with small, wiry, creeping main stem, fan-shaped branches, rooting at the nodes to c.a. 100 cm long or more; leaves are dimorphic, 4-ranked, and characterized by conspicuous blue iridescent; strobili are tetragonal, up to c.a. 2 cm long. S. uncinata was found growing wild in the highlands with high rainfall, namely: Cibodas Botanical Garden, Cianjur, West Java and Tawangsari, in the city district of Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia. Transplant experiments showed that this plant was able to grow and reproduce well in lowlands (Depok, 107 m asl. and highlands (Wonosobo, 768 m asl.. In the experimental garden, it could compete successfully with native species of Javan selaginellas, for space, sunlight and nutrients. Therefore, we must be concerned about the invasion ability of this species.

  13. Identification of Upper Crustal Structures Beneath Central Java, Indonesia from of Surface Wave Dispersion Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Luehr, Birger-G.; Bodin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study on MERAMEX data (Zulfakriza et al., 2014) obtained features of the tomographic images which correlate well with the surface geology of central Java in periods between 1 to 12 sec. Kendeng Basin and active volcanoes in the central part of this region are clearly imaged with low group velocities with values around 0.8 km/sec, while the carbonate structures in the southern part of the region correspond to higher group velocities in the range of 1.8 to 2.0 km/sec. In this current study, we invert dispersion curves obtained from seismic noise tomography to estimate shear wave-depth profiles of the region. The results are used to discuss the spatial variation of shear wave velocities for a depth range down from the surface to upper crust. Most of the shear wave velocity anomalies, including the upper crustal areas of the Kendeng basin and active volcanoes, are consistent with our previous study of Rayleigh wave group velocities and fit to the regional geology. Keywords: Dispersion Inversion; shear wave velocity; Central Java, Indonesia. Reference: Zulfakriza, Z., Saygin, E., Cummins, P., Widiyantoro, S., Nugraha, A., Luehr, B.-G., Bodin, T., 2014. Upper crustal structure of central Java, Indonesia, from transdimensional seismic ambient noise tomography. Geophys. J. Int. 197.

  14. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group.

  15. Jamu as Traditional Medicine in Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Riswan, Soedarsono; SANGAT-ROEMANTYO, Harini

    2002-01-01

    "Jamu" is a word in Javanese tribe language, which means the traditional medicine from plants. Today, jamu has been adopted into the Indonesian language and has become a common and popular Indonesian word with the similar meaning. Based on its uses, jamu can be distinguished into five categories of mcdicines, health-cares, beauty-cares (cosmetics), tonics or beverages and body's endurance or protection. This paper discusses the results on ethno-medicinal plant studies from some areas in Ja...

  16. Exploration of High elevation liana colonies on Mt. Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WS Hoover

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty–five individual lianas were distributed on 2 East facing ridges on the second highest mountain on Java, Mt. Slamet (3418 m., Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty one colonies were observed on small flat areas on ridges. The liana species observed include: Embelia pergamacea, Toddalia asiatica, Elaeagnus latifolia, Schefflera lucida, Vaccinium laurifolium and Lonicera javanica. Diameter of each liana was measured and liana density/flat area calculated. Floristic collecting was under- taken within the elevational gradient of liana distribution. Data suggest an ecotone transition from lower to upper mon- tane forest is observed between 2200 and 2300 m, though forest types are difficult to determine due to disturbance caused by fire at the upper elevations. Observing lianas at these unusuall high elevations with near pluvial rainfall, con- tradict established scientific theory concerning global distribution and abundance of lianas.  

  17. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  18. Boron isotope variations in geothermal systems on Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Budi Joko; Pichler, Thomas; You, Chen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents δ11B data for hot springs, hot acid crater lakes, geothermal brines and a steam vent from Java, Indonesia. The processes that produce a large range of the δ11B values were investigated, including the possible input of seawater as well as the contrast δ11B compositions of acid sulfate and acid chloride crater lakes. The δ11B values of hot springs ranged from - 2.4 to + 28.7‰ and acid crater lakes ranged from + 0.6 to + 34.9‰. The δ11B and Cl/B values in waters from the Parangtritis and Krakal geothermal systems confirmed seawater input. The δ11B values of acid sulfate crater lakes ranged from + 5.5 to + 34.9‰ and were higher than the δ11B of + 0.6‰ of the acid chloride crater lake. The heavier δ11B in the acid sulfate crater lakes was caused by a combination of vapor phase addition and further enrichment due to evaporation and B adsorption onto clay minerals. In contrast, the light δ11B of the acid chloride crater lake was a result of acid water-rocks interaction. The correlations of δ11B composition with δ18O and δ2H indicated that the B isotope corresponded to their groundwater mixing sources, but not for J21 (Segaran) and J48 (Cikundul) that underwent 11B isotope enrichment by B adsorption into minerals.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2016-11-09

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P Java has a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  20. New 1.5 million-year-old Homo erectus maxilla from Sangiran (Central Java, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Yahdi; Ciochon, Russell L; Polanski, Joshua M; Grine, Frederick E; Bettis, E Arthur; Rizal, Yan; Franciscus, Robert G; Larick, Roy R; Heizler, Matthew; Aswan; Eaves, K Lindsay; Marsh, Hannah E

    2011-10-01

    Sangiran (Solo Basin, Central Java, Indonesia) is the singular Homo erectus fossil locale for Early Pleistocene Southeast Asia. Sangiran is the source for more than 80 specimens in deposits with (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages of 1.51-0.9 Ma. In April 2001, we recovered a H. erectus left maxilla fragment (preserving P(3)- M(2)) from the Sangiran site of Bapang. The find spot lies at the base of the Bapang Formation type section in cemented gravelly sands traditionally called the Grenzbank Zone. Two meters above the find spot, pumice hornblende has produced an (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 1.51 ± 0.08 Ma. With the addition of Bpg 2001.04, Sangiran now has five H. erectus maxillae. We compare the new maxilla with homologs representing Sangiran H. erectus, Zhoukoudian H. erectus, Western H. erectus (pooled African and Georgian specimens), and Homo habilis. Greatest contrast is with the Zhoukoudian maxillae, which appear to exhibit a derived pattern of premolar-molar relationships compared to Western and Sangiran H. erectus. The dental patterns suggest distinct demic origins for the earlier H. erectus populations represented at Sangiran and the later population represented at Zhoukoudian. These two east Asian populations, separated by 5000 km and nearly 800 k.yr., may have had separate origins from different African/west Eurasian populations.

  1. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2013-12-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking.

  2. Diatoms and Water Quality of Telaga Warna Dieng, Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Widodo Agung Suedy, Sri; Hadiyanto

    2017-02-01

    Diatoms are popular name for Bacillariophyte, the microalgae with the specific characteristic of silicious cell walls that well preserved in the sediments. The different diatoms assemblage in the sediment layers indicate different environment at the time of the diatoms live and deposited. Telaga Warna is small lake in Dieng Plateau. Telaga means lake, Warna means colour. It is called Telaga Warna because previously have 4 colours i.e. red, white, blue, and yellow which was influenced by weather, time, and site of view. This study aims to analysis the diatoms communities and water quality of Telaga Warna Dieng, Java, Indonesia. Coring conducted at three different locations. Water sampling carried out on all three spots. Analysis of diatoms consist of three stages: digestion, preparation, and identification of diatoms. There were 59 diatoms species found in Telaga Warna Dieng that were belong to 9 groups diatoms of centric, arafid, eunotoid, birafid, monorafid, birafid, epitemid, nitzschioid, and surirelloid. Eunotia, Pinnularia, and Melosira were the dominant genus from Telaga Warna. The water quality parameters that exceeded Indonesia Water Quality Standard were pH (2.2 – 5.4), Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu. Based on the abundance of species Eunotia and Pinnularia in Telaga Warna Dieng indicates that water tends to be acidic. The dominance of Melosira indicates waters rich in nitrogen. Based on the total concentration of nitrogen and phosphorous, Telaga Warna was in an eutrophic – hipereutrophic conditions with total nitrogen concentration > 1.9 mg/L and total phosphorus concentration > 0.1 mg/L.

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries.

  4. Catch, effort and sampling strategies in the highly variable sardine fisheries around East Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pet, J.S.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Sukkel, M.; Setyohady, D.; Tumuljadi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the fishery for Sardinella spp. around East Java, Indonesia, were studied in an attempt to develop an efficient catch and effort sampling strategy for this highly variable fishery. The inter-annual and monthly variation in catch, effort and catch per unit of effort (

  5. Calling in wild silvery gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in Java (Indonesia): Behavior, phylogeny, and conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissmann, T.; Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hardly any behavioral data are available for the silvery gibbon (Hylobates moloch), an endangered primate that is endemic to the island of Java, Indonesia. We studied the singing behavior of the easternmost population of this species in the Dieng mountains, central Java, in 1998-1999. We aimed to do

  6. Eco-Tourism Development Strategy Balurannational Park in the Regency of Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Adil; Moeljadi

    2015-01-01

    Baluran National Park in the regency of Situbondo, East Java-Indonesia, highly prospective for development of sustainable tourism that can improve the welfare of local people. The suitable tourism type is eco-tourism with local people involvement. The purposes of this study are: 1) To know the local people involvement in eco-tourism development;…

  7. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  8. Analysis of Focal Mechanism and Microseismicity around the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyono, Karyono; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Abdurrokhim, Abdurrokhim; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of May 2006 numerous eruption sites started in northeast Java, Indonesia following to a M6.3 earthquake striking the island.Within a few weeks an area or nearly 2 km2 was covered by boiling mud and rock fragments and a prominent central crater (named Lusi) has been erupting for the last 9.5 years. The M.6.3 seismic event also triggered the activation of the Watukosek strike slip fault system that originates from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex and extends to the northeast of Java hosting Lusi and other mud volcanoes. Since 2006 this fault system has been reactivated in numerous instances mostly following to regional seismic and volcanic activity. However the mechanism controlling this activity have never been investigated and remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the relationship existing between seismicity, volcanism, faulting and Lusi activity, we have deployed a network of 31 seismometers in the framework of the ERC-Lusi Lab project. This network covers a large region that monitors the Lusi activity, the Watukosek fault system and the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. In particular, to understand the consistent pattern of the source mechanism, relative to the general tectonic stress in the study area, a detailed analysis has been carried out by performing the moment tensor inversion for the near field data collected from the network stations. Furthermore these data have been combined with the near field data from the regional network of the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia that covers the whole country on a broader scale. Keywords: Lusi, microseismic event, focal mechanism

  9. Risk analysis of landslide disaster in Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, S.; Saido, A. P.; Fukuda, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Ponorogo is one of regency in South-West of East Java Province, Indonesia, where located in subduction zone between Eurasia and Australia plate tectonics. It has a lot of mountain area which is disaster-prone area for landslide. We have collected landslide data in 305 villages in Ponorogo and make it to be Hazards Index. Then we also calculate Vulnerability Index, Economic Loss index, Environmental Damage Index and Capacity Index. The risk analysis map is composed of three components H (Hazards), V (Vulnerability, Economic Loss index, Environmental Damage Index) and C (Capacity Index). The method is based on regulations of National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) number 02/2012 and number 03/2012. It has three classes of risk index, i.e. Low, Medium and High. Ponorogo city has a medium landslide risk index.

  10. THE COMPLEXITY IN COPING CONFLICTING GROUPS IN SURROUNDING NUSAKAMBANGAN ISLANDS CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairu Roojiqien Sobandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores social and political conflicts in grassroots level, specifically, the challenge of natural degradations on a mangrove-fringed lagoon in Central Java, Indonesia. Segara Anakan is a significant environmental zone, with many unique ecosystem features, all of which are under threat from illegal land reclamation and timber theft, which have caused great damage. This study analyses how conflict arises between groups and how the rulers interact with villagers in Kampung Laut sur-rounding Nusakambangan Island. The result shows, as Reichel et al. (2009 notes, population growth and lagoon sedimentation indeed have directing to crucial conflicts between groups. However, histori-cal and the rulers approach factors also contribute to Kampung Laut conflicts. Long historical journey contribute to the formation of Kampung Laut villagers’ characters. It is the history of Galuh and Mata-ram Kingdoms’ networks through Babad Pasirluhur and Tanah Jawi in conquering Nusakambangan. More importantly, rulers’ policies and state apparatuses approaches also contribute to the creation of Kampung Laut villagers’ identity. The policies are often inconsistent and create more problems than solutions. Thus, dissatisfaction has directing to the creation of Kampung Laut identity marker as rebel-lions. In short, this hard situation led to conflicts between villagers and rulers. Our study suggest that it is very important to bring the state back in on the isolated and poor area like Kampung Laut Sub-District through more affirmative regional public policies and more over create additional income re-sources, for example eco-tourism that could support its sustainable outcomes.

  11. Eruptive history of Sundoro volcano, Central Java, Indonesia since 34 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prambada, Oktory; Arakawa, Yoji; Ikehata, Kei; Furukawa, Ryuta; Takada, Akira; Wibowo, Haryo Edi; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Kartadinata, M. Nugraha

    2016-11-01

    Reconstruction of the eruptive history of Sundoro volcano is needed to forecast the probability of future eruptions and eruptive volumes. Sundoro volcano is located in Central Java (Indonesia), 65 km northwest of Yogyakarta, and in one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia. On the basis of stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, petrography, and whole-rock geochemistry, we recognize the following 12 eruptive groups: (1) Ngadirejo, (2) Bansari, (3) Arum, (4) Kembang, (5) Kekep, (6) Garung, (7) Kertek, (8) Watu, (9) Liyangan, (10) Kledung, (11) Summit, and (12) Sibajak. The Ngadirejo (34 ka BP) to Kledung (1 ka) eruptive groups are inferred to have been the stratovolcano building phase. Based on compositions of deposits, one or more magma reservoirs of intermediate chemical composition are inferred to have existed below the volcano during the periods of time represented by the eruptive groups. SiO2 of juvenile eruptive products ranges from 50 to 63 wt%, and K2O contents range from high K to medium K. The chemical composition and phenocryst content of eruptive products change with time. The lower SiO2 products contain mainly plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine, whereas the more evolved rocks contain plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and rare hornblende and olivine. Our work has defined Sundoro's eruptive history for the period 1-34 ka, and this history helps us to forecast future activity. We estimated that the total amount of magma discharged since 34 ka is approximately 4.4 km3. The average eruption rate over this group ranges from 0.14 to 0.17 km3/kyr. The eruption rate and the frequency of individual eruptions indicate that the volcano has been very active since 34 ka, and this activity in combination with our petrological data suggest the presence of one or more magma reservoirs that have been repeatedly filled and then discharged as eruptions have taken place. Our data further suggest that the volume of the crustal reservoir system has

  12. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  13. Zika Virus, a Cause of Fever in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Nakayama; dengue type presumably infected by the bite of the mosquito 2 (DEN-2), New Guinea C; ZIKA , MR 766; Tern- vector (SIMPSON, 1964). Symptoms...Journal of fever in urban areas of Central Java and may be T-opical Medicine and Hygiene, 28, 717-724. the vector of ZIKA . Also, Ae. albopictus was im...considered with the isolation of ZIKA Lee, V. H. & Moore, D. L. (1972). Vectors of the virus from a variety of other Aedes of the subgenus 1969 yellow

  14. Characteristics of seismic noise in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudistira, T.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the characteristics of recorded seismic noise in central Java by using empirical interstation Green's function (EGF). We have utilized the data from the MERAMEX project (May - October 2004) to determine the EGF within the study area. We have calculated 6893 cross correlations based Green's function of vertical-vertical components. In order to study both primary and secondary microseisms, we measured azimuthal dependence of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of Green's function at a period range from 3 to 25 s (or 0.04 - 0.33 Hz). In general, the cross-correlation functions (CCF) of positive and negative axes are not symmetric, which indicate that the dominant source locations are not evenly distributed. Based on period-azimuth maps of SNR the relatively higher SNRs are appeared in the period from 3 to 12 s (0.08 - 0.33 Hz), which can be related to the secondary microseisms. Our result also indicates that the most energetic seismic noise source came from or was generated in the northeastern part or northern part of the study region with range of azimuth form 290° to 360° and from 0° to 25°, which is related to the coupling of the northern coast of central Java and the ocean current of the Java sea.

  15. Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among humans in Java, Indonesia, in 2001-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severin, J.A.; Lestari, E.S.; Kloezen, W.; Lemmens-den Toom, N.; Mertaniasih, N.M.; Kuntaman, K.; Purwanta, M.; Duerink, D.O.; Hadi, U.; Belkum, A. van; Verbrugh, H.A.; Goessens, W.H.F.; Gardjito, W.; Kolopaking, E.P.; Wirjoatmodjo, K.; Roeshadi, D.; Suwandojo, E.; Rahardjo, E.; Tahalele, P.; Parathon, H.; Zairina, N.; Qibtiyah, M.; Isbandiati, E.; Deborah, K.; Alimsardjono, L.; Lusida, M.I.; Soejoenoes, A.; Riyanto, B.; Wahjono, H.; Adhisaputro, M.; Isbandrio, B.; Triwara, B.; Syoeib, J.; Wibowo, B.; Sofro, M.A.; Farida, H.; Hapsari, M.M.; Nugraha, T.L.; Broek, P van den; Gyssens, I.C.J.; Keuter, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise commensal Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime that were collected in a large survey carried out among 3995 patients and healthy persons in two urban regions on Java, Indonesia, in 2001-2002. METHODS: The putative extended

  16. The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-12-22

    Cyrtodactylus petani sp. nov. is a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from Java, Indonesia that had been masquerading under the name C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). The new species is differentiated from C. fumosus and all its Sundaland congeners by having the following combination of morphological characters: a maximum SVL of 57.2 mm; nine or ten supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; strongly tuberculate body and limbs; 20-25 paravertebral tubercles; 30-35 ventral scales; enlarged precloacal scales; enlarged femoral scales; 17-18 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 31-35 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males, pores absent in females; no precloacal groove; no enlarged median subcaudals; tubercles on anterior portion of tail; no reticulated pattern on top of head; a blotched dorsal pattern; and no paired, dark, semi-lunar shaped blotches on the nape.

  17. Enhancing voluntary participation in community collaborative forest management: a case of Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Sri; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines voluntary participation in community forest management, and characterizes how more participation may be induced. We implemented a survey of 571 respondents and conducted a case study in Central Java, Indonesia. The study's novelty lies in categorizing the degrees of participation into three levels and in identifying how socio-economic factors affect people's participation at each level. The analysis finds that voluntary participation responds to key determinants, such as education and income, in a different direction, depending on each of the three levels. However, the publicly organized programs, such as information provision of benefit sharing, are effective, irrespective of the levels of participation. Overall, the results suggest a possibility of further success and corrective measures to enhance the participation in community forest management.

  18. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  19. Serologic and molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus among school children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Lusida, Maria Inge; Amin, Mochamad; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2010-07-01

    Universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination was introduced in Indonesia in 1997; by 2008, coverage was estimated to be 78%. This study aimed to investigate the serologic status and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the children in East Java. A total of 229 healthy children born during 1994-1999 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 3.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 23.6% were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). HBV DNA was detected in 5 of 222 HBsAg-negative carriers, which were suggested to be cases of occult HBV infection. A single amino substitution (T126I) in the S region was frequently found. HBV infection remains endemic, and the prevalence of anti-HBs remains insufficient among children in East Java, Indonesia.

  20. Intraspecific variability of Steinernema feltiae strains from Cemoro Lawang, eastern Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, T; Mulawarman, M; Waeyenberge, L; Moens, M; Viaene, N; Ehlers, R U

    2010-01-01

    Four strains of Steinernema feltiae from Eastern Java, Indonesia were characterized based on morphometric, morphological and molecular data. In addition, their virulence against last instar Tenebrio molitor and heat tolerance was tested. Infective juvenile have a mean body length ranging from 749 to 792 microm. The maximum sequence difference among the four strains was 7 bp (8.8%) in the ITS and 2 bp (0.3%) in D2D3 regions of the rDNA. All the strains are not reproductively isolated and can reproduce with European strain S. feltiae Owiplant. The lowest LC50 was observed for strain SCM (373) and the highest for S. feltiae strain Owiplant (458) IJs/40 T. molitor. All four strains showed relatively better mean heat tolerance when compared with S. feltiae Owiplant, both in adapted and non-adapted heat tolerance experiments.

  1. ISLAMIC WORK ETHIC AS AN ANTECEDENT OF WORK OUTCOMES: A STUDY OF ISLAMIC MICROFINANCE IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahibur Rokhman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using sample 370 employees from Islamic microfinance institutions in Central Java, Indonesia, this study was conducted to examine the effect of Islamic work ethics on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. The empirical testing indicates that Islamic work ethic has positive effects on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment; whereas there is no significant evidence of the effect of Islamic work ethic on turnover intention. Implication, limitation and suggestion for future research are also discussed.

  2. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  3. Scavenging ducks and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza, Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Joerg; Wibawa, Hendra; Morton, John; Usman, Tri Bhakti; Junaidi, Akhmad; Meers, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007-March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4x more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits,

  4. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  5. Factors influencing non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Jepara, central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondags, Angelique; Himawan, Ari Budi; Metsemakers, Job Fm; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2014-07-01

    One of the most serious problems for tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to TB treatment. We studied the factors influencing non-adherence to TB treatment in Indonesia to inform TB treatment adherence strategies. We con- ducted semi-structured interviews with non-adherent patients and key informants in Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. Three major themes were found in reasons for non-adherence to TB treatment: 1) knowledge about TB, 2) knowledge about TB treatment and 3) choosing and changing a health care treatment facility. Respondents had an inadequate knowledge about TB and its treatment. Feeling healthy and having financial problems were the most common reasons for TB treatment non-adherence. Respondents sought treatment from many different health care providers, and often changed the treatment facility location. TB treatment adherence might improve by providing better education about the disease and its treatment to those undergoing treatment. Providing information about where to receive treatment and that treatment is free could also improve compliance.

  6. Evidence of Multiple Ground-rupturing Earthquakes in the Past 4000 Years along the Pasuruan Fault, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental and historical records of earthquakes, supplemented by paleoeseismic constraints can help reveal the earthquake potential of an area. The Pasuruan fault is a high angle normal fault with prominent youthful scarps cutting young deltaic sediments in the north coast of East Java, Indonesia and may pose significant hazard to the densely populated region. This fault has not been considered a significant structure, and mapped as a lineament with no sense of motion. Information regarding past earthquakes along this fault is not available. The fault is well defined both in the imagery and in the field as a ~13km long, 2-50m-high scarp. Open and filled fractures and natural exposures of the south-dipping fault plane indicate normal sense of motion. We excavated two fault-perpendicular trenches across a relay ramp identified during our surface mapping. Evidence for past earthquakes (documented in both trenches) includes upward fault termination with associated fissure fills, colluvial wedges and scarp-derived debris, folding, and angular unconformities. The ages of the events are constrained by 23 radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal. We calibrated the dates using IntCal13 and used Oxcal to build the age model of the events. Our preliminary age model indicates that since 2006±134 B.C., there has been at least five ground rupturing earthquakes along the fault. The oldest event identified in the trench however, is not well-dated. Our modeled 95th percentile ranges of the next four earlier earthquakes (and their mean) are A.D. 1762-1850 (1806), A.D. 1646-1770 (1708), A.D. 1078-1648 (1363), and A.D. 726-1092 (909), yielding a rough recurrence rate of 302±63 yrs. These new data imply that Pasuruan fault is more active than previously thought. Additional well-dated earthquakes are necessary to build a solid earthquake recurrence model. Rupture along the whole section implies a minimum earthquake magnitude of 6.3, considering 13km as the minimum surface rupture

  7. Management of children exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a public health evaluation in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherford, M.E.; Ruslami, R.; Anselmo, M.; Alisjahbana, B.; Yulianti, N.; Sampurno, H.; Crevel, R. van; Hill, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the performance of a programme for managing the child contacts of adult tuberculosis patients in Indonesia. METHODS: A public health evaluation framework was used to assess gaps in a child contact management programme at a lung clinic. Targe

  8. The Use of Spot Image for Mangrove Inventory in Cimanuk Delta West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono .

    2013-07-01

    At least two mangrove types of mangrove could be identified from the SPOT image. Dense mangrove was found in Petak 7, Petak 8, Petak 9 and Petak 12. In the other Petaks, mangrove were less than 20% of their surface. Mangrove of Rhizophora in 26 Petaks covered 290 Ha only.

  9. TOXOPLASMA AND VIRAL ANTIBODIES AMONG HIV PATIENTS AND INMATES IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Raharjo, Irvan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung

    2015-11-01

    In Indonesia, Toxoplasma and its associations with blood-borne viruses have been poorly studied. In order to study the association between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and blood-borne viral antibodies, blood samples from 497 participants (375 inmates from four prisons in Central Java, Indonesia and 122 HIV patients at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Surakarta, Indonesia) were tested for serological markers of Toxoplasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1/2). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM positivity rates were 41.6% and 3.6%, respectively. One point two percent of participants was positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Sixteen point five percent, 11.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% of participants were positive for anti- Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HCV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgM combined with anti-HIV antibodes and anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with both anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was associated with anti-HIV (aOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.112-16.204, p = 0.034). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were associated with anti-HCV (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.749-4.538, p < 0.001) and history of injection drug use (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.905-5.093, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we recommend patients with HIV, HCV infection and injection drug users should be screened for Toxoplasma infection in Indonesia.

  10. Periodic gas release from the LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Smekens, J.

    2012-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in a densely populated district of the Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industries, farmlands, and 10,000 homes. Peak mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3/d were measured in the first few months of the eruption, which have decreased to water, is erupted at temperatures close to boiling. Gases are periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter, triggering mud fountains ~20 m in height. No appreciable gas seepage was detected in the quiescent intervals between bubble bursts. Absorption spectrometry in the infrared spectrum reveals that the gas released during explosions consists of 98.5% water vapor, 1% carbon dioxide, and 0.3% methane. On rare occasions, minor amounts of ammonia were also detected. Using simplified plume geometries based on observations, we estimate that LUSI releases approximately 1,500 T/yr of methane, which is equivalent to 0.5% of the yearly methane production from the 2.7 million heads of cattle in the East Java province. We observed explosion periods from 1 to 3 minutes with a median period of 100 s. Two conceptual models for the periodic behavior are assessed: 1) decompressional boiling of water as fluids ascend a pathway to the surface suggests that bubbles form 10s of meters below the surface and continue to expand as they rise; periodicity results from the time to reheat the fluid in the vicinity of bubble formation and 2) gas bubbles are seeded at much greater depths where carbon dioxide exsolves from solution and coalesce in a manner similar to that of slug flow.

  11. Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ~ 30 000 people. Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the mechanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s). In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126) we use both analytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. The 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.

  12. Gamma-ray spectrometric dating of late Homo erectus skulls from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuji; Falguères, Christophe; Sémah, François; Jacob, Teuku; Grün, Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Hominid fossils from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, Indonesia, are considered to be the most anatomically derived and youngest representatives of Homo erectus. Nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometric dating of three of these Homo erectus skulls showed that all samples underwent uranium leaching. Nevertheless, we could establish minimum age estimates of around 40ka, with an upper age limit of around 60 to 70ka. This means that the Homo erectus of Java very likely survived the Toba eruption and may have been contemporaneous with the earliest Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia and Australasia.

  13. Seroprevalence of antibody to TgGRA7 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii in livestock animals from Western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Guswanto, Azirwan; Allamanda, Puttik; Mariamah, Euis Siti; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a concern in both human and veterinary medicine, and the consumption of undercooked meat infected with Toxoplasma gondii is a major risk factor in human infection. Establishing the prevalence of the parasite in food-producing livestock is essential to reduce the risk of human infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies in cattle and pigs in Western Java, Indonesia. Serum samples from 598 cattle and 205 pigs from 18 locations in Western Java, Indonesia, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence was 14.6% in pigs and 7.4% in cattle, and significantly more pigs were seropositive compared with cattle (p<0.01). The results of this study suggest that consumption of undercooked meat should be regarded as an important source of infection in people. This study suggests that the risk factors for T. gondii infection in livestock appeared to be different in each location because geographical variation in seroprevalence was observed. The results of this study will facilitate further research to identify and control risk factors for T. gondii in the surveyed locations.

  14. Capacity Building on Food-Crop Farming to Improve Food Production and Food Security in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waridin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the capacity of food-crop production for improving regional food security in Central Java, Indonesia. It is also identify crops which have high and prospective economic-values. The results of the study might help in formulating a proposed model to improve food crops production in supporting food security. The case study was conducted in districts which play the important roles on agriculture (rice production in Central Java, Indonesia. These are Klaten and Magelang districts. Data were collected from farmers and officers from agriculture-related institutions. The results show that Central Java Province has the capacity on food crop (rice production for securing food availability, distribution, and accessibility for people in the region. It has a moderate on food security for the products, and surplus of production have distributed to other regions within the country. However, other food crops still facing shortage of supply since lack of productions. It requires a commitment from government and stakeholders for improving capacity building on agricultural development.

  15. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  16. Geochemical and Textural Evidence for Transitions in Degassing Regimes at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cronin, S. J.; Lube, G.

    2013-12-01

    Transitions in degassing regimes at erupting volcanoes can cause significant changes in magma rheology and the intensity of eruptive activity. The October/November 2010 events at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia began with an intrusive stage (Phase 1), followed by an explosion on October 26th (Phase 2) that removed the pre-existing dome causing deadly pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). This led to rapid ascent of juvenile magma that progressively degassed and crystallized until a large-scale collapse (Phase 3) of the new lava dome on November 5th and associated explosions produced even larger PDCs, killed more citizens, and destroyed several more distal villages. PDC deposits from the two main surge events on October 26th and November 5th, in addition to tephras generated by intermediate explosions, were sampled from numerous locations on the edifice. Secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) depth profiling analyses were performed on free feldspar phenocrysts from the PDC deposits to examine the behavior of volatile elements during the eruptive events of 2010. Phenocrysts were mounted in indium and depth profiled with an O2+ primary ion beam for 2-14 hours. Profiles encounter glass and groundmass on the surface of the crystals before the feldspar is reached, determined from the point at which the B/Si and F/Si signals fall below detection limits. For all samples, the H/Si signal decreases from the glass into the crystal, but the Li/Si signal behaves differently between samples from Phase 2 and Phase 3. In Phase 2 samples, Li/Si ratios are higher in the glass compared to the crystal, revealing a build-up of Li in the groundmass not observed in Phase 3 samples. These observations suggest that Li was able to successfully diffuse out of both the feldspar and the surrounding groundmass in the Phase 3 products, but remained trapped in the groundmass of the Phase 2 products. The build-up of Li in the groundmass, coupled with textural evidence of a late-stage vesiculation

  17. Seroprevalence of antibody to NcSAG1 antigen of Neospora caninum in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Guswanto, Azirwan; Allamanda, Puttik; Mariamah, Euis Siti; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum can cause fetal abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle, and is a cause of economic concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia. Serum samples from 991 cattle from 21 locations were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the basis of recombinant NcSAG1. The overall seroprevalence was 16.6%, ranging from 0 to 87.5% in the sampled locations. The results of this study indicate latent infection rates of sampled animals were different in each location. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between N. caninum infection and abortion in cattle, and to identify risk factors for infection in high-prevalence environments.

  18. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  19. Impact of a social marketing campaign promoting dark-green leafy vegetables and eggs in central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, S; Bloem, M W; Satoto; Yip, R; Sukaton, A; Tjiong, R; Shrimpton, R; Muhilal; Kodyat, B

    1998-01-01

    In order to work towards further reduction of vitamin A deficiency in central Java, Indonesia, a social marketing campaign promoting eggs and dark-green leafy vegetables was initiated in March 1996. The nutritional surveillance system (December 1995-December 1996) found the following. The campaign's messages were well noticed. Consumption of at least one egg in the past week increased from 80% to 92% in mothers and from 78% to 92% in children 12-36 months old. It increased in all socio-economic groups and was independent of ownership of chickens. Most eggs had been purchased. The quantity of vegetables prepared increased from 93 to 111 g/person daily and most was purchased. Vitamin A intake increased from 335 to 371 RE/d for mothers and from 130 to 160 RE/d for children. Serum retinol levels increased after the start of the campaign, and were related to egg consumption and vitamin A intake. Because 1. data were collected in such a way that respondents were not aware of the link between data collected and the campaign, and 2. vitamin A status increased and was related to increased consumption of eggs and vitamin A intake, we conclude that the social marketing campaign was successful.

  20. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  1. Earthquake disaster mitigation of Lembang Fault West Java with electromagnetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, E-mail: widodo@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, 40132, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The Lembang fault is located around eight kilometers from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The existence of this fault runs through densely populated settlement and tourism area. It is an active fault structure with increasing seismic activity where the 28 August 2011 earthquake occurred. The seismic response at the site is strongly influenced by local geological conditions. The ambient noise measurements from the western part of this fault give strong implication for a complex 3-D tectonic setting. Hence, near surface Electromagnetic (EM) measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault of the research area. Hence, near surface EM measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault and the top of the basement structure of the research area. The Transientelectromagnetic (TEM) measurements are carried out along three profiles, which include 35 TEM soundings. The results indicate that TEM data give detailed conductivity distribution of fault structure in the study area.

  2. Earthquake disaster mitigation of Lembang Fault West Java with electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo

    2015-04-01

    The Lembang fault is located around eight kilometers from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The existence of this fault runs through densely populated settlement and tourism area. It is an active fault structure with increasing seismic activity where the 28 August 2011 earthquake occurred. The seismic response at the site is strongly influenced by local geological conditions. The ambient noise measurements from the western part of this fault give strong implication for a complex 3-D tectonic setting. Hence, near surface Electromagnetic (EM) measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault of the research area. Hence, near surface EM measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault and the top of the basement structure of the research area. The Transientelectromagnetic (TEM) measurements are carried out along three profiles, which include 35 TEM soundings. The results indicate that TEM data give detailed conductivity distribution of fault structure in the study area.

