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  1. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  2. Joint 1D inversion of TEM and MT data and 3D inversion of MT data in the Hengill area, SW Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnason, Knutur; Eysteinsson, Hjalmar; Hersir, Gylfi Pall [ISOR-Iceland GeoSurvey, Grensasvegi 9, 108 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2010-03-15

    An extensive study of the resistivity structure of the Hengill area in SW Iceland was carried out by the combined use of TEM and MT soundings. Joint inversion of the collected data can correct for static shifts in the MT data, which can be severe due to large near-surface resistivity contrasts. Joint 1D inversion of 148 TEM/MT sounding pairs and a 3D inversion of a 60 sounding subset of the MT data were performed. The 3D inversion was based on full MT impedance tensors previously corrected for static shift. Both inversion approaches gave qualitatively similar results, and revealed a shallow resistivity layer reflecting conductive alteration minerals at temperatures of 100-240 C. They also delineated a deep conductor at 3-10 km depth. The reason for this deep-seated high conductivity is not fully understood. The distribution of the deep conductors correlates with a positive residual Bouguer gravity anomaly, and with transform tectonics inferred from seismicity. One model of the Hengill that is consistent with the well temperature data and the deep conductor that does not attenuate S-waves, is a group of hot, solidified, but still ductile magmatic intrusions that are closely associated with the heat source for the geothermal system. (author)

  3. CO2 emissions and heat flow through soil, fumaroles, and steam heated mud pools at the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, Thrainn; Kristjansson, Bjarni Reyr; Armannsson, Halldor; Margretardottir, Eygerour; Olafsdottir, Snjolaug; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow through soil, steam vents and fractures, and steam heated mud pools were determined in the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland. Soil diffuse degassing of CO 2 was quantified by soil flux measurements on a 600 m by 375 m rectangular grid using a portable closed chamber soil flux meter and the resulting data were analyzed by both a graphical statistical method and sequential Gaussian simulations. The soil temperature was measured in each node of the grid and used to evaluate the heat flow. The heat flow data were also analyzed by sequential Gaussian simulations. Heat flow from steam vents and fractures was determined by quantifying the amount of steam emitted from the vents by direct measurements of steam flow rate. The heat loss from the steam heated mud pools was determined by quantifying the rate of heat loss from the pools by evaporation, convection, and radiation. The steam flow rate into the pools was calculated from the observed heat loss from the pools, assuming that steam flow was the only mechanism of heat transport into the pool. The CO 2 emissions from the steam vents and mud pools were determined by multiplying the steam flow rate from the respective sources by the representative CO 2 concentration of steam in the Reykjanes area. The observed rates of CO 2 emissions through soil, steam vents, and steam heated mud pools amounted to 13.5 ± 1.7, 0.23 ± 0.05, and 0.13 ± 0.03 tons per day, respectively. The heat flow through soil, steam vents, and mud pools was 16.9 ± 1.4, 2.2 ± 0.4, and 1.2 ± 0.1 MW, respectively. Heat loss from the geothermal reservoir, inferred from the CO 2 emissions through the soil amounts to 130 ± 16 MW of thermal energy. The discrepancy between the observed heat loss and the heat loss inferred from the CO 2 emissions is attributed to steam condensation in the subsurface due to interactions with cold ground water. These results demonstrate that soil diffuse degassing can be a more

  4. Hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase and growth of secondary feldspar in the Hengill Volcanic Centre, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Grönvold, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Gunnlaugsson, E.

    2002-05-01

    Dissolution of igneous feldspar and the formation and occurrence of secondary feldspar in tholeiitic basalts from the Hengill volcanic centre, in SW Iceland was studied by microprobe analysis of cuttings from two ca. 2000 m deep geothermal wells. Well NG-7 in Nesjavellir represents a geothermal system in a rift zone where the intensity of young, insignificantly altered intrusions increases with depth. Well KhG-1 in Kolviðarhóll represents the margin of a rift zone where the intensity of intrusives is lower and the intensity of alteration higher. This marginal well represents altered basaltic crust in an early retrograde state. The secondary plagioclase in both wells is mainly oligoclase, occurring in association with K-feldspar and chlorite±actinolite. The texture of this assemblage depends on the lithology and intensity of alteration. In Nesjavellir (NG-7) the composition of secondary albite-oligoclase is correlated with the host-rock composition. This connection is not apparent in more intensely altered samples from Kolviðarhóll (KhG-1). The influence of temperature on composition of secondary Na-feldspar is unclear in both wells although Ca is expected to increase with temperature. Any temperature dependence may be suppressed by the influence of rock composition in Nesjavellir and by retrograde conditions at Kolviðarhóll. The absence of clear compositional gradients between igneous plagioclase and secondary feldspar and between Na-feldspar and K-feldspar suggests that secondary feldspars formed by dissolution precipitation reactions.

  5. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  6. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project 4.5 km deep well, IDDP-2, in the seawater-recharged Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland has successfully reached its supercritical target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ó.; Elders, Wilfred A.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Stefánsson, Ari; Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Weisenberger, Tobias B.; Harðarson, Björn S.; Mesfin, Kiflom G.

    2017-11-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project research well RN-15/IDDP-2 at Reykjanes, Iceland, reached its target of supercritical conditions at a depth of 4.5 km in January 2017. After only 6 days of heating, the measured bottom hole temperature was 426 °C, and the fluid pressure was 34 MPa. The southern tip of the Reykjanes peninsula is the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in that it is recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406 °C at 29.8 MPa. The geologic setting and fluid characteristics at Reykjanes provide a geochemical analog that allows us to investigate the roots of a mid-ocean ridge submarine black smoker hydrothermal system. Drilling began with deepening an existing 2.5 km deep vertical production well (RN-15) to 3 km depth, followed by inclined drilling directed towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4659 m ( ˜ 4.5 km vertical depth). Total circulation losses of drilling fluid were encountered below 2.5 km, which could not be cured using lost circulation blocking materials or multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to the total depth without return of drill cuttings. Thirteen spot coring attempts were made below 3 km depth. Rocks in the cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from upper greenschist facies to amphibolite facies, suggesting that formation temperatures at depth exceed 450 °C. High-permeability circulation-fluid loss zones (feed points or feed zones) were detected at multiple depth levels below 3 km depth to bottom. The largest circulation losses (most permeable zones) occurred between the bottom of the casing and 3.4 km depth. Permeable zones encountered below 3.4 km accepted less than 5 % of the injected water. Currently, the project is attempting soft stimulation to increase deep permeability. While it is too early to speculate on the energy potential of this well and its economics, the IDDP

  7. Under the glacier, the groundwater - the case of Skálafell area, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Hart, Jane

    2017-04-01

    The research addressing glaciers evolution under climate change is well developed, and is now looking not only at their mass balance, but also at the associated subsurface hydrology and downstream hydrology. However, the groundwater component is rarely considered, even though it will be required to forecast the evolution of water resources and of water linked hazards under climate change. The few available studies demonstrate the existence of sub-or pro-glacial aquifers. Some of them suggest strong coupling between rivers and the aquifer, observe the flooding due to water table rising following enhanced glacier melting, or expect stronger recharge in the future due to glacier melting. The present study is the first step of a wider project, GlacAq, aiming at filling this knowledge gap, by characterizing the particular hydrogeology encountered under and downstream of glaciers of alpine type, i.e. sub-, pro- and periglacial hydrogeology, and its sensibility to climate change, in order to provide operational management directions. Skálafell glacier area (Iceland) has been chosen as it has already been followed for climatic, glaciological, and surface hydrology data (Hart et al. (2015), Young et al. (2015)). The present work will use those data, as well as topographic and surface data from the National Land Survey of Iceland, and geological data, to run a comprehensive numerical modelling. The work conducted on the Skálafell site will lead both to the achievement of an operational understanding of a poorly known underground system, and to the anticipation of its hydrodynamic response to climate change. The foreseen mechanisms include an enhanced sub-glacial aquifer recharge, intense surface water bodies-aquifer exchanges, and the aquifer discharge either through springs, or to an offshore system. Those offshore stocks are being increasingly recognised, but their origins are still only guessed at. Skálafell site allows the exploration of the potential role of the

  8. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project 4.5 km deep well, IDDP-2, in the seawater-recharged Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland has successfully reached its supercritical target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ó. Friðleifsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iceland Deep Drilling Project research well RN-15/IDDP-2 at Reykjanes, Iceland, reached its target of supercritical conditions at a depth of 4.5 km in January 2017. After only 6 days of heating, the measured bottom hole temperature was 426 °C, and the fluid pressure was 34 MPa. The southern tip of the Reykjanes peninsula is the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in that it is recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406 °C at 29.8 MPa. The geologic setting and fluid characteristics at Reykjanes provide a geochemical analog that allows us to investigate the roots of a mid-ocean ridge submarine black smoker hydrothermal system. Drilling began with deepening an existing 2.5 km deep vertical production well (RN-15 to 3 km depth, followed by inclined drilling directed towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4659 m ( ∼  4.5 km vertical depth. Total circulation losses of drilling fluid were encountered below 2.5 km, which could not be cured using lost circulation blocking materials or multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to the total depth without return of drill cuttings. Thirteen spot coring attempts were made below 3 km depth. Rocks in the cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from upper greenschist facies to amphibolite facies, suggesting that formation temperatures at depth exceed 450 °C. High-permeability circulation-fluid loss zones (feed points or feed zones were detected at multiple depth levels below 3 km depth to bottom. The largest circulation losses (most permeable zones occurred between the bottom of the casing and 3.4 km depth. Permeable zones encountered below 3.4 km accepted less than 5 % of the injected water. Currently, the project is attempting soft stimulation to increase deep permeability. While it is too early to speculate on the

  9. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  10. Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Sarkar, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2011-04-01

    Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.

  11. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  12. Restoring ecosystem functions and services by overcoming soil threats - The case of Mt. Hekla area in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Johann; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2015-04-01

    Soils are one of the main fundamental bodies of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil functions contribute substantially to the ecosystem services humans and all other living beings depend on. Current soil threats are in most cases related to anthropogenic impacts and derived environmental pressures. For instance, overexploitation has in many cases damaged ecosystem resilience, affected current equilibrium and caused severe soil degradation. The resulting dysfunctional ecosystems are incapable of providing necessary ecosystem services. In such cases ecosystem restoration is necessary to restore ecosystem functions and ecological succession. The Mt. Hekla area in Iceland is an example of land suffering from accelerated erosion amplified by anthropogenic impacts. The area is 900 km2 located in South Iceland in the vicinity of the volcano Mt. Hekla. Today over 40% of the area is classified as eroded but historical documents indicate that vast part of the area were fertile and vegetated at the time of settlement, 1100 years ago; hence was able to withstand the geological disturbances occurring prior to the arrival of man as is obvious from the pristine woody patches still remaining. Severe soil degradation followed the large-scale deforestation and overgrazing that took place within the area. The initial land degradation event is considered to have occurred in the 11th century, but has been ongoing since then in several episodes. The Þjórsá glacial river flows through the area and carries enormous amounts of sediments every year. After the deforestation, the ecosystem resilience was damaged and the land left exposed to the elements. Eventually large scale wind erosion started, followed with water erosion and increased impact of freeze-thaw processes. The Soil Conservation Service of Iceland started working in the area in the early 20th century and land reclamation operations have been ongoing until this day. Considerable successes have been made as is manifested in the fact

  13. Icelandic Geopower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, James

    into these discussions through an ethnographic and practice based approach to the study of renewable energy. It does so by examining the production of geothermal energy in the Hengill volcanic zone in the southwest of Iceland. The analysis that is produced is based upon an engagement with the practices, ideas...... with those who make geothermal energy (geologists) as well as those who protest against its production (residents living in the vicinity of the volcanic zone) allows me to understand how geothermal energy is produced and resisted through particular sets of practices and technologies. At the same time it also....... Carrying out ethnographic fieldwork with key actors allows me to examine how this complex techno-political work is carried out and to what effects. However, drilling deep in the subterranean of a highly active seismic area is dangerous and risky. In producing geothermal energy, other consequences...