  3. Interpretations on the Geologic Setting of Yogyakarta Earthquakes 2006 (Central Java, Indonesia) Based on Integration of Aftershock Monitoring and Existing Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.; Fukuoka, K.; Ehara, S.; Setiadji, Y.; Rahardjo, W.; Susilo, A.; Barianto, D. H.; Harijoko, A.; Sudarno, I.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Hendrayana, H.; Akmalludin, A.; Nishijima, J.; Itaya, T.

    2007-05-01

    The unprecedented 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (central Java, Indonesia) that took victims of 5,700 lives was generally accepted to have a depth of about 10 km and moment magnitude of 6.4. However, the definition of location of active fault is still under debate as the epicenter of mainshock was reported quite differently by several institutions. Many researchers believe that the Opak fault which is located at the eastern boundary of Yogyakarta low-land area (or Yogyakarta Basin) and the high-land region of Southern Mountains was the source of year 2006 earthquakes. However, our result of aftershocks observation suggests that the ruptured zone was not located along the Opak fault but from an unknown fault located about 10 km to the east from it and within the Southern Mountains domain. Unfortunately, surface geologic manifestations are scarce as this area is now largely covered by limestone. Therefore the suspected active fault system must be studied through interpretations of the subsurface geology and evaluation of the Cenozoic geo-history of the region utilizing existing geologic, geophysical and remote sensing data. This work suggests that the Yogyakarta Basin is a volcano-tectonic depression formed gradually since the early Tertiary period (Oligo-Miocene or older). Geological and geophysical evidence suggest that structural trends changed from the Oligocene NE-SW towards the Oligo-Miocene NNE-SSW and the Plio-Pleistocene NW-SE and E-W directions. The ruptured "X" fault during the Yogyakarta earthquakes 2006 is likely to be a NNE-SSW trending fault which is parallel to the Opak fault and both were firstly active in the Oligo-Miocene as sinistral strike-slip faults. However, while the Opak fault had changed into a normal faulting after the Pliocene, the evidence from Kali Ngalang and Kali Widoro suggests that the "X" fault system was still reactivated as a strike-slip one during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny. As this new interpretation of active fault causes

  4. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  5. Diplomacy Through Earth Sciences: An Overview of US Geological Survey Technical Assistance Regarding the Ongoing LUSI Mud Eruption, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    In June 2007, the US Department of State (DOS) requested assistance from the USGS to provide technical guidance and advice to the US Mission in Indonesia regarding the Lumpur Sidoarjo (LUSI) mud crisis. In May 2006, LUSI began as a mud eruption from a series of mud springs adjacent to an oil and gas exploration well being drilled near Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. The production of mud and waters from the LUSI crater area has now continued for more than 3 years with no significant change in mud production rate (~110,000 cubic meters per day) nor in temperature of the mud (70-80 degrees C). Engineers suggest that mud production will continue at these rates for years to decades to come. Regardless of future activity at LUSI, the current mud accumulation of more than 100 million cubic meters poses a physical and environmental hazard which requires continuous monitoring and observation. The first response to the 2007 DOS request involved a site visit to Indonesia in September 2007. The result of that visit was to recommend to the Government of Indonesia (GOI) that they focus on long-term management of the mud rather than focus on the controversy as to the cause of the eruption or the debate about stopping the flow. Other recommendations from the initial 2007 technical visit included contracting for a US scientist to be co-located with engineers of the Sidoarjo Mud Management Board (BPLS) in Surabaya, East Java, to advise and consult on day-to-day developments at the site of the mud eruption. A second technical team visit by USGS scientists and an engineer from the US Army Corps of Engineers in October-November 2008 made additional recommendations on the long-term management of the mud and was followed in December by the start of a 6 month contract for the US mud adviser. From the start of activity in mid-2006 through late-2008, there was a clear sense of urgency at the US Mission in Indonesia to provide guidance and advice and included the personal intervention of

  6. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Caudron, Corentin; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.; Hilley, George E.

    2016-08-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to date have not resolved how the lake's thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater lake apparent surface ("skin") temperatures at high spatial (˜32 cm) and temporal (every 2 min) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ˜21 to 33 °C. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ˜4 and 7 °C less than in situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5-m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as the evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  7. Farmers and finance. Experience with institutional savings and credit in West Java.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with an experimental savings and credit scheme developed for vegetable farmers in West Java, Indonesia, by a technical cooperation project between the governments of Indonesia and The Netherlands. Key elements were:a) An organizational structure with three levels: the project as fin

  8. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER MOTIVATION IN REQUESTING DUCK FARM CREDIT: A CASE STUDY IN CIREBON, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saleh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of study was to observe and to analyze the farmer motivation in requesting farmer credit(bank loan for duck, based on farmer characteristics and communication behavior. Sample was chosenamong duck farmers in Kroya village, Cirebon. Characteristic factors were: age, part-timer farmer, farmsize, experience, education, and income. While the communication behavior factors werecommunicating with extension worker or credit officer, and participating in social problems. Farmermotivation to apply credit impacted by their characteristics, such as educational level, income and age.Communication behavior, such as participating in extension activities and social organization,were moreimpacted to apply credit, than farmer characteristics. Communication activities can be used to persuadefarmer to apply credit.

  10. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs.

  11. The profile of upper integument lip of Baduy and the nearby living Sundanese in South Banten, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Ardan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the Two Migration Theory and on cultural anthropology, the Baduy is classified as Protomalay and the Sundanese as Deuteromalay. Historically and socioculturally the Baduy is part of the Nearby Living Sundanese (NS who has isolated themselves and settled down in Kanekes. Linguistics and archaeology could not tell whether the culture’s spread was due to a source population’s migrating or to a destination population’s copying the technology and language. Craniofacial anthropometry could resolve this because people’s physiognomy does not change rapidly due to mere migration. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether the people of Baduy are Protomalay or Deuteromalay based on Profile of Upper Integument Lips (PUIL, which is the size of the angle formed by (sn-Ls line to Frankfurt Horizontal Plane. Angle size < 90º = Procheili, 90º = Orthocheili, and > 90º = Opisthocheili. Lip prominence is strongly influenced by racial and ethnical characteristics, its form is determined especially by genetic factor. Method: Subject sample consisted of 43 Inner Baduys (IB; 92 Outer Baduys (OB; and 135 NS of South Banten were measured using Fasiogoniometer to determine PUIL. Average value data was determined and analyzed by Testing Equal Variances to compare two variances between groups. Result: The result of this study showed that IB, OB as well as NS are Mild Procheili (angle size = 50º–69.9º. PUIL of IB and OB compared to NS are slightly different, however, between IB and OB are similar. Conclusion: Based on the characteristic of PUIL, IB, OB, as well as NS, are classified as Mongoloid subrace, and physically should be classified as Deuteromalay.

  12. The profile of upper integument lip of Baduy and the nearby living Sundanese in South Banten, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman Ardan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Based on the Two Migration Theory and on cultural anthropology, the Baduy is classified as Protomalay and the Sundanese as Deuteromalay. Historically and socioculturally the Baduy is part of the Nearby Living Sundanese (NS) who has isolated themselves and settled down in Kanekes. Linguistics and archaeology could not tell whether the culture’s spread was due to a source population’s migrating or to a destination population’s copying the technology and language. Craniofacial anthro...

  13. FIELD TRIALS OF FENITROTHION, MALATHION, AND DDT DUSTS AGAINST FLEAS ON RATTUS RATTUS DIARDII IN CILOTO, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah percobaan penanggulangan pinjal Xenopsyll cheopis dari tikus Rattus rattus diardii dilaku­kan di Ciloto dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978. Racun serangga yang digunakan 50 % mala-thion wdp, 40 % fenitrothion wdp dan 75 % DDT wdp. dicampur dengan serbuk bedak sehingga ter­dapat 5 % zat racun aktif (active ingredient. Percobaan dilakukan pada 3 dusun. Pengamatan dilakukan dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978 di daerah percobaan dan daerah kontrol DDT 5 % tidak effektif untuk pemberantasan pinjal, malathion 5 % effektif sampai 15 minggu dan Fenitrothion 5 % sampai 19 minggu sesudah perlakuan pertama. Ketiga racun serangga juga effektif untuk tungau dan kutu, tapi tidak demikian untuk tungau dewasa mesostigmatik (mesostigmatic mites.

  14. Free Spaces, Collective Identity and Political Consciousness: Student Activism and Repression on West Java, Indonesia, 1920-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiie, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Whereas previous studies of the Indonesian student movement have been limited to studies of single episodes of activism of student protests, this work focuses on the narratives, and repertoires that, together with crucial external events of political and economic realignments created both pressures and opportunities that produced contentious…

  15. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia: a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional anaemia

  16. An introduction of co-management approach into Babon River management in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, I; Budiati, L

    2003-01-01

    The Babon River lies over three regions, i.e. Semarang District where the upstream is located while downstream it passes through Semarang Municipality and Demak District. This river has been used for many purposes by the neighbouring communities (e.g. water source, canal disposal, mining, etc). Thereafter many transboundary environmental problems have arisen here. The environmental management strategy (using a top-down approach) such as Program Kali Bersih (Clean River Program) on Babon River, which had been implemented by the Bapedalda of Semarang Municipality, is not successfully achieving the targets. In the past, most policies were formulated based on top-down orientation. Hence, the communities' participation was not paid enough attention. Co-management is a participative-management approach to empower the stakeholders (related parties) to achieve a certain goal. This study seeks answers to the research questions: (1) whether the co-management approach has good prospects for managing the Babon River; and (2) what kinds of strategy should be formulated to empower the stakeholders to manage the Babon River in the study area. The study employed a multistage sampling method to select the location of the study areas and key-persons sample. Rowosari, Penggaron Kidul and Karangtoro were selected to represent the upstream, middle stream and downstream areas, respectively. The descriptive statistics method had been used to describe the significance of river resource attributes' characters. Institutional analysis approach, introduced by Pomeroy and Williams, was adopted with necessary modification in this study. The results showed that the level of participation of the community in the three segments of the Babon River is different. The prospects for the co-management approach to manage the river resource in the study area are fairly good and in the upstream area are better than in the other two segments. The level of participation is far from complete; nevertheless the

  17. Restoring State Control Over Forest Resources Through Administrative Procedures: Evidence From a Community Forestry Programme in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, community forestry has emerged as a means to reform power constellations with regard to forest governance. Through community forestry, the central state promised to devolve several forest rights to local communities and encouraged them to get involved in decision making processes and the implementation of forest activities. However, experience in some countries indicates that the implementation of community forestry programmes is rarely followed by genuine power devolution to local forest users. Instead, these programmes may even serve as a means to retain or restore the central state’s control over forests. Using a case study of a community forestry programme implemented in Java, Indonesia, by a state forest company, this paper argues that the implementation of community forestry is also driven by the state’s interests to regain control over the forests. Research in eight villages in Central Java province reveals that the community forestry programmes are carefully structured according to numerous administrative procedures and estab- lish a mode of control through a bureaucratic design. ----- In den letzten Jahren hat sich community forestry als Mittel zur Reform von Machtkonstellationen in Bezug auf die Verwaltung von Wäldern herausgebildet. Der Zentralstaat versprach durch community forestry bestimmte Waldrechte an lokale Communities abzugeben und ermutigte sie, sich an Entscheidungsprozessen und der Implementierung von Forstaktivitäten zu beteiligen. Erfahrungen in einigen Ländern zeigen jedoch, dass die Implementierung von community forestry-Programmen selten mit einem tatsächlichen Machttransfer an lokale ForstnutzerInnen einhergeht, sondern diese Programme sogar als Mittel zur Rückgewinnung von zentralstaatlicher Kontrolle über Wälder dienen können. Anhand eines Fallbeispiels eines community forestry-Programms, das in Java, Indonesien, von einem staatlichen Forstunternehmen implementiert wird, argumentiere ich

  18. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of arc magma recorded in plagioclase from the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Martel, Caroline; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Cathala, Annick; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Pratomo, Indyo; Sumarti, Sri

    2016-10-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of magmatic crystals provide important information to distinguish between deep juvenile and crustal contributions. In this work, high-resolution multicollector secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal strong variations of δ18O values in three plagioclase crystals (800-1700 μm) from two representative basaltic andesite samples of the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia). The δ18O values (from 4.6‰ to 7.9‰) are interpreted to reflect oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the melt composition during plagioclase growth. The lowest δ18O values (4.6-6.6‰) are found in anorthite-rich cores (An82-97), whereas higher δ18O values (5.7-7.9‰) are found in anorthite-poorer zones (An33-86), typically in crystal rims. Combining these new plagioclase δ18O data with δ18O of calc-silicate crustal xenoliths erupted between 1994 and 1998, the composition of glass inclusions hosted by the anorthite-rich plagioclase (An82-92), available experimental data, and the results of thermodynamic modeling using the Magma Chamber Simulator code, we conclude that the abundant anorthite-rich cores crystallized from a mantle-derived hydrous basaltic to basaltic trachyandesite melt that recharged a deeper (200-600 MPa) magma storage zone, whereas lower anorthite zones crystallized at shallower levels (100-200 MPa). The oxygen isotope variations in the plagioclase are explained by a two-stage model of interaction of the hydrous, mafic mantle-derived magma (1) with old crustal rocks depleted in 18O due to high temperature alteration that yielded the low δ18O values in the anorthite-rich cores at deep levels (13-20 km), and later (2) with 18O-enriched carbonate material that yielded the high δ18O values in anorthite-poorer zones at shallow levels (∼4.5-9 km). Thermodynamic modeling is consistent with ∼18 wt.% assimilation of crustal calc-silicate material at 925-950 °C and 100-200 MPa by the 2010 Merapi basaltic andesite magma prior to

  19. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater-lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Corentin Caudron,; Vincent van Hinsberg,; George Hilley,

    2016-01-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to-date have not resolved how the lake’s thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater-lake apparent surface (“skin”) temperatures at high spatial (~32 cm) and temporal (every two minutes) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ~21 to 33oC. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ~ 4 and 7 oC less than in-situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5 m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in-situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater-lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  20. Analysis of the 2006 block-and-ash flow deposits of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, using high-spatial resolution IKONOS images and complementary ground based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Liew, Soo Chin; Lube, Gert; Cronin, Shane J.; Surono, Dr

    2010-05-01

    On 16 June 2006 an overpass of IKONOS coincided with the emplacement of an active block-and-ash flow fed by a lava dome collapse event at Merapi Volcano (Java, Indonesia). This was the first satellite image recorded for a moving pyroclastic flow. The very high-spatial resolution data displayed the extent and impact of the pyroclastic deposits emplaced during and prior to, the day of image acquisition. This allowed a number of features associated with high-hazard block-and-ash flows emplaced in narrow, deep gorges to be mapped, interpreted and understood. The block-and-ash flow and surge deposits recognized in the Ikonos images include: (1) several channel-confined flow lobes and tongues in the box-shaped valley; (2) thin ash-cloud surge deposit and knocked-down trees in constricted areas on both slopes of the gorge; (3) fan-like over bank deposits on the Gendol-Tlogo interfluves from which flows were re-routed in the Tlogo secondary valley; (4) massive over bank lobes on the right bank from which flows devastated the village of Kaliadem 0.5 km from the main channel, a small part of this flow being re-channeled in the Opak secondary valley. The high-resolution IKONOS images also helped us to identify geomorphic obstacles that enabled flows to ramp and spill out from the sinuous channel, a process called flow avulsion. Importantly, the avulsion redirected flows to unexpected areas away from the main channel. In the case of Merapi we see that the presence of valley fill by previous deposits, bends and man-made dams influence the otherwise valley-guided course of the flows. Sadly, Sabo dams (built to ameliorate the effect of high sediment load streams) can actually cause block-and-ash flows to jump out of their containing channel and advance into sensitive areas. Very-high-spatial resolution satellite images are very useful for mapping and interpreting the distribution of freshly erupted volcanic deposits. IKONOS-type images with 1-m resolution provide opportunities to

  1. Comparative morphological and morphometric description of the hominin calvaria from Bukuran (Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Widianto, Harry; Détroit, Florent; Sémah, François

    2012-11-01

    We describe the hominin skull (called here "Bukuran") discovered in the lower Kabuh (or "Bapang") series near Sendangbusik, from the Bukuran area in the Sangiran dome. The fossil, heavily mineralized, consists of the parieto-occipital and the left temporal, and the frontal bones. When combined, those two cranial parts represent a rather complete and well-preserved calvaria. Its stratigraphic position was established after the discovery. A detailed description is presented of the morphological and metric features of the Bukuran calvaria, and comparisons are made with Asian Homo erectus from Indonesia and China. The estimated cranial capacity of Bukuran, the general shape of its cranial vault, its ectocranial structures, and its morphological and metrical characters are in the range of Asian Homo erectus, and show clear affinities with other Indonesian members of the species. We discuss the evolutionary status of the Bukuran calvaria and its implication for hominin history on Java.

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among pigs in Bali and East Java, Indonesia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Utsumi, Takako; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a fatal disease in Asia. Pigs are considered to be the effective amplifying host for JEV in the peridomestic environment. Bali Island and Java Island in Indonesia provide a model to assess the effect of pigs on JEV transmission, since the pig density is nearly 100-fold higher in Bali than Java, while the geographic and climatologic environments are equivalent in these areas. We surveyed antibodies to JEV among 123 pigs in Mengwi (Bali) and 96 pigs in Tulungagung (East Java) in 2008 by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Overall prevalences were 49% in Bali and 6% in Java, with a significant difference between them (P Java. In addition, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibodies were found only from Bali samples. Further, the average HAI antibody titer obtained from positive samples was significantly higher in Bali (1:52) than Java (1:10; P Java.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE FOREST DEGRADATION THROUGH CANOPY FRACTIONAL COVER IN KARIMUNJAWA ISLAND, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Karimunjawa Islands mangrove forest has been subjected to various direct and indirect human disturbances in the recent years. If not properly managed, this disturbance will lead to the degradation of mangrove habitat health. Assessing forest canopy fractional cover (fc using remote sensing data is one way of measuring mangrove forest degradation. This study aims to (1 estimate the forest canopy fc using a semi-empirical method, (2 assess the accuracy of the fc estimation and (3 create mangrove forest degradation from the canopy fc results. A sample set of in-situ fc was collected using the hemispherical camera for model development and accuracy assessment purposes. We developed semi-empirical relationship models between pixel values of ALOS AVNIR-2 image (10m pixel size and field fc, using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI as a proxy of the image spectral response. The results show that the EVI provides reasonable estimation accuracy of mangrove canopy fc in Karimunjawa Island with the values ranged from 0.17 to 0.96 (n = 69. The low fc values correspond to vegetation opening and gaps caused by human activities or mangrove dieback. The high fc values correspond to the healthy and dense mangrove stands, especially the Rhizophora sp formation at the seafront. The results of this research justify the use of simple canopy fractional cover model for assessing the mangrove forest degradation status in the study area. Further research is needed to test the applicability of this approach at different sites.

  4. Towards a prevention program for β-thalassemia. The molecular spectrum in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernanda, Pratika Yuhyi; Tursilowati, Luluk; Arkesteijn, Sandra G J; Ugrasena, I Dewa Gede; Larasati, Marian C Shanty; Soeatmadji, Sentot Mustajab; Giordano, Piero C; Harteveld, Cornelis L

    2012-01-01

    Defining the spectrum of specific thalassemia mutations is an important issue when planning prevention programs in large multi ethnic countries as is Indonesia. In a first attempt to define the prevalence of the common mutations in East Java we selected a cohort of 17 transfusion-dependent patients attending the Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. After basic diagnostics we performed direct DNA sequencing for all β-globin genes. The results obtained on 34 independent chromosomes revealed the following prevalence rates: c.79 G>A p. Glu27Lys (Hb E) 47.0%; c.92+5G>C (IVS-I-5 G>C) 20.6%; c.109_110 delC p.Pro37Leu fs X7 [codon 35 (-C)] 17.6%; c.46del T p.Trp16Gly fsX4 [codon 15 (-T)] 5.9%; c.126_129delCTTT p. Phe42Leu fs X19 (codons 41/42) 2.9%; c.316-197 C>T [IVS-II-654 (C>T)] 2.9%; c*112 A>G (PolyA) 2.9%. Our preliminary results show that the distribution of the prevalent mutations in our cohort is quite homogeneous but with different forms than previously reported. This indicates that more studies on a larger scale and in different geographical areas are needed to refine our provisional results and to characterize the molecular background of the disease in the whole country.

  5. Nuées ardentes of 22 November 1994 at Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurachman, E.K.; Bourdier, J.-L.; Voight, B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuées ardentes associated with dome collapse on 22 November 1994, at Merapi volcano traveled to the south–southwest as far as 6.5 km, and collectively accumulated roughly 2.5–3 million cubic meters of deposits. The damaged area comprises 9.5 km2 and is covered by two nuée ardente facies, a conventional “Merapi-type”, valley-fill block-and-ash flow facies and a pyroclastic surge facies. The proximal deposits reflect the accumulation of dozens of nuées ardentes, with many subsidiary flow units. The distal deposits are more simply organized, as only a few individual events reached to distances >3.5 km. The stratigraphic relationships north of Turgo hill indicate that the surge deposits are a facies of particularly mobile nuées ardentes that also deposited channeled block-and-ash flow facies. They further suggest that the surge facies beyond the channel margins correlate laterally with a finer-grained sublayer locally developed at the base of the block-and-ash flow facies. Eyewitness reports suggest that the emplacement of the block-and-ash flow facies in the distal part of the Boyong river may have followed, by a short time interval, the destruction and deposition of the surge facies at Turgo village. The stratigraphy is in accord with the eyewitness reports. The surge facies was emplaced by a dilute surge current, detached from the same dome-collapse nuée ardente that, as a separate flow unit, subsequently emplaced the distal block-and-ash deposit in the Boyong valley. The detachment occurred at higher elevations, likely at or above the slope break at about 2000 m elevation. This flow separation enabled the surge current to shortcut over the landscape and to emplace its deposit even as the block-and-ash flow continued its tortuous southward movement in the Boyong channel. Dome-collapse nuée ardente activity formed the bulk of the eruption, which was accompanied by virtually no significant vertical summit explosive activity.

  6. Socio-culturele structuur en innovatie.Structuur-verg.ond.adoptie van family planning per. '69-'73 door Sundanese echtparen in 2 rurale gemeensch. op West-Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van B.

    1985-01-01

    This publication contains a comparative study of socio- cultural influences on the process of family planning adoption during the period 1969-1973 in two rural communities in the regency of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. One community, to be called Cianyar, is a ward in an agrarian village, while th

  7. Some aspects of the volcanology and geochemistry of the Tengger Caldera, Java, Indonesia: eruption of a K-rich tholeiitic series

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, M.; Pichler, H.

    The Tengger Caldera together with the active Mount Bromo is situated in Java, Indonesia. Though activity of Mt Bromo has been recorded since 1804, little modern petrographic and geochemical data is available. In this study we provide a detailed petrographic and stratigraphic description of the two major caldera units, i.e. the "pre-caldera formation" and the "post-caldera formation". A zonal arrangement of the alkali content of the Sunda arc volcanoes, i.e. an increase of the alkali content in the lavas across the arc from the trench to the backarc basin, has been noticed for many years. In contrast to the common classification of the geochemistry and magmatic affinity of the Javanese volcanoes related to the depth of the Benioff zone (100-150 km for tholeiitic rocks and 150-250 km for calc-alkaline rocks), we found a tholeiitic trend expressed by increasing FeO∗/MgO with increasing SiO 2 and an average {Zr}/{Y} ratio of 4.9 for the Tengger Caldera volcanics (Benioff zone depth ca 200 km), despite high alkali contents (K 2O > 2 wt%). These features characterize the Tengger Caldera volcanics as medium to high-K tholeiitic andesites and basaltic andesites.

  8. "It is not possible for me to have diabetes"-community perceptions on diabetes and its risk factors in Rural Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie; Ng, Nawi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-06-12

    Accumulating evidence suggests that negative perceptions towards diabetes can limit the management and prevention of the disease. The negative perceptions towards diabetes are prevalent in many different settings, especially among rural communities. Few qualitative studies have been performed to understand how the community views diabetes and its associated risk factors. This study aimed to explore general community perceptions of diabetes and its risk factors in rural Indonesia. A total of 68 participants were recruited to 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) comprised of different age groups and sexes. The FGDs were conducted in six villages in rural Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2012. All FGDs were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative content analysis was performed to describe and analyse how the rural community perceived diabetes and its risk factors. Diabetes was perceived as a visible and scary sugar disease, and the affected individuals themselves were blamed for getting the disease. Recognised as 'sugar' or 'sweet-pee' disease with terrifying effects, diabetes was believed to be a disease with no cure. The participants seemed to have an unrealistic optimism with regards to the diabetes risk factors. They believed that diabetes would not affect them, only others, and that having family members with diabetes was necessary for one to develop diabetes. Our findings demonstrate that rural communities have negative perceptions about diabetes and at the same time individuals have unrealistic optimism about their own risk factors. Understanding how such communities perceive diabetes and its risk factors is important for planning prevention strategies. Health messages need to be tailored to health-related behaviours and the local culture's concepts of diseases and risk factors.

  9. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  10. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  11. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  12. Sediment yield from gullies, riparian mass wasting and bank erosion in the Upper Konto catchment, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, Anton; Bruijnzeel, L. A. (Sampurno); Prins, Th. M.

    2007-06-01

    Upland watershed rehabilitation programmes in Indonesia have faced increased scrutiny for not delivering the desired reductions in downstream sedimentation rates. Partly this reflects the fact that conservation measures have not been widely adopted or maintained by upland farmers, mainly for socio-economic reasons. Another potential explanation is that sediment contributions by gullying, (riparian) mass wasting and bank erosion have been seriously underestimated or even ignored. This paper presents estimates of sediment contributions by gullies, riparian mass wasting and bank erosion in the upland volcanic Konto catchment, East Java. Runoff and sediment yield from gullies were studied in two areas with contrasting soils and land use. Gullies in the Maron area (few gullies, Andic Cambisols, maize and rice cultivation on stable broad-based terraces) were related to improper drainage of trails, roads and yards. In the Binangsri area (more widespread gullying, Eutric Cambisols, onion cultivation on forward-sloping terraces), gullying was further enhanced by the practice of downslope furrowing to promote field drainage. Estimated annual sediment yields from the two areas were strikingly different at 22-26 and 50-87 Mg ha - 1 , respectively. Riparian mass wasting was estimated to contribute ca. 4% of total sediment yield at Maron and 8-19% in the main gully system at Binangsri, with the higher value in the latter case representing the effect of extreme rainfall in the latter half of the rainy season. Short-term wet season rates of gully wall retreat at Binangsri suggested a contribution by bank erosion of ca. 3% (8% including extreme events). As such, 11-27% of the annual sediment yield at Binangsri was estimated to have come from sources other than surface erosion. Substantial volumes of sediment (29-107 Mg km - 1 of river length) were also added to streams bordered by irrigated rice fields ( sawah) in non-gullied areas, mainly through the collapse of the lowermost

  13. The Importance of Socio-Economic Versus Environmental Risk Factors for Reported Dengue Cases in Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Topping, Margo; Rainey, Stephanie M.; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major mosquito-borne viral disease and an important public health problem. Identifying which factors are important determinants in the risk of dengue infection is critical in supporting and guiding preventive measures. In South-East Asia, half of all reported fatal infections are recorded in Indonesia, yet little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in this country. Methodology/Principal findings Hospital-reported dengue cases in Banyumas regency, Central Java were examined to build Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models assessing the influence of climatic, demographic and socio-economic factors on the risk of dengue infection. A socio-economic factor linking employment type and economic status was the most influential on the risk of dengue infection in the Regency. Other factors such as access to healthcare facilities and night-time temperature were also found to be associated with higher risk of reported dengue infection but had limited explanatory power. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. Although our analysis did not account for factors such as variations in immunity which need further investigation, this study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment. PMID:27603137

  14. Molecular Scanning of β-Thalassemia in the Southern Region of Central Java, Indonesia; a Step Towards a Local Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujito, Lantip; Basalamah, Muhammad; Mulatsih, Sri; Sofro, Abdul Salam M

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic blood disorder worldwide, and particularly prevalent in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations found in the southern region of Central Java, Indonesia. The subjects of the study included 209 β-thal Javanese patients from Banyumas Residency, a southwest region of Central Java Province. DNA analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and the direct sequencing method. The results showed that 14 alleles were found in the following order: IVS-I-5 (G > C) (HBB: c.92 + 5G > C) 43.5%, codon 26 (Hb E; HBB: c.79G > A) 28.2%, IVS-I-1 (G > A) (HBB: c.92 + 1G > A) 5.0%, codon 15 (TGG > TAG) (HBB: c.47G > A) 3.8%, IVS-I-1 (G > T) (HBB: c.92 + 1G > T) 3.1%, codon 35 (-C) (HBB: c.110delC) 2.4%. The rest, including codons 41/42 (-TTCT) (HBB: c.126_129delCTTT), codons 8/9 (+G) (HBB: c.27_28insG), codon 19 (AAC > AGC) (HBB: c.59A > G), codon 17 (AAG > TAG) (HBB: c.52A > T), IVS-I-2 (T > C) (HBB: c.92 + 2T > C), codons 123/124/125 (-ACCCCACC) (HBB: c.370_378delACCCCACCA), codon 40 (-G) (HBB: c.123delG) and Cap +1 (A > C) (HBB: c.-50A > C), accounted for up to 1.0% each. The most prevalent alleles would be recommended to be used as part of β-thal screening for the Javanese, one of the major ethnic groups in the country.

  15. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Akhmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. Results All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1, clade 2.1.3 (80, and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3 that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. Conclusions The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to

  16. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  17. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  18. Application of Time Domain Induced Polarization (TDIP Methods to Metallic Minerals Prospect on Kasihan Region, Pacitan Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mineral exploration activities primarily base metals often have problems because the resources of metallic minerals located below surface are associated with the surrounding rock. Application of Induced Polarization method was carried out in the area of mineral prospects at Kasihan Village, Pacitan District, East Java. The Induced Polarization (IP data were taken by Syscal Junior 458, using Dipole-dipole and Wenner configuration for mapping and Schlumberger configuration for sounding. Magnetic data were obtained by Geotron Magnetometer. Estimation of pyrite mineral deposit was done using modeling of Res2Dinv and RockWork15. Combination of resistivity and chargeability is conducted to identify the boundaries of mineralization zones. The high resistivity value is correlated with the content of silicate minerals in the mineralized zone, whereas the higher chargeability means high degree of metallic mineral deposits (pyrite. The assesment of two different mineralized zones in metal content is known by combining chargeability and resistivity with magnetic anomaly.

  19. Housing ownership and affordability among low-income society in the poorest sub-district of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingrum, Lulut

    2017-03-01

    The Government has intervened to deal with various affordable public housing programs, as well as financing programs for Low Income society in Indonesia. The characteristics of this society in each region are so diverse, that made the housing programs for this social segment uneasy in reaching the right target. Regulation of Housing and Settlement No. 2/2001 has mandated that the State are obliged to implement a habitable public housing for people, especially for the low income society. The purpose of this study is exploring the low-income residents' preferences and affordability of home ownership for their families in the poorest sub-district of Semarang. Aspects of studies include family conditions, financing, location, housing type and price. The research used a descriptive method to analyze a set of questionnaire data, distributed to low income residents in Sub district Tanjungmas, which isthe poorest sub district in Semarang. The results showed that the respondents developed a vision of home ownership by saving their money for the allocated housing budget and taking a bank installment. They tended to plan to get a house in their current neighborhood or nearby or anywhere else with the same price range. They really understood that, in order to get a better home and neighborhood they have to pay for higher prices. Therefore, their housing criteria or standards were set based on the quality of life in their current residential area, and should be located in a township (kampung).

  20. Accretionary nature of the crust of Central and East Java (Indonesia) revealed by local earthquake travel-time tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Christian; Bohm, Mirjam; Asch, Günter

    2014-12-01

    Reassessment of travel time data from an exceptionally dense, amphibious, temporary seismic network on- and offshore Central and Eastern Java (MERAMEX) confirms the accretionary nature of the crust in this segment of the Sunda subduction zone (109.5-111.5E). Traveltime data of P- and S-waves of 244 local earthquakes were tomographically inverted, following a staggered inversion approach. The resolution of the inversion was inspected by utilizing synthetic recovery tests and analyzing the model resolution matrix. The resulting images show a highly asymmetrical crustal structure. The images can be interpreted to show a continental fragment of presumably Gondwana origin in the coastal area (east of 110E), which has been accreted to the Sundaland margin. An interlaced anomaly of high seismic velocities indicating mafic material can be interpreted to be the mantle part of the continental fragment, or part of obducted oceanic lithosphere. Lower than average crustal velocities of the Java crust are likely to reflect ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks of a subduction melange.

  1. Identification of aquifer potential by using resistivity method: A case study in Kedawung and Sambirejo district, Sragen, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsono; Legowo, B.; Koesuma, S.

    2016-11-01

    It has been done geophysics survey by using resistivity method with Schlumberger configuration in Sambirejo and Kedawung subdistrict, Sragen regency, Indonesia. This research aims to identification of aquifer potential in those area. Totally there are 22 site surveys where 11 sites located in Sambirejo and 11 sites located in Kedawung subdistrict. Data collection was performed by using Resistvitymeter OYO McOHM-EL with length of current electrode from 1,5 meter up to 350 meter. Data processing was done by using IP2win software, while cross section was processed using Rockwork software. The result shows that in Sambirejo subdistrict, the aquifer layer consist of clayey sand and sand, While in Kedawung subdistrict, The aquifer layers consist of clayey sand, sand, gravel sand, gravel and breccias. Identification of groundwater potential zones as good and very good category was show that the sounding point was have a huge of groundwater source for in Sambirejo subdistrict is TS2, TS5, TS7, TS8, and TS9, while in Kedawung subdistrict is TS13, TS14, T15, TS16,TS17,TS18, TS19, TS20, TS21 dan TS22, respectively.