  14. Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, J. M.; Carretero, M. I.; Galán, E.

    The mineralogy of atmospheric particles at the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, south of Huelva (a highly industrialized city in the SW Spain), was characterized in view to identify source origins. In spite of the small amount of sample collected, mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis system, using an adequate sample preparation methodology. Sedimentable (SP) and aerosols particles were sampled an one-week basis every two months for one year. Quartz, calcite and feldspars were found to be the major minerals in both fractions, and phyllosilicates, dolomite and gypsum were also identified in lower content. Minor mineral particles included barite, apatite, sphalerite and pyrite. SEM studies revealed the additional presence of chalcopyrite in both SP and aerosols, and of chalcocite-covellite, halite and sylvite in the latter. Siderite, hematite and ankerite were only detected in the SP fraction. The concentrations of the previous minerals increased in summer by effect of the limited rain and the resulting scarcity of atmosphere washing. Non-mineral particles detected by SEM in SP and aerosol fractions included spherical, biological and compositionally complex particles. The main source of mineral particles was found to be the soil suspension in addition to the metallurgical and fertilizer production industries in the area.

  15. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  16. Plio-Pleistocene landscape and vegetation reconstruction of the coastal area of the Tjörnes Peninsula, Northern Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoeven, Koen; Louwye, Stephen; Eiriksson, Jón

    2013-01-01

    Marine and continental deposits from the Tjornes area in northern Iceland were studied to obtain their pollen/spore content. Six Pollen Zones (PZ) were defined in the Early Pliocene Tjornes beds and the Early Pleistocene Breidavik Group. The pollen is most diverse during the deposition of the low......Marine and continental deposits from the Tjornes area in northern Iceland were studied to obtain their pollen/spore content. Six Pollen Zones (PZ) were defined in the Early Pliocene Tjornes beds and the Early Pleistocene Breidavik Group. The pollen is most diverse during the deposition...... of the lowest Tapes Zone (PZ 1) and the lower part of the overlying Mactra Zone (PZ 2). Local pollen from marshland, levee and foothill forests was deposited on a large coastal plain. The pollen spectrum reflects transgression and deepening during the second part of the Mactra Zone (PZ 3) and the lower part...... of the Serripes Zone (PZ 4). Gymnosperm pollen derived from the higher inland plateau increases in PZ 3. This background pollen was of minor importance during periods with an extensive coastal plain (PZ 1, 2, 4, 6). PZ 5 did not yield sufficient pollen for analysis. The pollen analysis allowed refinement...

  17. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2003-07-01

    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  18. The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaebjornsdottir, Sandra O.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Mesfin, Kiflom

    2017-01-01

    is supersaturated prior to and during the mixed gas injection and in the following months. In July 2013, the HN-04 fluid sampling pump broke down due to calcite precipitation, verifying the carbonation of the injected CO2. Mass balance calculations, based on the recovery of non-reactive tracers co......-gas mixture were sequentially injected into basaltic rocks at the CarbFix site at Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland from January to August 2012. This paper reports the chemistry and saturation states with respect to potential secondary minerals of sub-surface fluids sampled prior to, during, and after...

  19. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e.......g. harvest control rule for cod, cod equivalents, temporary closed areas, community quotas and features for regulation of quota concentration. The evaluation considers four possible fisheries management objectives, namely biological robustness, cost-effectiveness of management, economic efficiency......ABSTRACT: The fisheries sector is tremendously important for Iceland: the export of fish products accounts for a large part of the value of exported goods. Fisheries policy in Iceland is, consequently, of national importance to a degree that is not comparable to any of the EU member states...

  20. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  1. [Medication use among community-dwelling older Icelanders. Population-based study in urban and rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Gunnarsdottir, Elín Díanna

    2011-12-01

    To describe medication use among older community-dwelling Icelanders by collecting information on number of medicine, polypharmacy (>5 medications), and medications by ATC categories. Moreover, to explore the relationship between medication use and various influential factors emphasizing residency in urban and rural areas. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from the National registry in one urban (n=118) and two rural (n=68) areas. 1) ≥ 65 years old, 2) community-dwelling, 3) able to communicate verbally. Information on medication use was obtained from each person's medication list and interviews. A questionnaire and five standardized instruments were used to assess the potential influencing factors. On average, participants used 3.9 medications and prevalence of polypharmacy was 41%. Men used 3.5 medications on average and women 4.4 (p=0.018). Compared to rural residents, urban residents had fewer medical diagnoses, better mobility, less pain, and fewer depressive symptoms. By controlling for the effects of these variables, more medications were associated with urban living (pbetter scores on health assessments.

  2. Ostracoda and foraminifera as short-term tracers of environmental changes in very polluted areas: the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez-Regalado, M.L.; Borrego, J.; Abad, M.; Pendon, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of 17 cores collected in the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain) permits delimiting the recent evolution of this zone during the past decades and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ostracoda and Foraminifera. In the upper estuary, the coincidence of acid waters, prolonged subaerial exposure, and coarse sediments may explain the absence or the disappearance of these microorganisms during the industrial period (1966-1985) in the major part of this area. In the lower estuary, sedimentary evolution and industrial wastes are the main factors influencing both the distribution and trends of the populations of these two groups. Finally, the main changes observed in the marine estuary are due to the sedimentary effects of the construction of two banks and the dredging of the main estuarine channel. - In a polluted estuary, the meiofaunal assemblages experience different changes even in adjacent sedimentary environments, closely related to anthropogenic and natural causes

  3. Deformation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas, Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, 1993-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Verhagen, Sandra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-09-01

    The Krafla volcanic system has geothermal areas within the Krafla caldera and at Bjarnarflag in the Krafla fissure swarm, 9-km south of the Krafla caldera. Arrays of boreholes extract geothermal fluids for power plants in both areas. We collected and analyzed InSAR, GPS, and leveling data spanning 1993-2015 in order to investigate crustal deformation in these areas. The volcanic zone hosting the geothermal areas is also subject to large scale regional deformation processes, including plate spreading and deflation of the Krafla volcanic system. These deformation processes have to be taken into account in order to isolate the geothermal deformation signal. Plate spreading produces the largest horizontal displacements, but the regional deformation pattern also suggests readjustment of the Krafla system at depth after the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode. Observed deformation can be fit by an inflation source at about 20 km depth north of Krafla and a deflation source at similar depth directly below the Krafla caldera. Deflation signal along the fissure swarm can be reproduced by a 1-km wide sill at 4 km depth closing by 2-4 cm per year. These sources are considered to approximate the combined effects of vertical deformation associated with plate spreading and post-rifting response. Local deformation at the geothermal areas is well resolved in addition to these signals. InSAR shows that deformation at Bjarnarflag is elongated along the direction of the Krafla fissure swarm (∼ 4 km by ∼ 2 km) while it is circular at Krafla (∼ 5 km diameter). Rates of deflation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas have been relatively steady. Average volume decrease of about 6.6 × 105 m3/yr for Krafla and 3.9 × 105 m3/yr for Bjanarflag are found at sources located at ∼ 1.5 km depth, when interpreted by a spherical point source of pressure. This volume change represents about 8 × 10-3 m3/ton of the mass of geothermal fluid extracted per year, indicating important renewal

  4. The early Gravettian in a marginal area: New evidence from SW Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiśniewski, A.; Płonka, T.; Jary, Z.; Lisá, Lenka; Traczyk, A.; Kufel-Diakowska, B.; Raczyk, J.; Bajer, A.

    359/360, 2 March (2015), s. 131-152 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Early Gravettian * geoarchaeology * marginal area * mobility * Sudetes foreland Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2015

  5. Occurrence and mobility of toxic elements in coals from endemic fluorosis areas in the Three Gorges Region, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Xiao, Tangfu; Liu, Yizhang; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine (F) is a topic of great interest in coal-combustion related endemic fluorosis areas. However, little extent research exists regarding the environmental geochemistry of toxic elements that are enriched in coals and coal wastes in traditional endemic fluorosis areas, particularly focusing on their occurrences and mobilities during the weathering-leaching processes of coals and coal wastes in the surface environment. This paper addressed the issue of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes in the Three Gorges Region, Southwest (SW) China, where endemic fluorosis has historically prevailed, and investigated the distribution, occurrence, mobility features, and associated potential health risks. For this purpose, a modified experiment combined with long-term humidity cell test and column leaching trial was applied to elucidate the mobility of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes. In addition, sequential chemical extraction (SCE) was used to ascertain the modes of occurrence of toxic elements. The results demonstrated that the contents of toxic elements in the study area followed the order: stone coals > gangues > coal balls > coals. Furthermore, modes of occurrence of toxic elements were obviously different in coals and coal wastes. For example, cadmium (Cd) was mainly associated with monosulfide fraction in coals, molybdenum (Mo) and arsenic (As) were mainly associated with carbonate and silicate in coal gangues and stone coals, chromium (Cr) mainly existed in silicate and insoluble matter in coal gangues and coal balls, thallium (Tl) mainly occurred in organic matter in stone coals and sulfide in coals, and the occurrence of antimony (Sb) varied with different kinds of samples. Moreover, a large amount of toxic elements released to the leachates during the weathering and leaching process, which might pollute the environment and threaten human health. Based on the geo-accumulation index (I geo ), single factor index (P i ) and Nemerow index (P N ), soils i n

  6. Geology, alteration, mineralization, petrogenesis, geochronology, geochemistry and airborne geophysics of Kuh Shah prospecting area, SW Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abdi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kuh Shah prospecting area is located in Tertiary volcano-plutonic belt of the Lut Block. More than seventeen subvolcanic intermediate to acidic intrusive rocks, diorite to syenite in composition, were identified in the study area. The intrusions are related to hydrothermal alteration zones and contain argillic, propylitic, advanced argillic, silicified, quartz-sericite-pyrite, gossan and hydrothermal breccia which overprinted to each other and are accompanied by weathering which made it complicated to distinguish zoning. Mineralization is observed as sulfide (pyrite and rare chalcopyrite, disseminated Fe-oxides and quartz-Fe-oxide stockwork veinlets. Intrusive rocks are metaluminous, calc-alkaline with shoshonitic affinity with high values of magnetic susceptibility. The Kuh Shah intrusive rocks are classified as magnetite-series of oxidant I-type granitoids. Based on zircon U–Pb age dating, the age of these granitoid rocks is 39.7± 0.7 Ma (Middle Eocene. The radioisotope data (initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios as well as εNd and geochemical data suggest that the Kuh Shah granitoid rocks formed from depleted mantle in a subduction-related magmatic arc setting. Geochemical anomalies of elements such as Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg and also Mn, Ba, Te and Se, correlated with quartz-sericite-pyrite, gossan-stockwork-hydrothermal breccias, irregular silicified bodies and advanced argillic hydrothermal alteration zones. Geophysical anomalies correlated with hydrothermal alteration and mineralization zones. The interpretation of the results represents complex patterns of sub-circular to ellipsoid shape with north-east to south-west direction. These evidences are similar to the other for known Cu-Au porphyry and Au-epithermal systems in Iran and worldwide.