  2. Analysis on the Capacity Building Efforts for Mitigating Volcanic Risks during 2010 Eruption of Mount Merapi, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARI BAHAGIARTI KUSUMAYUDHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Merapi is one of the most active volcanoes on the World erupted again during October to November 2010. Its climax activities happened on 5th November at 00.10 pm, with different type of eruption from Mount Merapi of last 50 years. Ordinary, Mount Merapi activity starts from lava dome development, followed by dome collapse to create pyroclastic flow. This specific character of eruption is called Merapi type. The pyroclastic flows at that time killed 341 people and buried many villages on the southeastern slope, while the secondary hazard of lahar destroyed many other human settlements and infrastructures on the western slope of the volcano. Actually, capacity building program in the areas of around Mount Merapi has been established since more than 15 years ago. In most villages, there are community associations that well trained on volcanic hazard mitigation and early warning system. The association name is Association of Mountains Belt of Merapi. Map of Mount Merapi hazards was also already set by the Center of Volcanology and Geologic Disaster Mitigation. Unfortunately, human are not able to order the nature. The character of Mount Merapi eruption in the year 2010 was inconsistent. There was much higher gas pressure, much longer distant of pyroclastic flow, and much greater volume of volcanic material poured from the crater. This made people and stake holders very astonished in handling the evacuation. However, a socio-cultural factor in this respect is that the local people and agriculturists view Mount Merapi as a God which gives them fertile soil and water for agriculture and are reluctant to move away even under an impending threat of a volcanic hazard. This mind-set of people is a challenge in capacity building as the people prefer in-situ protective measures rather than moving away.

  3. Tomographic imaging of Central Java, Indonesia: Preliminary result of joint inversion of the MERAMEX and MCGA earthquake data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohadi, Supriyanto [Study Program of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia and Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency, Jl. Angkasa 1 No.2, Kemayoran, Jakarta (Indonesia); Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Masturyono [Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency, Jl. Angkasa 1 No.2, Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    The realization of local earthquake tomography is usually conducted by removing distant events outside the study region, because these events may increase errors. In this study, tomographic inversion has been conducted using the travel time data of local and regional events in order to improve the structural resolution, especially for deep structures. We used the local MERapi Amphibious EXperiments (MERAMEX) data catalog that consists of 292 events from May to October 2004. The additional new data of regional events in the Java region were taken from the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesia, which consist of 882 events, having at least 10 recording phases at each seismographic station from April 2009 to February 2011. We have conducted joint inversions of the combined data sets using double-difference tomography to invert for velocity structures and to conduct hypocenter relocation simultaneously. The checkerboard test results of Vp and Vs structures demonstrate a significantly improved spatial resolution from the shallow crust down to a depth of 165 km. Our tomographic inversions reveal a low velocity anomaly beneath the Lawu - Merapi zone, which is consistent with the results from previous studies. A strong velocity anomaly zone with low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/Vs is also identified between Cilacap and Banyumas. We interpret this anomaly as a fluid content material with large aspect ratio or sediment layer. This anomaly zone is in a good agreement with the existence of a large dome containing sediment in this area as proposed by previous geological studies. A low velocity anomaly zone is also detected in Kebumen, where it may be related to the extensional oceanic basin toward the land.

  4. Improving AVSWAT Stream Flow Simulation by Incorporating Groundwater Recharge Prediction in the Upstream Lesti Watershed, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rahayuningtyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The upstream Lesti watershed is one of the major watersheds of East Java in Indonesia, covering about 38093 hectares. Although there are enough water resources to meet current demands in the basin, many challenges including high spatial and temporal variability in precipitation from year to year exist. It is essential to understand how the climatic condition affects Lesti River stream flow in each sub basin. This study investigated the applicability of using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT with the incorporation of groundwater recharge prediction in stream flow simulation in the upstream Lesti watershed. Four observation wells in the upstream Lesti watershed were used to evaluate the seasonal and annual variations in the water level and estimate the groundwater recharge in the deep aquifer. The results show that annual water level rise was within the 2800 - 5700 mm range in 2007, 3900 - 4700 mm in 2008, 3200 - 5100 mm in 2009, and 2800 - 4600 mm in 2010. Based on the specific yield and the measured water level rise, the area-weighted groundwater predictions at the watershed outlet are 736, 820.9, 786.7, 306.4 mm in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. The consistency test reveals that the R-square statistical value is greater than 0.7, and the DV (% ranged from 32 - 55.3% in 2007 - 2010. Overall, the SWAT model performs better in the wet season flow simulation than the dry season. It is suggested that the SWAT model needs to be improved for stream flow simulation in tropical regions.

  5. Tomographic imaging of Central Java, Indonesia: Preliminary result of joint inversion of the MERAMEX and MCGA earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohadi, Supriyanto; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Masturyono

    2013-09-01

    The realization of local earthquake tomography is usually conducted by removing distant events outside the study region, because these events may increase errors. In this study, tomographic inversion has been conducted using the travel time data of local and regional events in order to improve the structural resolution, especially for deep structures. We used the local MERapi Amphibious EXperiments (MERAMEX) data catalog that consists of 292 events from May to October 2004. The additional new data of regional events in the Java region were taken from the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesia, which consist of 882 events, having at least 10 recording phases at each seismographic station from April 2009 to February 2011. We have conducted joint inversions of the combined data sets using double-difference tomography to invert for velocity structures and to conduct hypocenter relocation simultaneously. The checkerboard test results of Vp and Vs structures demonstrate a significantly improved spatial resolution from the shallow crust down to a depth of 165 km. Our tomographic inversions reveal a low velocity anomaly beneath the Lawu - Merapi zone, which is consistent with the results from previous studies. A strong velocity anomaly zone with low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/Vs is also identified between Cilacap and Banyumas. We interpret this anomaly as a fluid content material with large aspect ratio or sediment layer. This anomaly zone is in a good agreement with the existence of a large dome containing sediment in this area as proposed by previous geological studies. A low velocity anomaly zone is also detected in Kebumen, where it may be related to the extensional oceanic basin toward the land.

  6. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires. This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42% and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors.

  7. Supply and demand analysis for flood insurance by using logistic regression model: case study at Citarum watershed in South Bandung, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, P.; Mamat, M.; Sukono; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    Floods have always occurred in the Citarum river basin. The adverse effects caused by floods can cover all their property, including the destruction of houses. The impact due to damage to residential buildings is usually not small. Indeed, each of flooding, the government and several social organizations providing funds to repair the building. But the donations are given very limited, so it cannot cover the entire cost of repair was necessary. The presence of insurance products for property damage caused by the floods is considered very important. However, if its presence is also considered necessary by the public or not? In this paper, the factors that affect the supply and demand of insurance product for damaged building due to floods are analyzed. The method used in this analysis is the ordinal logistic regression. Based on the analysis that the factors that affect the supply and demand of insurance product for damaged building due to floods, it is included: age, economic circumstances, family situations, insurance motivations, and lifestyle. Simultaneously that the factors affecting supply and demand of insurance product for damaged building due to floods mounted to 65.7%.

  8. The Analysis of Product, Price, Place, Promotion and Service Quality on Customers’ Buying Decision of Convenience Store: A Survey of Young Adult in Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junio Andret

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze why the number of convenience store keep increasing by identify the dominant factors which are product, price, place, promotion and service quality that affect customer buying decision of convenience store in Bekasi. This research also as an input to help smaller traders in having better performance in future market. This research involves 300 Bekasi populations to obtain the required data. Then the questionnaire result analyzed with SPPS statistics which are frequency, descriptive statistics, validity and reliability test, multi regression analysis, correlation analysis, F- Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA in order to see the extend factors influential to customer buying decision. At the end, researcher proves that the most of customers comes to convenience store because of the price offered, kind of promotion, and also service quality provided.

  9. Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level of A Natural Gas Pipeline – Case Study from A to B Point in West Java-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianita Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the highest greenhouse emitters in the world. As a response of this problem, Indonesia declared the national action plan to focus on national greenhouse gas (GHG reduction by 26 % by 2020. To achieve this target, Government puts energy sector as one of the top priorities since it is the second strongest contributor to national GHG emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to apply the method of fugitive emissions calculation to the existing natural gas pipeline in Indonesia. Fugitive emissions are the major component of GHG emissions from natural gas systems and methane (CH4, the primary component of natural gas pipeline, is a potent GHG. Tiered approaches from Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA are implemented in this paper as the estimation guidelines. A case study of a natural gas pipeline system in Indonesia is analyzed to compare the GHG emissions level resulted from Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. In these methods, the input data are pipeline length, the number of compressor stations, and the number of meter and pressure regulation stations. In this case, the GHG emissions level of Tier 2 is significantly different from Tier 1. The variation of pipeline length shows that for the length under 479.2 miles, Tier 1 gives lower amount of CO2 equivalent than Tier 2. The differences of these estimation methods and results can be furtherly developed to provide relevant information and recommendation for the Companies and Government to record the emissions level from natural gas transmission pipeline according to their needs and purposes.

  10. Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level of A Natural Gas Pipeline – Case Study from A to B Point in West Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dianita Cindy; Saputra Asep Handaya

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the highest greenhouse emitters in the world. As a response of this problem, Indonesia declared the national action plan to focus on national greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by 26 % by 2020. To achieve this target, Government puts energy sector as one of the top priorities since it is the second strongest contributor to national GHG emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to apply the method of fugitive emissions calculation to the existing natural gas pipeline in Indo...

  11. Economic and Thermodynamic Analysis for Preliminary Design of Dry Steam Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) with Multifarious Gas Removal System (GRS) in Kamojang, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar Pranadi, Aloysius; Sihana; Suryopratomo, Kutut; Rahmatika Salis, Fiki

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has great number of geothermal potential separated by two kind of potential, 16.13 GW for high enthalpy and 7.88 GW for low enthalpy speculative resources [4]. In the end of 2013, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources stated that Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) in Indonesia have been built about 1.34 GW in capacity and wanted to seriously develop geothermal potential up to 6.64 GW by 2025 [8]. Cost is one of famous obstacle in Indonesia's GPP Development. To reduce grand total cost of GPP, this paper will present the relation between thermodynamic and economic analysis in purpose to find the most economical gas removal system in GPP. By gleaning data at Kamojang Steam Field on behalf of PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy, this study will thermodynamically analyze and calculate a GPP preliminary design with software, named as Cycle Tempo 5.0. In additional, writers create motive steam calculator (based on C++ language) to enhance thermodynamic analysis for gas removal system (GRS) and adapted the results in Cycle Tempo 5.0. After thermodynamic analysis has been done, economic study will be undertaken by Net Present Value Analysis to compare the utilization cost of three different GRS and find which kind of GRS is more economical for nearly 30 years operation. For the result, Dual LRVP has higher performance than the others, spend less utilization cost and more economical for nearly 30 years operation. Moreover, the economic analysis for replacement of gas removal system shown in this paper too. In conclusion, GPP with Dual LRVP is proper to be developed in the future Geothermal Power Plant or to replace the existing GRS in some existing GPP in Indonesia.

  12. The impact of entrepreneurial orientation on innovation adoption and innovation generation, and ultimately performance of vegetable farmers in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etriya, E.; Scholten, V.E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    In emerging high value markets, farmers are challenged by growth options. They can benefit from the growth options depending on their entrepreneurial orientation and how they engage in product quality improvement through adopting and generating innovations. Our study investigates the combined effect

  13. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires.   This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42%  and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors. Keywords: Harvesting, non-wood forest products, Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, community around the  forests

  14. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its center at latitude 24°30′50.6″, longitude 81°50′31.6″ with a radius of 300 yards, for use for ammunition exceeding the prescribed limits for pier-side handling. (b) The regulations. (1) When occupied by a...

  15. CANCER IN THE CASPIAN LITTORAL AND NORTH WEST AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A Salmasizadeh

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies undertaken during the last 5 years in the Babol Research Station of the Institute of Public Health Research, Teheran University, with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in the Caspian Littoral and Ardabil area in the north of Iran has indicated the presence of cancer in 48 different sites. The five more prevalent types of cancer found in that area in order of their incidence are esophageal, stomach, skin, lung and liver cancers. Except for cancer of esophagus which occurs with a very high variation in incidence in the area, the incidence of other 4 does not significantly differ in various parts of the region. The incidence of esophageal cancer is maximum in the east and southeast of the area and it gradually decreases towards the reaching its minimum level in Gilan and increasing again to the west in Ardabil area. The incidence is higher among males in the low incidence, almost equal in the high incidence area except in Gombad area where is much higher among females than in males. The total number of cancer of soesophagus registered during the 5 years period is 1420 which constitute 1/10 of all cases reported. Of other types of cancer registered, cancers of skin, cervix uteri and lymphoma, mostly lymphosarcoma are more prevalent. Of the cancers of digestive tube, oesophageal is more prevalent in the east and stomach cancer in the west of the area.

  16. Fiqh Issues in the Border Areas of West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Hamka Siregar

    2016-01-01

    The less prosperous condition of the community in the Indonesia-Malaysia border area in the province of West Kalimantan has resulted in several problems including those related to fiqh, such as the sale and purchase of illegal goods from Malaysia, the phenomena of illegal migrant workers from Indonesia, human trafficking, transnational marriages, double identity cards, etc. In the perspective of fiqh, there is no ban on trading between people of different nationalities. In the legislative pro...

  17. Design of Simple Water Treatment System for Cleaning Dirty Water in the Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Haristiani, N.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce our simple home-made water treatment system for solving the clean water supply problem in rural area. We designed a water system using several materials: activated sand, activated carbon, manganese, and zeolite. As a model, we investigated the water treatment system on two wells that placed in one of the rural area (far from the main city) in West Java, Indonesia. Experimental results showed that our designed water treatment system succeeded to purify dirty water and the properties and the chemical composition of the purified water is fit with the minimum standard requirement of clean water. Analysis and discussion about the way for the cleaning water process were also presented in the paper. Finally, since the wells are installed in the elementary school and the water is typically used for daily life activity for the neighbour people, this water system can be used for educational purposes and the school can become a center of life in this rural area.

  18. A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lukas; Mecke, Sven; Kieckbusch, Max; Mader, Felix; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-01-26

    A new species of the gekkonid lizard genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 is described from Klakah, Lumajang Regency, Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeners by the presence of (1) a deep precloacal groove in males, (2) three rows of enlarged precloacofemoral scales, of which the third row bears 37-38 pores in males, (3) three or four rows of enlarged scales between the precloacofemoral scale rows and the cloaca, forming distinct chevrons, (4) raised and strongly keeled dorsal tubercles in 15-19 rows at midbody, (5) an indistinct lateral fold, (6) 17-20 subdigital lamellae under the 4th toe, and (7) subcaudal scales which are not transversely enlarged. Cyrtodactylus klakahensis sp. nov. is only the third bent-toed gecko species described from Java, indicating that the diversity of this genus on this island has been neglected in the past. Furthermore, we confirm that C. fumosus (Müller, 1895) is a species that possesses a precloacal groove in males and is most likely restricted to northern Sulawesi. That species is defined by a single female holotype (NMB-REPT 2662). Specimens in museum collections catalogued as C. fumosus from localities elsewhere are misidentified and likely represent undescribed species.

  19. An inconspicuous, conspicuous new species of Asian pipesnake, genus Cylindrophis (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae), from the south coast of Jawa Tengah, Java, Indonesia, and an overview of the tangled taxonomic history of C. ruffus (Laurenti, 1768).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckbusch, Max; Mecke, Sven; Hartmann, Lukas; Ehrmantraut, Lisa; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-03-20

    We describe a new species of Cylindrophis currently known only from Grabag, Purworejo Regency, Jawa Tengah Pro-vince (Central Java), Java, Indonesia. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a single, eponymous subocular scale between the 3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th supralabial, preventing contact between the 4th or 5th supralabial and the orbit, and by having the prefrontal in narrow contact with or separated from the orbit. We preface our description with a detailed account of the tangled taxonomic history of the similar and putatively wide-ranging species C. ruffus, which leads us to (1) remove the name Scytale scheuchzeri from the synonymy of C. ruffus, (2) list the taxon C. rufa var. javanica as species inquirenda, and (3) synonymize C. mirzae with C. ruffus. We provide additional evidence to confirm that the type locality of C. ruffus is Java. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. is the second species of Asian pipesnake from Java.

  20. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  1. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  2. Introducing Seawater China for Sustainablefrom Bohai Sea to WestDevelopment in the Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenChangli

    2004-01-01

    Sustained and profound aridization process in north-west China in Tertiary and Quaternary period and time of mankind history are discussed. The rain-creased function of 3 set high mountain condensation systems in north-west China is recognized once more. A sandstorm happened on 20th March 2002 in Alasan and Ejinaqi areas was very strong and arrived in Japan and Korea. For saving Alasan area from sandstorm a way of introducing sea water from Bohai to Alasan has been proposed. Four problems are replied in this paper. It is concluded that introducing sea water from Bohai to west China is the best way for sustainable development of west China.

  3. Soil erosion and its correlation with vegetation cover: An assesment using multispectral imagery and pixel-based geographic information system in Gesing Sub-Watershed, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirda Gupita, Diwyacitta; Sigit Heru Murti, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion in caused by five factors: rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope and slope length, crop management, and land conservation practices. In theory, vegetation as one of the affecting factors has inversed correlation with soil erosion. This research is aimed to: (1) model RUSLE using pixel-based GIS, and (2) prove whether or not vegetation really has the said correlation with the soil erosion that occurs in Gesing Watershed. The method used in this research is divided into two: the use of RUSLE to estimate the soil erosion rate; and the use of fractional vegetation cover (FVC) formula to estimate the vegetation density in the area. Both methods used Landsat-8 OLI imagery, which is used to extract the RUSLE parameters as well as to derive the vegetation density through NDVI, and pixel-based GIS. The mapping of soil erosion rate distribution done in this research demonstrated that pixel-based modeling is able to represent a much more detailed and logical distribution of a phenomenon. The distribution of soil erosion rate in Gesing Watershed showed that the erosion rate in this area is relatively minor. About 1425.99 hectares and 1587.57 hectares of the total area have erosion rate of 0 – 15 tons/ha/yr (very mild) and 15 – 60 tons/ha/yr (mild) respectively.

  4. Deformation and seismic precursors to dome-collapse and fountain-collapse nuées ardentes at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, 1994-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, B.; Young, K.D.; Hidayat, D.; ,; Purbawinata, M.A.; Ratdomopurbo, A.; ,; ,; Sayudi, D.S.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Murray, T.L.; Dejean, M.; Iguchi, M.; Ishihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    Following the eruption of January 1992, episodes of lava dome growth accompanied by generation of dome-collapse nuées ardentes occurred in 1994–1998. In addition, nuées ardentes were generated by fountain-collapse in January 1997, and the 1998 events also suggest an explosive component. Significant tilt and seismic precursors on varying time scales preceded these events. Deformation about the summit has been detected by electronic tiltmeters since November 1992, with inflation corresponding generally to lava dome growth, and deflation (or decreased inflation) corresponding to loss of dome mass. Strong short-term (days to weeks) accelerations in tilt rate and seismicity occurred prior to the major nuées ardentes episodes, apart from those of 22 November 1994 which were preceded by steadily increasing tilt for over 200 days but lacked short-term precursors. Because of the combination of populated hazardous areas and the lack of an issued warning, about 100 casualties occurred in 1994. In contrast, the strong precursors in 1997 and 1998 provided advance warning to observatory scientists, enabled the stepped raising of alert levels, and aided hazard management. As a result of these factors, but also the fortunate fact that the large nuées ardentes did not quite descend into populated areas, no casualties occurred. The nuée ardente episode of 1994 is interpreted as purely due to gravitational collapse, whereas those of 1997 and 1998 were influenced by gas-pressurization of the lava dome.

  5. Herbicide Concentrations in Select Waterfowl Production Area Wetlands in West Central Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twenty-eight emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1993...

  6. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  7. Ore-forming Conditions and Prospecting in the West Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yongguan; GUO Kunyi; XIAO Huiliang; ZHANG Chuanlin; ZHAO Yu

    2004-01-01

    The West Kunlun ore-forming belt is located between the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and southwestern Tarim Basin. It situated between the Paleo-Asian Tectonic Domain and Tethyan Tectonic Domain. It is an important component of the giant tectonic belt in central China (the Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling Tectonic Belt or the Central Orogenic Belt). Many known ore-forming belts such as the Kunlun-Qilian Qinling ore-forming zone, Sanjiang (or Threeriver) ore-forming zone, Central Asian ore-forming zone, etc. pass through the West Kunlun area. Three ore-forming zones and seven ore-forming subzones were classified, and eighteen mineralization areas were marked. It is indicated that the West Kunlun area is one of the most favorable region for finding out large and superlarge ore deposits.

  8. Relative tectonic activity classification in Kermanshah area, west Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Zagros region because of closing to subduction zone and the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates is imposed under the most tectonic variations. In this research, Gharasu river basin that it has located in Kermanshah area was selected as the study area and 6 geomorphic indices were calculated and the results of each ones were divided in 3 classes. Then, using the indices, relative tectonic activity was calculated and the values were classified and analyzed in 4 groups. Regions were identified as very high, high, moderate and low. In analyzing the results and combining them with field observation and regional geology the results are often associated and justified with field evidences. The highest value is located on Dokeral anticline in crush zone in Zagros Most of the areas with high and moderate values of lat are located on crush zone in Zagros too. Crushing of this zone is because of main faults mechanism of Zagros region. The result of this paper confirms previous researches in this region. At the end of the eastern part of the study area, the value of Iat is high that could be the result of Sarab and Koh-e Sefid faults mechanism.

  9. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... areas and danger zone. (a) The areas. (1) All waters within 100 yards of the south shoreline of...

  10. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  11. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  12. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  13. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  14. Area West of the 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict area within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is west of the 700 fathom isobath. This area was designated by the Pacific Fishery...

  15. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  16. Nutrition of Indonesian women during pregnancy and lactation: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, outcome of pregnancy and child survival. A community-based study was conducted in a rural area of West Java, Indonesia to investigate 1) the effect of weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation during pregnancy on iron and vitamin A status o

  17. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  18. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  19. Prognosis: The Plan of Integrated Tourism Area of Kapuk Naga Beach, Tangerang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper  tries to analyze of prognosis of the Integrated Tourism Area Planning of Kapuknnaga Beach (KWTPK Tangerang Regency West Java. The two method applied to compose the prognosis are extrapolation and indication. The extrapolation is based on the local area infomation data of contemporary knowledge in the past and presence, while the indication method utilizes the whole interrelation activities programmed with the possible consequences. Land function transformation effects of KWTPK will cause environmental destroy as annual flsh flood, salt water intrusion and polution of urban’s industry sewage. As further effect there is a raising of turbidity and nitrition degree of sedimentation which make coral-ridge degradation toward annihilation. The coral-ridge annihilation will cause the sea waves power collide with the seashore area directly which threatens KWTPK.

  20. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  1. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  2. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  3. Determination of The Water Catchment Area in Semarang City Using a Combination of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) Classification, InSAR and Geographic Information System (GIS) Methods Based On a High-Resolution SPOT 6 Image and Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Ardi Gunawan, Setyo; Maksum, Zia Ul

    2016-11-01

    Semarang is the biggest city in central Java-Indonesia which has a rapid and massive infrastructure development nowadays. In order to control water resources and flood, the local goverment has been built east and west flood canal in Kaligarang and West Semarang River. One of main problem in Semarang city is the lack of fresh water in dry season because ground water is not rechargeable well. Rechargeable groundwater ability depends on underground water recharge rate and catchment area condition. The objective of the study is to determine condition and classification of water catchment area in Semarang city. The catchment area conditions will be determine by five parameters as follows soil type, land use, slope, ground water potential and rainfall intensity. In this study, we use three methods approach to solve the problem which is segmentation classification to acquire land use classification from high resolution imagery using nearest neighborhood algorithm, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to derive DTM from SAR Imagery and multi criteria weighting and spatial analysis using GIS method. There are three types optical image (ALOS PRISM, SPOT-6 and ALOS PALSAR) to calculate water catchment area condition in Semarang city. For final result, this research will divide the water catchment into six criteria as follows good, naturally normal, early critical, a little bit critical, critical and very critical condition. The result shows that water catchment area condition is in an early critical condition around 2607,523 Ha (33,17 %), naturally normal condition around 1507,674 Ha (19,18 %), a little bit critical condition around 1452,931 Ha (18,48 %), good with 1157,04 Ha (14,72 %), critical with 1058,639 Ha (13,47 %) and very critical with 75,0387 Ha (0,95 %). The distribution of water catchment area conditions in West and East Flood Canal have an irreguler pattern. In northern area of watershed consists of begin to critical, naturally normal and good condition

  4. Anopheline Diversity: Morphological and Molecular Variation of An. subpictus in Rural and Urban Areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Paul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic survey (March 2012- Feb 2013of Anopheline population in rural(Mogra and urban(Dumdum areas of West Bengal has been conducted to know the present population load of Anopheles subpictus. A reliminary attempt has been made to assess the potential morphological (wing as well as molecular variation of Anopheles subpictus by using ITS-2 sequence primer. A considerable sequence variation is observed between the rural and urban population of West Bengal.

  5. Effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption from 2000 to 2010 in the West Liaohe Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ling; YANG Yan-zhao; FENG Zhi-ming; ZHENG Ya-nan

    2016-01-01

    TheWestLiaohe Plain is located in the eastern Inner Mongolia, known as the golden maize belt in China, where maize acreage has continued to rise in recent years. Water is the main limiting factor for maize production in the region, therefore, this study calculated the effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption in the WestLiaohe Plain in 2000, 2005 and 2010, based on remote sensing and meteorological data. Maize remote sensing classiifcation was con-structed based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer, normalized difference vegatation index (MODIS NDVI) data. Then the maize sown area and water requirement and irrigation water resources were investigated. Finaly, the effect of the maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption in the West Liaohe Plain was systematicaly analyzed in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The results showed that maize sown areas rose from 2000 to 2010 and were concentrated in the center of the WestLiaohe Plain. Average per unit maize water deifcit amount also increased in an uneven distribution, increasing from the south, east and north to the center and west of the WestLiaohe Plain. The per unit area maize water deifcit increased from 2000 to 2010, and reached 266 mm in 2000, 272 mm in 2005 and 273 mm in 2010, respectively. And the study concluded that water deifcit during the whole growth period of maize in the West Liaohe Plain was deifned by a single peak curve. The maize water requirements increased with maize sowing area changes from 2000 to 2010, and the maize water requirements increased from 0.89 bilion m3 in 2000 to 1.19 bilion m3 in 2005, and 1.21 bilion m3 in 2010.

  6. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Hadian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.

  7. Shoreline Dynamics and Various Associated Processes in the Batang Coastal Area, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Mutaqin, Bachtiar; Nugraha, Henky; Puspitorukmi, Arum; Lavigne, Franck; Hartono, Hartono; Aris Marfai, Muh

    2015-04-01

    Coastal area is an area with dynamic environmental condition with both physical and non-physical processes. One of the effects of these processes is shoreline change, which may occur in short-term events due to regular wave action, tides, or winds, as well as in long-term events such as tectonic activities that cause coastal land subsidence or emergence. Shoreline change analysis, especially in Batang, Central Java, Indonesia, is needed as a reference for coastal planning in that area, such as stipulate the coastal protection method, as well as a cornerstone in the policy or development of coastal areas. Shoreline change along Batang coastal area has been analyzed using the End Point Rate (EPR) technique in Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in ArcGIS 10. Baseline were created along the shoreline to generate general trend of shoreline. Transects with 500 m spacing were made perpendicular to the baseline towards the sea. About 385 transect with 500 meters spaces was created to measure the shoreline change. Negative and positive value were used to indicate the erosion or accretion regime. Shoreline change have been measured using multi-temporal satellite images from 2009 to 2013. The study found that shoreline in Batang is changed significantly during 2009 - 2013. Around 0,33 km2 of land has lost due to coastal erosion, two times greater than the amount of coastal accretion (0,15 km2). The high erosion area mostly found in west Port of Niaga and in the east of Sambong River estuary. Based on the result obtained with EPR technique, can be concluded that coastal erosion is mostly happened in the Batang coastal than coastal accretion. This statement also supported by research conducted by Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) in 2013 which states that the phenomenon of coastal erosion in Batang was began in 1994. The highest rate of coastal erosion had occurred between the years 1997 to 2002, including at the Sigandu beach until

  8. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  9. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  10. Wavelet Analysis of Earthquake Activity in the West of the Chinese Mainland and Its Adjacent Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Huicheng; Fu Zhengxiang; Wang Xiaoqing; Jiang Zaisen

    2005-01-01

    Wavelets are a useful tool for analyzing the time-frequency of a non-stable series and are widely applied in many fields. The process of earthquake preparation and occurrence is a non-linear process. In the paper, the wavelet method is used to analyze the series of earthquake data for the time period from 1900 to 2003 in the west of the Chinese mainland and its adjacent area (WCMAA), and to obtain the characteristic information for different time scales. In the past 103 years, there were four primary periods of regional earthquake activity in the area with durations of 42, 22, 7 and 14 years, respectively and the intensity of earthquake activity changing with time. It doesn't make sense to talk about active or quiet periods of earthquake activity unless it is based on a specific time scale. In addition, the tendency analysis of earthquake activity using the primary period of seismic activity and wavelet coefficients of varied time scales indicates that the earthquake activity in this region will be high in the forthcoming years.

  11. New Evidence from Alashan Area of West Nei Monggol to Reveal Enigma of Dinosaur Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Dinosaur extinction of the late Cretaceous is an enigma. A scorched earth layer was discovered at the end of the Cretaceous system from drilling cores in west of Nei Monggol in China. And there was a creature interruption for 6-8 million years after that period through fossil analysis of the area and the adjacent area. Just in the same system of scorched earth layer, the Polish scientists found the abnormal geo-chemical phenomena and high-dense universal substances generally contained in meteorite. The authors think, at the end of Cretaceous, many celestial bodies ran into the earth. The collision caused fires all over the world and slowed down the speed of the earth rotation suddenly. The oxygen density decreased sharply. And because of the sudden increase of day length, the biological clock of dinosaur was in the state of chaos. That’s the reason why dinosaurs got extinct. It took a very long time both for the oxygen to return normal for most creatures to live and for the new species fit for new rotation speed of the earth to come into being. That’s why there was the creature interruption after the extinction of the dinosaur.

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  13. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNIZATION IN RURAL AREAS COVERD BY HEALTH HOUSES IN WEST AZARBAIJAN PROVINCE, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Salarilak

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Povinding quality health care services, without constant qualitative and quantitative studeies/evaluation, seem to be impossible. High rate of children immunization coverage in Iran, however, represents parts of a quality assessment of mother and child health care services in rural areas of West-Azerbaijan Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, LQAS method was employed for the purpose of quality assessment. Children between 10 to 36 months old from the pre-mentions areas constitute the study population of present report. Sample was selected through a multistage sampling method and a questionnaire together with a checklist was utilized for data collection. Findings demonstrate a very high rate immunization coverage of children (>96%. Mother’s knowledge about the data of next vaccination and DPT potential side effect's are estimated to be 32%, and 58%, respectively. Children's overall immunization adequacy rate, despite the high rate coverage, equalled to 59% which does not represent a high quality service in this respect. This study approves the reliability and practicality of LQAS method for quality assurance of health services.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis in the foothill areas around Susunia of West Bengal in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Paramanik; G.Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the filarial epidemiology in 16 foothill villages around Susunia hill,Bankura district, West Bengal,India.Indices studied were microfilaria rate,mean microfilarial density,filarial disease rate and endemicity rate.Other indices related to transmission were incrimination of vector species,man-hour density of the vector,vector infection and infectivity rates,human blood index of the vector etc.Methods:Examination of 20 μL night blood samples by finger prick and clinical examination for filarial diseases of 3 737 people (2 241 male and 1 496 female)was done randomly covering nearly 22 % population of the study area.Aspects related to vectors were dealt by regular collection and dissection of mosquitoes.Results:Overall microfilaria rate,mean microfilarial density,disease rate and endemicity rate were 6.10 %,10.86 %,20.20 % and 25.58 %,re-spectively.Causative parasite was identified as Wuchereria bancrofti and Culex quinquefasciatus was incrimina-ted as the vector therein.Vector infection rate,infectivity rate and human blood index were assessed to be 6. 31 %,1.38 % and 77.33 %,respectively.Conclusion:Present study area is highly endemic for bancroftian filariasis.More than one fourth of the population under study were filarial victims indicating an overall alarming situation and immediate measure should be taken to rectify the situation.