  7. Assessing Soil Quality in Areas Affected by Sulfide Mining. Application to Soils in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The characterization, evaluation and remediation of polluted soils is one of the present environmental challenges to be addressed in the coming years. The origin of trace elements in soils can be either geogenic or anthropogenic, but only the latter is interesting from a legal point of view. The hazard of the pollutants in the soils not only depends on their total concentration, but particularly on their availability. The mobility of the trace elements depends on their speciation, and it is also affected by several soil parameters. Mining activity is one of the most important anthropogenic causes of soil pollution. As a case study, this work is focused in the Riotinto mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, IPB, SW Spain. The IPB is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in the world and it has been exploited for thousands of years. The disposal of mining residues has produced important sources of contamination by trace elements and acidic waters affecting soils and rivers. In addition to these problems, the closure of mines in the Pyrite Belt at the end of the 20th Century has led to a great loss of employment, which has caused the development of an intensive agriculture of citrus fruits as a new source of income. The intensive growing of citrus fruits and the traditional subsistence agriculture have been developed surrounding the mining areas and on floodplains near to mining sites. The level of soil pollution has not been taken into account in these cases, nor has its impact on the health of the inhabitants of these areas. Therefore, it is of great interest to study the current state of the cultivated soils and the sources and types of contaminants derived from mining activity in order to program its decontamination, where appropriate, according to legislation. In order to know the present and future hazard posed by the soils chemical and mineralogical speciation has been carried out, given that the availability of a metal depends on the

  8. Trace element partitioning and soil particle characterisation around mining and smelting areas at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva, SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, E.I.B. [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: edith.chopin@univ-reims.fr; Alloway, B.J. [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Trace elements may present an environmental hazard in the vicinity of mining and smelting activities. However, the factors controlling trace element distribution in soils around ancient and modern mining and smelting areas are not always clear. Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva are located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt in SW Spain. Tharsis and Riotinto mines have been exploited since 2500 B.C., with intensive smelting taking place. Huelva, established in 1970 and using the Flash Furnace Outokumpu process, is currently one of the largest smelter in the world. Pyrite and chalcopyrite ore have been intensively smelted for Cu. However, unusually for smelters and mines of a similar size, the elevated trace element concentrations in soils were found to be restricted to the immediate vicinity of the mines and smelters, being found up to a maximum of 2 km from the mines and smelters at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva. Trace element partitioning (over 2/3 of trace elements found in the residual immobile fraction of soils at Tharsis) and soil particles examination by SEM-EDX showed that trace elements were not adsorbed onto soil particles, but were included within the matrix of large trace element-rich Fe silicate slag particles (i.e. 1 mm o at least 1 wt.% As, Cu and Zn, and 2 wt.% Pb). Slag particle large size (1 mm o) was found to control the geographically restricted trace element distribution in soils at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva, since large heavy particles could not have been transported long distances. Distribution and partitioning indicated that impacts to the environment as a result of mining and smelting should remain minimal in the region.

  9. [Physical activity of 9 and 15 year old Icelandic children - Public health objectives and relations of physical activity to gender, age, anthropometry and area of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erling

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA). The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraph™ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume. Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day. The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers.

  10. A young afforestation area in Iceland was a moderate sink to CO2 only a decade after scarification and establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Sigurdsson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on three years (2004–2006 of measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE over a young Siberian larch plantation in Iceland established on previously grazed heathland pasture that had been scarified prior to planting. The study evaluated the variation of NEE and its component fluxes, gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re, with the aim to clarify how climatic factors controlled the site's carbon balance. The young plantation acted as a relatively strong sink for CO2 during all of the three years, with an annual net sequestration of −102, −154, and −67 g C m−2 for 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. This variation was more related to variation in carbon efflux (Re than carbon uptake (GPP. The abiotic factors that showed the strongest correlation to Re were air temperature during the growing season and soil water potential. The GPP mostly followed the seasonal pattern in irradiance, except in 2005, when the plantation experienced severe spring frost damage that set the GPP back to zero. It was not expected that the rather slow-growing Siberian larch plantation would be such a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 only twelve years after site preparation and afforestation.

  11. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  12. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  13. Geothermal and hydropower production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of current and future development of geothermal and hydropower production on the economy of Iceland. Natural conditions in Iceland favor the increased utilization and development of both of these abundant power sources. The mean surface run-off in Iceland is about 50 l/s/km 2 (liters per second per square kilometer), with a large part of the country consisting of a plateau more than 400 meters above sea level. More than half of the country is above 500 meters above sea level. ne technically harnessable hydropower potential is estimated at 64 TWh/year (terawatthours per year), of which 30 TWh/year is considered economically and environmentally harnessable. In addition, Iceland has abundant geothermal energy sources. A quarter of the entire country is a volcanic area. Keeping in mind that geothermal resources are not strictly renewable, it is estimated that the potential power production from this source is 20 TWh/year. Present utilization of these two resources totals only 4.2 TWh/year, or only about 8% of Iceland's aggregate potential. There are many issues facing Iceland today as it considers development opportunities utilizing both of these abundant power supplies. This paper will first consider the technical aspects of both hydropower and geothermal power production in Iceland. Then, the economic consequences of alternative utilization of these energy sources will be evaluated. The first alternative to be considered will be the direct export of power by HVDC submarine cable to other countries, such as Scotland or the United Kingdom. Iceland could, as a second alterative, concentrate its efforts on bringing in energy intensive industries into the country

  14. Out-of-hours service in rural areas. An observational study of accessibility, attitudes and quality standards among general practitioners in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, G; Sigurdsson, J A

    2000-06-01

    To examine the access, workload, duties, commitments and quality standards of primary care physicians (GPs) resulting from out-of-hours service. All GPs (n = 96) in rural Iceland. Answers to a postal survey. The participation rate was 80%. The GPs estimated that in 97% of the cases they could be contacted within 5 minutes in an emergency. Under usual circumstances (weather conditions) and within a distance of 10 km, 70% of them could reach the patient within 30 minutes of receiving the call. In severe weather conditions, 50% of the GPs in smaller districts (650-6000 inhabitants) estimated that it could take up to 5 hours or more to reach the patient (which could happen once a year). In the least populated districts, 84% of the GPs had to be on call 14 days or more per month. Serious emergencies (involving special training such as cardiac resuscitation or tracheal intubation) were relatively rare, and GPs expressed the necessity for regular refresher courses in such fields. Modern telecommunication networks guarantee good access to out-of-hours service. The workload and on-call duties are great and do not comply with European Union (EU) recommendations regarding minimal rest time. If GPs in rural areas are to be expected to provide frontline health care, including in severe emergency situations, regular training courses are needed.

  15. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation.......The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...

  16. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-07-01

    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  17. Iceland country update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmason, G.; Gudmundsson, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides information on geothermal energy utilization in Iceland. Topics include: the present and planned production of electricity in Iceland, from all primary sources, the present and planned utilization of geothermal energy for electricity generation, the use of geothermal energy in all public district heating systems, high temperature geothermal localities, high-temperature wells drilled for electrical utilization and wells drilled for the combined use for district heating and power production, and wells drilled for direct use

  18. GLO polymorphism in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, S; Arnason, A; Jensson, O

    1980-01-01

    The phenotypes of red cell glyoxalase I (GLO) were determined in two Icelandic population samples using starch-gel electrophoresis and high-voltage agarose-gel electrophoresis. The gene frequencies of 178 unrelated individuals were 0.46 for GLO/sup 1/ and 0.54 for GLO/sup 2/. In a group of Icelandic insulin-dependent diabetics the gene frequencies were found to be very similar. The evaluation of 30 mother-child pairs is also shown.

  19. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  20. SW-platform for R&D in Applications of Synchrophasor Measurements for Wide-Area Assessment, Control and Visualization in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Morais, Hugo; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    The Danish research project “Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO)” is currently being conducted in a collaboration by a group of partners from academia and industry. The focus of the project is on how to achieve secure operation of the power grid as large scale thermal power plants......, supplied by fossil fuel, are phased out in favor of non - controllable renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy. In particular, the SOSPO project aims to develop real - time stability and security assessment methods as well as wide - area control methods to re - establish stable and secure...... realistic conditions, the future system scenarios are represented in a real time grid simulator that is an integrated part of the platform. The SW - platform provides structured access to any model parameter as well as access to real - time phasor measurement unit (PMU) and remote terminal unit (RTU...

  1. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir

    Full Text Available Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence intervals (CI non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30 as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06, breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80, prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77, kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05, lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97, non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15 and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94. Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal

  2. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal water

  3. Geostatistical analysis of space variation in underground water various quality parameters in Kłodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Kłodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial variation in the different quality parameters of underground water in the water intake area (SW part of Poland. The research covers the period 2011-2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e., contents of: iron, manganese, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, total organic carbon, pH redox potential and temperature, were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial variation in the parameters was analyzed on the basis of data obtained (November 2011 from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012 were obtained (gained from 3 new piezometers, made in other locations in the relevant area. A depth of these piezometers amounts to 9-10 m.

  4. Investigations of Very High Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs. Earlier modeling indicates that the power output of a geothermal well producing from a supercritical reservoir could potentially be an order of magnitude greater than that from a conventional hot geothermal reservoir, at the same volumetric flow rate. However, even in areas with an unusually high geothermal gradient, for normal hydrostatic pressure gradients reaching supercritical temperatures and pressures will require drilling to depths >4 km. In 2009 the IDDP attempted to drill the first deep supercritical well, IDDP-01, in the caldera of the Krafla volcano, in NE Iceland. However drilling had to be terminated at only 2.1 km depth when ~900°C rhyolite magma flowed into the well. Our studies indicate that this magma formed by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basalts within the Krafla caldera. Although this well was too shallow to reach supercritical pressures, it is highly productive, and is estimated to be capable of generating up to 36 MWe from the high-pressure, superheated steam produced from the upper contact zone of the intrusion. With a well-head temperature of ~440°C, it is at present apparently the hottest producing geothermal well in the world. A pilot plant is investigating the optimal utilization of this magmatically heated resource. A special issue of the journal Geothermics with 16 papers reporting on the IDDP-01 is in preparation. However, in order to continue the search for supercritical geothermal resources, planning is underway to drill a 4.5 km deep well at Reykjanes in SW Iceland in 2013-14. Although drilling deeper towards the heat source of this already developed high-temperature geothermal field will be more expensive, if a supercritical resource is found, this cost increase should be offset by the considerable increase in the power output and lifetime of the Reykjanes geothermal

  5. Latin Hagiography in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Gottskálk

    2017-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION A. Latin literacy in Iceland and the cult of saints B. Icelandic quasi-hagiography and the Christian monarchs of Norway II. THE ICELANDIC SAINTS AND THEIR LATIN TEXTS A. S. Thorlacus Scalotensis episcopus. – 1. The texts: the Latin hagiography about St Þorlákur. – 2. The historical...

  6. Land use reconversion in the drought-and aridity-affected areas in SW Romania (Bechet, Dolj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VIJULIE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the terms of current climate change, reconversion of land use in the drought-and aridityaffected south-western Romania, is an issue of utmost priority. Thus, the present study aim represents a diachronic analysis of the land use within the Bechet town area and proposes viable solutions for soil drought and aridity mitigation. Since 1989, uncontrolled and abusive logging affected the black locust forest areas, enabling the sand dunes expansion and causing ecological disturbance. The main research methods were: field observation, statistical-mathematical methods and GIS mapping. The analysis of topographic maps and orthophotographs in 1970 to 2008 revealed a very low spatial distribution of both the forest shelterbelts and shelterwoods. We proposed a reconstruction of these forest areas, which today can no longer perform their fundamental function of land protection, because of intensive degradation. The positive consequences on long term would be the mitigation of climate change impact and prevention of further land degradation.

  7. Rapid sewage pollution assessment by means of the coverage of epilithic taxa in a coastal area in the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, M E; Jaubet, M L; Saracho Bottero, M A; Llanos, E N; Elías, R; Garaffo, G V

    2018-07-01

    The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated. The surrounded outfall area (i.e. outfall site) resulted polluted with high percentages of organic matter in sediment and Enterococcus concentration in seawater. The structure of the community showed a remarkable difference between the polluted site (outfall site) and the unpolluted sites. The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea dominated the outfall site with variable abundances of the green algae Ulva sp. during the period of study, decreasing the diversity of the community, while the mussel Brachidontes rodriguezii and variable abundances of several algae species dominated the unpolluted sites. The monitoring of the benthic community represents an effective, non-destructive, relative inexpensive and rapid method to assess the health of the coastal environment in the study area. The large abundance of B. proboscidea along with the absence of B. rodriguezii individuals at coastal ecosystem with certain gradient of pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The emissions and soil concentrations of N2O and CH4 from natural soil temperature gradients in a volcanic area in southwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Moijala, Heli; Leblans, Niki I. W.; De Boeck, Hans J.; Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.

    2016-04-01

    We studied nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions along three natural geothermal soil temperature (Ts) gradients in a volcanic area in southwest Iceland. Two of the gradients (on a grassland and a forest site, respectively) were recently formed (in May 2008). The third gradient, a grassland site, had been subjected to long-term soil warming (over 30 years, and probably centuries). Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured along the temperature gradients using the static chamber method and also soil gas concentrations were studied. With a moderate soil temperature increase (up to +5 °C) there were no significant increase in gas flux rates in any of the sites but an increase of 20 to 45 °C induced an increase in both N2O and CH4 emissions. The measured N2O emissions (up to 2600 μg N2O m-2 h-1) from the warmest plots were about two magnitudes higher compared with the coolest plots (less than 20 μg N2O m-2 h-1). While a net uptake of CH4 was measured in the coolest plots (up to -0.15 mg CH4 m-2 h-1), a net emission of CH4 was measured from the warmest plots (up to 1.3 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Soil CH4 concentrations decreased first with a moderate (up to +5 °C) increase in Ts, but above that threshold increased significantly. The soil N2O concentration at depths from 5 to 20 cm increased with increasing Ts, indicating enhanced N-turnover. Further, there was a clear decrease in soil organic matter (SOM), C- and N concentration with increasing Ts at all sites. One should note, however, that a part of the N2O emitted from the warmest plots may be partly geothermally derived, as was revealed by 15N2O isotope studies. These natural Ts gradients show that the emission of N2O and CH4 can increase significantly when Ts increases considerably. This implies that these geothermally active sites can act as local hot spots for CH4 and N2O emissions.

  9. Geophysical and physical measurements applied to characterize an area prone to quick clay landslides in SW Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Romero, Silvia; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Hellqvist, Magnus

    2014-05-01

    The study of quick clay landslides in Nordic countries, such as Sweden and Norway, is wide and varied. However, the occurrence of catastrophes like those in Munkedal, Sweden, in 2006, demands a more complete characterization of these materials and their extensiveness. The objectives of this research are mainly focused on obtaining information about the properties and behavior of quick clays in an area prone to landslides in southwestern Sweden. Two fieldwork campaigns were carried out in 2011 and 2013, using methods such as 2D and 3D P-wave and S-wave seismic, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity, as well as downhole geophysics (measuring fluid temperature and conductivity, gamma radiation, sonic velocity and resistivity) performed in three boreholes located in the study area. Drill cores recovered using the SONIC technique provided samples for paleontological information, as well as laboratory measurements of physical properties of the subsurface materials to a maximum subsurface depth of about 60 m. The laboratory measurements included grain size analysis, mineral magnetic properties, electric conductivity, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a reconnaissance study of the fossil content. A correlation study of the downhole geophysical measurements, 2D seismic sections located at the intersection with the boreholes and the sample observations indicated that the presence of quick clays is associated with contacts with coarse-grained materials. Although the PVC casing of the boreholes interferes with the sonic and resistivity measurements, the perforated parts of the PVC casing show significant changes. The most important variations in magnetic susceptibility and conductivity mostly coincide with these coarse-grained layers, supporting the seismic data. Coarse-grained layers are characterized by enhanced magnetic susceptibility and conductivity. Grain size analysis results on subsamples from the

  10. Regional development of river basins in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi Area, SW Finland, 2000 BP - 8000 AP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.E.K.; Virkki, H.; Palmu, J.-P.; Hokkanen, K.; Kaija, J.

    2006-12-01

    Biosphere assessment forms one of the main components in Posiva's Safety Case portfolio and includes analyses of terrain and ecosystem development. Shoreline displacement and changes in surface hydrology form one part of these analyses. In this report, the regional development of the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area in the time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP was examined by taking into account changes in the surface flow patterns of the Lapinjoki and Eurajoki river basins. A hydrological model, EULA, was developed and applied to investigate the past and future hydrological regimes and changes in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi study area. As detailed assessment of erosion and sedimentation effects were not within the scope of this study, only their general effects were evaluated. The digital elevation models (DEM) for different time stages (2000, 1500, 1000 and 500 BP; 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 6000, 7000 and 8000 AP) were compiled taking into account the land uplift and tilting of the Earth's crust. With the aid of various sophisticated GIS tools, the boundaries of the main river basins, the flow patterns of rivers and development of lakes during each stage were modelled. The yearly discharge rates of rivers Eurajoki and Lapinjoki were also evaluated with the assumption that present climatic features prevail during the whole time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP. Finally, the probability of significant changes in the surface water flow routes were estimated during different stages. (orig.)

  11. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  12. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e...

  13. Tissue N content and 15N natural abundance in epilithic mosses for indicating atmospheric N deposition in the Guiyang area, SW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueyan; Xiao Huayun; Liu Congqiang; Li Youyi; Xiao Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    Tissue N contents and δ 15 N signatures in 175 epilithic mosses were investigated from urban to rural sites in Guiyang (SW China) to determine atmospheric N deposition. Moss N contents (0.85-2.97%) showed a significant decrease from the urban area (mean = 2.24 ± 0.32%, 0-5 km) to the rural area (mean = 1.27 ± 0.13%, 20-25 km), indicating that the level of N deposition decreased away from the urban environment, while slightly higher N contents re-occurred at sites beyond 30 km, suggesting higher N deposition in more remote rural areas. Moss δ 15 N ranged from -12.50 per mille to -1.39 per mille and showed a clear bimodal distribution (-12 per mille to -6 per mille and -5 per mille to -2 per mille ), suggesting that there are two main sources for N deposition in the Guiyang area. More negative δ 15 N (mean = -8.87 ± 1.65 per mille ) of urban mosses mainly indicated NH 3 released from excretory wastes and sewage, while the less negative δ 15 N (from -3.83 ± 0.82 per mille to -2.48 ± 0.95 per mille ) of rural mosses were mainly influenced by agricultural NH 3 . With more negative values in the urban area than in the rural area, the pattern of moss δ 15 N variation in Guiyang was found to be opposite to cities where N deposition is dominated by NO x -N. Therefore, NH x -N is the dominant N form deposited in the Guiyang area, which is supported by higher NH x -N than NO x -N in local atmospheric deposition. From the data showing that moss is responding to NH x -N/NO x -N in deposition it can be further demonstrated that the variation of moss δ 15 N from the Guiyang urban to rural area was more likely controlled by the ratio of urban-NH x /agriculture-NH x than the ratio of NH x -N/NO x -N. The results of this study have extended knowledge of atmospheric N sources in city areas, showing that urban sewage discharge could be important in cities co-generic to Guiyang

  14. Tissue N content and {sup 15}N natural abundance in epilithic mosses for indicating atmospheric N deposition in the Guiyang area, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xueyan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: liuxueyan@vip.skleg.cn; Xiao Huayun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)], E-mail: xiaohuayun@vip.skleg.cn; Liu Congqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Youyi; Xiao Hongwei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Tissue N contents and {delta}{sup 15}N signatures in 175 epilithic mosses were investigated from urban to rural sites in Guiyang (SW China) to determine atmospheric N deposition. Moss N contents (0.85-2.97%) showed a significant decrease from the urban area (mean = 2.24 {+-} 0.32%, 0-5 km) to the rural area (mean = 1.27 {+-} 0.13%, 20-25 km), indicating that the level of N deposition decreased away from the urban environment, while slightly higher N contents re-occurred at sites beyond 30 km, suggesting higher N deposition in more remote rural areas. Moss {delta}{sup 15}N ranged from -12.50 per mille to -1.39 per mille and showed a clear bimodal distribution (-12 per mille to -6 per mille and -5 per mille to -2 per mille ), suggesting that there are two main sources for N deposition in the Guiyang area. More negative {delta}{sup 15}N (mean = -8.87 {+-} 1.65 per mille ) of urban mosses mainly indicated NH{sub 3} released from excretory wastes and sewage, while the less negative {delta}{sup 15}N (from -3.83 {+-} 0.82 per mille to -2.48 {+-} 0.95 per mille ) of rural mosses were mainly influenced by agricultural NH{sub 3}. With more negative values in the urban area than in the rural area, the pattern of moss {delta}{sup 15}N variation in Guiyang was found to be opposite to cities where N deposition is dominated by NO{sub x}-N. Therefore, NH{sub x}-N is the dominant N form deposited in the Guiyang area, which is supported by higher NH{sub x}-N than NO{sub x}-N in local atmospheric deposition. From the data showing that moss is responding to NH{sub x}-N/NO{sub x}-N in deposition it can be further demonstrated that the variation of moss {delta}{sup 15}N from the Guiyang urban to rural area was more likely controlled by the ratio of urban-NH{sub x}/agriculture-NH{sub x} than the ratio of NH{sub x}-N/NO{sub x}-N. The results of this study have extended knowledge of atmospheric N sources in city areas, showing that urban sewage discharge could be important in cities co

  15. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  16. Limited differences in fish and benthic communities and possible cascading effects inside and outside a protected marine area in Sagres (SW Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Fernández, C; Paulo, D; Serrão, E A; Engelen, A H

    2016-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a relatively recent fisheries management and conservation tool for conservation of marine ecosystems and serve as experimental grounds to assess trophic cascade effects in areas were fishing is restricted to some extent. A series of descriptive field studies were performed to assess fish and benthic communities between two areas within a newly established MPA in SW Portugal. We characterized benthic macroalgal composition and determined the size, density and biomass of the main benthic predatory and herbivorous fish species as well as the main benthic herbivorous invertebrates to assess indications of top-down control on the phytobenthic assemblages. Fish species were identical inside and outside the MPA, in both cases Sarpa salpa was the most abundant fish herbivore and Diplodus spp. accounted for the great majority of the benthic predators. However, size and biomass of D. spp. were higher inside than outside the MPA. The main herbivorous invertebrate was the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, which was smaller and predominantly showing a crevice-dwelling behaviour in the MPA. In addition, P. lividus size frequency distribution showed a unimodal pattern outside and a bimodal pattern inside the MPA. We found significant differences in the algal assemblages between inside and outside the MPA, with higher abundance of turf and foliose algae inside, and articulated calcareous and corticated macrophytes outside the MPA, but no differences in the invasive Asparagopsis spp. The obtained results show differences in predatory fish and benthic community structure, but not in species richness, inside and outside the MPA. We hypothesize these differences lead to variation in species interactions: directly through predation and indirectly via affecting sea urchins behavioural patterns, predators might drive changes in macroalgal assemblages via trophic cascade in the study area. However due to non-biological differences between the two areas it

  17. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  18. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  19. Integrated modeling of agricultural scenarios (IMAS) to support pesticide action plans: the case of the Coulonge drinking water catchment area (SW France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Françoise; Leccia-Phelpin, Odile; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Minette, Sébastien; Miralles, André; Barberis, Delphine; Scordia, Charlotte; Kuentz-Simonet, Vanessa; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    -economic conditions for developing alternative agricultural systems or targeting mitigation measures. Our integrated assessment of these scenarios combines the calculation of spatialized environmental indicators with integrated bio-economic modeling. The latter is achieved by a combined use of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling with our own purpose-built land use generator module (Generator of Land Use version 2 (GenLU2)) and an economic model developed using General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for cost-effectiveness assessment. This integrated approach is applied to two embedded catchment areas (total area of 360,000 ha) within the Charente river basin (SW France). Our results show that it is possible to differentiate scenarios based on their effectiveness, represented by either evolution of pressure (agro-environmental indicators) or transport into waters (pesticide concentrations). By analyzing the implementation costs borne by farmers, it is possible to identify the most cost-effective scenarios at sub-basin and other aggregated levels (WFD hydrological entities, sensitive areas). Relevant results and indicators are fed into a specifically designed database. Data warehousing is used to provide analyses and outputs at all thematic, temporal, or spatial aggregated levels, defined by the stakeholders (type of crops, herbicides, WFD areas, years), using Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing (SOLAP) tools. The aim of this approach is to allow public policy makers to make more informed and reasoned decisions when managing sensitive areas and/or implementing mitigation measures.