  15. Food security and coping mechanisms in marginal areas : the case of West Pokot, Kenya, 1920-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangulu, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The major focus of the book is on food security and coping mechanisms in an arid environment; a case of West Pokot in Northwest Kenya. The area suffers from livestock and crop diseases; human and cattle raids between the Pokot and their neighbors; has no major industries or developed roads; and reli

  16. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…

  17. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  18. Quantified and integrated crop and livestock production analysis at the farm level : exploring options for land use of mixed farms on heavy limestone soils south of Malang, East Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efdé, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    To develop adequate and sustainable land use plans, a clear assessment of the potential of the land and of the existing farming systems, as well as an identification of ways to attain these potentials is required. The agricultural system in the limestone area south of Malang is classified into diffe

  19. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  20. Climate regionalization for main production areas of Indonesia: Case study of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdinan; Farysca Adi, Ryco; Sugiarto, Yon; Arifah, Annisa; Yustisi Arini, Enggar; Atmaja, Tri

    2017-01-01

    Spatially, climate condition is vary within a region and considered as essential information for planning activities such as agro-climate zonation. An approach to understand the spatial climate variability is the utilization of climate regionalization that is applied to rainfall data to distinguish differences in the pattern and magnitude (characteristics) of spatial rainfall variability over a region. Unfortunately, the application of climate regionalization poses a challenging issue in Indonesia, considering the availability of climate data. Recent advances in satellite and reanalysis data measuring climate variability over a large area provided an opportunity for the application of climate regionalization in the country. Using the West Java, one of main crop production regions in Indonesia, climate regionalization techniques were applied to map spatial variability of climate types based on rainfall data recorded by climate stations (point based analysis) and estimated by modeled/reanalysis data and satellite observations (gridded data). The regionalization derived from gridded rainfall data have reasonably better in capturing the zonal pattern of differences in climate types within the study region than the regionalization applied to insufficient numbers of site-based rainfall observation. This indicates that the gridded data offers an alternative for climate regionalization, when site-based observations are unavailable or limited.

  1. A survey of West African Dwarf (WAD goats enterprises in Lafia area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available West African Dwarf (WAD Goat enterprises were studied using data collected from 120 households where goats are kept. The result revealed that majority of the households heads were male and married, with an average of 46 years and had up to eight years experience in goat production. A very few were members of cooperative societies. Contact with extension agents by the respondents was also minimal, while 40% rear goats for both home consumption and income generation. Goats were kept by the respondents under semi intensive and extensive feeding systems. The average number of goats kept per household was 12. Majority of the respondents sell their goats at home and the selling price was determined by the prevailing market price or by reproductive value. Feed shortage was the major constraint militating against goat production in the study area. There is a high potential to increase the productivity of goats if the technical and managerial constraints can be solved by providing better quality feeds and improved extension service delivery.

  2. Waterborne cholera outbreak following Cyclone Aila in Sundarban area of West Bengal, India, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ghosh, Sougata

    2011-04-01

    Following Cyclone Aila, a block of Sundarban area, West Bengal, India, reported an increased number of diarrhoea cases at the end of May 2009. This study was performed to identify the agent and source of the outbreak as well as to propose control measures. The outbreak is described by time, place and person. A matched case-control study was conducted and rectal swabs and water specimens were collected. In total, 1076 probable case patients and 14 deaths (attack rate 44/10 000) were identified. Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa was isolated from two of five probable case patients' stool specimens. The outbreak started in the fourth week of May, with two peaks in the second and fourth weeks of June, and lasted until August 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to drink non-chlorinated piped water [matched odds ratio (MOR)=16, 95% CI 4.9-51; population attributable fraction 58%) and were less likely to drink chlorine-treated water (MOR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.18). Villagers broke the water pipelines near their houses for easy access to water. Piped water specimens and stored drinking water were positive for faecal contamination. Contaminated drinking water was the probable source of the cholera outbreak. Repairing the pipelines, chlorination at household level and educating villagers regarding the danger of breached water pipe connections controlled the outbreak.

  3. Seismic studies of coal bed methane content in the west coal mining area of Qinshui Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Guangui⇑; Peng Suping; Yin Caiyun; Xu Yanyong; Chen Fengying; Liu Jinkai

    2013-01-01

    The coal bed methane content (CBMC) in the west mining area of Jincheng coalfield, southeastern Qinshui Basin, is studied based on seismic data and well-logs together with laboratory measurements. The results show that the Shuey approximation has better adaptability according to the Zoeppritz equation result;the designed fold number for an ordinary seismic data is sufficient for post-stack data but insufficient for pre-stack data regarding the signal to noise ratio (SNR). Therefore a larger grid analysis was created in order to improve the SNR. The velocity field created by logging is better than that created by stack velocity in both accuracy and effectiveness. A reasonable distribution of the amplitude versus offset (AVO) attributes can be facilitated by taking the AVO response from logging as a standard for calibrating the amplitude distribution. Some AVO attributes have a close relationship with CBMC. The worst attri-bute is polarization magnitude, for which the correlation coefficient is 0.308; and the best attribute is the polarization product from intercept, of which the correlation coefficient is ?0.8136. CBMC predicted by AVO attributes is better overall than that predicted by direct interpolation of CBMC; the validation error of the former is 14.47%, which is lower than that of the latter 23.30%. CBMC of this area ranges from 2.5 m3/t to 22 m3/t. Most CBMC in the syncline is over 10 m3/t, but it is below 10 m3/t in the anticline;on the whole, CBMC in the syncline is higher than that in anticline.

  4. STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL ON CCL4 AND CHCL3 CONCENTRATIONS IN THE 200 WEST AREA, HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsor, K.; Last, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Remediation requires a high-resolution understanding of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these lithofacies have on CCl4 migration through the unconfi ned aquifer. To increase the level of detail of our current understanding, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater fl ow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were standardized and used to create a cross section displaying the depth and continuity of lithofacies. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and that other fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. The infl uence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

  5. Factors controlling groundwater hydrogeochemistry in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Mostafa; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality suffers from various degradation mechanisms such as extensive urbanization, agricultural and industrial activities in many developing countries. This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the change in the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt. The Piper diagrams show the predominance of Na-Cl (75%) with minor Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Cl water-types. The equiline diagrams and ionic ratios show the dominance of Ca2+ + Mg2+ over Na+ + K+ and HCO3- + SO42- over Cl- suggesting silicate minerals dissolution and reverse ion exchange reactions Results of Gibb's diagram revealed that the chemical budget of the groundwater in this area is mainly derived from water-rock interaction and evaporation-crystallization dominances. The R-mode factor analysis applied to quantify the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the anthropogenic impacts that affect groundwater quality, revealed that the Pliocene clays are the major sources of Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater due to silicate minerals dissolution and ion exchange reactions and, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are mainly from dissolution of carbonates and silicate minerals abundant in the Pleistocene Qena Formation lithologies. Higher concentration of SO42- at the newly reclaimed lands may be due to the effect of rainfall, addition of potassium sulfates fertilizers to the agricultural soils and gypsum-anhydrite dissolution. The results of this study suggest that the R-mode factor analysis combined with the geological-hydrogeological analyses of the aquifer is useful in recognizing the geochemical trends and identifying the anthropogenic sources affecting the groundwater quality.

  6. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  9. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  10. PROPERTIES AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS OF SOILS FORMED FROM VOLCANIC MATERIALS IN LEMBANG AREA, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Yatno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from volcanic materials have a high potential for agricultural development, especially for horticultural crops, tea, and pine trees. Data on the characteristics of these soils are important for the management planning. Six representative soil profiles developed on andesitic volcanic ash and tuff in Lembang area, West Java were studied to determine the soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, to study the relationship between the soil properties, and to classify the soils according to the Soil Taxonomy. The results indicated that all the soils had very deep (>150 cm solum. In general, the volcanic ash soils were darker colored, more granular, more friable, less sticky and less plastic than the volcanic tuff soils. Physically, the ash soils had lower bulk density (0.44-0.73 mg m-3 and higher available water content (13-33% than the tuff soils. Bulk density decreased with increasing allophane. Chemically, the ash soils had higher pHNaF (mostly > 10, higher organic carbon (4.3-6.8% in upper horizons, higher CEC (20- 44 cmolc kg-1, and higher P retention (> 85% than the tuff soils. P retention logarithmically increased with increasing oxalate extractable Al and allophane. The sand fractions of the ash soils were dominated by hornblende, while the tuff soils were predominantly composed of opaque minerals. In the clay fractions, the ash soils were dominated by allophane, whereas the tuff soils showed high contents of gibbsite and metahalloysite. Soils developed on volcanic ash were classified as Thaptic Hapludands and Typic Melanudands, while soils formed from volcanic tuff were classified as Andic Dystrudepts. The low bulk density and friable consistency of the soils contributed to favorable soil tilth. However, high P retention and Al saturation in most soils are limiting factors for plant growth. Application of P fertilizers and liming coupled with efficient placement can be recommended to enhance P availability and

  11. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  12. The Impact of European Settlement within French West Africa. Did pre-colonial prosperous areas fall behind?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    (english) Did colonization change the distribution of prosperity within French-speaking West Africa? Using a new database on both pre-colonial and colonial contexts, this paper gives evidence that Europeans tended to settle in more prosperous pre-colonial areas and that the European settlement had a strong positive impact on current outcomes, even in an extractive colonial context, resulting in a positive relationship between pre and post-colonial performances. I argue that the African hostil...

  13. Instrumental lahar monitoring at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, F.; Thouret, J.-C.; Voight, B.; Young, K.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Suwa, H.; Sumaryono, A.; Sayudi, D.S.; Dejean, M.

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 volcanic debris flows or lahars were generated around Mt Merapi during the first rainy season following the nuees ardentes of 22 November 1994. The rainfalls that triggered the lahars were analyzed, using such instruments as weather radar and telemetered rain gauges. Lahar dynamics were also monitored, using new non-contact detection instrumentation installed on the slopes of the volcano. These devices include real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM), seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) systems. Calibration of the various systems was accomplished by field measurements of flow velocities and discharge, contemporaneously with instrumental monitoring. The 1994–1995 lahars were relatively short events, their duration in the Boyong river commonly ranging between 30 min and 1 h 30 min. The great majority (90%) of the lahars was recognized at Kaliurang village between 13:00 and 17:30 h, due to the predominance of afternoon rainfalls. The observed mean velocity of lahar fronts ranged between 1.1 and 3.4 m/s, whereas the peak velocity of the flows varied from 11 to 15 m/s, under the Gardu Pandang viewpoint location at Kaliurang, to 8–10 m/s at a section 500 m downstream from this site. River slopes vary from 28 to 22 m/km at the two sites. Peak discharges recorded in various events ranged from 33 to 360 m3/s, with the maximum value of peak discharge 360 m3/s, on 20 May 1995. To improve the lahar warning system along Boyong river, some instrumental thresholds were proposed: large and potentially hazardous lahars may be detected by RSAM units exceeding 400, SSAM units exceeding 80 on the highest frequency band, or AFM values greater than 1500 mV on the low-gain, broad-band setting.

  14. Face Shape Variation Among Sundanese People from Western Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOLLY CANDRAMILA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is an important visual stimulus in daily life and each face identifies a particular person. The bone structure of the skull along with various soft tissues and coloration influence perception of the face. Facial averageness, and bilateral symmetry are the two most commonly used criterion of facial attractiveness, yet, both may be perceived differently based on hormonal status of the person observed. Facial perceptions may also differ according to cultural norms. In this research, we examined variations in face-shape among Sundanese male and female adults aged 18 to 40. We applied geometric-morphometric methods to analyze the landmark-based morphological variations in the frontal and lateral views of subjects’ faces. We identified five types of female frontal face views and four of male. We also identified five types each of female and male lateral face views. The trichion, gonion and gnathion were three most variable landmarks among the face views in our study, and highly determined the shape of the individuals’ faces. Multiple face type variation may refer to many categories of attractive faces since there is no exactly perfect category in the assessment of facial attractiveness by the viewers. Therefore, we believe that the configuration of facial features cannot constitute the sole visual criterion of facial attractiveness.

  15. Yield constraints of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.; Tuong, T.P.; Jatmiko, S.Y.; Burac, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The low and unstable yields of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java can be attributed to drought, nutrient stress, pest infestation or a combination of these factors. Field experiments were conducted in six crop seasons from 1997 to 2000 at Jakenan Experiment Station to quantify the yield loss due t

  16. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gede Suparta Budisatria, I.

    2006-01-01

    Small ruminants are an important but neglected resource in developing countries. Small ruminant production systems are complex. The multiple goals related to small ruminants, combined with the complexity of their management, and the resources and social arrangements involved, make small ruminants ke

  17. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    I Gede Suparta Budisatria

    2006-01-01

    Small ruminants are an important but neglected resource in developing countries. Small ruminant production systems are complex. The multiple goals related to small ruminants, combined with the complexity of their management, and the resources and social arrangements involved, make small ruminants keeping an enterprise that is inherently difficult to study and to understand. This study analysed the behaviour of small ruminant production systems in order to understand their development prospect...

  18. Porous boundaries : Addressing calamities in East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wessing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Social constructions of reality must account for adversity and calamities. In East Java this is commonly done with reference to the spirit world and to God, with only occasional appeals to modern science. Rather than being a uniform phenomenon, adversity can be conceptualized as happening on the individual, the household, the community, and the state levels. Explanations similarly vary from specific individual offences, to communal household or community culpability, and national-level disasters like tsunamis and volcanic eruptions that are blamed on the activities of gods and spirits. All these social units are seen as porous, and care must be taken to protect them from deleterious outside influences. Parallel to these explanations at all levels run appeals to God and His mercies. The difference between these streams of explanation is resolved in the case of the more pious by either denying the spirit world, or otherwise resolving them in various ways by unifying the categories of God and the spirit world.

  19. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  20. Gargamelle in the West Area - control room for the external electronic detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Four electronic detectors complementing Gargamelle were installed in 1977, among them the external muon identifier (EMI), consisting of two arrays of multiwire proportional chambers separated by an iron wall (see Annual Report 1977 p. 84). The photo shows the control room close to the West Gargamelle Hall (Bld. 185).

  1. Shaping vibrant urban places in Chinese inner-city station areas: A case study of Beijing West station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Cities in China are embarked on ambitions plans to create renewed inner-city station areas, particularly evident after a series of redevelopment projects; these projects mainly focus on the development of transport infrastructures, rather than turning station areas into vibrant urban spaces. Therefo

  2. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  4. Pond Creek Coal Zone Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal bed resource areas. Resource areas are only a subset of the entire areal...

  5. Radioactivity in environmental samples taken in the Sellafield, Ravenglass and Morecambe Bay areas of west Cumbria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, E J; Popplewell, D S; Ham, G J

    1991-06-01

    Seaborne sediments deposited in the estuaries of the Esk, Duddon, Leven and Kent have been analysed for fission products and actinides discharged in waste from the Sellafield processing works in west Cumbria, and the values compared with the generally expected values due to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Analyses of tissues from sheep grazing the marshes of these estuaries show that the internal radiation dose of the general public through eating mutton or liver from these animals would be at most a few percent of recommended limits. Analytical data are presented on the actinide content of beef cattle, and on potato crops grown under field conditions; these data show that, as with the sheep data, the radiation dose to the consumer would be small.

  6. An appraisal of ground water for irrigation in the Appleton area, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven P.

    1976-01-01

    Supplemental irrigation of well-drained sandy soils has prompted an evaluation of ground water in the Appleton area. Glacial drift aquifers are the largest source of ground water. The surficial outwash sand and gravel is the most readily available and the most areally extensive drift aquifer, and it underlies much of the sandy soil area. Saturated thickness of the outwash is more than 80 feet (24 m) in places, and potential well yields may exceed 1,200 gal/min (76 1/s) in some areas. In about 17 percent of the area, yields of more than 300 gal/min (19 1/s) are obtainable.

  7. Malaria Transmission Pattern in an Area Selected for Clinical Trials in the Sudanian Area of Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hadji Amadou Niang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission pattern was studied in 3 villages (Toubanding, Daga Ndoup, and Keur Samba Guèye situated within an area selected for clinical trials. The study was conducted in the rainy season from July to December 2011. The main objective of this work was to gather baseline data on malaria transmission intensity and other entomological parameters before the advent of clinical trials. Mosquitoes were collected by Human-Landing Collections (HLCs and by pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs. Five anopheline species were collected, namely, An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. pharoensis, and An. rufipes, giving a heterogeneous distribution within the study area. The populations dynamics of the vectors varied temporarily in each village depending on the pattern of the rainy season. Transmission intensity estimated by the entomological inoculation rate (EIR was measured in each of the three villages with the variations linked to the microecological differences between the villages. Measurements were calculated for August, September, and October and were found to vary between 4 and 30 infected bites per person over the study period with a peak intensity observed in September. These results indicate that epidemiological field trials on malaria could be conducted in this area on the basis of the differences observed with transmission intensity, micro-ecological variations, and the objectives of the trials.

  8. Formation Conditions and Exploration-favoring Areas of Subtle Reservoirs in West Taibei Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanMingsheng; WangJinsong; LiBin

    2004-01-01

    At the initial stage of subtle reservoir exploration in the shallow to medium formations of the Taibei Sag, Tuha Basin, so far, three kinds of subtle reservoirs (stratigraphic, lithologic and structural-lithologic reservoirs) have been found. Since both the amount and reserve of the discovered subtle reservoirs are small, a great exploration potential remains in the Taibei Sag. The shallow to medium formations in the west of the Taibei Sag were divided into three second-order sequences and ten third-order sequences, of which the rising cyclothems of SQ(J2q) and SQ8 (J2s2) datum level are major exploration targets for the subtle reservoirs (lithologic). The depositional systems of Qiquanhu and Subashi braided river delta were developed there, where the sedimentary sand body is dominated by the regional slopes and slope break belts. There are four main modes the formation of lithologic traps: deltaic front onlap on the slope belt, deltaic front toplap on the slope break belt, lately tilted frontal sand body and sublacustrine fan--slope fan on the slope break belt, of which the first three modes are the major styles of the formation of subtle reservoirs. Major targets for subtle reservoir exploration in the near future include Putaogou Member on the north slope of Huoyanshan, the east slope of Pubei, the nose-like palaeohigh regions of Huobei, Subashi and Lianmuqin, around the Shengbei secondary sag.

  9. Upper Freeport Coal Bed Resource Areas in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the digital compilation of geologic and resource maps provided mostly by State geologic surveys and depicts the projected area of occurrence of the...

  10. Fire Clay Coal Zone Resource Areas in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the Fire Clay coal zone that represents the areas in which resources were calculated and is only part of the full outcrop of...

  11. 59 FR- Prohibited Acts in West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-15

    ... INTERIOR [OR-030-03-1220-04: GS-043] Prohibited Acts in West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and... and restrictions within the boundaries of the West Little and North Fork Owyhee Rivers as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic Rivers Management...

  12. Effectiveness of training on infant feeding practices among community influencers in a rural area of west Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, A; Ray, S; Biswas, R; Biswas, B; Mukherjee, D

    2001-01-01

    Total 34 Influencers were trained in a subcentre area of South 24-parganas district of West Bengal. Knowledge was imparted to community influencers on infant feeding practices through lecture, group discussion, question-answer session and hand-on-training by trained health workers. Pre-assessment was done before initiation of training. Repeat training was conducted at frequent intervals within a period of 3 months. Mean score of knowledge of influencers during pre-training assessment was 13.3 and improved thereafter-following training to 20.8 (1st assessment), 20.6 (2nd assessment), 23.7 (3rd assessment) and 25.2 (final-assessment). Repeat training had also desired impact.

  13. Job Satisfaction and Work Performance of Public Secondary School Teachers In Akoko North West Local Government Area Of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroge Stephen Talabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance of secondary school teachers in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The study population consisted of all secondary school teachers, while two hundred of them were randomly selected for the study. Regular payment of salary, opportunities for promotion, rapport with school authority, in-service training, job security, career prospect and retirement benefits were the variables considered. The questionnaire titled “Workers Opinion Survey Inventory (WOSI” and the Productivity Rating Scale (PRS which was in line with Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APPER was used to obtain information for the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson Product Correlation Moment.  One of the recommendations made include the onward review of policies, remuneration and work conditions of teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria for optimum productivity.

  14. THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAMAT MUSIC AS A PROTOTYPE OF BANDAR ART IN THE WEST SUMATERA COASTAL AREA (PESISIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martarosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, the city of Padang has been dubbed the metropolis of the island of Sumatera. This is because the population of the Europeans who live there is relatively higher than other cities in Sumatera. An influence of this condition appears to be the phenomenon of Western-style music which was introduced to the indigenous peoples (Bandar natives. The appropriation of this musical style from various cultures such as of Portuguese (European, Malay and Minangkabau eventually became known as Gamat. Nowadays, the well-known Gamat is part of the identity of the culture, especially for Minangkabau in the West Sumatera coastal area.

  15. Sliding zone identification of landslide area using resistivity method in Cijambe, Subang West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, Nanang Dwi; Iryanti, Mimin

    2016-02-01

    Subang is an area which consists of hill and mountain. This area is also categorized as disaster-prone zone. An environment assessment should be carried out to prevent the landslide in the future. Sliding zone was associated with clay stones that were indicated by low resistivity zone. Technical measurements of resistivity method made are lateral mapping using the Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 2 meter to reach the end point of the track along 60 meter. Resistivity values obtained in the range of 15-35 Ωm, 30-215 Ωm, and 250-1700 Ωm which indicated clay mixed with rock layer that dominates below the surface, clay sandy and alluvial were gathered. From the two dimension model, it can be concluded that in the study area reveal the sliding zone was located on upper the low resistivity zone.

  16. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  17. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD. Materials and Methods: The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College and Hospital, Bankura, West Bengal, India. This study was carried out on 958 patients of different ages ranging from child to adults from January to June 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, complete blood count (CBC and hemagglutination technique were performed for the assessment of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups, respectively. Results: Results from this study had been shown that there was high prevalence of hemoglobinpathies (27.35% where β-thalassemia in heterozygous state occurred more frequent than other hemoglobinopathies. Out of 958 patients, 72.65% were HbAA and 27.35% were hemoglobinopathies individuals where 17.64% β-thalassemia heterozygous, 2.92% β-thalassemia homozygous, 3.86% HbAE, 1.15% HbAS trait, 1.25% HbE-β thalassemia trait and 0.52% HbS-β thalassemia trait were found. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbD and other variants of hemoglobinpathies were observed. The gene frequencies with respect to ABO systems had been shown as O > B > A > AB. Blood group O was the highest (35.8% and the least percentage distribution was blood group AB (6.68%. Rhesus positive (Rh+ were 97.7%, while the remaining was 2.3% Rhesus negative (Rh-. The frequencies of A + , B + , AB +, and O + blood groups were 22.44%, 33.61%, 6.58%, and 35.07%, respectively. Conclusions: Remarkable percentages of hemoglobinopathies were prevalent from the present study. An extensive screening of the population is needed to assess the

  18. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in accordance with the restrictions in effect in area No. 3. (iii) During the period May 1 through... Behm Canal. Special events are defined as summer holidays or celebrations, competitions, or economic... July 25 through September 15, historic salmon derbies lasting eight days or less, Memorial Day,...

  19. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly ne

  20. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas. The eastern limit of the coal bed is along the...

  1. Ultrastructural observations on five pioneer soil algae from ice denuded areas (King George Island, West Antarctica)

    OpenAIRE

    MASSALSKI, ANDRZEJ; Mrozinska ,Teresa; Olech, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Morphological observations were made using transmission electron microscopy on five species of green soil algae, including Chlorosarcinopsis cf. gelatinosa Chantanachat & Bold, Muriella decolor visher, Tetracystis aeria Brown & Bold, Tetracystis pampae Brown & bold, and Stichococcus bacillaris Nageli. With an exception of the latter species, they are all new records in Antarctica. These species were the important pioneers in the colonization process of the areas recently denuded of ice. Colle...

  2. Taming the `Wild West’ - Integrating the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (the founder of Pakistan) for extending cooperation towards Pakistan in June 1947 at Delhi. One of the three30 conditions...Areas of Pakistan. 20. 10 NWFP.31 The Jinnah had a positive reaction to the proposal, but died before any...decision could be reached. After partition , the new state of Pakistan was to enter into fresh agreements and treaties with the tribal chiefs. The

  3. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  4. Geochemistry of Archean Mafic Amphibolites from the Amsaga Area, West African Craton, Mauritania: Occurrence of Archean oceanic plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Atrassi, Fatima; Debaille, Vinciane; Mattielli, Nadine; Berger, Julien

    2015-04-01

    While Archean terrains are mainly composed of a TTG (Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) suite, more mafic lithologies such as amphibolites are also a typical component of those ancient terrains. Although mafic rocks represent only ~10% of the Archean cratons, they may provide key evidence of the role and nature of basaltic magmatism in the formation of the Archean crust as well as the evolution of the Archean mantle. This study focuses on the Archean crust from the West African craton in Mauritania (Amsaga area). The Amsaga Archean crust mainly consists of TTG and thrust-imbricated slices of mafic volcanic rocks, which have been affected by polymetamorphic events from the amphibolite to granulite facies. We report the results of a combined petrologic, Sm-Nd isotopic, major element and rare earth element (REE) study of the Archean amphibolites in the West African craton. This study was conducted in order to characterize these rocks, to constrain the time of their formation and to evaluate their tectonic setting and their possible mantle source. Our petrological observations show that these amphibolites have fine to medium granoblastic and nematoblastic textures. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies mineral assemblages (mainly amphibole and plagioclase), but garnet and clinopyroxene occur in a few samples. These amphibolites have tholeiitic basalt composition. On a primitive mantle-normalized diagram, they display fairly flat patterns without negative anomalies for either Eu or Nb-Ta. We have shown using Sm-Nd whole rock isotopic data that these amphibolites formed at 3.3 ±0.075 Ga. They have positive ɛNdi values (+5.2 ± 1.6). These samples show isotopically juvenile features, which rule out the possibility of significant contamination of the protolith magmas by ancient continental crust. Based on these geochemical data we propose that the tholeiitic basalts were formed in an oceanic plateau tectonic setting from a mantle plume source and that they have a

  5. Changing surface–atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, west Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Charalampidis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present five years (2009–2013 of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. of the ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB and surface meltwater runoff. The observed runoff was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals a relatively low 2012 summer albedo of ~0.7 as meltwater was present at the surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season the surface absorbed 29% (213 MJ m-2 more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity test reveals that 71% of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36% (0.64 m of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 1.14 m was primarily due to the high atmospheric temperatures up to +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year with the lowest albedo at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of the last years resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity at the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  6. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. - above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ~ 0.78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity analysis reveals that 71 % of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36 % (0.64 m) of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 64 % (1.14 m) of surface lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  7. Changing surface–atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwat...

  8. Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conway David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older

  9. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  10. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  11. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya, B. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit-containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  12. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  13. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIJAYA

    2009-01-01

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit,containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  14. The Frozen Soils and Devastating Characteristics of West Kunlun Mountains Pass Ms 8.1 Earthquake Area in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yongming; Wang Lanmin; Dai Wei; Wang Weifeng; Dai Huaguang

    2004-01-01

    The investigation on damages to frozen soil sites during the West Kunlun Mountains Passearthquake with Ms 8.1 in 2001 shows that the frozen soil in the seismic area is composedmainly of moraine, alluvial deposit, diluvial deposit and lacustrine deposit with the depthvarying greatly along the earthquake rupture zone. The deformation and rupture of frozen soilsites are mainly in the form of coseismic fracture zones caused by tectonic motion and fissures,liquefaction, seismic subsidence and collapse resulting from ground motion. The earthquakefracture zones on the surface are main brittle deformations, which, under the effect of sinistralstrike-slip movement, are represented by shear fissures, tensional cracks and compressivebulges. The distribution and configuration patterns of deformation and rupture such asfissures, liquefaction, seismic subsidence and landslides are all related to the ambient rock andsoil conditions of the earthquake area. The distribution of earthquake damage is characterizedby large-scale rupture zones, rapid intensity attenuation along the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet)Highway, where buildings distribute and predominant effect of rock and soil conditions.

  15. An observation on the Odonata fauna of the Asansol-Durgapur Industrial Area, Burdwan, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Kumar Nayak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken as a pilot study to examine the diversity, occurrence and distribution pattern of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata from the selected study sites of the Asansol-Durgapur industrial area of Burdwan District of West Bengal, India from January 2012 to December 2015.  A combination of direct search and opportunistic sighting methods were applied to record 57 different Odonata species (38 dragonflies and 19 damselflies.  Among the dragonflies the most diverse family was Libellulidae represented by 36 species while among damselflies Coenagrionidae was the most diverse family represented by 16 species.  In spite of the Asansol-Durgapur region being an industrial urban area, the present study revealed a handsome diversity of odonates.  A suitable geographic location, favourable climatic conditions, heterogeneous habitat types that included ponds, wetlands, riverbeds, grasslands and agricultural lands along with the presence of appropriate vegetation provided a comfortable shelter for Odonata species to flourish in this ecoregion.   All the odonates noted in the present study belong to the Least Concerned category as designated by IUCN. 

  16. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  17. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; ZHANG SiWei

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West", an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation, extensive collaboration in argumen-tation and decision-making, and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China's old industrial district remodeling, the paper offers some suggestions.

  18. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  19. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  20. Asymptomatic leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Malda district, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202

  1. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  2. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  3. Effects of forest vegetation on runoff and sediment transport of watershed in Loess area,west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoming; YU Xinxiao; WU Sihong; LIU Huifang

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of vegetation on runoff and sediment transport at the watershed scale,and to provide a theoretical basis for afforestation in the Loess area,in the nested Caijiachuan watershed,Jixian County,Shanxi Province of west China.Forest watersheds and farmland watersheds with similar ten'ain features were selected through cluster analysis to study their runoff and sediment transport characteristics.Results showed that compared with farmland watersheds,runoff generation time in forest watersheds was delayed remarkably,and peak flow was reduced greatly,which indicates that vegetation played an important role in holding and absorbing rainfall.Besides,with the increase of forest coverage,the runoff amount,runoff depth and runoff coefficient decreased during the rainy seasons.The runoff depth and runoff coefficient of farmland watersheds in the rainy season were 5-20-fold as much as that of forest watersheds,and runoff and sediment yield of watersheds with low forest coverage were 2.7-2.9-fold and 3-5-fold as great as those with high coverage during rainstorms,and low forest coverage had larger variation in sediment hydrograph.For the complexity and scale dependence of the influence of forest vegetation on runoff,forest hydrological functions based on regional scale or watershed scale were worthy of further studies.

  4. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  5. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K. [Environment Agency, Welsh Region, Northern Area Office, Ffordd Penlan, Parc Menai, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 4DE (United Kingdom); Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); McDonald, P., E-mail: paul.mcdonald@westlakes.ac.uk [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Watts, S.J. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 {mu}Gy h{sup -1}, below the ERICA screening level of 10 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} and within the IAEA 40 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  6. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest

  7. Targeting Mineral Resources with Remote Sensing and Field Data in the Xiemisitai Area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin R. Mansaray

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiemisitai area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential copper mineralization zone in association with small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization characteristics of the intrusions, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ and Quickbird data of the study area were evaluated in mapping lithological units, small intrusions, and alteration zones. False color composites of the first principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, and PCA4 in red (R, green (G, and blue (B of the ETM+ image, and relevant hue-saturation-intensity (HSI color model transformations, were performed. This led to the identification of lithologic units and discrimination of granitic intrusions from wall-rocks. A new geological map was generated by integrating the remote sensing results with two internally published local geologic maps and field inspection data. For the selected region, false color composites from PCA and relevant HSI-transformed images of the Quickbird data delineated the details of small intrusions and identified other unknown similar intrusions nearby. Fifteen separate potash-feldspar granites and three separate hornblende biotite granites were identified using ETM+ and Quickbird data. The principal component analysis-based Crosta technique was employed to discriminate alteration minerals. Some of the mapped alteration zones using the Crosta technique agreed very well with the known copper deposits. Field verification led to the discovery of three copper mineralizations and two gold mineralizations for the first time. The results show that the PCA and HSI transformation techniques proved to be robust in processing remote sensing data with moderate to high spatial resolutions. It is concluded that the utilized methods are useful for mapping lithology and the targeting of small intrusion-type mineral resources within the sparsely vegetated regions of Northwest China.

  8. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J., E-mail: raul.diaz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jose.lopezm@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear Nabor Carrillo, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: albertoe@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-}2{sub .5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1{sup st} , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil

  9. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATIONS OF 16S MITOCHONDRIAL GENE SEQUENCES OF YELLOW RICE STEM BORER,scirpopbaga incertulas (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE FROM WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIKA RAFFIUDIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rice stem borer ( is one of the most important rice pest insectsin Asia, including Indonesia. However, there is a lack of genetic data for this importantagricultural insect. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore intraspecific differentiationof partial 16S mitochondrial gene from Bogor, Karawang, Indramayu and Cirebon(West Java, Indonesia. Here, we reported a total of 325 bp of 16S mitochondrial gene offrom the obtained samples. Among all DNA sequences, three haplotypes of 16Smitochondrial gene were observed and submitted to GenBank under Accession Number ofGU191881, GU191882, GU191883, respectively for haplotype 1, 2, and 3. The haplotype 1was found in all surveyed locations, except Bogor. Haplotype 2 and 3 werefound only in from Cirebon and Bogor samples. These haplotype variations can be applied asDNA markers for early larva detection method among other rice stem borers.Hence, further explorations of the mitochondrial variations of in Java and otherparts of Indonesia are neededmoth, haplotypes, genetic differentiations, molecular identification1* 1 2(1(2Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB, Darmaga,Bogor 16680, INDONESIAIndonesian Centre for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic ResourcesResearch and Development (ICABGRDScirpophaga incertulasS. incertulasS.incertulasS. incertulasS. incertulasS. incertulasABSTRACTINTRODUCTION

  10. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  11. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  12. Environmental and social determinants of human risk during a West Nile virus outbreak in the greater Chicago area, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Connie

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV in and around Chicago in 2002 included over 680 cases of human illness caused by the virus within this region. The notable clustering of the cases in two well-defined areas suggests the existence of specific environmental and social factors that increase the risk for WNV infection and/or illness in these locations. This investigation sought to create an empirically based model to account for these factors and to assess their importance in explaining the possible processes that may have led to this pattern. Results The cluster pattern of high incidence of cases was statistically significant. The risk factors that were found to be important included the presence of vegetation, age, income, and race of the human population, distance to a WNV positive dead bird specimen, age of housing, mosquito abatement and geological factors. The effect of different mosquito abatement efforts was particularly notable. About 53 percent of the variation of the location of WNV clusters was explained by these factors. Conclusion The models developed indicate that differential mosquito abatement efforts are especially important risk factors, even when controlling for key environmental factors. Human population characteristics play a role in risk that is measurable in this ecological study but would require further research to associate causality with risk. The analysis of spatial clusters of case incidence indicates that this approach provides more insight into the focal nature of differential risk factors that tend to be associated with WNV than an analysis of all individual cases.

  13. An organic geochemical investigation on organic rich sediments from two Neogene formations in the Klias Peninsula area, West Sabah, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amer M. Burgan; Che Aziz Ali

    2009-01-01

    Twenty organic rich outcrop samples from the Belait and Setap Shale formations in the Klias Peninsula area, West Sabah, were analysed by means of organic petrology and geochemical techniques. The aims of this study are to assess the type of organic matter, thermal maturity and established source rock characterization based primarily on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The shales of the Setap Shale Formation have TOC values varying from 0.6 wt%-1.54 wt% with a mean hydrogen index (HI) of 60.1 mg/g, whereas the shales of the Belait Formation have TOC values ranging from 0.36 wt%-0.61 wt% with a mean (HI) of 38.2 mg/g, indicating that both formations have TOC>0.5 wt% the minimum limit for hydrocarbon generation. The samples do not contain sufficient hydrogen-rich organic matter (types I, II and III) to be considered good quality source rocks. The kerogen of type II is predominantly of marine origin. This organic matter was deposited in clastic algal environments. Geochemical data (Rock-Eval, Tmax values ranging from 377-451℃ for shales of the Setap Shale Formation and ranging from 466-498℃ for shales of the Belait Formation, typical of high maturity), indicate variable maturation histories in both formations. The maturation level varied from the beginning to the peak stage of oil generation in the Setap Shale Formation and it has reached the over-mature level in the samples of the Belait Formation.

  14. Metal concentrations and histopathological changes in goats (Capra hircus) reared near an industrial area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, I; Mukhopadhayay, S K; Patra, A K; Pradhan, S

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation was performed to assess the concentrations of four heavy metals-lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co)-in goats reared in the vicinity of an industrial area of West Bengal, India, including soil, water, and feedstuffs; tissues of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, and muscle; and milk and faeces. In addition, histopathological changes in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and muscle samples were examined. Mejia block as an industrial polluted site and Vatar block as a reference site (without any industrial activities and 120 km away from the polluted site) were selected for this study. The results showed that concentrations of these heavy metals in soil, water feedstuffs, all tissues, milk, and faeces were greater (P kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Concentrations of heavy metals were greater in older animals than in young ones. Haemoglobin, total protein, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte counts, and total leucocytes counts were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in blood of goats in the polluted site compared with the reference site. Serum glucose, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, and alkanline phosphatase were significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) increased. Histological examination showed several pathological alterations including degeneration, vacuolation, and tubulitis in kidney; congestion, degeneration, periportal necrosis, and focal haemorrhages in liver; and congestion and diffuse haemorrhage in lungs. It was concluded that natural exposure to these environmental heavy metals significantly increases toxic heavy-metal concentrations in several visceral organs resulting in pathological changes in these tissues. Thus, consumption of the meat of goats reared in the polluted site may pose human health hazards.

  15. [Response of fine root decomposition to simulated nitrogen deposition in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, rainy area of West China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-Hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    As an important contributor to carbon (C) flux in the global C cycle, fine root litter decomposition in forests has the potential to be affected by the elevated nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. From November 2007 to January 2013, a field experiment involving monthly simulated deposition of N in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation was conducted in the Rainy Area of West China. Four levels of nitrogen deposition were included as control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). After 3 years of simulated N deposition experiment (January 2011) , a two-year fine root decomposition experiment was conducted in the simulated N deposition plots using litterbag method, under monthly experimental N deposition. The decomposition rates of fine roots were fast first and then slow. Mass loss of fine roots in the first year of decomposition was up to 60%, and the change of the remaining mass was very slow in the second year. The time of 50% and 95% mass loss of fine roots was 1.20 and 5.17 years, respectively, under the conditions of no addition N input. In general, decomposition rates were underestimated using negative exponential model. Simulated N deposition significantly inhibited the decomposition of fine roots. The remaining mass in the high nitrogen treatment was 51.0% higher than that in the control, after two years of decomposition. Simulated N deposition increased C, P and K contents in the remaining mass of litter. Compared with the control, soil pH decreased significantly in the medium and high nitrogen treatments, soil organic C, total N, ammonium and nitrate contents and fine root biomass of P. amarus increased significantly in the high nitrogen treatment after simulated N deposition for 4. 5 years. Key words: nitrogen deposition; fine root decomposition; Pleioblastus amarus.

  16. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West" ,an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation,extensive collaboration in argumentation and decision-making,and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China’s old industrial district remodeling,the paper offers some suggestions.

  17. Region specific challenges of a CO2 pipeline infrastructure in the West Mediterranean area. Model results versus stakeholder views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.A.; Mesquita, P.; Carneiro, J.; Silva, J.; Berghout, N.A.; Ramirez, C.A.; Gouveia, J.; Seixas, J.; Cabal, H.; Martinez, R.; Rimi, A.; Zarhloule, Y.; Sardinha, M.; Boavida, D.; Tosato, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of potential CCS infrastructures in the West Mediterranean region including trajectories for CO2 pipelines. The preliminary results are generated with a combination of geographical (GIS) and partial equilibrium optimization modelling (MARKAL/TIMES-COMET). Furthermore, as

  18. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Dharma Raharjo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan, resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study found some snakes, encompasses Colubridae (10 species, Elapidae (four species, and Phytonidae (one species. There are Burmese Python (Python reticulatus, Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Painted Bronzeback Snake (Dendrelaphis Pictus, Black Copper Rat Snake (Coelognathus flavolineatus, Radiated Rat Snake (C. radiatus, Striped Keelback (Xenochrophis vittatus, Checkered Keelback (X. piscator, Spotted Ground Snake (Gongyosoma balioderius, Gold-ringed Cat Snake (Boiga dendrophila, Common Wolf Snake (Lycodon capucinus, Banded Wolf snake (L. subcinctus, Cobra (Naja sputatrix, King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus, and Banded Krait (B. fasciatus was found. These snake habitats distributes at 21 coordinate points. Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, snakes.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  20. Isolation and Biochemical Characterizations of Mid Gut Microbiota of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in Some Urban Sub Urban & Rural Areas of West Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes, in general are medically important vectors of many diseases like Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis, which are a great challenge for public health in many countries. All animals and plants establish symbiotic relationship with microbes. Mosquitoes can be considered as an holobiont units in which the host (mosquito and its microbiota are involved in complex reciprocal multipartite interaction such as host reproduction and survival, protection against natural enemies. This naturally acquired microbial flora can modulate the mosquitos’ vectorial capacity by inhibiting the development of pathogen. But enough care has not been under taken regarding the biochemical characterization of Culex mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus in West Bengal. Therefore a preliminary investigation have been undertaken for the determination of biochemical characterization such as gram staining, pattern of growth, detection of economically important enzyme as well as antibiotic susceptibility assay of midgut bacterial isolates of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus in some urban, sub-urban and rural areas of West Bengal.

  1. Natural Communities and Rare Vascular Plants of West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge; Mapping, Description, and Ecological Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to apply a landscape-scale approach to management of the lands, natural communities of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin...

  2. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM GROUNDNUTS IN SOME LOCATIONS OF WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.s. DHARMAPUTRA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ninety eight groundnut samples were collected from freshly harvested groundnuts (FHG, farmer storage systems (FSS, middlemen warehouses (MW, wholesalers (WS and retailer sample (RS during the dry and wet seasons from Cidolog, Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, in 1990/1991. The moisture content (m.c., intactness of kernels, and the percentages of groundnut kernels infected by each species of fungi were analyzed. In genera, the m.c. of the samples collected during the dry season was lower than of those collected during the wet season. Also, the m.c. of samples collected from FHG, FSS and MW was higher than of those collected from WS and RS. The m.c. of samples collected from FHG was the highest (12.5-45.75%, but the percentages of damaged kernels were the lowest (2.5-13.8%, because the samples were shelled manually. A total of 25 species of fungi were isolated from samples collected from the 4 localities. They were Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. wentii, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, Eumtium chevalieri, E. repens, E. rubrum, Fusarium equiseti, F. longipes, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, Mucor sp., Papulaspora sp., Pestalotia sp., Penicillium aethiopicum, P. citrinum, Rhizapus sp., R. stolonifer and Syncephalastrum sp. The predominant fungi in samples collected from Cidolog and Sukabumi during the dry season were Aspergillus wentii, while those collected from Cianjur and Bogor were A. niger. The percentages of kernels infected by A. wentii in samples collected from Cidolog and Sukabumi were between 30-100% and 36-100%, respectively, while those of kernels infected by A. nigerin samples collected from Cianjur and Bogor were between 34-93% and 14-98%, respectively. The predominant fungi in samples collected from each location during the wet season were A. flavus. The percentage of kernels infected by the fungus in

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Airspace Changes for Paradise East and Paradise West Military Operations Areas (MOAs) at Mountain Home Air Force Base (MHAFB) Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ee cc: WWP ONDA Senator llarry Reid Jul 31 09 03:52p Fri€nds Or N€vada Wild€rn 775-324-2677 July 30, 2009 366t11 Fighter Wing Public Affairs...riparian areas, water quality, fisheries, and other natural resources and ecological values of watersheds throughout the West. ONDA is a non-profit...public interest organization dedicated to preserving and protecting the public lands of eastern Oregon. ONDA has a long history of interest and

  4. Radioactivity in environmental samples taken in the Sellafield and Ravenglass areas of West Cumbria, 1977-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, W R; Curtis, E J; Popplewell, D S

    1984-05-01

    Terrestrial foodstuffs and other materials of agricultural importance have been analyzed for fission products and actinides discharged in waste from the Sellafield processing works in west Cumbria . Results obtained between 1977 and 1982 are summarized and it is concluded that the internal radiation exposure of the general public due to consumption of locally produced food in no instance amounts to more than a small fraction of recommended limits. Deposition of seaborne sediment is shown to be the main route by which radionuclides of Sellafield origin reach grazing land bordering a nearby tidal estuary.

  5. The Kaliningrad, West Russia earthquakes on the 21st of September 2004-Surprise events in a very low-seismicity area [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, Eystein S.; Mäntyniemi, Päivi

    2005-12-01

    The earthquakes in Kaliningrad, West Russia on the 21st of September 2004 were unexpected in a seismically quiet area. The main shock of magnitude mb = 5 was widely felt around the Baltic Sea. A comparison with some historic earthquakes in Northern Europe shows that its perceptibility area is smaller than that of the 1904 Oslo Graben earthquake of an estimated magnitude ( ML) 5.4 but larger than those of the 1759 Kattegat and 1819 Lurøy earthquakes. The latter are claimed to have had magnitudes ( MS) in the range of 5.7-6.0. An analysis of the Lg phase of the Kaliningrad earthquakes as recorded at a number of European stations accords only weakly with the macroseismic intensity pattern that shows fast attenuation towards west-northwest and southeast. The strike-slip focal mechanism of the main shock is discussed in the context of remnant glacial rebound stresses in generating present-day seismicity in N. Europe.

  6. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitumetse Idah Nkwe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000 standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated.

  7. An etnographic study of elementary education in the rural area of Dompu county, the province of West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrahmah Nurrahmah; Zamroni Zamroni; Sumarno Sumarno

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe: (1) public service for elementary education in rural areas; (2) the meaning of education and the implementation of elementary education in the people of rural areas; and (3) the life and meaning of poverty for people of rural areas. The study was etnographic research. The subjects were the providers and users of educational service. The research concludes that: (1) educational service in rural areas has not been coordinated and integrated both vertically and horizo...

  8. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    decreased over the last 15-20 years, while the Canada Goose, a species new to the area, has increased. This study explores the overlap in diet and space use of these species in Mudderbugten and Kvandalen, together with factors that could influence the degree of competition between the two species. Data...... on activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were......Inter-specific competition can occur where two or more species overlap in diet and/or spatial distribution. Such interactions might be most prevalent where a species invades areas previously occupied by another species. In West Greenland, the number of native Greenland White-fronted Geese has...

  9. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  10. A Comprehensive Approach for Modelling Elephant Habitat within the Network of Protected Areas Oti-Keran-Mandouri in Togo (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Akpisso, A.; Coulibaly, M.; Soulemane, O.; Wala, K.; Tano, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The network of protected areas Oti-Keran-Mandouri (OKM) is part of one of the most important ecogeographical region for the African savannah elephant conservation in West Africa. However, OKM is under high anthropogenic pressure but it is still considered as a first priority corridor for elephant migration. Therefore a comprehensive suitability model was developed in a GIS environment to identify remaining suitable patch of habitat. Considering the ecology of the African Savannah elephant, criteria such as pound thickness, distance to rivers, distance to roads, distance to settlements, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were standardized using appropriate fuzzy membership functions and sum overlaid. A set of elephant occurrence data from park managers and from casual sighting was used as test data. About 29.01 % of the area of OKM was classified as suitable habitat whereas 60.84 % and 10.14% were respectively considered as somewhat and less suitable habitats. About 36.5% of the occurrence data felt in the suitable area while 62.16% in the somewhat suitable area. Forest lands were the main contributor to the suitable habitat whereas others land cover types (savannahs, wetlands and croplands) contributed mostly to the somewhat suitable habitat (60.97% to 63.43%). The Habitat Unit Index (HUI) for suitable habitat shows that forests are the most preferred vegetation type (0.49) followed by wetlands (0.32) and savannah (0.31). Despite the high anthropogenic pressure on OKM, there are still potential suitable patches of elephant habitat. Improvement of management and restauration activities could enable OKM to play a key role in biodiversity conservation in West Africa by allowing the seasonal migration of elephants. This study gives an insight on the availability of suitable habitat within OKM, however, further investigation is needed to refine the model and to assess habitat fragmentation.

  11. Assessing the impacts of gold mining assessing the impacts of gold mining operations on river sediments and water samples from ilesa west local government area ILESA West Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makinde W. O.

    2014-07-01

    Enrichment Factor of the elements obtained showed high contamination of both the stream water and sediments with toxic metals as a result of high illegal gold mining operations in the area under study.

  12. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  13. Redefining the border between public and private in ambiguous modernist areas: The case of Amsterdam Nieuw West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausleitner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Modernist areas represent the ambivalent idea to live in a green city, which can provide light and air of open landscapes, and on the same time host facilities of an urban environment. Modernist areas as the Western Garden Cities in Amsterdam are also ambiguous spaces, their form shaped mainly by fl

  14. Geriatric Disability and Associated Risk Factors: A Community Based Study in a Rural Area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mandal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar to developed countries, aging is increasedin India. Because of the epidemiology and demographictransition phase, chronic diseases and disabilitiesalong with health costs are increasing day by day. As socialfactors and chronic diseases are the major reasons for geriatricdisability, the present study was done with the following objectives:to assess and compare the socio-demographic characteristicsamong the disabled and non-disabled geriatric population,and to find out the association between sociodemographicand chronic diseases with functional disabilityamong the study population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in a rural communityof West Bengal, India. House to house visit, clinicalexamination, observation, and interview were done with a predesigned,pre-tested proforma. Epi Info and SPSS softwarewere used for statistical analysis.Results: A total of 458 people had chronic conditions and theprevalence of disability was 17.47%. Among the sociodemographicvariables, age, female sex, marital status, literacystatus, and family composition and among the chronic diseases,tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, ischemicheart disease, osteoarthritis, neuropathy, acid peptic disorder,prostatic hypertrophy, and osteoporosis were found as risk factorsof disability in binary logistic regression analysis. 71.2% ofthe disabilities were explained by these risk factors.Conclusion: The data highlighted the different risk factorsassociated with disability. No single measure rather multidimensionalapproach should be the model for the preventionof disability.

  15. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  16. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  17. An etnographic study of elementary education in the rural area of Dompu county, the province of West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrahmah Nurrahmah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe: (1 public service for elementary education in rural areas; (2 the meaning of education and the implementation of elementary education in the people of rural areas; and (3 the life and meaning of poverty for people of rural areas. The study was etnographic research. The subjects were the providers and users of educational service. The research concludes that: (1 educational service in rural areas has not been coordinated and integrated both vertically and horizontally, so that the service elements have not been maximum in providing educational service; (2 the implementation of education is influenced by the surrounding environments (policy, community, and nature so that its condition or the problems emerging in the lower level is a reflection of that in the upper level. People in rural areas regard education as a symbol of profession and self-actualization within the children’s selves in order that the children would show respect to their parents, would not destroy the nature, have noble characteristics and be smart persons for their own sake in the future; (3 physically people in rural areas might be described as a community that lacks facilities including transportation, highway systems, water, electricity, and market for trading the harvest. On the other hand, mentally, people in rural areas might be described as a community that is fond of having aids, enjoys the final products, is lazy and dependent on the nature. People in rural areas regard their poverty based on physical indicators (the possession of luxurious goods, rice fields, livestock, income, and housings and non-physical indicators (the dependency on the nature and absence of education.

  18. Geochemistry of mercury mineralization and its environmental influence in the Tavreh area, west of Khoy, NW Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Imamalipour; Jafar Abdolahisharif

    2011-01-01

    Mercury mineralization has occurred in relation with a listwaenitic type hydrothermal alteration system in Tavreh area located northwest of Khoy. Mercury-bearing alteration zone which has an area about 0.4 km2 is situated in one of Aland river upstreams. The only mercury compound found in this district is mercury sulfide (cinnabar) deposited as vein and veinlet forms. Geochemical investigations indicate that mercury distribution has variable values which vary between 0.36-10500 ppm. Its avera...

  19. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  20. Evaluation of Seismicity Using Density Analysis of 2000-2015 Earthquakes in The West Coastal Zone of Anatolia (Turkey) And Its Correlation with Geothermal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakak, Özde

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the seismic activity using the density analysis methods (point density and Kernel density analysis) for 2000-2015 earthquake catalogue belonging to the study area surrounded by Qanakkale to the north, Fethiye to the south and Denizli (Buharkent) to the east, and also to apply its correlation with geothermal regions. The earthquake data, in total 6.675 earthquakes with M>3 magnitudes were obtained from DDA Catalogue of Prime Ministry Disaster & Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) official website. In this survey, data analysis and maps were prepared using ArcGIS (version_10.1) program. The analysis maps present (1) the intensity clustered earthquakes dominant in Sigacik and Gokova Gulfs, (2) regions which have high seismic risk were determined according to Buffer analysis for 2 km distance, (3) geothermal areas (21.4-153°C) in the west coastal zone of Anatolia were mapped, (4) regions the most affected by seismic activity for the last 15 years were detected from 2015 population data, and as latest (5) Seferihisar, Urla, Gulbahge, Demircili, Bodrum, and Datga provinces are identified as areas having high seismic activity for the last 15 years. Consequently, all analysis results were compared with the geothermal areas, and the review made that earthquake catalogue has not the relationship with hot regions and also these shocks triggered by active faults in this region using ArcGIS program. the author recommends that these regions should be investigated the earthquake sensitivity analysis in the near future.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence in a highly endemic area of epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Dschanou, Armel Romeo; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the larvae of Taenia solium is a serious and emerging threat to public health in the endemic areas as well as in the non-endemic areas. Neurocysticercosis, an affection of the central nervous system is a leading cause of epilepsy in endemic areas. This study was carried out to investigate human cysticercosis, taeniasis and risk factors, and also their association with epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon where epilepsy is highly prevalent. Out of 384 people investigated, 12 (3.1%) exhibited antibody response against low molecular weight antigens of T. solium by ELISA. Immunoblot revealed that six persons (1.6%) were seropositive with the same antigens. Among 61 epileptic patients, only one was seropositive by immunoblot and the study did not find any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in seropositivity to T. solium between epileptic persons (1/61, 1.6%) and non-epileptic group (5/323, 1.5%). In addition, cysticercosis was associated with households eating pork meat from pigs slaughtered at home, but not with other factors. The risk factors including pig farming, the consumption of pork meat, vegetables, and non-drinkable water were attenuated by the relatively good hygiene and pig husbandry practices of the population. No egg of Taenia was found in stool by microscopic examination. All data obtained in this study suggested that cysticercosis might not be the principal causative agent of epilepsy in this area.

  2. Magnitude, types and sex differentials of aggressive behaviour among school children in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objective s : (1 To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2 To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% ( P = 0.001; 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% ( P = 0.97. Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3% than among boys (22.3% ( P = 0.000 [1.17E-09 ]. Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls ( P = 0.000 [6.6E -23 ]. Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8% than boys (55.2% ( P = 0.134 and disagreeing (41.8% compared with boys (33.5% ( P = 0.145. With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended.

  3. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  4. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  5. Tectonic stratigraphy near a metamorphic core complex: Lessons from the Castaneda-signal area of west-central Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchitta, I. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)); Suneson, N.H. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of latest Oligocene through Quaternary sedimentary and volcanic rocks, when analyzed tectonically and combined with lithologically distinctive source terranes, clarifies the character and timing of Neogene extension just north of the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex (BRMCC) in west-central Arizona. The oldest strata (basal arkose of Lucchitta and Suneson) reflect regional stability and a southwesterly paleoslope. In latest Oligocene time, this drainage was ponded by an upwarp (now exposed as the BRMCC) rising to the southwest. The resulting lake beds contain a thin 26.6 MA airfall tuff that marks the beginning of volcanic activity in the region. A widespread breccia records the progressive unroofing of the still-rising CC. Mantle-driven crustal heating probably caused the upwarp and allowed the eruption of voluminous mantle-derived basalt and basaltic andesite about 19 MA (early basalts, Artillery Basalt). The overlying syntectonic conglomerate (arkose of Keenan Camp) was deposited during a period of extreme extension, low-angle detachment faulting, and block rotation, typical of highly extended terranes. The conglomerate is interlayered with widespread silicic volcanic rocks (15--10 MA) derived from the lower crust and large gravity-glide sheets lithologically identical to the breccia and similarly derived from the CC to the south. Unconformably overlying the conglomerate are locally derived fanglomerate and 13--8.5 MA (mesa-forming) basalt that accumulated in present-day basins of classic basin-range type. Untilted and nearly unfaulted 7.7--5.4 MA mantle-derived megacryst-bearing basalt marks the cessation of tectonic activity.

  6. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  7. The Disposition of Aquatic Plants in Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area%杭州西湖风景区水生植物配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪芬

    2014-01-01

    通过实地调查,杭州西湖风景区内应用的水生植物有74种。在现状调查的基础上,本文探讨了西湖风景区不同水体形式下水生植物的配置模式,并就存在的问题进行了讨论,同时提出对策。%According to the field investigation, there are 74 species of aquatic plants applied in Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area. Based on the status survey, this paper discusses the dispositions of aquatic plants in different Water forms, and analyses the existing prob-lems,then offers solutions.

  8. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3. 0 Myr old in Arizona, New Mexico and the Trans-Pecos Area of West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-04-01

    This map is one of a series of maps designed for hot dry rock geothermal assessment in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Pecos area of west Texas. The 3.0 m.y. cutoff age was selected because original heat has probably largely dissipated in older rocks. The location of volcanic centers is more important to geothermal resource assessment than the location of their associated volcanic rocks; however, ages have been determined for numerous flows far from their source. Therefore, the distribution of all volcanic rocks less than or equal to 3.0 m.y. old, for which there is at least one determined age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978).

  9. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  10. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  11. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  12. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...: Threatened and endangered species management; ecosystem restoration; control of noxious weeds and invasive plants; recreation; tribal use including plant collection; evaluation of potential new Areas of Critical... of the 30-day scoping period or 30 days after the last public meeting, whichever is later. We...

  13. Preliminary Data on the Plant and Vertebrate Animal Diversity in the Area of Dedovo Village (West Rhodopes Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Todorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dedovo Village (Rodopi Municipality, Plovdiv District is located at 25 km from Plovdiv City in the Western Rhodopes Mts., at an altitude of 1000 to 1060 meters. Its proximity to the city and relatively preserved natural environment make it a more attractive place during the last years for relaxation, especially in the summer. However, the increased tourist presence in the area leads to an increase of anthropogenic pressure on the natural ecosystems. Aim of this study is to assess the plant and vertebrate animal diversity in the area of Dedovo Village and to identify the potential threats and risks to its conservation. More than 70 plant species were described, including one rare species and 5 Balkan endemics and 30 species, listed in the Bulgarian Medicinal plants Act. From the vertebrate animals 39 species were described, including 15 mammals (3 species with conservation status, 15 birds (4 species with conservation status, 6 reptiles and 2 amphibians.

  14. Differentiated long term projections of the hourly electricity consumption in local areas. The case of Denmark West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.; Juul, Nina

    2014-01-01

    .000 and 100.000 customers. Data for the hourly electricity consumption at transformer stations shows that the profile of consumption differs considerably between local areas, and this is partly due to a different weight of categories of customers in the different areas. Categories of customers have quite...... distinct consumption profiles and contribute quite differently to the aggregated load profile. In forecasts, demand by categories of customers is expected to develop differently implying that both the level and the profile of consumption at each transformer stations are expected to change differently...... consumption by categories of customers and data for the hourly consumption at each transformer station for the years 2009–2011. Applying the model for load forecasts, a major conclusion is that different transformer stations will experience different changes both in the level - and in the hourly profile...

  15. A Global Approach to Disease Prevention: Predicting High Risk Areas for West Nile Infection in the Us

    OpenAIRE

    DallaPiazza, Kristin Lee

    2009-01-01

    WN virus has spread for over 60 years creating endemic and epidemic areas throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe, affecting human, bird, and equine populations. Its 1999 appearance in New York shows the ability of the virus to cross barriers and travel great distances, emerging into new territories previously free of infection. Spreading much faster than expected, WN virus has infected thousands of birds, equine, and humans throughout the conterminous United States (US). Case and serological ...

  16. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  17. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  18. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  19. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulami Sahu; P K Sikdar; Surajit Chakraborty

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  20. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  1. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  2. Geochemical characteristics and zircon U-Pb isotopic ages of island-arc basic igneous complexes from the Tianshui area in West Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xianzhi; LI Zuochen; LIU Huibin; LI Gaoyang; DING Saping; LI Yong; HU Bo; GUO Junfeng

    2007-01-01

    The Liushuigou intermediate-basic meta-igneous complex at Guanzizhen, Tianshui area, is mainly composed of metagabbro, metagabbro diorite and metadiorite, while the Baihua basic meta-igneous complex consists mainly of pyroxenite, gabbro (gabbro diorite), diorite and quartz diorite.They form a relatively complete comagmatic evolutionary series. The geochemical characteristics of intermediate-basic igneous rocks indicate that they belong to a tholeiite suite.Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are nearly flat and are LREE-slightly enriched type, and their primitive mantle-normalized and MORB-normalized trace element spider-grams are generally similar; the LILEs Cs, Ba, Sr, Th and U are enriched, while Rb and K and the HFSEs Nb, P, Zr,Sm, Ti and Y are depleted. All these show comagmatic evolu-tionary and genetic characteristics. The tectonic environment discrimination by trace element reveals that these igneous complexes formed in an island-arc setting. The Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) single-grain zircon U-Pb age for the Liushuigou intermediate-basic meta-igneous rocks in the Guanzizhen area is (507.5 ± 3.0) Ma, represent-ing the age of these igneous complexes, which indicates that island-arc-type magmatite rocks in the northern zone of West Qinling are Late Cambrian and also reveals that the timing of subduction of the paleo-ocean basin represented by the Guanzizhen ophiolite and resulting island-arc-type magrnaticactivity are probably Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician.

  3. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  4. Soundscape of the West Lake Scenic Area with profound cultural background—a case study of Evening Bell Ringing in Jingci Temple, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian GE; Min GUO; Miao YUE

    2013-01-01

    From the case study of Evening Bell Ringing at Nanping Hill,one of the West Lake Cultural Landscapes in Hangzhou,China,we investigated the soundscape of a scenic area with a profound cultural background.First,we conducted the soundscape physical index of the area in both winter and spring seasons to analyze its objective graphical expression.Second,we focused on people,s reactions to the soundscape in order to obtain a subjective evaluation of each component in the soundscape and integrated environment.Then,the relationship between the objective data and the subjective evaluation was analyzed.Finally,the impacts of the natural environment,history,and cultural factors on the evaluation of the Jingci Temple soundscape were studied.It was found that natural sounds,cultural sounds,and historic sounds were widely acclaimed in people,s subjective feelings,which indicated the close relationships among historical and cultural background,soundscape,and natural environment.Thus,the conclusion was made that soundscape should be consistent with the local natural environment and the historical and cultural background.

  5. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  6. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  7. Parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in an endemic area in west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, T; Kilian, A H; Henk, M; Mughusu, E B; Nothdurft, H D; Löscher, T; Knobloch, J; Van Sonnenburg, F

    1996-04-01

    The measurement of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) has been presented as an easy and rapid method for the diagnosis of malaria in humans. In order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of such a test we examined blood samples from 429 Ugandan patients. While pLDH activity was significantly linked to parasitaemia, sensitivity and specificity were found to be rather low at 58.8 and 62.2% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values failed to meet necessary standards. We conclude that the methods of measurement of pLDH activity in malaria infection, although potentially useful for the fast diagnosis of malaria, need to be improved to be of true value in endemic areas.

  8. Identification of singlet oxygen photosensitizes in lambs drinking water in an alveld risk area in West Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Mysterud, Ivar; Karlsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Alveld is a hepatogenous photosensitivity disorder in lambs. Although alveld has been known in Norway for more than 100years, there are still questions related to the cause of the disease. Phytoporphyrin has long been incriminated as the photosensitizer in hepatogenous photosensitivity diseases...... in order to identify the chromophores responsible for the formation of singlet oxygen, e.g. phycocyanins from the cyanobacteria. The highest level of singlet oxygen formation was detected in lotic (i.e. flowing) water in the period consistent with the outbreak of the alveld disease in the area...... but previous findings suggest that the photosensitizing mechanism in alveld is more complex, possibly involving other co-factors. The current work investigates the presence of non-hepatogenous photosensitizers originating in lamb's drinking water from various sources. In addition samples of two...

  9. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  10. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management.

  11. Geochemistry of mercury mineralization and its environmental influence in the Tavreh area, west of Khoy, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imamalipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury mineralization has occurred in relation with a listwaenitic type hydrothermal alteration system in Tavreh area located northwest of Khoy. Mercury-bearing alteration zone which has an area about 0.4 km2 is situated in one of Aland river upstreams. The only mercury compound found in this district is mercury sulfide (cinnabar deposited as vein and veinlet forms. Geochemical investigations indicate that mercury distribution has variable values which vary between 0.36-10500 ppm. Its average in alteration zone is 300 ppm, although its average reaches to 0.35 percent in the mineralized veins. Considering the Clarke amount of mercury, it has increased more than 3750 times in overall alteration zone and more than 46000 times in mineralized veins. Based on the stream sediment heavy mineral geochemistry, distribution of cinnabar under physical weathering and transportation processes has occurred at least 7 km far away from the altered zone in downstream sediments. Mercury concentrations in samples taken from surface and underground waters are less than 0.1µg/L. In comparison with mercury concentrations, data obtained from other world’s ore fields and considering the maximum permissible contaminant level in drinking waters, it can be concluded that the waters of this region have not been contaminated in mercury. Therefore, despite the extent of anomalous zone in Tavreh region, this zone cannot play a role as the contaminant source of environment. It is seemed that due to presence of mercury as stable mercury sulfide compound, the possibility of its leakage could not been obtained due to decomposition of this mineral.

  12. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  13. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  14. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  15. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation in the northern area of Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Zabihi Zoeram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the sequence stratigraphy of the Oligocene (Rupelian–Chattian–Early Miocene (Burdigalian Asmari Formation based on microfacies analysis of the sediments in the Ghale Nar Oilfield, central area of Zagros fold-thrust belt. Fourteen facies types typical for upward shallowing trend from open marine (MF 1–3, to shoal (MF 4-5, semi-restricted and restricted lagoon (MF 6–12 and finally to near-shore lagoon (MF 13-14 depositional environments were identified. Based on the environmental interpretations, we reconstructed a homoclinal ramp mainly represented by its inner and middle sectors. Facies types MF 4–14 are characterized by the occurrence of large and small porcelaneous benthic foraminifera representing a shallow-water setting of an inner ramp influenced by wave and tide processes. MF1 (Pabdeh Formation, and 2 -3 with planktonic, large and small hyaline benthic foraminifera represent between FWWB and SWB. Four third-order depositional sequences were recognized. In this study, in order to better correlate the identified sequences with pre-defined sequences of the Asmari Formation in the Dezful Embayment and the Izeh zone that are chronologically well-defined, we use their number instead of their name. Sequence 2 mainly consists of an open marine environment in the base, followed by semi-restricted to restricted lagoonal facies. Sequences 36 are characterized by semi-restricted to restricted lagoonal facies. Moreover, the regional relative sea-level change curves correlate well with the global sea-level change curves.

  16. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goggins William B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide.

  17. The role of surface water redistribution in an area of patterned vegetation in a semi-arid environment, south-west Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J.; Brouwer, J.; Barker, A. P.; Gaze, S. R.; Valentine, C.