  20. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  1. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Olafsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the number of dust events fourfold (135 dust days annually). The position of the Icelandic Low determined whether dust events occurred in the NE (16.4 dust days annually) or in the southern (S) part of Iceland (about 18 dust days annually). The decade with the most frequent dust days in S Iceland was the 1960s, but the 2000s in NE Iceland. A total of 32 severe dust storms (visibility typically warm, occurring during summer/autumn (May-September) and during mild southwesterly winds, while the subarctic dust events (S Iceland) were mainly cold, occurring during winter/spring (March-May) and during strong northeasterly winds. About half of the dust events in S Iceland occurred in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. A good correlation was found between particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and visibility during dust observations at the stations Vík and Stórhöfði. This study shows that Iceland is among the dustiest areas of the world and that dust is emitted year-round.

  2. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  3. Geochemical characterization of the Jurassic Amran deposits from Sharab area (SW Yemen): Origin of organic matter, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Makeen, Yousif M.; Saeed, Shadi A.; Al-Hakame, Hitham; Al-Moliki, Tareq; Al-Sharabi, Kholah Qaid; Hatem, Baleid Ali

    2017-05-01

    Calcareous shales and black limestones of the Jurassic Amran Group, located in the Sharab area (SW Yemen), were analysed based on organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of this study were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during Jurassic time and their relevance to organic matter enrichment during deposition of the Amran calcareous shale and black limestone deposits. The analysed Amran samples have present-day TOC and Stotal content values in the range of 0.25-0.91 wt % and 0.59-4.96 wt %, respectively. The relationship between Stotal and TOC contents indicates that the Jurassic Amran deposits were deposited in a marine environment as supported by biomarker environmental indicators. Biomarker distributions also reflect that the analysed Amran deposits received high contributions of marine organic matter (e.g., algal and microbial) with minor amount of land plant source inputs. Low oxygen (reducing) conditions during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits are indicated from low Pr/Ph values and relatively high elemental ratios of V/Ni and V/(V + Ni). Enrichment in the pyrite grains and very high DOPT and high Fe/Al ratios further suggest reducing bottom waters. This paleo-redox (i.e., reducing) conditions contributed to preservation of organic matter during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits. Semi-arid to warm climatic conditions are also evidenced during deposition of the Amran sediments and consequently increased biological productivity within the photic zone of the water column during deposition. Therefore, the increased bio-productivity in combination with good preservation of organic matter identified as the major mechanisms that gave rise to organic matter enrichment. This contradicts with the low organic matter content of the present-day TOC values of less than 1%. The biomarker maturity data indicate that the analysed Amran samples are of high thermal maturity; therefore, the low present-day TOC

  4. Quantitative impact of hydrothermal alteration on electrical resistivity in geothermal systems from a joint analysis of laboratory measurements and borehole data in Krafla area, N-E Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Léa; Páll Hersir, Gylfi; Flóvenz, Ólafur; Gibert, Benoit; Pézard, Philippe; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Briole, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Rock permeability and fluid temperature are the two most decisive factors for a successful geothermal drilling. While those parameters are only measured from drilling, they might be estimated on the basis of their impact on electrical resistivity that might be imaged from surface soundings, for example through TEM (Transient Electro Magnetic) down to one km depth. The electrical conductivity of reservoir rocks is the sum of a volume term depending on fluid parameters and a surface term related to rock alteration. Understanding the link between electrical resistivity and geothermal key parameters requires the knowledge of hydrothermal alteration and its petrophysical signature with the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). Fluid-rock interactions related to hydrothermal circulation trigger the precipitation of alteration minerals, which are both witnesses of the temperature at the time of reaction and new paths for the electrical current. Alteration minerals include zeolites, smectites, chlorites, epidotes and amphiboles among which low temperatures parageneses are often the most conductive. The CEC of these mineral phases contributes to account for surface conductivity occuring at the water-rock interface. In cooling geothermal systems, these minerals constitute in petrophysical terms and from surface electrical conduction a memory of the equilibrium phase revealed from electrical probing at all scales. The qualitative impact of alteration minerals on resistivity structure has been studied over the years in the Icelandic geothermal context. In this work, the CEC impact on pore surfaces electrical conductivity is studied quantitatively at the borehole scale, where several types of volcanic rocks are mixed together, with various degrees of alteration and porosity. Five boreholes located within a few km at the Krafla volcano, Northeast Iceland, constitute the basis for this study. The deepest and reference hole, KJ-18, provides cuttings of rock and logging data down to 2215

  5. The Crash Course from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huginn Freyr Þorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The years between 2006 and 2008 are key in understanding the Icelandic economic crisis. One of the main questions one gets when discussing the lessons from Iceland is: Was the quick recovery due to how the country 'burned' the creditors? Myth has it that when things got tough for the banks, the Icelandic government denied to bail them out and the country therefore escaped the difficult long-term consequence felt by, for example, Ireland. But that is a serious distortion of what happened. The Icelandic banks were on Central Bank life support from 2006 to 2008. It was only when the CBI ran out of steam that an alternative approach in crisis management was put in place. For admirers of historical contingencies, this case is of interest. Iceland did not take a calculated decision to let the banks fail, but an attempted bail-out failed. This meant that that its tackling of a banking crisis took an unexpected turn as banks were put into administration; a move only considered in the face of failure. And despite the route taken by Iceland, the total cost of the economic crisis for the State has surpassed Ireland's and is one of the costliest any sovereign has faced in the ongoing crisis. This is interesting, given the ongoing discussion about the Icelandic 'miraculous' escape from an economic crisis and that the possibilities countries face during crisis management may be many more than those that are discussed.

  6. Moral panic in Icelandic society: Arrival of ecstasy to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónas Orri Jónasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of illegal drugs has often been shown to ignite fear and insecurity in society. When a new drug appears the media typically reports on this drug and the risk it poses. Soon after ecstasy appeared in Iceland in the 1990s its use created a major public uproar and insecurity in Icelandic society. In the article the theory of moral panic will be used to examine if the arrival of ecstasy to Iceland ignited a moral panic. Media reports on ecstasy, public reactions, interest groups and government institutions will be analysed. Discourse analysis is employed on newspaper reporting on ecstasy between 1985 and 1997 to detect signs of moral panic. The main conclusion is that evidence suggests that a moral panic existed in Iceland as described in well-known theories on the subject.

  7. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  8. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  9. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  10. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  11. Petrologic Constraints on Iceland's Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Leftwich, T. E.; Barton, M.

    2005-05-01

    Iceland is an area of relatively thick ocean crust that straddles the spreading MAR. Iceland was created by seafloor spreading originating about 55 Ma above abnormally hot mantle. The high temperatures resulted in greater melt volumes that enhanced crustal thickening. Geophysical investigations provide fundamental insight on crustal features, but results are contradictory. Early seismic, magneto-telluric, and resistivity studies predicted thin crust with partial melt regions at depths of 10-15 km beneath the neovolcanic zones. Reinterpretations based on recent seismic studies suggest thicker and cooler crust. These studies have shown magma lenses at shallow depths beneath volcanic centers, but cannot confirm their presence in the lower crust. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradients in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers throughout the rift zones have been compiled. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx, and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Qtz. The results (ca. 0.6 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 20 km depth. Equilibrium pressures also have been calculated quantitatively. These results (0.6±0.2 GPa) indicate magma chambers at 19.8±6.5 km depth beneath the volcanic centers. Magma chamber at these depths are located in the lower crust inferring that it must be relatively warm. Geothermal gradients have been calculated using the depths of the sourcing magma chambers and any shallow seismically detected magma chambers at each location. An average crustal composition has been calculated from the compiled geochemical data and was used to calculate density variations and seismic velocities along the geotherms. The distribution of sample locations in this study provides sufficient data

  12. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  13. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold...... climate at that time. However, most often Pre-Holocene water components cannot be detected based on the water isotopes alone due to mixing with younger and isotopically heavier water. The Cl concentration in relation to the water isotopes in specific areas has proved to be a good indicator of a Pre......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  14. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (PANGAEA.876206" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  15. The Political Economy of Joining the European Union : Iceland's Position at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and related fields. However, Iceland does not participate in the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), or in the EU Cust...

  16. Amphipod family distributions around Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Brix

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipod crustaceans were collected at all 55 stations sampled with an epibenthic sledge during two IceAGE expeditions (Icelandic marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology in 2011 and 2013. In total, 34 amphipod families and three superfamilies were recorded in the samples. Distribution maps are presented for each taxon along with a summary of the regional taxonomy for the group. Statistical analyses based on presence/absence data revealed a pattern of family distributions that correlated with sampling depth. Clustering according to the geographic location of the stations (northernmost North Atlantic Sea and Arctic Ocean can also be observed. IceAGE data for the Amphilochidae and Oedicerotidae were analysed on species level; in case of the Amphilochidae they were compared to the findings from a previous Icelandic benthic survey, BIOICE (Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic waters, which also identified a high abundance of amphipod fauna.

  17. Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján

    1993-09-01

    have been confirmed by 1000-2000 m deep boreholes. By extrapolating the temperature gradient down and assuming a slight increase in the thermal conductivity with depth, partially molten material can be expected at 10-30 km depth. Geothermal reservoirs are quite common in Iceland. They are primarily convective systems associated with young tectonic fractures, carrying heat from several kilometers depth towards the surface. Within the volcanic rift zone the heat sources seem to be hot intrusions; away from it, the heat is mined from the underlying crust. The highest values of the near-surface temperature gradient are found above the geothermal systems. Drilling of 30-60 m deep boreholes is therefore a powerful tool for geothermal prospecting outside the volcanic rift zone. In the deeper parts of the geothermal systems, a gentle temperature gradient is observed and the temperature is lower than would be expected from the regional temperature gradient. This is due to geothermal convection which has removed heat from the deeper parts of the geothermal systems. Convective geothermal systems must have a downflow part, where cold water is flowing down into the deeper parts of the geothermal systems along fractures. Such downflow areas have been observed and appear as areas with an anomalously low temperature gradient.

  18. Superhot Drilling in Iceland, the Experience of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project aims to improve geothermal economics by producing supercritical fluids (www.iddp.is). Supercritical wells could yield an order of magnitude more usable energy than that from conventional geothermal wells because of higher enthalpy and enhanced flow properties. In 2009, the IDDP-1 well failed to reach supercritical conditions in the Krafla caldera in NE Iceland, after encountering rhyolite magma at only 2.1 km depth. The completed geothermal well became the world's hottest and produced superheated steam with a wellhead temperature of 452°C and flow sufficient to generate 35 MWe. The IDDP next moved SW to the Reykjanes Peninsula, the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it is possible to study an analog of the roots of a black smoker. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in being recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406°C at 298 bars. Drilling began by deepening an existing 2.5 km deep production well to 3 km depth, and then angling it towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4,659 m. Total circulation losses were encountered below 3 km that could not be cured by lost circulation materials or by multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to total depth without return of drill cuttings. We attempted 13 core runs below 3 km depth, only half of which recovered core. The cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from lower greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies, suggesting formation temperatures >450°C. After the end of drilling in January 2017, following only six days of heating, supercritical conditions (426°C at 340 bars) were measured in the well at a depth of 4.5 km. The well has not yet been allowed to equilibrate to full in situ temperature. A perforated liner was inserted to 4,570 m, depth to facilitate temperature cycling to enhance permeability at depth through thermal cracking. In 2018 this will be followed by a

  19. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  20. EROI and the Icelandic society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the societal Energy Return on Investment (EROIsoc) is estimated for Iceland between 1960 and the present. The results indicate that the overall EROIsoc was around 27:1 in the early 1960s, and was volatile for a period of time before stabilizing at around 45:1 in 1974 after establis...