    1997-11-01

    The surface hydrology of a semi-arid area of patterned vegetation in south-west Niger is described. In this region alternating bands of vegetation and bare ground aligned along the contours of a gently sloping terrain give rise to a phenomenon known as `brousse tigrée' (tiger bush). At the selected study site the vegetation bands are 10-30 m wide, separated by 50-100-m-wide bands of bare ground. Five species of shrub dominate, Guiera senegalensis, Combretum micranthum, C. nigricans, Acacia ataxacantha and A. macrostachya. Herbaceous vegetation is generally limited to the upslope edges of vegetation bands. A comprehensive field programme was undertaken to investigate the hydrology. Topographic, vegetation and surface feature surveys were carried out in conjunction with the measurement of rainfall, surface and subsurface hydraulic conductivity, particle size and soil moisture content. Four types of vegetation class are recognised, each tending to occupy a constant position relative to the others and to the regional slope. In a downslope direction the classes are: bare ground, grassy open bush, closed bush, bare open bush, bare ground etc. The nature of the ground surface is closely linked to the vegetation class. Over the bare, bare open and grassy open classes various types of surface crust are present with each type of crust tending to occupy a constant position on the regional slope relative to the vegetation class and other crust types. Below closed bush crusts are generally absent. The typical downslope sequence from the downslope boundary of a vegetation band is: structural (sieving) crust→erosion crust→(gravel crust)→sedimentation crust→microphytic sedimentation crust→no crust→sieving crust, etc. It is also shown that these crust types are dynamic and evolve from one to the other as hydrological conditions change. Hydraulic conductivities of surface crusts are low, typically falling within the range 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1. The presence of large

  18. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    agreeing with Tmax rates, are also consistent with the PI (production index values and SEM result. By evaluating all the results of geochemical and organic petrological analyses conducted on shale lithologies (shale and mudstone, it can be concluded that the oil shales in those areas have a favourable potential for generation of shale oil or gas to be included as alternative energy resources in the future.

  19. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  20. Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal K; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Anzai, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article, elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study was to get an insight on impact of As in foodstuffs on the people living in the As-affected areas. Moreover, speciation of arsenicals in urine, and water-samples found in arsenobetaine (AsB). Since sampling population (n=25) was not taking any seafood, As in foodstuffs was thought to be the prime source for this discrepancy. So, speciation of methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs) and foodstuffs, and trichloro acetic acid (TCA) treated plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP MS) collected from the study population (n=33) was carried out to support our hypothesis. Results showed that urine contained AsB (1.7%), arsenite (iAs(III)) (14.3), arsenate (iAs(V)) (4.9), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) (0.64), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (13.6), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (7.7), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) (65.4). Blood contained 21.3 microg L(- 1) (mean) As and of which 27.3% was in plasma and 72.7% in RBCs. RBCs contained AsB (21.6%) and DMA(V) (78.4) and blood plasma contained AsB (12.4%), iAs(III) (25.9), MMA(V) (30.3), and DMA(V) (31.4). Furthermore, speciation of As in foodstuffs showed that most of them contained AsB (3.54-25.81 microg kg(- 1)) (25.81-312.44 microg kg(- 1)) along with iAs(III) (9.62-194.93), iAs(V) (17.63-78.33), MMA(V) (9.47-73.22) and DMA(V) (13.43-101.15) that supported the presence of AsB and elevated As in urine and blood samples of the present study group. Inorganic As (iAs) predominates in rice (67.17-86.62%) and in spices (40-90.35%), respectively over organic As. So, As in the

  1. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (p<0.01), Cd and Cu (p<0.05) were found in the lichens especially in samples collected from road sites. Higher As concentration (48.1±2.1 μg g(-1)) in samples were found near the paddy field, indicating pesticide-herbicides as its source used in agriculture. The substrate exhibits lower concentration of most of the metals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment.

  2. 富煤一矿西采区瓦斯抽采技术实践%Mining technology practice of coal mine drainage gas in West Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2015-01-01

    The gas gushing amount is big in the western mining area of fumei No.1 coal mine, which has a big inlfuence on mining, using the gas drainage technology combined with the penetrating layers pre-draining; bedding drainage; the relieved drainage, the goaf gas drainage, increasing gas drainage quantity, reducing the amount of gas emission. Through the gas pre-pumping, the gas gushing amount in the West District of M7, is reduced from 11.3m3/t to 8m3/t, extraction rate reached 63.34%, which ensure the safety mining.%富煤一矿西采区瓦斯涌出量大,对采掘影响大,采用穿层预抽、顺层预抽、卸压抽采、采空区抽采等多种方式结合的瓦斯抽采技术,增加瓦斯抽采量,减少瓦斯涌出量。通过瓦斯预抽后,西采区M7煤层在采掘前瓦斯含量从11.3m3/t降到8.0m3/t以下,抽采率达63.34%,保证了采掘的安全。

  3. An assessment of QOL and its determining factors of post menopausal women in a rural area of West Bengal, India: A multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Ray

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to assess QOL and its determining factors among postmenopausal women of a rural area of West- Bengal in India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 postmenopausal women and the data were collected using the modified menopause quality of life questionnaire of Hilditch. (Hilditch MENQOL. Results: Out of the 315 women who have been interviewed 243 (77% had poor quality of life. Multivariate analysis revealed that poor QOL was more among those who did not live with their own children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6], did not undertake regular exercise, [AOR (95% C.I. 2.88 (1.38–6.03], were literate [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.13–4.8], were monetarily dependent on their children [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.32–4.88], not living under one roof with children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6] and had attained menopause >5 years. [AOR (95% C.I. 4.82 (2.47–9.41]. Conclusion: Different stakeholders are required to mobilize the post-menopausal women through IEC activities to cope up with the stress of the post-menopausal phase and acquire a better quality of life beyond their reproductive age.

  4. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the fine root characteristics and soil respiration in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in rainy area of West China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; He, Yuan-yang; Tian, Xiang-yu; Xiao, Yin-long

    2010-10-01

    Fine root is critical in the belowground carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystem. Aimed to understand the effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on the fine root characteristics and soil respiration in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, a two-year field experiment was conducted in the Rainy Area of West China. Four treatments with different levels of N deposition were installed, i. e., CK (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low N (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium N (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), and high N (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). There were great differences in the biomass and element contents of Nitrogen deposition increased the biomass of deposition. The annual soil respiration rate in treatments CK, low N, medium N, and high N was (5.85 +/- 0.43), (6.48 +/- 0.71), (6.84 +/- 0.57), and (7.62 +/- 0.55) t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, indicating that N deposition had obvious promotion effects on soil respiration. There were significant linear relationships between the annual soil respiration rate and the biomass and N content of deposition increased the fine root biomass and promoted the root metabolism, and stimulated the rhizospheric soil respiration rate via promoting microbial activities.

  5. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  6. Agroedutourism and Ecopreneurship Activities on the Organic Farming Practice in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa’

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five farmer groups in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java Provinces, established organic agricultural practices almost two decades. They were visited frequently for farmer benchmarking activities; therefore they had planned to develop agroedutourism. The aims of this research were to identify potential organic farming activities as agroedutourism attractions as well as farmer ecopreneurship, to find out the existing agroedutourism facilities profile and to propose some strategies for further sustainable development. The data were gathered by interviewing key person of each farmer group in Lawang. Their agroedutourism profiles compared with a developed local agro-tourism using gap analysis. Farmer groups offered some distinct attractions and become their strengths such as out door activities in the organic perfumed and pigmented rice field, fruits and vegetable garden, zero waste management, biological pest control and healthy agricultural products. Establishment of this agroedutourism would be advantageous to lesson sharing among farmers and students, to be ecopreneur activity shown by an effective market system, to show real benefits of healthy agro-ecosystem and its products, as well as to show promising green business or ecopreneurship. Collaboration among them would improve available attractions and length of visit. Moreover, the results showed that 80% of farmer groups were visited regularly 5-10 times per month by potential visitors such as other farmer groups, house wives, staffs of agricultural departments and students. All farmer groups planned to develop agroedutourism; however the policy was only issued by 60% of farmer groups. Most of farmer groups showed a high variability in providing edutourism tours and guides. For sustainable development, farmer groups should provide more interesting attractions and facilities, develop their human resource, net working, and public promotion. Keywords: agroedutourism, attraction, ecopreneurship, farmer groups

  7. Effect of Vegetation Composition on Noise and Temperature in Waru - Sidoarjo Highway, East Java, Indonesia

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    Utami Retno PUDJOWATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The city development and population density need to be followed by infrastructure and facilities such as residential facilities, education, and transportation industries. Infrastructure development has a tendency to minimize the green open space. This region decreased could result in noise and temperature rise due to the increasing amount of residential development, the number of motor vehicles and industrial and transportation using fossil fuels in its production process. It could be mitigated by planting along highway. Naturally, the vegetation could reduce noise and temperature. Vegetation Composition existing along the highway Waru-Sidoarjo are tree-shrub-bushes composition, no vegetation at all composition, just tree composition and tree-shrubs composition. This study aimed to compare the percentage of noise reduction and a decrease in the temperature of each vegetation composition existing along the highway. The results of this study showed that vegetation composition which is consist of trees, shrubs and bushes was more effective to reduce the noise (up to 12.25% and to decrease temperatures (up to 8.18%. It's recommended for Waru-Sidoarjo highway management to plant the tree-shrub-bushes vegetation composition for reduced the noise that occurs along the highway and helped temperature decrease, for the convenience of road users.

  8. Gender Construction in Pesantren in Johor (Malaysia and Central Java (Indonesia

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    Tri Marhaeni P. Astuti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates gender construction in Islamic boarding schools or 'pesantren' Semarang, Indonesia (Al-Islah and Al-Anshor and Johor, Malaysia (Mahad and Marsah. It was found that despite their different countries and customs, the schools in Indonesia and Malaysia show some similarities, especially in terms of the teaching of Islamic jurisprudence and thei perceptions of the rights of men and women as explained in the Qur'an. However, they differ, especially in terms of the implementation of these in their daily lives. In Johor, Malaysia, men are responsible for activities outside of the households whereas women are in charge of the domestic chores. In Semarang, Indonesia, however, women, despite their household responsibilities, can also work outside. In addition, in terms of polygamy, most people in Johor support it as long as it does not break any religious laws.

  9. INHERITANCE OF COAT COLOR OF KEJOBONG GOAT IN PURBALINGGA REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

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    T. Permatasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the inheritance of coat color pattern of Kejobonggoat. The material used was goat family with clear lineage, in which the number of samples were 130Kejobong family, consisted of 201 kids, 130 does and 51 bucks. Coat color of black, black white, blackbrown, brown, white brown and white, were observed. The coat color types were classified andgenetically grouped according to the pigmentation types and color patterns. Probability compilationgene of coat color of Kejobong goat were B-C-S-ii (black, -- cc -- -- (white, BBC-ssii (black white,BbC-ssii (black brown, bbC-ssii (white brown and bbC-S-ii (brown. Inheritance of coat colorobserved and fenotipe ratio expected were used to calculate Chi-square. Results of study showed that theinheritance of coat color pattern of Kejobong goat were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium withexeption of mating between black and black brown and mating between brown black and white brownshowing similarity in observations and expectations.

  10. Wind-Electric Power Potential Assessment for Three Locations in East Java-Indonesia

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    Ali Musyafa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports our effort to asses wind energy potentials for three locations in East Java. We used wind speed data over a period of almost 3 years, i.e. in period of June 2006 – August 2008. Data were taken from direct measurement in locations in East Java Province, i.e. Sampang (Madura, Juanda (Surabaya, and Sawahan (Nganjuk. The short-term of wind speed mean in monthly signifies to wind-speed value ”which parallels to the wind turbine power curve value” were used to estimate the annual energy output for a 1 MW installed capacity wind farm on the each site 100 of 10kW rated wind turbines were used in the analysis. The short term of wind speed mean at Surabaya and Nganjuk were 2.34, 3.03 and 1.97 m/s at 2 m Above Ground Level (AGL, respectively. In both locations, wind speeds were observed during the day time between 04.00 and 18.00 and relatively smaller ones between 19.00 and 03.00 period. Meanwhile, in Sampang (Madura the higher wind speeds were observed between 20.00 and 06.00, and relatively smaller between 07.00 and 19.00 period. The 1 MW windfarm at Sampang, Surabaya and Nganjuk can produce 1.284; 1.199 and 1.008 MWh of electricity yearly, taking into consideration of the temperature adjustment coefficien of about 6 %. The plant capacity factor at Sampang, Surabaya and Nganjuk were found to be 30.02 %, 30.00 % and 30.01 % respectively. Additionally, it is noticed that these site can contribute to the avoidance of 0.904; 0.846 and 0.709 tons/year of CO2 equivalent Green House Gases (GHG from entering into the local atmosphere, thus creating a clean and healthy athmosphere for local inhabitants.

  11. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SOYBEAN PRODUCTION IN BLITAR-EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Azis Arisudi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In East Java Province, the government still provides subsidy to soybean production in the form of soft credit to production inputs. Since the government budget and subsidy have been limited, efficiency in production, marketing and trade become crucial issues. The conducted research will try to achieve some research objectives as follows: Analyzing soybean farmer income in the Blitar District at the different cropping system; Obtaining analysis on comparative advantage and competitive-ness of soybean by different cropping system; analyzing influences of social price changes to farmers income due to public investment; and analyzing government policy impact on farmers income due to market/actual price development. The research uses Policy Analysis Matrix to obtain competitiveness rate, efficiency and impact of government policy on soybean production under multi-cropping system and different ecological zones in the Blitar district.

  12. River responses to the 2010 major eruption of the Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gob, Frédéric; Gautier, Emmanuèle; Virmoux, Clément; Grancher, Delphine; Tamisier, Vincent; Primanda, Kiki Widyaputra; Wibowo, Sandy Budi; Sarrazin, Caroline; de Belizal, Edouard; Ville, Anouk; Lavigne, Franck

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the fluvial readjustment of a Javanese river impacted by the major eruption of the Merapi volcano (Indonesia) in October and November 2010. The basin of the Opak River, located on the southern flank of the Merapi, was subject to substantial sediment input related to massive pyroclastic deposits that were remobilized by numerous lahars during the year after the eruption. Two study sites were equipped in order to evaluate the morphodynamic evolution of the riverbed of the Opak River. Topographic surveys, bedload particle marking, and suspended sediment sampling revealed an important sediment mobilization during efficient flash floods. Surprisingly, no bed aggradation related to the progradation of a sediment wave was observed. Two years after the eruptive event, marked bed incision was observed. The Opak River readjustment differs from that of other fluvial systems affected by massive eruptions in two ways. Firstly, local population extracted the sand and blocks injected by the eruption as they represent a valuable economic resource. Secondly, several dams trapped the major part of the sediment load remobilized by lahars.

  13. Geological structure of central Java, Indonesia from ambient seismic noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Z.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Geological structure in the region of central Java is very important for understanding its tectonic setting. The presence of several active volcanoes such as Mt. Merapi, Mt. Sumbing and Mt. Lawu, as well as the Kendeng Basin and Opak fault all contribute to the complex geology of central Java. Understanding some of the characteristics of the geological structure can be improved using a geophysical approach such as seismic tomography. In this study we show the image of the subsurface in central Java obtained from ambient seismic noise tomography. We use simultaneously operated 134 short period and broadband seismometers from the Merapi Amphibious Experiment (MERAMEX) network covering a region of 150 x 200 km around central Java and Yogyakarta. More than 5000 Rayleigh wave component of the Green's function are extracted from cross-correlations of available station pairs. We filter the retrieved Green's functions with a phase-matched filter to measure Rayleigh wave group dispersion at periods between 0.5 and 20 s. We apply a 2-D nonlinear iterative tomographic method for inverting the measured travel times. The results are then used to create group velocity perturbation maps. The velocity perturbation maps show a high correlation with local tectonic features. The Kendeng basin and active volcanoes in the central part of central Java are clearly imaged with lower group velocities and the southern part has the carbonate region is marked with higher group velocities.

  14. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara, E-mail: rachmantara.tri@gmail.com [Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132, Bandung (Indonesia); Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Zulhan, Zulfakriza [Earth Science Graduate Program, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Saygin, Erdinc [Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-04-24

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green’s function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green’s function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.

  15. Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Murti, T.W.; Baliarti, E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general concern that livestock can have a profound effect on the environment, also in smallholder production systems. This paper presented the impact of small ruminants on the quality of air and water in and around small ruminant houses. In total, 27 small ruminant houses from the three a

  16. Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    Clastic eruptions involve brecciation and transport of the hosting rocks by ascent fluids (gas and/or liquids), resulting in a mixture of rock clasts and fluids (i.e. mud breccia). This kind of eruptions is often associated with geological features such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents or more generically with piercement structures. Over the past decades, several numerical models, often based on those used in volcanology, have been employed to better understand the behavior of such clastics systems. However, modeling multiphase flow is challenging, and therefore most of the models are considering only one phase flow. Many chemical, mechanical and physical aspects remain still poorly understood. In particular, the rheology of the fluid is one of the most important aspects, but also the most difficult to characterize. Experimental flow curves can be obtained on the finest fraction, but coarser particles (> 1mm) are usually neglected. While these experimental measurements usually work well on magma, they are much more difficult to perform when clay minerals are involved. As an initial step, we use analytical and simplified numerical models (flow in a pipe) to better understand the flow dynamics within a main conduit connected to an overpressured reservoir. The 2D numerical model solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art in modeling clastic eruptions as well as the limitations and challenges of such numerical models. We also discuss the challenges associated to the specific case of Lusi. In particular the difficulty to characterize the mud properties and the technical challenges associated with the acquisition of new data and development of more sophisticated models. Previous attempts to model e.g. the longevity of the Lusi eruption were not particularly successful. A possibility is because the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal system is reactivated by frequent seismicity and by the connection with the neighboring volcanic complex feeding it.

  17. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara; Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc

    2015-04-01

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green's function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green's function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.

  18. Upper crustal structure of central Java, Indonesia, from transdimensional seismic ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfakriza, Z.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Lühr, B.-G.; Bodin, T.

    2014-04-01

    Delineating the crustal structure of central Java is crucial for understanding its complex tectonic setting. However, seismic imaging of the strong heterogeneity typical of such a tectonically active region can be challenging, particularly in the upper crust where velocity contrasts are strongest and steep body wave ray paths provide poor resolution. To overcome these difficulties, we apply the technique of ambient noise tomography (ANT) to data collected during the Merapi Amphibious Experiment (MERAMEX), which covered central Java with a temporary deployment of over 120 seismometers during 2004 May-October. More than 5000 Rayleigh wave Green's functions were extracted by cross-correlating the noise simultaneously recorded at available station pairs. We applied a fully non-linear 2-D Bayesian probabilistic inversion technique to the retrieved traveltimes. Features in the derived tomographic images correlate well with previous studies, and some shallow structures that were not evident in previous studies are clearly imaged with ANT. The Kendeng Basin and several active volcanoes appear with very low group velocities, and anomalies with relatively high velocities can be interpreted in terms of crustal sutures and/or surface geological features.

  19. Present and future of astronomical science at Gadjah Mada University, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastroamidjojo, M. S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for the growth of interest in astrophysics and astronomy are discussed. The two main reasons are firstly the solar eclipse of June 1983 and secondly publicity given to the regular N.A.S.A. shuttle flights. However, radioastronomy will develop much faster than optical astronomy because the site requirements are much less stringent than for optical astronomy and the technical infrastructure is readily available.

  20. Revealing the Genetic Variation and Allele Heterozygote Javanese and Arab Families in Malang East Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kartika Sari

    2014-02-01

    Results: Our result showed that the genetic variability and heterozygote allele increasing by using the 13 CODIS markers from the first generation to the next generation with paternity testing from each family were matched. Conclusion: We can conclude that in a Javanese-Arab family ethnic seems stimulate the increasing genetic variation and allele heterozygote.

  1. Informing rubella vaccination strategies in East Java, Indonesia through transmission modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Wood, James; Khandaker, Gulam; Waddington, Claire; Snelling, Thomas

    2016-11-04

    An estimated 110,000 babies are born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) worldwide annually; a significant proportion of cases occur in Southeast Asia. Rubella vaccine programs have led to successful control of rubella and CRS, and even the elimination of disease in many countries. However, if vaccination is poorly implemented it might increase the number of women reaching childbearing age who remain susceptible to rubella and thereby paradoxically increase CRS. We used an age-structured transmission model to compare seven alternative vaccine strategies for their impact on reducing CRS disease burden in East Java, a setting which is yet to implement a rubella vaccine program. We also investigated the robustness of model predictions to variation in vaccine coverage and other key epidemiological factors. Without rubella vaccination, approximately 700 babies are estimated to be born with CRS in East Java every year at an incidence of 0.77 per 1000live births. This incidence could be reduced to 0.0045 per 1000 live births associated with 99.9% annual reduction in rubella infections after 20 years if the existing two doses of measles vaccine are substituted with two doses of measles plus rubella combination vaccine with the same coverage (87.8% of 9-month-old infants and 80% of 6-year-old children). By comparison a single dose of rubella vaccine will take longer to reduce the burden of rubella and CRS and will be less robust to lower vaccine coverage. While the findings of this study should be informative for settings similar to East Java, the conclusions are dependent on vaccine coverage which would need consideration before applying to all of Indonesia and elsewhere in Asia.

  2. Transitions between explosive and effusive phases during the cataclysmic 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Katie; Gertisser, Ralf; Barclay, Jenni; Charbonnier, Sylvain J.; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Herd, Richard A.

    2016-08-01

    Transitions between explosive and effusive activity are commonly observed during dome-forming eruptions and may be linked to factors such as magma influx, ascent rate and degassing. However, the interplay between these factors is complex and the resulting eruptive behaviour often unpredictable. This paper focuses on the driving forces behind the explosive and effusive activity during the well-documented 2010 eruption of Merapi, the volcano's largest eruption since 1872. Time-controlled samples were collected from the 2010 deposits, linked to eruption stage and style of activity. These include scoria and pumice from the initial explosions, dense and scoriaceous dome samples formed via effusive activity, as well as scoria and pumice samples deposited during subplinian column collapse. Quantitative textural analysis of groundmass feldspar microlites, including measurements of areal number density, mean microlite size, crystal aspect ratio, groundmass crystallinity and crystal size distribution analysis, reveal that shallow pre- and syn-eruptive magmatic processes acted to govern the changing behaviour during the eruption. High-An (up to ˜80 mol% An) microlites from early erupted samples reveal that the eruption was likely preceded by an influx of hotter or more mafic magma. Transitions between explosive and effusive activity in 2010 were driven primarily by the dynamics of magma ascent in the conduit, with degassing and crystallisation acting via feedback mechanisms, resulting in cycles of effusive and explosive activity. Explosivity during the 2010 eruption was enhanced by the presence of a `plug' of cooled magma within the shallow magma plumbing system, which acted to hinder degassing, leading to overpressure prior to initial explosive activity.

  3. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  4. Preexplosive conduit conditions during the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano (Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drignon, Mélissa J.; Bechon, Tonin; Arbaret, Laurent; Burgisser, Alain; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Martel, Caroline; Miller, Hayden; Yaputra, Radit

    2016-11-01

    The 2010 eruption is the largest explosive event at Merapi volcano since 1872. The high energy of the initial 26 October explosions cannot be explained by simple gravitational collapse, and the paroxysmal explosions were preceded by the growth of a lava dome not large enough to ensure significant pressurization of the system. We sampled pumice from these explosive phases and determined the preexplosive depths of the pumices by combining textural analyses with glass water content measurements. Our results indicate that the magma expelled was tapped from depths of several kilometers. Such depths are much greater than those involved in the pre-2010 effusive activity. We propose that the water-rich magma liberated enough gas to sustain the explosivity. Our results imply that the explosive potential of volcanoes having dome-forming, effusive activity is linked to the depth from which fresh magma can be evacuated in a single explosion, regardless of the evacuated volume.

  5. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  6. Forensic Profiling of Javanese and Madurese Families in Malang and Madura, East Java Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatul Iza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this study are to identify the heritability of fingerprint patterns among three generations of Javanese and Madurese families and to determine the similarities, genetic variability and allele patterns for paternity testing. Material and Methods: The methods used in this study were the identification of the fingerprint patterns, DNA extraction from blood samples by salting out, PCR amplification use 13 CODIS which consists of TPOX, D3S1358, FGA, D5S818, CSF1PO, D7S820, D8S1179, TH01, VWA, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, and visualized by 8% polyacrylamide gel. The allele of individual band profile was analyzed by using QuantityOne software. Results: The results of fingerprint patterns showed that the families of Javanese ethnic has specific in ulnar patterns on both the middle and little fingers, meanwhile the families of Madurese ethnic has a plain whorl patterns on the right thumb and left index fingers which were inherited from the first generation to the next generation. The similarities of profile DNA forensic in Javanese ethnic generally have the same band patterns were produced by using D7S820 and CSF1PO markers, whereas in Madurese ethnic by using VWA and D18S51 markers. The genetic variability in Javanese ethnic by using D3S1358 and D21S11 markers, meanwhile the Madurese ethnic by using TH01 and D21S11 markers. Conclusion: We can conclude that there are the different characteristic of the fingerprint pattern of Javanese and Madurese families and the similarities and genetic variability in families of Javanese were different with the families of Madurese on the some markers.

  7. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the USGS and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers visited the site and consulted with the Sidoarjo Mud Management Agency (BPLS). Based on their conclusions, the USG determined that technical assistance aimed the long-term mitigation and management of the various hazards associated with the mud would be our most effective contribution. USAID funded a six-month TDY of a retired USGS scientist to work in Surabaya with the Consulate and BPLS, who completed his tour in June 2009. This example of science diplomacy fostered increased cooperation and information sharing between U.S. and Indonesian scientists and scholars, demonstrated the American commitment to find mutually advantageous solutions to common problems, and laid the groundwork for future scientific cooperation.

  8. Geochemical and petrological indicators of volcanic behavior: Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Jolis, E. M.; Chadwick, J.; Blythe, L. S.; Freda, C.; Hilton, D. R.; Schwarzkopf, L. M.; Gertisser, R.; Zimmer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Gunung Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, is characterized by long periods of dome growth and intermittent explosive pyroclastic events. Merapi currently degasses continuously through high-T fumaroles (>200°C), and erupts crystal-rich basaltic-andesite that contains a large range of igneous and calc-silicate crustal inclusions. To evaluate mechanisms that trigger explosive eruptions, we sampled lavas, inclusions (xenoliths), and gas from active fumaroles. Additionally, we established a time-integrated experiment reaction series mimicking crustal assimilation at Merapi under magmatic conditions. Merapi lava contains abundant plagioclase crystals which show complex zoning and vary in anorthite (An) content between 40 and 95 mol% across resorption surfaces. A negative correlation between An mol% and other indicators of magmatic fractionation, such as MgO and FeO, has been observed. Moreover, Sr isotope analyses of discrete zones in plagioclase yields 87Sr/86Sr values that notably exceed those of the host lavas. Zones with the highest An content also tend to show the highest radiogenic Sr values, consistent with a Ca-rich, high-87Sr/86Sr crustal contaminant. Abundant metamorphosed limestone xenoliths contain compositionally identical feldspar to the high-An population in the lavas, demonstrating that magma-crust interaction is a significant process at Merapi. Carbon isotope ratios of fumarole CO2 sampled during quiescent degassing periods form a baseline of δ13C2001-2008 = -4.1%. The notable exceptions are the 2006 values, obtained immediately after the eruption and the 6.4 magnitude Yogyakarta earthquake, which show elevated δ13C values up to -2.4%. Notably, the rise in δ13C values coincided with an increase in eruptive intensity and volcano seismicity by a factor of 3 to 5 for several weeks after the earthquake. This is consistent with addition of a late-stage, crustal volatile component added to purely mantle and slab-derived volatile sources. This observation argues for extensive and ongoing magma-crust interaction beneath the volcano, especially during eruptive and/or seismic events. Our high P-T experiments show that interaction between Merapi magma and limestone can rapidly liberate crustal CO2 on a timescale of only seconds to minutes. We therefore expect vigorous CO2 bubble nucleation and growth on a scale of perhaps hours to days in nature. Late volatile input could therefore accelerate or trigger explosive eruptions independently of magmatic recharge and fractionation by sudden over-pressurization of the upper parts of the magma system. Such an event would provide shallow seismic warning signals immediately prior to an erratic, CO2-driven, eruption crisis. Thus we conclude that crust-mantle interaction processes have serious implications for eruptive behavior, volatile emission, and hazard management at Merapi and similar systems elsewhere.

  9. A Study on Gender Preference and Awareness Regarding Prenatal Sex Determination among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Archak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex ratio is one of the major indicators to find the gender preferences in the community. Change in sex ratio reflects underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the knowledge of antenatal women regarding the prenatal sex determination and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act in a rural area along with assessing the gender preference in family among the study population. Materials and Methods A community based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Matigara Block of Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which serves as a field practice area of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital for two months. A total of 116 pregnant women were included and a pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic details. The data were analysed by SPSS 20.0 software for proportions with chi-square tests. Results Knowledge of sex determination and the PNDT Act were found to be 44.82% and 18.10% among antenatal women. Knowledge regarding assessment of gender preference showed 52.58% expect a boy in this pregnancy. It was found that the determinants for gender preference were caste, sex of the last pregnancy and current gender composition. It was found that the determinants for knowledge of sex determination are age of the mother and the gravida of the mother. It was also found that the factor for the knowledge regarding the PNDT Act is age of the mother. These associations are statistically significant. Conclusion This situation calls for a strategy which includes community based awareness campaigns, women employment, education, and empowerment and by ensuring effective implementation of PNDT Act by the government so that families find it difficult to undertake sex determination.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  11. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo; Soma, Dieudonné Diloma; Hema, Omer; Bayili, Bazoma; Namountougou, Moussa; Gnankiné, Olivier; Baldet, Thierry; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC) and biological cotton (BC) growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead) were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC) growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC) sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75%) and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%). The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests) of the role

  12. A Survey of the Adult Butterflies, Damselflies, and Dragonflies of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the butterflies and odonates on the Nulhegan Basin division of the Silvio Conte National Wildlife Refuge (SCNWR-NB) and the West Mountain...

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  14. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  15. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Visual Acuity in Residents of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Ernest-Nwoke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP on visual acuity among apparently healthy residents of Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study among 225 subjects (ages of 18–35 years from whom BP, body weight, and height were collected. Visual acuity was measured using the Snellen chart following standard procedures of number of letters seen at 6-metre distance. The data were then analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results. The sampled population consists of 112 male and 113 female (mean age 31.72±14.2 years. Majority (180 of the respondents had normal visual acuity. However, compared with the respondents with normal BMI (R19.61±1.5; L19.67±1.70, visual acuity of underweight (R18.53±2.30; L18.53±2.70 and obese (R15.68±4.79; L17.73±1.70 were more deviated. Similarly, compared with respondent with normal BP (120–125/80–85 mmHg; R18.00±2.53; L18.07±3.11, hypotensive (R15.5±7.35; L15.00±10.20, and hypertensive (R15.01±21.25; L15.00±11.91 respondents had deviated visual acuity. Conclusion. Abnormal body weight (underweight and obese and BP (hypotension and hypertension have potential negative impacts on visual acuity. Based on the observed relationship between weights, BP, and visual acuity, eye examinations can be included as regular screening exercise for abnormal BMI and BP conditions.

  16. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  17. 寒冷地区东西向住宅演进及户型布局研究%Study on evolution and layout of the east-west residence in cold area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝晖; 鲁晓喆; 刘甦

    2011-01-01

    适度发展东西向住宅是推进住宅建设集约化发展的重要途径,本文探讨寒冷地区东西向住宅的实践价值及设计规律,以为贯彻国家节能省地住宅产业策略提供思路.论文探讨了东西向住宅的节地可行性、气候适应性和市场适应性;结合对该类住宅发展演进的研究,指出东西向住宅已成为当今住宅区建设的重要组成部分;进而,通过对住宅户型五种典型布局形式的总结,提出了寒冷地区东西向住宅的适应性设计模式.%Moderate development of east-west residence is an important way of promoting intensive development of housing construction. In order to implement national energy-saving and land-saving residential industry strategies, the paper has studied the adaptive design of east-west residence in cold area. It discusses the land-saving feasibility, the climate adaptability and the market adaptability of this kind of house. Secondly, with the research on the evolution of east-west residence, the conclusion is drawn that the east-west residence is one of the most important ways of housing construction now. Finally , we put forward the adaptive design mode of east-west residence in cold area through summarizing five kinds of typical layout.

  18. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  19. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  20. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  1. [C and N allocation patterns in planted forests and their release patterns during leaf litter decomposition in subalpine area of west Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-wen; Duan, Er-jun; Pan, Kai-wen; Zhang, Li-ping; Du, Hong-xia

    2009-01-01

    With the planted forest ecosystems of Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Betula utilis, Pinus yunnansinsis, and Picea asperata in subalpine area of west Sichuan as test objects, their total biomass and the C and N contents in soils and tree organs were determined. The results showed that the allocation of C in tree organs had less correlation with the age of the organs, while that of N and C/N ratio had closer relationship with the age. The N content in young organs was higher than that in aged ones, whereas the C/N ratio was higher in aged organs than in young organs, and higher in the leaf litters of needle-leaved forests than in those of broad-leaved forests. There was an obvious enrichment of C and N in the topsoil of test forests. The accumulated amounts of C and N in the whole planted forest ecosystem, including tree, litter, and 0-40 cm soil layer, were 176.75-228.05 t x hm(-2) and 11.06-16.54 t x hm(-2), respectively, and the nutrients allocation ratio between soil-litter and tree was (1.9-3.3):1 for C and (15.6-41.5):1 for N. Needle-leaved forests functioned as a stronger "C-sink" than broad-leaved forests. The decomposition rate of the leaf litters in needle-leaved forests was larger than that in broad-leaved forests, with the turnover rate being 2.2-3.7 years and 3.9-4.2 years, respectively. During the decomposition of leaf litter, the C in all of the four forests released at super-speed, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.4 years. As for N, it also released at super-speed in C. japonicum and B. utilis forests, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.2 years, but released at low speed in P. yunnansinsis and P. asperata forests, with the turnover rate being 6.7-8.5 years.