  1. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Waren, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  2. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines Reg...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....

  3. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  4. The potential vulnerability of the Namib and Nama Aquifers due to low recharge levels in the area surrounding the Naukluft Mountains, SW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambinda, Winnie N.; Mapani, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    The Naukluft Mountains in the Namib Desert are a high rainfall-high discharge area. It sees increased stream-, spring-flow as well as waterfalls during the rainy season. The mountains are a major resource for additional recharge to the Namib and Nama aquifers that are adjacent to the mountains. This paper aimed to highlight the potential vulnerability of the aquifers that surround the Naukluft Mountain area; if the strategic importance of the Naukluft Karst Aquifer (NKA) for bulk water supply becomes necessary. Chloride Mass Balance Method (CMBM) was applied to estimate rainfall available for recharge as well as actual recharge thereof. This was applied using chloride concentration in precipitation, borehole and spring samples collected from the study area. Groundwater flow patterns were mapped from hydraulic head values. A 2D digital elevation model was developed using Arc-GIS. Results highlighted the influence of the NKA on regional groundwater flow. This paper found that groundwater flow was controlled by structural dip and elevation. Groundwater was observed to flow predominantly from the NKA to the south west towards the Namib Aquifer in two distinct flow patterns that separate at the center of the NKA. A distinct groundwater divide was defined between the two flow patterns. A minor flow pattern from the northern parts of the NKA to the north east towards the Nama Aquifer was validated. Due to the substantial water losses, the NKA is not a typical karst aquifer. While the project area receives an average rainfall of 170.36 mm/a, it was estimated that 1-14.24% (maximum 24.43 mm/a) rainfall was available for recharge to the NKA. Actual recharge to the NKA was estimated to be less than 1-18.21% (maximum 4.45 mm/a) reflecting the vast losses incurred by the NKA via discharge. This paper concluded that groundwater resources of the NKA were potentially finite. The possibility of developing the aquifer for bulk water supply would therefore drastically lower recharge

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Skarn Fe orebody and syenodioritic intrusive host rock in Zeber Kuh prospect area (SW Bardaskan, South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Narooie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zeber Kuh prospect area is located southwest of Bardaskan, South Khorasan province, in the northeastern Iran. Lithologically, the area includes Rizu and Soltanieh Formations metamorphosed carbonate rocks, which were intruded by syenogranitic and syenodioritic intrusions. Field observations and laboratory studies such as structural controls of orebody, metasomatic replacement and formation of low temperature H2O-bearing minerals, and the occurrence of magnetite and pyrite associated with chlorite, epidote, calcite, and quartz indicate that  the iron mineralization is low temperature skarn-type. The source of Fe mineralization is probably a younger intrusive rock at depth. Hydrothermal ore fluid was ascended within fault zone and/or contact between the intrusive rock and the  carbonate unit and generated orebody. Iron grade ranges from 54 to 65 wt.% and sulfur value is > 3 wt.%. Magnetite chemistry and Ti, V, Al, Mn, Ni, and Cr contents are similar to skarn deposit. Biotite syenodiorite host rock has hypidiomorphic granular texture and it consists of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, and apatite minerals. Chemically, this intrusive rock is K-series alkaline type, which was generated in within plate zone. This magma is characterized by strong enrichment in LREE, LILE (Rb, Cs, Ba, and K, HFSE (Nb, Zr, and Ti, and P elements. The primary magma is produced by low degree partial melting of garnet lherzolite from asthenospheric to boundary of asthenospheric-lithospheric mantle.

  6. NATURAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SW MYANMAR - A CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMI / CYCLONE FLOODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  7. Application of subsurface temperature measurements in geothermal prospecting in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.

    1985-12-01

    In geothermal areas in Iceland aquifers are in most cases found to occur in highly permeable near-vertical fractures in the low permeability basaltic crust. Therefore heat transfer in the rocks surrounding the aquifers is mainly conductive. Temperature profiles in shallow non-flowing boreholes are used to construct a two dimensional model of the temperature distribution in the vicinity of near vertical aquifers. This is done by finite element solution of the equation of heat transfer which requires knowledge of the regional temperature gradient outside the area of geothermal activity and some constraints on the temperature within the aquifers. The model is helpful in estimating dip and location of near-vertical water bearing fractures and thus in siting production wells. An example of successful use to the method and of soil temperature measurements from a geothermal field in North-Iceland is demonstrated.

  8. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  9. EROI and the Icelandic society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the societal Energy Return on Investment (EROIsoc) is estimated for Iceland between 1960 and the present. The results indicate that the overall EROIsoc was around 27:1 in the early 1960s, and was volatile for a period of time before stabilizing at around 45:1 in 1974 after...... the standard of living greatly. For policymakers in island nations, attention should be given to this relationship between high-EROI energy sources with low price volatility and the standard of living....

  10. Progress in studies on hydrological impacts of degrading permafrost in the Source Area of Yellow River on NE Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Ma, Q.; Jin, X.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost degradation substantially impacts hydrological processes in the Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR). Deepening active layer has directly led to a reduction of surface runoffs, alters the generation and dynamics of slope runoffs and groundwater, leading to a deepening of groundwater flow paths. At present, however, there is only a limited understanding of the hydrological impact mechanisms of degrading permafrost. On the basis of analyzing and evaluating the current states, changing history and developing trends of climate, permafrost and hydrological processes, this program aims at further and better quantifying the nature of these mechanisms linking the degrading permafrost with changing hydrological processes. The key scientific themes for this research are the characterization of interactions between ground freezing-thawing and hydrogeology in the SAYR. For this study, a coupling is made between geothermal states and the occurrences of taliks in river systems, in order to understand how expanding taliks control groundwater and surface-water interactions and how these interactions might intensify or weaken when the climate warms and dries persistently. Numerical models include freeze-thaw dynamics coupled to groundwater and surface flow processes. For the proper parameterization of these models, field and laboratory studies are conducted with a focus on the SAYR. Geophysical investigations are employed for mapping permafrost distribution in relation to landscape elements. Boreholes and water wells and observation sites for the hydrothermal processes and water tables are used for establishing the current thermal state of frozen ground and talik and monitor their changes over time, and serve to ground-truth surface geophysical observations. Boreholes and wellbores, water wells and active layer sites have provided access to the permafrost and aquifer systems, allowing the dating of ground-water and -ice and soil strata for elucidating the regional

  11. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  12. Exceptional discovery of a shallow-water hydrothermal site in the SW area of Basiluzzo islet (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian Sea: An environment to preserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esposito

    Full Text Available The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70-80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures. On the whole field, a total of 39 chimneys, different in size and shape, were closely observed and described; 14 of them showed emission of low temperature hydrothermal fluids of marine origin characterized by acidified chemical conditions. The CTD and benthic chamber measurements highlighted that the Smoking Land is able to form a sea water bottom layer characterized by variable acidity and high DIC and trace elements concentrations; these characteristics weaken moving away from the chimney mouths. The SEM-EDS analysis of the collected solid samples revealed a chimney structure principally composed by amorphous and low crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides of hydrothermal origins. The ROV explorations revealed a wide coverage of red algae (Peyssonnelia spp. colonized by the green algae Flabiella petiolata and by suspension feeders, mainly sponges, but also bryozoans, and tubicolous polychaetes. Although novent-exclusive species were identified, the benthic communities found in association to the chimneys included more taxa than those observed in the surrounding no-vent rocky areas. These first findings evidence a submarine dynamic habitat where geological, chemical and biological processes are intimately connected, making the Smoking Land an important site in terms of marine heritage that should be safeguarded and protected.

  13. Exceptional discovery of a shallow-water hydrothermal site in the SW area of Basiluzzo islet (Aeolian archipelago, South Tyrrhenian Sea): An environment to preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaloro, Franco; Canese, Simonepietro; Bo, Marzia; Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Pietro; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Giordano, Patrizia; Spagnoli, Federico; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.; Scotti, Gianfranco; Romeo, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70–80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures. On the whole field, a total of 39 chimneys, different in size and shape, were closely observed and described; 14 of them showed emission of low temperature hydrothermal fluids of marine origin characterized by acidified chemical conditions. The CTD and benthic chamber measurements highlighted that the Smoking Land is able to form a sea water bottom layer characterized by variable acidity and high DIC and trace elements concentrations; these characteristics weaken moving away from the chimney mouths. The SEM-EDS analysis of the collected solid samples revealed a chimney structure principally composed by amorphous and low crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides of hydrothermal origins. The ROV explorations revealed a wide coverage of red algae (Peyssonnelia spp.) colonized by the green algae Flabiella petiolata and by suspension feeders, mainly sponges, but also bryozoans, and tubicolous polychaetes. Although novent-exclusive species were identified, the benthic communities found in association to the chimneys included more taxa than those observed in the surrounding no-vent rocky areas. These first findings evidence a submarine dynamic habitat where geological, chemical and biological processes are intimately connected, making the Smoking Land an important site in terms of marine heritage that should be safeguarded and protected. PMID:29300784

  14. Geothermal electric power generation in Iceland for the proposed Iceland/United Kingdom HVDC power link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Palmason, G.; Thorhallsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews geothermal electric power potential in Iceland which could economically be developed to supplement hydro power for the proposed HVDC Power Link to the United Kingdom, and power intensive industries in Iceland, which are envisaged for development at this time. Technically harnessable energy for electricity generation taking account of geothermal resources down to an assumed base depth, temperature distribution in the crust, probable geothermal recovery factor, and accessibility of the field, has been assessed. Nineteen known high-temperature fields and 9 probable fields have been identified. Technically harnessable geo-heat for various areas is indicated. Data on high temperature fields suitable for geothermal electric power generation, and on harnessable energy for electric power generation within volcanic zones, is stated, and overall assessments are made. The paper then reviews how the potential might be developed, discussing preference of possible sites, and cost of the developments at todays prices. Cost of geothermal electric power generation with comparative costs for hydro generation are given. Possible transmission system developments to feed the power to the proposed HVDC Link converter stations are also discussed

  15. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  16. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Petersen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007–2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206.

  17. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  18. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.

    2012-01-01

    The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic...... background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed...... to the financial collapse and on drawing conclusions about how these missteps could have been avoided. Also summarised are the mistakes that followed in the attempted rescue phase after the disaster had struck. The paper discusses these issues from a general perspective to provide an overview of the pitfalls...

  19. Medical isotope applications in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    About $ 12 000 worth of equipment and the services of an expert in the medical applications of radioisotopes were provided by IAEA to the Government of Iceland. The expert was primarily concerned with the establishment of a medical radioisotope laboratory at the State Hospital, Reykjavik. His specific tasks included the setting up of the equipment furnished by IAEA for radioactive measurements in medical work, the establishment of techniques for the routine uses of radioisotopes in medicine, and the training of personnel. The apparatus installed includes a well-type scintillation counter for small samples, a directional scintillation counter, and Geiger counters of different types. The laboratory is thus well equipped for nearly all the conventional applications of radioisotopes in medicine, except those involving very soft beta-ray emitting isotopes

  20. Geomagnetic polarity zones for icelandic lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, P.; Wilson, R.L.; Ade-Hall, J. M.; Walker, G.P.L.; Haggerty, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, T.; Watkins, N.D.; Smith, P.J.; Edwards, J.; Grasty, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of cores collected from a sequence of lavas in Eastern Iceland has made possible an accurate calculation of the average rate of reversal of the Earth's magnetic field. ?? 1967 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi

    2013-01-01

    with BIM is studied. Based on findings from both parts, ideas and recommendations are put forward for the Icelandic building industry about feasible ways of implementing BIM. Findings – Among the results are that the use of BIM is very limited in the Icelandic companies compared to the other Nordic...... for making standards and guidelines related to BIM. Public building clients are also encouraged to consider initiating projects based on making simple building models of existing buildings in order to introduce the BIM technology to the industry. Icelandic companies are recommended to start implementing BIM...... countries. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the Nordic countries in Europe, but many recommendations could be relevant to other countries. Practical implications – It is recommended to the Icelandic building authorities to get into cooperation with their Nordic counterparts...