  2. [[Cultural practices favoring young marriage and high fertility: the case of a Priangan Sundanese village, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, T

    1988-03-01

    The social and cultural factors that are associated with high fertility among the Sundanese of Western Java, Indonesia, are analyzed. Data are from fieldwork undertaken by the author in a village in the Priangan Highlands and are compared with data on the fertility behavior of other Indonesian ethnic groups. Factors considered include early age at marriage, ability of women to choose their own marriage partners, universality of marriage, and early consummation of marriage. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. On Universal Telecommunication Service and West China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the relationship between universal telecommunication service and West China development. It, firstly, introduces our country's demands for universal telecommunication service; secondly, analyses the demand of West China development for the universal telecommunication service; thirdly, depicts the development status of telecommunication industry of the west region; fourthly, points out the significance of universal telecommunication service to the west area; and lastly, brings forward the connotation of universal telecommunication service of west area.

  4. Managing Soil Erosion Potential by Integrating Digital Elevation Models with the Southern China's Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation——A Case Study for the West Lake Scenic Spots Area of Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In China, many scenic and tourism areas are suffering from the urbanization that results from physical development of tourism projects, leading to the removal of the vegetative cover, the creation of areas impermeable to water, in-stream modifications,and other problems. In this paper, the risk of soil erosion and its ecological risks in the West Lake Scenic Spots (WLSS) area were quantitatively evaluated by integrating the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) with a digital elevation model (DEM) and geographical information system (GIS)software. The standard RUSLE factors were modified to account for local climatic and topographic characteristics reflected in the DEM maps, and for the soil types and vegetation cover types. An interface was created between the Arcinfo software and RUSLE so that the level of soil erosion and its ecological risk in the WLSS area could be mapped immediately once the model factors were defined for the area. The results from an analysis using the Arcinfo-RUSLE interface showed that the risk value in 93 % of the expanding western part of the WLSS area was moderate or more severe and the soil erosion risk in this area was thus large compared with that in the rest of the area. This paper mainly aimed to increase the awareness of the soil erosion risk in urbanizing areas and suggest that the local governments should consider the probable ecological risk resulting from soil erosion when enlarging and developing tourism areas.

  5. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Leifsson, Pall S; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-08-01

    The former Black Angel lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1-0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42-1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60-68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and other fish

  6. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  7. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  8. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  9. Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research targets the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (HCRI) Priority Area A: Kahekili, Maui: Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). The project goal was to...

  10. Effect of land-use types on soil enzymatic activities and chemical properties in semi-deciduous forest areas of Central-West Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnety, JT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activities play a key role in the biochemical functioning of soils. As a consequence, they have been proposed as indicators of soil quality. This study was conducted at the Oumé benchmark site (Central-West, Côte d'Ivoire, and aimed at measuring the enzymatic activities involved in the phosphorus (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase and carbon (β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase cycles. Soil from four main agro-ecological units (a secondary forest, a 20 year-old cocoa plantation, a 2 year-old Chromolaena odorata-based fallow and a continuous maize crop, representative of land-use systems in the area, were sampled for the measurement of enzymatic activities and chemical characteristics. Results showed that the enzymatic activity values were the highest in the fallow soil, whereas the maize crop displayed the lowest levels of enzymatic activity in soil. Moreover, soil from C. odorata fallow displayed the highest values of C, N, exchangeable bases (Mg2+, K+ contents, and CEC, and the lowest C:N ratio, which are characteristics of good quality soil. A Principal Component Analysis revealed a marked relationship between C, N and enzymatic activity levels, showing that these enzymes are suitable for monitoring soil quality in semi-deciduous forest areas in Central-West Côte d'Ivoire.

  11. In 1972, the OMEGA spectrometer was commissioned in the West Area and more than a million collisions were recorded that very first year.

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    OMEGA was equipped with spark chambers - replaced at the end of the 1970s by electronic detectors - and a 15 000-tonne superconducting magnet. On this photo we can see the magnet's lower coil and, in the foreground, the support plate for the upper coil. No fewer than 48 experiments made use of this device, exploiting beams of various particles at various energies - from the PS at the beginning, and then from the highest energy beams of the SPS. OMEGA thus played a key role in many physics results and activities, notably the production of the J/psi particle, the study of particles carrying charm or beauty quarks, the study of «gluonia», and the CERN heavy ion programme. The OMEGA experiments ceased in 1996 when the facilities in the West Hall were shut down in preparation for the construction of the LHC.

  12. A study on the role of parental involvement in control of nutritional anemia among children of free primary schools in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Dibakar; Chatterjee, Tutul; Sarkar, Aditya Prasad; Das, Sankar Kumar; Mallik, Sarmila

    2011-01-01

    An intervention study was conducted among students of three randomly selected free primary schools in rural West Bengal to assess the effect of health-nutrition education for behavior modification of parents on nutritional anemia of children. Clinically anemic students were school-wise randomized into 'groups of two' and intervened with anthelminthic, iron-folic acid (IFA) pediatric tablet and health-nutrition education by reoriented teachers. Parents of study group were involved in behavior change processes. Baseline overall prevalence of anemia was 64.4%. After IFA therapy, prevalence of anemia was not found to differ between two groups (χ² = 2.68, P > 0.05, RR= 0.48, 95% C.I 0.2 Parental involvement for life style and dietary modification may curb childhood anemia.

  13. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  14. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  15. Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

  16. A study on the role of parental involvement in control of nutritional anemia among children of free primary schools in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Haldar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intervention study was conducted among students of three randomly selected free primary schools in rural West Bengal to assess the effect of health-nutrition education for behavior modification of parents on nutritional anemia of children. Clinically anemic students were school-wise randomized into ′groups of two′ and intervened with anthelminthic, iron-folic acid (IFA pediatric tablet and health-nutrition education by reoriented teachers. Parents of study group were involved in behavior change processes. Baseline overall prevalence of anemia was 64.4%. After IFA therapy, prevalence of anemia was not found to differ between two groups (χ2 = 2.68, P > 0.05, RR= 0.48, 95% C.I 0.2 < RR < 1.19 while reducing 52.2% of relative risk. Reassessment after six months showed significantly lower prevalence in study group (χ2 = 18.14, P < 0.05, RR = 0.20, 95% C.I. 0.08 < RR < 0.49. Parental involvement for life style and dietary modification may curb childhood anemia.

  17. The LA-ICP-MS zircons U-Pb ages and geochemistry of the Baihua basic igneous complexes in Tianshui area of West Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI; XianZhi; DING; SaPing; ZHANG; GuoWei; LIU; HuiBin; LI; ZuoChen; LI; GaoYang; LIU; ZhanQing; MENG; Yong

    2007-01-01

    Baihua meta-igneous complex consists mainly of pyroxenite-gabbro(diorite)-diorite-quartz diorite. They form a complete comagmatic evolutionary series. The geochemical characteristics of basic-interme- diate basic igneous rocks indicate that they belong to a tholeiite suite. The REE distribution pattern is nearly flat type and LREE is slightly enriched type, and their primitive mantle-normalized and MORB-normalized trace element spider diagrams are generally similar; the LIL elements (LILE) Cs, Ba, Sr, Th and U are enriched, but Rb, K and the HFSEs Nb, P, Zr, Sm, Ti and Y are relatively depleted. All these show comagmatic evolution and origin characteristics. The tectonics environment discrimination of trace element reveals that these igneous complexes formed in an island-arc setting. The LA-ICP-MS single-zircons U-Pb age of Baihua basic igneous complex is 434.6±1.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), which proves that the formation time of the island-arc type magmatite in the northern zone of West Qinling is Late Ordovician or Early Silurian, also reveals that the timing of subduction of paleo-ocean basin represented by the Guanzizhen ophiolite and resulting island-arc-type magmatic activities is probably Middle-Late Ordovician to Early Silurian.

  18. Short communication: analysis of the integrase gene from HIV type 1-positive patients living in a rural area of West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Ombretta; Montagna, Claudia; Falasca, Francesca; Bucci, Mauro; Russo, Gianluca; Lichtner, Miriam; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Vullo, Vincenzo; Pistello, Mauro; Antonelli, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Major mutations associated with HIV-I integrase inhibitors (INI) resistance are rare in INI-naive patients. However, polymorphisms at positions that may influence the genetic barrier and/or drive the selection of specific INI resistance pathways are common in HIV non-B subtypes. The aim was to evaluate the presence of natural polymorphisms and/or INI resistance mutations in HIV-1 non-B subtype samples obtained from INI-naive patients living in rural west Cameroon. Thirty-three HIV-1 non-B samples were obtained from INI-naive African women and, as controls, 15 samples of HIV-1 subtype B were obtained from antiretroviral-naive Italian patients. The integrase gene was amplified and sequenced using Trugene Core Reagents. Several amino acid positions in B and non-B subtypes were found to be polymorphic. Interestingly, two patients infected with the CRF02_AG subtype had the resistance mutations N155H and E157Q/E and 12% of African samples had an amino acid substitution at position 143. Silent mutations leading to a higher increment of genetic barriers were detected at 140 and 151 positions in non B-subtypes. Although most polymorphisms may have little effect on INI susceptibility, the IN gene variations found in the present study should be taken into consideration as they may facilitate or delay the emergence of variants fully resistant to INIs.

  19. Attenuation of Aftershock of Moderate - Strong Earthquake in West Yunnan Area%滇西地区中强地震的余震衰减

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓东; 秦嘉政; 刘祖荫

    2001-01-01

    Attenuation feature of aftershocks for 8 moderate - strongearthquakes in west Yunnan has been analyzed. The results show that the frequency attenuation of aftershock is accorded with the modified 大森 Law of n (t) = k/ ( t + c)p. The speed of aftershock attenuation has positive correlation with geothermal flow. The moderate- small aftershocks before strong aftershock appear quiescence or increasing. That is frequency residual is less than (quiescence) 2 times of mean - square deviation. A strong aftershock is probably to occur afterwards.%研究了滇西地区8次中强地震余震序列的衰减特征,得出了余震序列频度衰减符合修正的大森定律:n(t)=k/(t+c)p关系;余震衰减的快慢与大地热流值成正相关关系;强余震前中、小余震活动会出现平静或增强现象,即频度残差小于(平静)或大于(增强)其二倍方差,且持续一段时间,其后发生强余震的可能性较大。

  20. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Key West Channel, 1991 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0012739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  1. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1) Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2.) Identify species and habitats of...

  2. Irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater, Humboldt, and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and Carson Lake, West-Central Nevada, 1988-90 : Part II effects on wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the affects of irrigation induced contaminants on fish, wildlife, and human health near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. In 1988, the U.S....

  3. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael M. Ibraheem

    2016-06-01

    The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  4. [Spatial variability of surface soil nutrients in the landslide area of Beichuan County, South- west China, after 5 · 12 Wenchuan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ji-shan; Zhao, Ting-ning; Zheng, Jiang-kun; Shi, Chang-qing

    2015-12-01

    Based on grid sampling and laboratory analysis, spatial variability of surface soil nutrients was analyzed with GS⁺ and other statistics methods on the landslide area of Fenghuang Mountain, Leigu Town, Beichuan County. The results showed that except for high variability of available phosphorus, other soil nutrients exhibited moderate variability. The ratios of nugget to sill of the soil available phosphorus and soil organic carbon were 27.9% and 28.8%, respectively, showing moderate spatial correlation, while the ratios of nugget to sill of the total nitrogen (20.0%), total phosphorus (24.3%), total potassium (11.1%), available nitrogen (11.2%), and available potassium (22.7%) suggested strong spatial correlation. The total phosphorus had the maximum range (1232.7 m), followed by available nitrogen (541.27 m), total nitrogen (468.35 m), total potassium (136.0 m), available potassium (128.7 m), available phosphorus (116.6 m), and soil organic carbon (93.5 m). Soil nutrients had no significant variation with the increase of altitude, but gradually increased from the landslide area, the transition area, to the little-impacted area. The total and available phosphorus contents of the landslide area decreased by 10.3% and 79.7% compared to that of the little-impacted area, respectively. The soil nutrient contents in the transition area accounted for 31.1%-87.2% of that of the little-impacted area, with the nant reason for the spatial variability of surface soil nutrients.

  5. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanti Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants

  6. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  7. A Community Based Study On The Prevalence Of Risk Factors OF Cancer Cervix In Married Women Of A Rural Area Of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Aparajita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of the established risk factors associated with cancer cervix? Objective: To assess the presence of some determinants of cancer cervix among married, rural women of reproductive age group. Study design: Community based, cross â€" sectional, observational study. Setting: Rural: Village East Gobindopur is Singur block in Hooghly district of West Bengal. Study population : All the married women of reproductive age group (103 of the village were included in the study. Results: More than two â€" third (72.8% of the study population belonged to the vulnerable age group (25-45 years for this disease while 59.3% were married before they attained 18 years of age. Again 50% (approx of the married women gave birth to their first child before they were 18 years of age. One â€" third of the study population had parity higher than three. Two â€" third of the women studied were using one or more methods of family planning and one â€" third of the same population were permanently sterilized, 20% were using oral contraceptive pills and only 7.7% were using barrier methods of contraception. Only 31% of the women had satisfactory genital hygiene practice and 36.9% had symptoms of reproductive tract infection. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of some important risk factors associated with cancer cervix like age, age of marriage, age of first child birth, parity ,family planning practices, genital hygiene and reproductive tract infections in the study population. Therefore screening and early detection efforts can be directed specifically to the group at risk.

  8. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    trend is also found from west to east. According to the previous studies, there are 5500 meters, 4000 meters and 2000 meters elevation of the three major surfaces in the West Kunlun region by the SRTM maps. They probably formed in different periods of tectonic uplift, when ancient planation surfaces were eroded. It need further study to confirm which factors control these processes. The study area developed a number of rivers due to glaciers and orographic precipitation. Most of them flow north into the Tarim Basin, with tectonic activities playing significant roles on their flow direction and development patterns. By using longitudinal section maps of major rivers and topographic profiles of drainage area, we find that rivers' longitudinal sections match well with structural phenomena of drainage. The rivers cut through a large number of valleys due to high gradient. The shaping of the erosion features was also largely influenced by the glaciations. In particular, spatially variable erosion resulting from climate gradients may localize exhumation and deformation in orogens and thereby influence the geologic structure and morphology of mountain ranges. Our results support the view that tectonics formed the basic pattern of geological features and is the first-order control on the morphology of the West Kunlun Mountains. Climate variations play a significant role in the geomorphologic formation. Keywords: landscape, tectonics, climate, erosion, West Kunlun Mountains.

  9. Aquaponics Cultivation of Ipome Aquatica and the Peasant Financial Income of Cirata Cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gandhy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research paper analyzes the financial income of a poor community living around the Cirata cistern, in West Java, Indonesia, before and after the community employed the aquaponics strategy of planting ipomoea aquatica. Data are gathered from observation, interviews and statistical analysis of the incomes of community members. In addition, analysis of the data applies Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP. The findings clearly demonstrate an increased annual income of more than 1.117.296 rupiah among those community members using the aquaponics strategy. Once the community has adjusted to professionally implementing this aquaponics strategy, it would be practically useful to invite investors to invest their capital to develop this area.   Keywords: aquaponics, financial income, West Java, internal rate of return, payback period

  10. Zircon U-Pb Ages of Bottom and Top Parts of the Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan Area (West Liaoning Province) and Luanping Area (North Hebei Province) and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Xiaoming; Zhang Yeqing; Yuan Honglin; Hu Zhaochu; Diwu Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    In Lingyuan region of West Liaoning Province, the Zhangjiakou Formation (J3z) and the Yixian Formation (K1y) display an angular unconformity. That is, the Lower Mesozoic strata of the Zhangjiakou Formation are ENE (near E-W) oriented, while the overlying strata of the Yixian Formation exhibit an NNE orientation. The results of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages show the Zhangjiakou Formation formed from about 130 Ma to 132 Ma in Lingyuan and 135 Ma to 136 Ma in Luanping (North Hebei Province), respectively. Three conclusions can be drawn: (1) The Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan is comparable to that in Luanping, with the volcanic rocks of the Zhangjiakou Formation from Lingyuan being younger than those from Luanping. (2) 5-6 Ma difference between the top of the Zhangjiakou Formation and the bottom of the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan proves the angular unconformity between the two formations; and it reflects that the 5-6 Ma interval period is the main period of the transition of tectonic framework in Mesozoic in North Hebei and West Liaoning. In the interval period, the magmatic action went up to high tide in Mesozoic in the northeast of China. Moreover, after the interval period, the "Rehe fauna" developed into "erupted" period. This reflects that the interval period is also an important biological interface in Northern Hebei and Western Liaoning. (3) The Dabeigou Formation in Luanping should correspond to the upper part of the Zhangjiakou Formation, but not to the lower part of the Yixian Formation.

  11. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  12. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less.

  13. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along with adequate access to LLIN needs to be strengthened.

  14. SHRIMP dating of volcanic rock in the Zhangwu-Heishan area, West Liaoning province, China: Its relationship with coal-bearing strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Houan; Xu Debin; Li Baofang; Shao Longyi

    2011-01-01

    The Zhangwu-Heishan area is located to the east of the Fuxin-Yixian Basin and is mostly covered with volcanic rock.At various periods,different geologists had varying opinions about their age and periods of volcanic eruptions,especially on sequences between volcanic rock and main coal-beating strata,which affect the direction of searching for coal,as well as prospecting the entire research area.During our study,we carried out detailed field investigations in this research area; observed and recorded the main representative outcrops of volcanic rock.We collected over 20 volcanic rock samples and tested the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe Ⅱ (SHRIMP Ⅱ) U-Pb isotope age of 11 samples.The age of our volcanic rock samples ranged between 56.0 ± 2.9 and 132.3 ± 2.3 Ma.After taking earlier investigations into consideration,we concluded that,except for a suite of paleogene olivine basalt,the volcanic rock in the Zhangwu-Heishan area is younger than the coal-beating Shahai Formation.It is therefore most unlikely to find coal seams equivalent to those of the early Cretaceous Shahai Formation in Fuxin Basin below volcanic rock.

  15. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  16. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  17. 75 FR 25873 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1903-DR), dated April 23... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  18. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  19. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  20. 75 FR 11902 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1881-DR), dated March 2, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from...

  1. Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163495.html Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks Dry environment ... found that epidemics were larger during years of drought. There were also bigger outbreaks in areas that ...

  2. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  3. LANDFORM MORPHOLOGIC RELATIONS BETWEEN INTER-GULLIED AND GULLIED LAND AREAS--A CASE STUDY OF THE WANGJIAGOU WATERSHED IN THE WEST OF SHANXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on erosional relations between inter-gullied and gullied lands have mainly concentrated on exploration of water and sediment relations, with few quantitative studies of evolution relations between inter-gullied land and gullied landform erosion in small catchments. This paper, using information from a 1:5000 digital orthophotomap (DOM), digital elevation model(DEM), and topographic map of the same period and of the same scale, quantitatively analyzes the impact and interactions of inter-gullied and gullied land geomorphologic characteristics on the dissected extent of a catchment using orthogonal polynomial regression analysis. Results indicate that gullies play a leading role in the catchment morphologic evolution and extent of cracked ground surface. When inter-gullied land areas are the same, a 0. 1 km2 gullied land area has the maximum effect on the erosive evolution intensity of the catchment cracked degree. The smaller the catchment area is, the greater the extent of cracked ground surface and gully intensity would be. The geomorphologic evolution mechanism of gullied catchments can be explained as a function of geomorphologic indicators of inter-gullied and gullied land characteristics.

  4. A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are group of nonvascular plants. Lichen absorbs water and nutrient passively from their environment. Because of this lichens are particularly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, water availability, and air pollutants and/or by substances accumulates in lichen from the environment through variety of mechanisms including particulate trapping, ion exchange, extracellular electrolyte adsorption, hydrolysis and intra cellular uptake. Air pollution control is more complex than most other environmental changes. A study has been done to evaluate the air pollution status by means of lichen through the biochemical variability of three macro environment (semiurban area Arambagh, urban area Burdwan and industrial area Durgapur. The study results revealed that there exist inverse relationship between pollutant load and pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content. Average concentration of chlorophyll ‘a’, ‘b’, and total chlorophyll was found in following order, Site-II>Site-III>Site-I. From the result of Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI it has been found that the chlorophyll degradation is highest in Site-II followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-I. There is a strong inverse relationship of chlorophyll content in lichen with SO2 and NOx but the level of SPM found highest in Site-I followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-II. Moreover, biochemical constituents (protein, sugar, phenol and proline of all the representative samples were also vary from site to site. The study results reveal that the amount of soluble sugar was highest recorded at Site-III followed by Site–I and lowest in Site-II. Again correlation study indicates that there is positive relationship between soluble sugar and phenol content at 5% level of significance. Therefore, it also indicates that the lichen metabolite and other physiological action monitored by SO2, NOx and SPM level in the air. Studies showed that the semiurban area was under more

  5. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  6. Soil erosion and risk-assessment for on- and off-farm impacts: a test case using the Midhurst area, West Sussex, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John; Shepheard, Mark L; Walker, Edward; Foster, Ian D L

    2009-06-01

    Soil erosion on agricultural land is a growing problem in Western Europe and constitutes a threat to soil quality and to the ability of soils to provide environmental services. The off-site impacts of runoff and eroded soil, principally eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of gravel-bedded rivers, loss of reservoir capacity, muddy flooding of roads and communities, are increasingly recognised and costed. The shift of funding in the European Union (EU) from production-related to avoidance of pollution and landscape protection, raises issues of cross-compliance: public support for agriculture has to be seen to give value-for-money. In this context risk-assessment procedures have been introduced to help farmers recognise sites where either certain crops should not be grown or anti-erosion measures are required. In England, Defra [Defra, 2005a. Controlling Soil Erosion: a Manual for the Assessment and Management of Agricultural Land at Risk of Water Erosion in Lowland England. Revised September 2005. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London] sets out a system of risk-assessment, including ranking of crops susceptible to erosion and anti-erosion measures, that may be selected. We assess this system using field data for an area of erodible soils in the Rother valley, Sussex. The Defra approach correctly identifies most at-risk fields and, taken together with land-use maps, allows non-compliance with advice to be highlighted. We suggest a simple extension to the system which would further identify at-risk fields in terms of possible damage to roads and rivers from muddy runoff. The increased risk of erosion in the study area is associated with certain crops: potatoes, winter cereals, maize and grazed turnips and seems unlikely to be the result of changes in rainfall which over the last 130 years are minimal. We have not evaluated proposed anti-erosion measures in the area because few have been put into practice. The European Water Framework

  7. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  8. Development of Geography Text Books Used by Senior High School Teachers Case Study at East Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Edy; Fatchan, Ach.; Purwanto; Soekamto, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the geography text book for: (1) identify and describe the errors in the organization of geography textbooks, and (2) identify and describe the content of the textbook standard errors of geography. The text book is currently being used by teachers of Senior High School in East Java. To analyze the contents of…

  9. The Impact of Mobile Internet Adoption by Cocoa Farmers: A Case Study in Southern East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Nabhani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of mobile internet adoption by cocoa farmers into their business performance. The main factors examined in this study are creativity and innovativeness. The study sample consists of 193cocoa farmers with 24% smart phone penetrationin thirteen cocoa farmer centers in southern East Java. Data were analyzed by employing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The findings revealed that the business performance is significantly impacted by creativity and innovativeness. Creativity and innovativeness was measured by new product development, new process, and new marketing way; while business performance was measured by sales increase, profitability improvement and market share. This research has a limitation that the generalizability of the findings is limited to the geographical scope of the sample. Based on findings, as the practical implications of this study, to give a meaningful broadband to the farmers, all stake holders need to build a conducive broadband ecosystem for the farmer by providing better access to device, user friendly applications, and better broadband customer experience.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE AND BENEFIT OF KARAPAN (RACING CATTLE BUSINESS IN MADURA ISLAND, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riszqina Riszqina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A research was carried out to analyze the influence of productive factors on the performance ofkarapan (means racing cattle business in Madura Island, East Java Province, Indonesia. The researchwas conducted by a survey method, with 135 karapan cattle farmers as respondents in regencies ofBangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan and Sumenep (mainland. The data were collected in the period ofApril to August 2012. Data of zootechnique indicators variables, farmer’s motivation, allocation time oflabour, labour skills, business scale, productivity of karapan cattle, farmers' performance and benefit ofkarapan cattle business were analysed by Lisrel 8.8 program. The results showed that factors ofzootechnique, farmer’s motivation, labour skills and business scale had highly significant influence(P<0.01 on productivity of karapan cattle, but allocation time of labour did not have significantinfluence (P>0.05. The performance of karapan cattle business was highly influenced by productivity ofkarapan cattle (P<0.01. The benefit of karapan cattle business was influenced (P<0.01 by performanceof karapan cattle business. It is concluded that the farmer's benefit of karapan cattle business wasinfluenced by performance of karapan cattle, which in turn was influenced by productivity of thekarapan cattle.

  11. Obstacles for optimal tuberculosis case detection in primary health centers (PHC in Sidoarjo district, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmawati Tety

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide. Detection of the most infectious cases of tuberculosis – sputum smear-positive pulmonary cases – by passive case finding is an essential component of TB control. The district of Sidoarjo in East Java reported a low case detection rate (CDR of 14% in 2003. We evaluated the diagnostic process for TB in primary health care centers (PHC in Sidoarjo district to assess whether problems in identification of TB suspects or in diagnosing TB patients can explain the low CDR. Methods We performed interviews with the staff (general nurse, TB worker, laboratory technician, and head of health center of the 25 PHCs of Sidoarjo district to obtain information about the knowledge of TB, health education practices, and availability of support services for TB diagnosis. The quality of the laboratory diagnosis was examined by providing 10 slides with a known result to the laboratory technicians for re-examination. Results Eighty percent of the nurses and 84% of the TB workers knew that cough >3 weeks can be a symptom of TB. Only 40% of the nurses knew the cause of TB, few could mention complications of TB and none could mention the duration of infectiousness after start of treatment. Knowledge of TB workers was much better. Information about how to produce a good sputum sample was provided to TB suspects by 76% of the nurses and 84% of the TB workers. Only few provided all information. Fifty-five percent of the 11 laboratory technicians correctly identified all positive slides as positive and 45% correctly identified 100% of the negative slides as negative. All TB workers, one general nurses and 32% of the laboratory technicians had received specific training in TB control. There has been no shortage of TB forms and laboratory materials in 96% of the PHCs. Conclusion The quality of the diagnostic process for TB at PHC in Sidoarjo district should be improved on all levels. Training in TB control of all general nurses and the laboratory technicians that have not received training would be a good first step to enhance diagnosis of TB and to improve the case detection rate.

  12. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  13. Genetic Determination and Clonal Relationships of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Dairy Cows in Baturraden, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatkhanuddin Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cases of mastitis in cows at Baturraden are leading to signifi cant and ongoing problems due to reducedproduction and lower milk quality. This study was designed to identify which of selected virulence determinantgenes of S. aureus are involved in the Baturraden infection, and to determine the clonal relationship amongthese isolates. Seventeen isolates were identifi ed as S. aureus based on their biochemical properties and speciesspecifi city for 23S rRNA and nuc genes. S. aureus isolates were genotypically characterized for the selectedvirulence determinants: coa, clfA, fnbA, fnbB, cap5, spa IgG and spa X- region genes. Clonal relationship analysisamong isolates was carried out using AFLP and results compared with previously confi rmed relationshipsbetween selected S. aureus isolated from other regions. The results show that eight isolates contain all thegenes, but six isolates lack fnbB and two isolates lack cap5 genes. AFLP analysis showed that all isolates of S.aureus originating from cows in Baturraden belong to one cluster. This study provides additional knowledgeabout S. aureus infection in Baturraden cows, including the number of virulence determinant genes that mayplay a role in pathogenicity.

  14. Example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java, Indonesia), February 20th 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guern, F. (Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA, Yvette, France); Tazieff, H.; Faivre Pierret, R.

    1982-01-01

    On February 20th, 1979, 142 inhabitants of Dieng Plateau (Indonesia) were asphyxiated by poisonous gases during a mild phreatic eruption. From later fields gas collection and analysis, the casualties are considered to be due to CO/sub 2/ rich volcanic gases.

  15. Integrated Islamic Education: An Analytcal Study on The Concept and Practice of Gontor System in East Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Bahroni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current issue on international education, especially in relation with muslim community, like in Malaysia and Indonesia is morality. The impact and influence of secular civilization upon muslim society can not be denied. The problem of morality is not only an individual but rather touches the level of all social community of muslim ummah all over the world. Consequently every one now needs an education which can fortify the nation from this moral malady. To overcome this problem according to the researcher needs strategy, planning and strong system, such as boarding school based education. Based on above introduction, the researcher wishes to study in this simple research on Gontor system of integrated Islamic education. To reach valid result of study, the researcher wish to use interview, observation and documentary method for the data collection. Meanwhile, for the data analysis, the researcher uses data reduction, display and verification of Miles and Huberman method. The points above, ensures the writer to further explore the data of Gontor system, so then the object of the research could be approved scientifically for the purpose of muslim community all over the world.

  16. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.

  17. Willingness to pay for public health services in rural Central Java, Indonesia: methodological considerations when using the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    In the health sectors of low- and middle-income countries, contingent valuation method (CVM) studies on willingness to pay (WTP) have been used to gather information on demand variation or financial perspectives alongside price setting, such as the introduction of user fees and valuation of quality improvements. However, WTP found in most CVM studies have only explored the preferences that consumers express through their WTP without exploring whether they are actually able to pay for it. Therefore, this study examines the issues pertaining to WTP estimation for health services using the conventional CVM. We conducted 202 household interviews in 2008, in which we asked respondents about three types of public health services in Indonesia and assessed WTP estimated by the conventional CVM as well as in the scenario of "resorting to debt" to recognize their budget constraints. We find that all the demand curves for both WTP scenarios show gaps. Furthermore, the gap for midwife services is negatively affected by household income and is larger for the poor. These results prove that CVM studies on WTP do not always reveal WTP in the latter scenario. Those findings suggest that WTP elicited by the conventional CVM is different to that from the maximum price that prevents respondents from resorting to debt as their WTP. In order to bridge this gap in the body of knowledge on this topic, studies should improve the scenarios that CVM analyses use to explore WTP. Furthermore, because valuing or pricing health services based on the results of CVM studies on WTP alone can exacerbate the inequity of access to these services, information provided by such studies requires careful interpretation when used for this purpose, especially for the poor and vulnerable sections of society.

  18. Healthcare-seeking behaviors for acute respiratory illness in two communities of Java, Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptiningsih, Catharina Y; Lafond, Kathryn E; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storms, Aaron D; Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, Angela D; Samaan, Gina; Titaley, Christiana R; Yelda, Fitra; Kreslake, Jennifer; Storey, Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities.

  19. The age of the 20 meter Solo River terrace, Java, Indonesia and the survival of Homo erectus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriati, Etty; Swisher, Carl C; Lepre, Christopher; Quinn, Rhonda L; Suriyanto, Rusyad A; Hascaryo, Agus T; Grün, Rainer; Feibel, Craig S; Pobiner, Briana L; Aubert, Maxime; Lees, Wendy; Antón, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    Homo erectus was the first human lineage to disperse widely throughout the Old World, the only hominin in Asia through much of the Pleistocene, and was likely ancestral to H. sapiens. The demise of this taxon remains obscure because of uncertainties regarding the geological age of its youngest populations. In 1996, some of us co-published electron spin resonance (ESR) and uranium series (U-series) results indicating an age as young as 35-50 ka for the late H. erectus sites of Ngandong and Sambungmacan and the faunal site of Jigar (Indonesia). If correct, these ages favor an African origin for recent humans who would overlap with H. erectus in time and space. Here, we report (40)Ar/(39)Ar incremental heating analyses and new ESR/U-series age estimates from the "20 m terrace" at Ngandong and Jigar. Both data sets are internally consistent and provide no evidence for reworking, yet they are inconsistent with one another. The (40)Ar/(39)Ar analyses give an average age of 546±12 ka (sd±5 se) for both sites, the first reliable radiometric indications of a middle Pleistocene component for the terrace. Given the technical accuracy and consistency of the analyses, the argon ages represent either the actual age or the maximum age for the terrace and are significantly older than previous estimates. Most of the ESR/U-series results are older as well, but the oldest that meets all modeling criteria is 143 ka+20/-17. Most samples indicated leaching of uranium and likely represent either the actual or the minimum age of the terrace. Given known sources of error, the U-series results could be consistent with a middle Pleistocene age. However, the ESR and (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages preclude one another. Regardless, the age of the sites and hominins is at least bracketed between these estimates and is older than currently accepted.

  20. Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously.

  1. Defining "Sector 3" Poultry Layer Farms in Relation to H5N1-HPAI-An Example from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Peter A; Wibowo, Michael Haryadi; Tarigan, Simson; Artanto, Sidna; Rosyid, Murni Nurhasanah; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2016-05-01

    To help guide surveillance and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (H5N1-HPAI), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2004 devised a poultry farm classification system based on a combination of production and biosecurity practices. Four "Sectors" were defined, and this scheme has been widely adopted within Indonesia to guide national surveillance and control strategies. Nevertheless, little detailed research into the robustness of this classification system has been conducted, particularly as it relates to independent, small to medium-sized commercial poultry farms (Sector 3). Through an analysis of questionnaire data collected as part of a survey of layer farms in western and central Java, all of which were classified as Sector 3 by local veterinarians, we provide benchmark data on what defines this sector. A multivariate analysis of the dataset, using hierarchical cluster analysis, identified three groupings of the farms, which were defined by a combination of production-and biosecurity-related variables, particularly those related to farm size and (the lack of) washing and disinfection practices. Nevertheless, the relationship between production-related variables and positive biosecurity practices was poor, and larger farms did not have an overall higher total biosecurity score than small or medium-sized ones. Further research is required to define the properties of poultry farms in Indonesia that are most closely related to effective biosecurity and the prevention of H5N1-HPAI.