  2. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  3. Icelandic occupational therapists' attitudes towards educational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsd ttir, ELIN EBBA; Kaplan, SUSAN

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of occupational therapists in Iceland to accept a professional as opposed to a technical view of the profession. Most Icelandic occupational therapists were educated in other countries, with little emphasis on liberal arts, sciences and research. The first Icelandic occupational therapy programme, a university-level programme, was founded in 1997. All Icelandic occupational therapists were surveyed. Eighty-seven questionnaires were sent out and 80 (92%) were returned and used for statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that Icelandic occupational therapists valued academic skills over technical skills, emphasizing occupational therapy theory unique to the profession and research to validate practice. More recognition among other health professionals was considered the most needed change in the profession. The results of the study showed that the clinicians' attitudes confirmed in general what is emphasized in the curriculum and in students' fieldwork. Further research is needed to explore whether the Icelandic occupational therapy profession succeeds in promoting research and recognition by other health professions.

  4. New concepts in hydrogen production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnason, B.; Sigfusson, T.I.; Jonsson, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some new concepts of hydrogen production in Iceland for domestic use and export. A brief overview of the Icelandic energy consumption and available resources is given. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis is calculated for various alternatives such as plant size, load factors and electricity cost. Comparison is made between the total cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland and from Northern America, showing that liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland would be 9% less expensive. This assumes conventional technology. New technologies are suggested in the paper and different scenarios for geothermally assisted hydrogen production and liquefaction are discussed. It is estimated that the use of geothermal steam would lead to 19% lower hydrogen gas production costs. By analysing the Icelandic fishing fleet, a very large consumer of imported fuel, it is argued that a transition of fuel technology from oil to hydrogen may be a feasible future option for Iceland and a testing ground for changing fuel technology. (Author)

  5. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna

    2017-01-01

    Monthly gravity field models from the GRACE satellite mission are widely used to determine ice mass changes of large ice sheets as well as smaller glaciers and ice caps. Here, we investigate in detail the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps as derived from GRACE data. The small size...... of the Icelandic ice caps, their location close to other rapidly changing ice covered areas and the low viscosity of the mantle below Iceland make this especially challenging. The mass balance of the ice caps is well constrained by field mass balance measurements, making this area ideal for such investigations. We...... the Little Ice Age (∼ 1890 AD). To minimize the signal that leaks towards Iceland from Greenland, we employ an independent mass change estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from satellite laser altimetry. We also estimate the effect of post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment, from knowledge...

  6. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 µg·m−3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 µg·m−3. The mean PM1 concentrations were 97–241 µg·m−3 with a maximum of 261 µg·m−3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34–0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  7. Iceland and the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy: Challenge or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iceland had initial misgivings about the EU’s capacity created in 1999 for military crisis management. In the current debate over Iceland’s EU application, questions have been raised about the possible impact of CSDP on the nation’s non-military status. In fact the CSDP is designed to respect national choices in defence; requires unanimity on new actions; and allows case-by-case decisions on participation. Preliminary study of six other small states in the EU suggests that none of them has been obliged by membership to abandon national preferences in this field, though all have made special efforts to support EU police and civilian operations - an area where Iceland is also well qualified to contribute. The more significant effects of EU membership for Icelandic security might in fact come in other, ‘softer’ areas including EU obligations for mutual assistance in civil emergencies.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. Nigeria. ... Abstract. The water quality of small streams in Auchi area of Edo State, S.W. Nigeria was investigated with a view to ... and ecosystems. The study was carried out

  9. Framework for foreign investment in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingvarsson, G.; Svanbjoernson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Iceland possesses a wealth of hydro power and geothermal energy. No less than 50,000 GWh/year of power are estimated to be producible from hydro and geothermal in Iceland at a sufficiently low cost to be of interest to power-intensive industries and for export. Only a fraction of this energy potential has been developed or some 5,000 GWh/year. The power resources of Iceland represent one of the country's best opportunities for large scale development and economic growth and their utilization is high on the Government's priority list. In the past Iceland has run a successful campaign attracting foreign investors in power intensive industries and about half of the electric production today is consumed by power intensive industries. New industries can be sure of highly competitive power prices compared with Europe and North America for new contracts. Many other reasons for locating energy intensive industry in Iceland are outlined in the paper, such as the educated work-force, European culture and political stability, Mid-Atlantic location and proximity to markets, good transport and communication facilities, abundance of fresh water, good industrial sites with a large extension potential and excellent harbors for large vessels. The future prospects for hydro and geothermal energy include large greenfield aluminium smelters, direct export of electricity by submarine cables to the European continent and industries using geothermal steam for process application. The Icelandic Energy Marketing Unit, established in 1988 is mandated to promote and market Iceland's energy resources and seek investors in the field of power intensive industries. Currently marketing efforts are being undertaken to promote the direct use of geothermal steam for industrial application

  10. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  11. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2016-01-01

    rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students......Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...

  12. [Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Olafsson, Stefán

    2008-03-01

    To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on

  13. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  14. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    1982-08-01

    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  15. Variation in the crustal structure across central Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhijun; Foulger, G. R.

    2001-04-01

    We determine the crustal structures beneath 12 broad-band seismic stations deployed in a swath across central Iceland along and around the ICEMELT explosion seismic profile by combining teleseismic receiver functions, surface wave dispersion curves and the waveforms of a large, local event in Iceland. By using teleseisms that approach from different backazimuths, we study lateral structural variability out of the line of the ICEMELT profile. Beneath Tertiary areas, the thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the 6.5kms-1 velocity horizon, is ~8km and the depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the 7.2kms-1 velocity horizon, is ~29-32km. Beneath the currently active rift zone the upper crust thins to ~6.0km and the depth to the base of the lower crust increases to ~35-40km. A substantial low-velocity zone underlies the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust, which may indicate anomalously high geothermal gradients there. This suggests that the large-scale thermal centre of the hotspot may be more westerly than northwest Vatnajokull, where it is generally assumed to lie. Simplified description of the results notwithstanding, there is substantial variability in the overall style of crustal structure throughout Iceland, and a clear, tripartite division into upper and lower crusts and a sharp Moho is poorly supported by many of our results. The nature, distinctiveness and continuity of the Moho is variable and in many areas the crust-mantle transition is a zone with enhanced velocity gradients several kilometres thick.

  16. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  17. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  18. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  19. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling simulations performed with theWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3...... is higher by 100 e700 W m_2 than that of offshore winds. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  20. Iceland blasts millennium bugs in speed governors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislason, Gisli [Landsvirkjun, Reykjavik (Iceland). Electromechanical Dept.; Ferme, J.-M. [Voith Hydro, Heidenheim (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    This article focuses on the examination of distribution management systems to identify any potential problems related to the year 2000 (Y2K) that would affect the operation of speed governors with date management capacity at Iceland's hydroelectric power plants. Details are given of the work carried out by Landsvirkjun, Iceland's main power generator, the use of date for monitoring functions, the different governor models, the testing of the digital speed governors, and the modification of software in cases where protection relays were untestable.

  1. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  2. Iceland as a Landscape Investigation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanini, Manuela Silvia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Icelanders continue an ancient dialogue. Nature is part of their soul and they take with them bits of their terrestrial landscape when they move to the elsewhere. When they move out in the sea they often name their ships or boats after natural spots (waterfalls, mountains, etc., Moving to the town, architects build monuments inspired by wild nature like Hallgrimskirkja (inspired by Hraundrangar and the columnar basalt or Perlan (inspired by the Geysir and the geothermal water. This is the way Icelanders compensate and take care of their perennial landscape nostalgia.

  3. Glacio-meteorological investigations on Vatnajökull, Iceland, summer 1996: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Björnsson, H.; Kuhn, M.; Obleitner, F.; Palsson, F.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Vugts, H.F.; Wolde, J. de

    1999-01-01

    We give an overview of a glacio-meteorological experiment carried out in the summer (melt season) of 1996 on the largest European ice cap, Vatnajökull, Iceland (area 8000 km2; altitude range: from sea level to about 2000 m). The main goal was to understand how the energy used in the melting of snow

  4. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  5. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of the Pliocene-Pleistocene lavas in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, Ian; Wensink, H.

    Potassium-argon dates are reported on five basalt samples from the Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence of lavas in the Jökuldalur area, northeastern Iceland. These dates confirm the correlations previously made with the geological time scale by means of paleomagnetic stratigraphy. The R1 and N2 polarity

  6. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonaldo Alves de Andrade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental deexóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidosrevelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrubtree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of thecommunities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  7. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  8. Is earthquake rate in south Iceland modified by seasonal loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, S.; Aoki, Y.; Drouin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Several temporarily varying processes have the potential of modifying the rate of earthquakes in the south Iceland seismic zone, one of the two most active seismic zones in Iceland. These include solid earth tides, seasonal meteorological effects and influence from passing weather systems, and variations in snow and glacier loads. In this study we investigate the influence these processes may have on crustal stresses and stressing rates in the seismic zone and assess whether they appear to be influencing the earthquake rate. While historical earthquakes in the south Iceland have preferentially occurred in early summer, this tendency is less clear for small earthquakes. The local earthquake catalogue (going back to 1991, magnitude of completeness M6+ earthquakes, which occurred in June 2000 and May 2008. Standard Reasenberg earthquake declustering or more involved model independent stochastic declustering algorithms are not capable of fully eliminating the aftershocks from the catalogue. We therefore inspected the catalogue for the time period before 2000 and it shows limited seasonal tendency in earthquake occurrence. Our preliminary results show no clear correlation between earthquake rates and short-term stressing variations induced from solid earth tides or passing storms. Seasonal meteorological effects also appear to be too small to influence the earthquake activity. Snow and glacier load variations induce significant vertical motions in the area with peak loading occurring in Spring (April-May) and maximum unloading in Fall (Sept.-Oct.). Early summer occurrence of historical earthquakes therefore correlates with early unloading rather than with the peak unloading or unloading rate, which appears to indicate limited influence of this seasonal process on the earthquake activity.

  9. The Last Glacial in Northern Iceland: geothermal and permafrost controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, A.; van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Bourgeois, O.; Dauteuil, O.; Embry, J. C.; Guillou, H.; Schneider, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper provides arguments for a multi-advance model of Weichselian glaciation-deglaciation of Northern Iceland considering the influence of the geothermal gradient and of the ice sheds on the different ice-stream outlets. This paper is based on morphological mapping , SPOT images analysis high resolution stratigraphy, palaeopedology, tephra petrography and Ar/K dating. The Last Glaciation Maximum has a limited extend in Northern Iceland, with cold-based characteristics, except in sectors of high thermal gradient which supported low profile ice streams, a main difference with MIS6. Ice sheet building started from MIS 5d with a limited extent. At MIS 5b the thickness of the ice is enough to enable the activity of the eastern hyalocastite ridge in the NVZ. The maximal extent is reached abruptly at the boundary stage 3/2, probably in relation with increased precipitation, with development of H3, followed by a drastic retreat, controlled by very low precipitation rate and cold-based glaciers. This period is responsible for long periglacial morphogenesis inland, on the nunataks and ice free areas, and for starved sedimentation on the shelf and in the fjords. From 17 ka or H2, precipitation rose again and a second maximal extent, the Fnjoskadalur Stadial, the so-called "Old Dryas", in retreat from the former one. The main deglaciation took place at the onset of the Bölling. A late glacial pulse of minimal intensity occurred with the Younger Dryas. The Pre-Boreal stadial is extremely limited in the North of Iceland in relation with the lower and colder conditions compared to the south coast inflenced by the Irminger current.

  10. Nation in a sheep’s coat: The Icelandic sweater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Helgadottir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.

  11. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensified agricultural practices have driven biodiversity loss throughout the world, and although many actions aimed at halting and reversing these declines have been developed, their effectiveness depends greatly on the willingness of stakeholders to take part in conservation management. Knowledge of the willingness and capacity of landowners to engage with conservation can therefore be key to designing successful management strategies in agricultural land. In Iceland, agriculture is currently at a relatively low intensity but is very likely to expand in the near future. At the same time, Iceland supports internationally important breeding populations of many ground-nesting birds that could be seriously impacted by further expansion of agricultural activities. To understand the views of Icelandic farmers toward bird conservation, given the current potential for agricultural expansion, 62 farms across Iceland were visited and farmers were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire survey in which respondents indicated of a series of future actions. Most farmers intend to increase the area of cultivated land in the near future, and despite considering having rich birdlife on their land to be very important, most also report they are unlikely to specifically consider bird conservation in their management, even if financial compensation were available. However, as no agri-environment schemes are currently in place in Iceland, this concept is highly unfamiliar to Icelandic farmers. Nearly all respondents were unwilling, and thought it would be impossible, to delay harvest, but many were willing to consider sparing important patches of land and/or maintaining existing pools within fields (a key habitat feature for breeding waders. Farmers' views on the importance of having rich birdlife on their land and their willingness to participate in bird conservation provide a potential platform for the codesign of conservation management with landowners

  12. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Iceland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  13. Esperanto and Icelandic: Two Contrasting Lexical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmans, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    The article comprises a table listing Esperanto words conveying international concepts, accompained by equivalents in English, French, German, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew and Icelandic, representing various language groups. The comparison shows that although the world language would opt for international terms, a language making no claims on…

  14. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...

  15. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Olafsson, H.; Arnalds, O.; Škrabalová, L.; Sigurdardottir, G.; Braniš, M.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Navrátil, Tomáš; von Lowis of Menar, S.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2014), s. 8565-8565 ISSN 1607-7962. [ European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dust * volcanology * Iceland http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-8565.pdf

  16. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  17. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would lower reimb...

  18. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  19. Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal ... wave data can be used for the assessment of wave climate in offshore and coastal areas. In the .... for the change in performance during SW monsoon.

  20. Magma-Hydrothermal Transition: Basalt Alteration at Supercritical Conditions in Drill Core from Reykjanes, Iceland, Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.; Schiffman, P.; Fridleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project well IDDP-2, drilled to 4,659 m in the Reykjanes geothermal system, the on-land extension of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, SW Iceland. Drill core was recovered, for the first time, from a seawater-recharged, basalt-hosted hydrothermal system at supercritical conditions. The well has not yet been allowed to heat to in situ conditions, but temperature and pressure of 426º C and 340 bar was measured at 4500 m depth prior to the final coring runs. Spot drill cores were recovered between drilling depths of 3648.00 m and 4657.58 m. Analysis of the core is on-going, but we present the following initial observations. The cored material comes from a basaltic sheeted dike complex in the brittle-ductile transition zone. Felsic (plagiogranite) segregation veins are present in minor amounts in dikes recovered below 4300 m. Most core is pervasively altered to hornblende + plagioclase, but shows only minor changes in major and minor element composition. The deepest samples record the transition from the magmatic regime to the presently active hydrothermal system. Diabase near dike margins has been locally recrystallized to granoblastic-textured orthopyroxene-clinopyroxe-plagioclase hornfels. High temperature hydrothermal alteration includes calcic plagioclase (up to An100) and aluminous hornblende (up to 11 Wt. % Al2O3) locally intergrown with hydrothermal biotite, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and/or olivine. Hydrothermal olivine is iron-rich (Mg # 59-64) compared to expected values for igneous olivine. Biotite phenocrysts in felsic segregation veins have higher Cl and Fe compared to hydrothermal biotites. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs in partially altered quench dike margins give temperature of 955° to 1067° C. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs from hornfels and hydrothermal veins and replacements give temperature ranging from 774° to 888° C. Downhole fluid sampling is planned following thermal equilibration of the drill hole. Previous work

  1. Stratigraphic position of the rhyolitic in the Upper Rotliegende of the Saar-Nahe-area and the uranium content of the coal-tuff-horizon at the Kornkiste near Schallodenbach/Pfalz (SW Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneke, J; Gaede, C W [Gewerkschaft Brunhilde, Uetze (Germany, F.R.); Lorenz, V [Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften

    1979-01-01

    The lithostratigraphic sequence of the Upper Rotliegende rocks of the SE-flank of the Palatinate anticline (Saar-Nahe-basin, SW Germany) is described using as index horizons six principal rhyolitic tuff layers (1-VI) and several basic to intermediate lava flows. Coal and bentonite beds are developed at the base of rhyolite tuff III at the Kornkiste near Schallodenbach. In this basal sequence anomalous U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Cu, Pb, Zn contents have been detected. Cu occurs in part as azurite and malachite. The major amount of the investigated elements appears to occur in form of organic complexes or compounds in the coals. In addition these elements seem to have been absorbed by the bentonite clay minerals. The elements U, Cu, Pb show a clear positive correlation between each other wheres Zn correlators negatively with these elements. The U-Cu-Pb-Zn-enrichment is believed to have been caused by descending aqueous solutions.

  2. The stratigraphic position of the rhyolitic in the Upper Rotliegende of the Saar-Nahe-area and the uranium content of the coal-tuff-horizont at the Kornkiste near Schallodenbach/Pfalz (SW Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneke, J.; Gaede, C.W.; Lorenz, V.

    1979-01-01

    The lithostratigraphic sequence of the Upper Rotliegende rocks of the SE-flank of the Palatinate anticline (Saar-Nahe-basin, SW Germany) is described using as index horizons six principal rhyolitic tuff layers (1-VI) and several basic to intermediate lava flows. Coal and bentonite beds are developed at the base of rhyolite tuff III at the Kornkiste near Schallodenbach. In this basal sequence anomalous U 3 O 8 , Cu, Pb, Zn contents have been detected. Cu occurs in part as azurite and malachite. The major amount of the investigated elements appears to occur in form of organic complexes or compounds in the coals. In addition these elements seem to have been absorbed by the bentonite clay minerals. The elements U, Cu, Pb show a clear positive correlation between each other wheres Zn correlators negatively with these elements. The U-Cu-Pb-Zn-enrichment is believed to have been caused by descending aqueous solutions. (orig.) [de

  3. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...

  4. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  5. Maximizing industrial infrastructure efficiency in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2010-08-01

    As a consequence of the increasing aluminum production in Iceland, local processing of aluminum skimmings has become a feasible business opportunity. A recycling plant for this purpose was built in Helguvik on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2003. The case of the recycling plant reflects increased concern regarding environmental aspects of the industry. An interesting characteristic of this plant is the fact that it is run in the same facilities as a large fishmeal production installation. It is operated by the same personnel and uses—partly—the same equipment and infrastructure. This paper reviews the grounds for these decisions and the experience of this merger of a traditional fish melting industry and a more recent aluminum melting industry after 6 years of operation. The paper is written by the original entrepreneurs behind the company, who provide observations on how the aluminum industry in Iceland has evolved since the starting of Alur’s operation and what might be expected in the near future.

  6. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is extremely active dust region and desert areas of over 44,000 km2 acknowledge Iceland as the largest Arctic and European desert. Frequent dust events, up to 135 dust days annually, transport dust particles far distances towards the Arctic and Europe. Satellite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes exceeding 1,000 km. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 40.1 million tons yr-1. Two dust storms were measured in transverse horizontal profile about 90 km far from different dust sources in southwestern Iceland in the summer of 2015. Aerosol monitor DustTrak DRX 8533EP was used to measure PM mass concentrations corresponding to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and the total PM15 at several places within the dust plume. Images from camera network operated by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. A numerical simulation of surface winds was carried out with the numerical model HIRLAM with horizontal resolution of 5 km and used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources. The in situ measurements inside the dust plumes showed that aeolian dust can be very fine. The study highlights that suspended volcanic dust in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations comparable to the polluted urban stations in Europe or Asia rather than reported dust event observations from around the world. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios are generally low during dust storms outside of Iceland, much lower than > 0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 found in our study. It shows that Icelandic volcanic dust consists of higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. The submicron particles are predicted to travel long distances. Moreover, such submicron particles pose considerable health risk because of high potential for entering the lungs. Icelandic volcanic glass has often fine pipe-vesicular structures known from asbestos and high content of heavy metals. Previous

  7. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  8. Food 
Security
 in
 Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food security applies in both poor and rich societies and concerns the steady availability of food in the right quantity and quality, at the right price. Globally, policies to assure it remain confused and world food prices are rising. Despite large exports of fish, Iceland produces only around half of its inhabitants’ nutritional needs and relies significantly on imports, also for food production inputs like fodder and seeds. Icelandic supplies are affected by oligopoly in the retail market, and could be put at risk by events in other security dimensions ranging from natural disasters and infrastructure failures to terrorism, neighbouring conflicts and other people’s shortages. Icelandic farmers have used the terminology of ‘food security’ to press their claims for more home-grown production, and more recently also in their campaign against EU membership. The general public however shows little sign of security-awareness in this field. The government possesses suitable non-military security frameworks to address food-related risks and has initiated useful, general and specific, studies. Yet it has not developed a strategy or contingency plan for food security, even following the lessons of the 2008 economic crash and 2010-2011 eruptions. Suitable remedies would include larger emergency stocks and a range of measures to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience in crises. Above all, Iceland needs a balanced and open policy-making process to decide what its general future strategy should be as a food-producing and -importing nation. Food security could then be more precisely defined and pursued with the aim of minimizing threats and risks to that agreed vision.

  9. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2014-12-01

    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  10. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  11. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  12. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland...... is a subarctic to low-arctic region with a long and complex land-use history and only modest temperature increases over the past 50 years (0.2 °C decade-1), but changes in shrub cover have not previously been studied in this region. We compiled historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898......–1974) and repeated the photos in 2010 and 2011. Sixty-four photo pairs were cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing, and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover, revealing a general increase across...

  13. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurðsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  14. New insights into the biodiversity and generic relationships of foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in Iceland and the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Neefus, Christopher D.; Nielsen, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Foliose species of the Bangiales (Porphyra sensu lato) have a long history of study in the N Atlantic, but there are still regions, especially in the northern parts of the N Atlantic that need more attention. A molecular study using rbcL and cox1 sequences was undertaken to assess the diversity...... of foliose Bangiales species in Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Herbarium collections from the intertidal and subtidal of Iceland (summer and winter) and the Faroe Islands (all seasons) revealed a total of 13 species (11 common to both areas), which were referred to four of the genera recognized in a recent...... two-gene global phylogeny. Boreophyllum birdiae, Porphyra dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia ?leucosticta? A, Pyropia njordii Mols-Mortensen, J. Brodie Porphyra sp. FO and Pyropia elongata were reported from the Faroe Islands but not from Iceland. Boreophyllum birdiae...

  15. Long-term changes of euphausiids in shelf and oceanic habitats southwest, south and southeast of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Teresa; Gislason, A.; Licandro, P.

    2014-01-01

    by the Marine Research Institute (MRI) on a transect south of Iceland during spring (1990–2011) and the other by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey (1958–2007) in the oceanic waters south of Iceland covering all months. Due to limitations of the sampling gears used, the results mainly reflect...... of euphausiid abundance in the west, whereas in the east temperature appears to be most important. In addition, the onset of the spring bloom also affected the long-term changes in euphausiid abundance. For the oceanic areas, it is concluded that a weakened temporal synchrony between