  2. Parents' Participation in Improving the Quality of Elementary School in the City of Malang, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono, Raden Bambang; Imron, Ali; Wiyono, Bambang Budi; Arifin, Imron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at describing parents participation in improving the quality of education of elementary schools viewed from the school substance and management. This is a qualitative research using phenomenology approach. The research design employed is comparative multicase involving four elementary schools in Malang city, East java,…

  3. Brief communication: two human fossil deciduous molars from the Sangiran dome (Java, Indonesia): outer and inner morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément; Bondioli, Luca; Mancini, Lucia; Mazurier, Arnaud; Widianto, Harry; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the human deciduous dental record from the Pleistocene deposits of the Sangiran Dome, Java, consists of only eight specimens. Here we report two deciduous crowns collected near the village of Pucung. While their precise geo-chronological context remains unknown, a provenance from the Early-Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation, or from the Early Pleistocene "Grenzbank Zone," is very likely. These isolated specimens consist of an upper first molar (PCG.1) and a lower second molar (PCG.2). Taxonomic discrimination of the Indonesian tooth record is difficult because of the convergence in crown size and appearance between Pongo and Homo. Accordingly, as PCG.2 still bears a concretion masking most of its features, we coupled the outer analysis of the two specimens with an investigation of their inner morphology. In addition to external characteristics, virtual imaging and quantitative assessment of inner morphology and tissue proportions support an attribution to the taxon Homo, and we preliminary allocate both specimens toH. erectus.

  4. EFFECT OF MASSAGE AND AROMATHERAPY ON STRESS AND PROLACTIN LEVEL AMONG PRIMIPAROUS PUERPERAL MOTHERS IN SEMARANG, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyana Nurul Widyawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exclusive breastfeeding in Semarang during the past five years remains low. Only 20 to 64% of mothers were breastfed exclusively in 2010-2012. The incidence of postpartum blues was reported by 29.9% mothers, and mostly (56.6% was primiparous. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of Loving Massage, aromatherapy, and a combination of Loving Massage and aromatherapy on stress levels, and changes in levels of prolactin in primiparous puerperal in Semarang. Method: A true experimental study with a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Cluster random sampling was used to select 12 health centers from the 37 health centers in Semarang. A random assignment with a sealed envelope was performed to divide study participants into four groups; loving massage group, aromatherapy group, and a combination group of loving massage and aromatherapy, and a control group. A total of 52 primiparous puerperal mothers was involved, with 13 mothers were distributed equally in each group. Results: Loving Massage, aromatherapy, and a combination of Loving Massage and aromatherapy effectively changed mother’s stress and prolactin levels. Effectiveness of each treatment assessed from the average difference in scores before and after treatment. Combination of Loving Massage and aromatherapy had proven as the most effective treatment in reducing stress levels (11.61 ± 6.76, and increasing prolactin level (83.13 ± 6.41 ng/ml. Conclusions: Loving Massage & Aromatherapy shown to lower the levels of stress, and can increase the levels prolactin in postpartum primiparous. Therefore, it is recommended to provide Loving Massage therapy and aromatherapy to postpartum primiparous mothers.

  5. Geochronology and magmatic evolution of the Dieng Volcanic Complex, Central Java, Indonesia and their relationships to geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijoko, Agung; Uruma, Ryusuke; Wibowo, Haryo Edi; Setijadji, Lucas Doni; Imai, Akira; Yonezu, Kotaro; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed new radiometric dating and petrological data of DVC in an attempt to reconstruct volcanic history as groundwork to understand magmatic temporal and spatial evolution. The magma of DVC can be divided on the basis of mineral composition into three types: olivine bearing basalt-basaltic andesite, pyroxene basaltic andesite-andesite, and biotite andesite-dacite, which coincide with three volcanic episodes of DVC: pre-caldera, second, and youngest episode, respectively. The pre-caldera episode was active no later than 1 Ma, the second episode occurred between 0.3 and 0.4 Ma, and the youngest occurred after 0.27 Ma. Plots of CaO, K2O, Al2O3, and Rb/Sr against FeO*/MgO and/or MgO suggest that each volcanic episode has distinct differentiation trends, indicating the presence of multiple shallow magma chambers. The close spatial relationship between the geothermal manifestation, geophysical anomalies, geothermal production zones and volcanic edifices supports the presence of multiple shallow magma chambers beneath DVC, which act as a heat source for the existing geothermal system.

  6. Relationships between Triage Knowledge, Training, Working Experiences and Triage Skills among Emergency Nurses in East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Fathoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since there are increased numbers of clients with traumatic injuries and non-traumatic cases in the emergency department in Indonesia, triage skill is an essential competency required for the emergency nurses.Purposes: This study aimed to examine the level of perceived triage skills and the relationship between knowledge, training, working experience and perceived triage skills among emergency nurses.Method: Two hundred and sixty six emergency room (ER nurses working in two secondary and two tertiary public hospitals in East Java Province, Indonesia, were recruited by purposive sampling. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires which included the Demographic Data including training and working experiences, Triage Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ and Triage Skill Questionnaire (TSQ. The contents of questionnaires were validated by three experts and tested for reliability. The correlation coefficient for the TKQ was 0.99 and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the TSQ was 0.93. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including Pearson’s product-moment correlation to examine the relationship.Result: The results showed that the majority of subjects were female (71.4% with aged of 22 – 40 years (79.3%, educated to diploma level (94.4%. All subjects had attended Basic Life Support (BLS and Advanced Life Support (ACLS, and about half of them had greater than 5 years working experiences in ED. Overall perceived triage skill was at a moderate level with the mean score of 75.12 (SD = 11.23. There were significantly positive correlations between triage skill and working experience (r = .27, p < .01, training experience (r = .37, p < .01, and triage knowledge (r = .38, p < .01.Conclusion: The findings provide a better understanding of triage skills among ER nurses and suggest that the continuing education and training courses related to triage and advanced management of medical emergencies for ER nurses are required in order to increase and update the triage skills in enhancing the quality of emergency care and patient safety.Key Words :Triage knowledge, triage skills, training, working experience, emergency nurse

  7. West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. 1 in 10 people with brain inflammation do ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

  8. 2009年桂西山区规范化性病门诊艾滋病VCT求询及HIV感染状况分析%AIDS VCT and HIV infection in the mountain areas of west Guangxi in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简华慧

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To explore therelationship between the implementation of AIDS voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and HIV infection in the mountain areas of west Guangxi.This paper also discusses how to enhance the efficiency of VCT and avoid high-risk behaviors.Methods:According to regulations and requirements of Ministry of Health,patients receive VCT from well-trained doctors.They fill in forms about STL and AIDs,and receive medical examinations.The doctors should explain the exanimation results to the patients,emphasize the dangers of HIV,and follow up patients.Results:From January 1 to December 21,2012,338 people received VCT in the mountain areas of west Guangxi,of which 196 were men and 142 women.81.46%of them aged between 20 and 50.90.16% received VCT due to high-rick sex.Twelve of 338 people were HIV-positive,the infection rate being 1.96%.Conclusion:Quality VCT in normative outpatient service should be carried out in the mountain areas of west Guangxi.Those with high risks should take VCT.By doing these can we detect HIV early and intervene early.%目的:了解桂西山区规范化性病门诊开展艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)求询类与HIV感染之间的关系,探讨高效VCT以及改变求询者高危行为的方法.方法:根据卫生部《艾滋病免费自愿咨询检测管理办法》的要求,在规范化性病门诊中由接受过VCT专职培训的医生与求询者进行“一对一”HIV抗体初筛检测前后咨询,填写《STL/AIDS知识认知情况和行为调查表》,进行性病专项检查,并与每月10日前上报CDC;对检测者解释检测结果,强化HIV传播信息及降低高危行为的方法,建立完善的转介网络,阳性者提供支持性咨询,转介CDC并跟踪随访,及时记录.结果:2009年1月1日~12月31日桂西山区规范化性病门诊共接待求询者338人,其中196人为男性、142人为女性;20~50岁占81.46%;因高危性行为咨询者占90.16%;检出HIV抗体阳性12

  9. Geochemistry and mineralogy of listwaenite hosting mercury mineralization and its comparison with the barren types in Tavreh area, west of Khoy city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imamalipour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of ophiolitic ultramafic rocks, formation of listwaenite and associated mineralization are interesting phenomena of metallogeny of Khoy ophiolite. It seems that the hydrothermal circulations responsible for mercury mineralization were derived from geothermal systems caused by intermediate to acidic magmatism in Neogene-Pleistocene time. Reactivation of brecciated serpentinite with hydrothermal solutions led to the silica-carbonate hydrothermal alteration and formation of listwaenite. The importance of these alteration types is due to associated Hg-Au mineralization. Based on the microscopic mineralogical studies, XRD analysis, geochemical characteristics and field relationships, three types of listwaenite including silica, silica-carbonate and carbonate have been recognized. Tavreh mercury occurrence has formed in relation with silica type listwaenite which also named as birbirite. Alteration zones have structural controls and are restricted to shale (marl/serpentinite fault type contacts. Mineralogically, silica type listwaenite mainly consists of quartz, chalcedony, opal and secondary iron hydroxides. Magnesite, dolomite, calcite and clay minerals are the minor phases. Toward silica-carbonate and carbonate listwaenites, silica minerals decrease while carbonate minerals increase. Geological field relations and existence of residual chrome spinel in the listwaenite of Tavreh area confirmed the ultrabasic host rock. Based on geochemical studies, average values of SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO and L.O.I as the main components of silica listwaenite are 82.6, 6.99, 1.02 and 3.74 wt %, respectively. Among rare elements, average values of Hg, Pb, As and S have been obtained as 646.2 ppm, 517.7 ppm, 329.1 ppm and 281 ppm, respectively. Mass changes (gains and losses of major and minor elements during the alteration process in the Tavreh area have considered, using Gresens’ equation in this study. Cinabar-bearing silica listwaenite is enriched in SiO2

  10. High Species C Human Adenovirus Genome Copy Numbers in the Treated Water Supply of a Neotropical Area of the Central-West Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hugo D; Fongaro, Gislaine; Garcíazapata, Marco T A; Melo, Arthur T O; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; de Faria, Karla M S; Anunciação, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    There is little information about the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV) in drinking water in Neotropical regions. Thus, the present study sought to conduct quantification and molecular characterization of HAdVs detected in treated water samples from an area of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. Between August and November 2012, samples were collected from four treated water reservoirs and their respective sites along the water distribution network of the city of Goiânia, for a total of 80 samples. All samples were concentrated and analyzed by qPCR, and selected samples were sequenced. Overall, 76.6 (10(0)-10(9) GC mL(-1)) and 37.5% (10(1)-10(8) GC mL(-1)) of samples drawn from reservoirs and their distribution sites, respectively, were positive for virus by qPCR. All samples selected for sequencing were characterized as species C human adenovirus. Such high HAdV counts have in treated water samples. This finding merits special attention, particularly from the sanitation authorities, because the high number of GC mL(-1) may be an indicative of risk to human health.

  11. Causative Factors of Social Inequality and its Impact on Community Health: a Neighbourhood Level Study in Midnapore Municipal Area, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U.

    2016-10-01

    Health is socio-demographic construct of population. In an urban area social, economic and political systems simultaneously operate within a geographically defined space in which the urban dwellers accommodate and act as key player. As such the physical and social factors virtually affect the community health as a consequence of disparity in accessing health. Health disparities in smaller towns of the developing world have drawn serious attention as they are poorly suffering from the problems of `urban penalty'. This paper deals with statistical clustering of neighbourhoods on the basis of quality of life, social deprivation and multiple suffering quantified as the variables derived from measurable parameters. Neighbourhoods inequality has been mapped as per the score received by each neighbourhood in respect to the above three variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has also been employed for grouping the neighbourhoods in social terms. Then it has been tried to examine relationship between health attainment and social status of the neighbourhoods. The study shows that status of health does not merely depend on socio-demographic and political factors but availability of healthcare facilities, health related behaviour, health perception and awareness have played significant roles. The findings of the study may be helpful for setting planning strategies most important of which would be inclusion of local people in catering health services.

  12. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn h

  13. Java project on periodontal diseases: causes of tooth loss in a cohort of untreated individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. van der Velden; A. Amaliya; B.G. Loos; M.F. Timmerman; F.A. van der Weijden; E.G. Winkel; F. Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative contribution of caries and periodontal disease to tooth loss over 24 years in a cohort deprived of regular dental care. Material & Methods The study population consisted of 98 subjects from a tea estate on West Java, Indonesia, that had been part of a prospective lon

  14. Java project on periodontal diseases : causes of tooth loss in a cohort of untreated individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Ubele; Amaliya, Amaliya; Loos, Bruno G.; Timmerman, Mark F.; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Winkel, Edwin G.; Abbas, Frank

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the relative contribution of caries and periodontal disease to tooth loss over 24years in a cohort deprived of regular dental care. Material & MethodsThe study population consisted of 98 subjects from a tea estate on West Java, Indonesia, that had been part of a prospective longit

  15. I LOVE CHINA,I LOVE INDONESIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In July 1940,JACKSON Sze Mau Leung(here-in-after called Jackson Leung)was born in an oversea Chinese family in WestJava,Indonesia.During 18 to 24 April 1955,the world famous Asian-African Conference was held in Bandung,Indonesia.

  16. Decline of the Jakarta Bay molluscan fauna linked to human impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    In 1937/38 representative mollusc collections were made in Jakarta Bay (West Java, Indonesia). New data from here and the adjacent offshore Thousand Islands archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu) became available in 2005. Although collecting efforts and sampling methods differed, a comparison of the mollusc

  17. A Study to ascertain the Optimum Yield from Groundwater Source in the Eastern Part of Kolkata Municipal Corporation Area in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing stress on fresh water resources due to ever-rising demands and profligateuses as well as growing population and industrial establishment of Kolkata is an issue ofgreat concern. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative estimate of the availablegroundwater resources in the eastern part of Kolkata for efficient utilization andmanagement of groundwater resources. The methodology involved the investigation,drilling, lowering, collection and analysis of main well and observation wells data andgroundwater quality as well. Based upon the study of lithological logs as also the electricallog, the sub-surface deposition of the assembly pipes have been determined. The resultsindicate that the aquifers are composite and composed of sands and overlying silts/claybeds. Long term Tests pumping indicate that the main well may be capable of a long termdischarge rate of 120 m3/hr restricted at 120 m and 156.65 m. The aquifer parametersfrom the study area are estimated from the analysis of short and long durations pumpingtest data. For the alluvial aquifer, transmissivity of 1491 m2/d, hydraulic conductivity of49.7 m/d and storage coefficient of 0.0064 are recommended found by using differentmethods. Long duration pumping tests have indicated that the maximum drawdown inwater table by 4.89 m may be achievable by radius of influence about 682 m. After theclosure of pumping operation, recuperation test was also carried out in the main wells aswell as also from observation wells. Recovery test was monitored for 20 hrs after closureof pumping. Slope of the residual drawdown from t/t’ indicated aquifer transmissivity of1322 m2/d and therefore hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial sand aquifer is 44 m/dhaving an aquifer thickness of 30 m. The physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis ofgroundwater of two pumping wells were tested and the results showed the groundwatermust be disinfected before supplying to the consumers.

  18. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  19. 储层预测技术在厄瓜多尔西海岸地区的应用%The application of reservoir prediction technique in West Coast area of Ecuador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡文; 邓国振; 韩福民; 姜军伟; 张锋军; 王献杰

    2013-01-01

    储层预测技术已成为岩性油气藏勘探中的一项常规技术.厄瓜多尔西海岸地区蕴含着丰富的石油和天然气资源,但整个地区勘探程度相对较低,使用宽带约束地震反演技术进行储层预测是非常必要的.选择瓜亚基尔工区,使用地震纯波数据进行储层预测研究.首先进行测井曲线标准化处理,利用阻抗-伽玛交汇图分析确定储层岩石地球物理特征,然后针对目的层进行稀疏脉冲反演和储层厚度的计算,最后对反演结果和储层平面分布特征进行分析,确定有利勘探目标.预测的砂岩厚度和已钻井实测的砂岩厚度之间的误差很小,吻合较好,从而证明了该技术的有效性.%Reservoir prediction technique has become a conventional technology in lithologic exploration of oil and gas reservoir.Commonly used methods of reservoir prediction mainly include seismic multi-attribute analysis and seismic inversion.Seismic attributes analysis is a qualitative method to predict reservoir,while seismic inversion is a quantitative prediction of reservoir.The latter is used in this paper for the study.The West Coast of Ecuador is located in western Ecuador on the Pacific Coast,at least there are three distinct strike-slip transform forearc basins along the West Coast of Ecuador based on facies,stratigraphy,structural styles and tectonic evolution in western Ecuador,from south to north they are respectively:Progreso Basin,Manabí Basin and Borbón Basin,which are forearc basins along the coastline formed under the action of the plate.The history of oil and gas exploration of the West Coast of Ecuador was nearly a hundred years and a number of oil and gas fields were found since oil and gas exploration in the early stage of last century.There are abundant oil and gas resources in this area,but the exploration of the entire region was relatively low,and it' s very necessary to use broadband constrained seismic inversion technology for

  20. 喀喇昆仑山-西昆仑山苔藓植物区系及物种多样性1)%Bryoflora and Species Diversity of Bryophy tes from Karakorum-West Korum Area in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼瓦尔·阿布都热依木; 热比也木·吾甫; 玛尔孜亚·阿不力米提; 龚佐山; 买买提明·苏来曼

    2015-01-01

    We determined bryophytes areas in Karakorum-West Korum area, and analyzed the geographical elements by cluster analysis.After detailed examination, we determined 32 families, 76 genera and 178 species ( including 5 varieties) of bry-ophytes.Among them, 7 families, 8 genera and 11 species are liverworts, and 25 families, 68 genera and 167 species are mosses.The moss floristic element of Karakorum-West Korum area was divided into 10.Among them, the flora was domi-nated by North Temperate Zone types corresponding to 71.81%of the total, followed by East-Asian elements accounting for 8.85%, and the tropical element was little.By cluster analysis of ten regions, KarakorumW-estkorum area had the closest relatives of flora with Eastern Tianshan Mountain, and bryophytes flora of Karakorum-Westkorum area was closely associat-ed with Helan Mountain.Ten samples in Karakorum-Westkorum of bryophyte species diversity index analysis showed that in Shihshu and Gosas the distribution of bryophytes are most abundant.%对喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山苔藓植物区系成分进行了划分,并对该区系与邻近9个地区的地理成分进行了聚类分析。经查阅有关资料和标本鉴定,确定新疆喀喇昆仑山共有苔藓植物32科、76属、178种(含5变种),其中苔类为7科、8属、11种,藓类25科6、8属、167种。喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山苔藓植物区系成分可划分为10种类型,其中北温带成分居主导地位,占该地区苔藓植物总种数的71.81%,东亚成分次之,占8.85%,热带成分甚微。地理成分区系谱及聚类分析结果表明,新疆喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山与东部天山苔藓植物区系关系最为接近,与贺兰山密切相关。对喀喇昆仑山—西昆仑山10个样点中苔藓植物多样性指数的分析结果表明,西合休和果萨斯苔藓植物分布较丰富。

  1. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 12. Stable isotopic evaluation of thermal water occurrences in the Weiser and Little Salmon River drainage basins and adjacent areas, west-central Idaho with attendant gravity and magnetic data on the Weiser area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.; Bideganeta, K.; Palmer, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Fifteen thermal springs, two thermal wells, and eight cold springs in the Weiser and Little Salmon river drainages were sampled for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis during the fall of 1981. The straight-line fit of delta D and delta /sup 18/O versus latitude and longitude observed in the data is what would be expected if the recharge areas for the thermal and non-thermal waters were in close proximity to their respective discharge points. The discrete values of delta D and delta /sup 18/O for each thermal discharge suggest that none of the sampled thermal systems have common sources. The depleted deuterium and oxygen-18 contents of most thermal relative to non-thermal waters sampled suggests that the thermal waters might be Pleistocene age precipitation. The isotopic data suggest little or no evidence for mixing of thermal and non-thermal water for the sampled discharges. Thermal waters from Weiser, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, and White Licks hot springs show enrichment in oxygen-18 suggesting that these waters have been at elevated temperatures relative to other sampled thermal discharges in the area. Gravity and magnetic data gathered by the Idaho State University Geology Department in the Weiser Hot Springs area suggest that southeastward plunging synclinal-anticlinal couples, which underlie the hot springs, are cut south of the springs by a northeast trending boundary fault.

  2. STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD LAND IN THE WEST SEMI-ARID AREA IN HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE%黑龙江省西部半干旱区河滩地治理开发构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽敏; 高凤山; 张福平; 华淑丽

    2001-01-01

    cording to the natural conditions and the management situation of the flood land of the west semi-arid Area of Heilongjiang province, it was presented a framing conception for controlling and developing the flood land, that was to comprehensively control, for example, taking the vegetation construction as basis and by means of engineering measures, to develop all-round of agriculture, forestry, animal husbantry, water conservancy, fishery, sideline and enterprise, and to combine control with development so that flood land can become a benign system that both the local economy and the ecology will be developed.%从黑龙江省西部半干旱地区自然概况及河滩地经营现状出发,提出了以植被建设为基础,工程措施为手段,进行全面治理;根据滩地的实际情况,结合农、林、牧、水、渔、副、企各业进行综合开发,治理与开发并举,使滩地成为生态经济良性系统,促进地方经济发展与生态恢复。

  3. Analysis of the Income Gap between Peasants in the East, Middle and West Areas%东中西部地区农民收入差距分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来栓; 朱润喜

    2013-01-01

      本文选取1978-2011年数据,采用人均纯收入、工资性收入、家庭经营收入、财产性收入、转移性收入的总量、速度、结构、差额、比值、离散系数、贡献率等指标对我国东中西部地区农民收入差距作了系统分析,提出了缩小收入差距的建议。%  select 1978-2011 data in this article, per capita net income, income from wages, family business income, property income, transfer income amount, speed, structure, balance, ratio, dispersion coefficient, contribution rates and other indicators on the income gap of Chinese peasants in the East, middle and West areas for system analysis, recommendations made narrowing the income gap.

  4. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3. 0 m. y. old in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-12-01

    This map is one of a series of maps designed for hot dry rock geothermal assessment in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of the west Texas. The 3.0 m.y. cutoff age was selected because original heat has probably largely dissipated in older rocks. The location of volcanic centers is more important to geothermal resource assessment than the location of their associated volcanic rocks; however, ages have been determined for numerous flows far from their source. Therefore, the distribution of all volcanic rocks less than or equal to 3.0 m.y. old, for which there is at least one determined age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages were obtained from the original literature in all cases except for McKee and others (1974), Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976). The abstract by McKee and others (1974) lists only the ages of various rocks they dated, so locations were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). The dates of Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976) are taken from written communications cited by Luedke and Smith (1978); therefore, both references are shown on the map for those ages.

  5. Analysis of Combined Plants Landscape Space of Santaishan Scenic Area in Hangzhou West Lake%杭州西湖三台山景区植物景观组合空间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章四庆; 宋李玲; 赖齐贤

    2013-01-01

    Plants landscape space of Santaishan Scenic Area in Hangzhou West Lake was used as the research subject. Combined with garden design elements, such as terrain, buildings, water, park roads, and so on, 42 plots were set up to investigate the spatial structures of plants landscape. The results showed that there were 4 types of combination spaces, including open space, semi-open space, covering space and vertical space. Meanwhile, based on the combinations of plants landscape space, the ornamental features of plants and enclosure degree, and the structural characteristics of 4 typical plant combination spaces were analyzed. According to these, the characteristics of secluded plant landscape spaces of Santaishan Scenic Area were summarized.%以杭州西湖三台山景区植物景观为研究对象,结合地形、建筑、水体、园路等园林设计要素,设置了42个样方,对植物景观空间进行实地调查.统计出了4种类型的植物景观组合空间,包括开敞式空间、半开敞式空间、覆盖空间和垂直空间.同时,根据植物景观空间的构成方式、植物的观赏特性和围合程度等因素,分析4种典型植物组合空间的构成特点,总结三台山景区营造幽静的植物景观空间的特征.

  6. Environmental permitting for the Wayang Windu Power Development Project - a case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.R.; Daysh, S.G.

    1996-12-31

    Mandala Nusantara Ltd is a joint venture company set up for the development and ownership of a private power development at the Wayang Windu Geothermal Project, West Java, Indonesia. The exploration effort for Wayang Windu has been permitted and is underway. Permitting of the final development is now in process. Experience indicates that the legal framework is particularly conducive to rapid project development. Standards are at times less stringent, while some can be stricter than California standards. Pertamina (the state oil and gas company) has developed considerable expertise in the permitting area and has been cooperative. Mandala Nusantara Ltd has found it appropriate to supplement its written commitment to environmental monitoring with its own process of continuous environmental audit.

  7. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  8. 井震结合断层建模方法在萨北北二西的应用%Fault Modeling Method with Well-to-seismic Integration Used in the North Ⅱ West Tract of Saertu North Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳丽; 柳成志; 王文广; 周华建; 齐金成

    2011-01-01

    萨北北二西井网密集,多年来没能利用大量井资料合理组合断层,特别是区块中央部位断裂复杂,对注采关系影响很大.采集三维地震后,把地震资料和井资料充分结合来研究断层.以地震解释的断层为基础,在三维空间利用相干体分析技术、正交切线法检查技术进行断点的空间归位、断层的空间组合,同时结合未组合断点寻找地震未解释的小断距断层,最后建立精准断层模型.结果表明该方法提高了断点组合率,对断层的认识更加清楚可信.%The north II west tract of saertu north area is a dense well pattern region, but these well information can not be used in rational fault combination, especially in the middle of research block where faults are well developed. It has a great impact on injection-production relationship. After 3D seismic acquisition,the author combined seismic and well data fully to research the faults, based on the faults explained by seismic, then used seismic coherence analysis technology and orthogonal tangent check technology in 3D space to combine breakpoints and faults,then according those unassembled breakpoints to look for some small faults that can not be explained by seismic,lastly established accurate fault model. The research shows that this method improves the efficiency of breakpoint combination and the recognition of the faults are more clear and credible.

  9. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  10. 西藏申扎地区晚古生代地层岩石磁学研究%Rock Magnetism of the Late Paleozoic in Xainza area of Tibet,West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鑫; 闫昭圣; 鱼磊; 彭喜明; 魏娜娜; 吴汉宁; 郭强; 侯宝宁; 王宝江; 康伟伟; 梁利平; 石月; 刘钊

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究西藏申扎地区晚古生代地层载磁矿物特征,为构造磁学等提供依据.方法 运用饱和等温剩磁( SIRM),三轴等温剩磁(SIRM)热退磁,磁化率-温度(x-T)曲线和NRM热退磁实验等方法进行综合分析.结果 中—上二叠统样品中含较多针铁矿、赤铁矿;下二叠统和石炭系样品中以磁铁矿为主;泥盆系样品中富集铁硫化物.结论 该套沉积地层中具有不同磁学特征的磁性矿物共生组合,可能导致岩石剩磁获得过程相对复杂;剖面上磁性矿物组合的变化,蕴含着沉积环境演化的信息.%Aim The Gandise block located in the northern margin of Gondwana continent. Gandise marine depos-its can help to trace evolutionary history of the Paleo-Tethys in northern Gondwana. Late Paleozoic successions, yielding diversified fossils, are well-exposed in the Xainza area, located in the central part of the Gandise block. Paleozoic strata seen in Zakang of Xainza is known as the best developed in northern Tibet and would provide key insights into the study of Paleozoic tectonic movement and evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study pro-vides new insights for studying paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy in the Xainza area of Tibet, west China. Methods Rock Magnetism experiments, including progressive acquisition of IRM, thermal demagnetization of a three-component IRM, temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements, and the thermal demagnetiza- tion, were conducted on the Late Paleozoic deposits recovered from the Zakang section. Results The results show that middle and late Permian sediments have high contents of goethite and hematite; early Permian and Carbonifer-ous sediments are dominated by magnetite; and Devonian sediments are rich in ferromagnetic iron sulfides. Conclu-sion The diversified magnetic mineral paragenesis in a set of sedimentary strata, may lead to the rock IRM acqui-sition a relatively complex process; magnetic mineral

  11. Carboniferous Permian Stratigraphic Division of Kumubielegou Area in West Kunlun Xinjiang%新疆西昆仑库木别勒沟一带石炭-二叠系地层划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永利

    2014-01-01

    西昆仑库木别勒沟一带地层单位划分与厘定争议已久。通过1∶5万区域地质调查,在库木别勒沟一带发现一套深色浅变质含砾细碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩及火山岩建造,沉积环境为浊流沉积。并在其下部灰岩内首次发现含珊瑚、腕足及海百合茎类化石;岩层内包含有下志留统中的大理岩砾石或块体,其形成时代要晚于下志留统。根据区域地层对比和化石,新划分为上石炭统-下二叠统喀拉塔什组(C2-P1k),另据岩石组合特征,该组自下而上划分为一段和二段两个段,这一地层单位的合理确立,为区域地质填图建立了正确的岩石地层单位,并为本区的地层划分和区域对比提供了新的依据。%The division and confirming of strata in Kumubielegou of West Kunlun is controversial for a long time. A suit of dark low-grade pebbly fine clastic rock with carbonate rock and volcano rock formation building was discovered in the Kumubielegou area using 1∶50 000 regional geologic and mineral surveying,and the sedimentary environment was turbidity deposition. Fossil with coral,brachiopods and crinoids was discovered for the first time in the lower limestone. And marble gravel or block was found in the rock of Lower Silurian,whose formation age is later than Lower Silurian. According to the regional stratigraphic correlation and fossil ,the strata in Kumubielegou was divided into the upper Carboniferous Lower Permian Aktashi form (C2-P1k). And according to the rock association characteristics,the form was divided into a segment and a two segment two segment. The reasonable establishment of the stratigraphic units,is helpful to establish the right lithostratigraphic unit for regional geological mapping,and affords a new basis for the stratigraphic division and regional correlation in this area.

  12. Chemical Composition of Propolis from Different Regions in Java and their Cytotoxic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Propolis samples from tropical zones, such as Java (Indonesia with its vast biodiversity, have become a subject of increasing scientific and economic attention. The association of the chemical composition of propolis from different geographic regions with cytotoxic activities lead to the identification of active principles, a fundamental tool to achieve standardization of this bee product. Approach: The purpose of this research was evaluate the quality of propolis collected at different places in Java (Indonesia based on cytotoxic activity. The ethanolic extracts of propolis from different areas in Java were tested for cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, Hela, Myeloma and Vero using MTT assay. Propolis samples were collected from Batang (Central Java, Lawang (East Java and Sukabumi (West Java. Results: The extract of propolis from Batang showed the most potent activity of T47D and MCF-7 with IC50 34.67±8.3 and 37.8±.5 µg mL-1. The extract of propolis from Sukabumi showed the most potent activity of Hela cell with IC50 147.34±8.9. However, all propolis extract did not show activity of myeloma and Vero cells. Conclusion: Ethanolics extract of three propolis samples from Batang (Central Java, Lawang (East Java and Sukabumi (West Java regions in Java were investigated using GC-MS. From 37 compounds identified, 7 among of them were found for the first time in propolis. This indicated that the secondary metabolite extract of propolis from Batang (Central Java obtained in the study has antiproliferative activity of breast carcinoma cells (T47D and MCF-7.

  13. CPUE DAN TINGKAT PEMANFAATAN PERIKANAN CAKALANG (KATSUWONUS PELAMIS DI SEKITAR TELUK PALABUHANRATU, KABUPATEN SUKABUMI, JAWA BARAT (CPUE AND UTILIZATION RATE OF SKIPJACK (KATSUWONUS PELAMIS AT SURROUNDED PALABUHANRATU BAY AREA, SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Budiasih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis merupakan salah satu hasil tangkapan yang banyak menyumbang produksi perikanan laut di Kabupaten Sukabumi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menghitung nilai CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort ikan cakalang di Perairan Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi dan menganalisis tingkat pemanfaatan ikan cakalang di sekitar Perairan Teluk Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari-Februari 2014 di Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Palabuhanratu, Jawa Barat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah standarisasi alat tangkap, analisis hasil tangkapan per upaya penangkapan (CPUE dan analisis Tingkat Pemanfaatan ikan cakalang. Alat tangkap yang digunakan untuk menangkap ikan cakalang adalah payang, pancing tonda dan longline. Alat tangkap yang dijadikan standar adalah pancing tonda. Hasil analisis CPUE diperoleh nilai CPUEstd rata-rata tahun 2008-2013 sebesar 247,226 kg/trip. Nilai CPUE Ikan Cakalang yang didaratkan di Palabuhanratu cenderung menurun, yang artinya mengindikasikan terjadinya fully exploited pada perairan tersebut. Rata-rata tingkat pemanfaatan sumberdaya ikan cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis di perairan Palabuhanratu sebesar 105,82%. ABSTRACT Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis is one of leading commodity that contributed to the production of marine fisheries in Sukabumi. The purposes of this research were to calculate CPUE (catch per unit effort of skipjack at surrounded area of Palabuhanratu bay Sukabumi and analyze skipjack utilization rate in Palabuhanratu bay of Sukabumi. This research conducted in January-February 2014 at Palabuhanratu fishing port, West Java. Methods used in this research were descriptive. Method of analysis of data used standardization of fishing gears, calculated catch per efforts (CPUE and utilization rate of skipjack. The fishing gear that used to capture skipjack were payang, troll line and

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

    2010-03-24

    Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

  15. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    We discuss a method to obtain the spatial estimates of rainfall on the Indian west coast for calculating the surface water budget. The region includes the basin of the Mandovi River, a typical west-coast river whose catchment area includes...

  16. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  17. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  18. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  19. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  20. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio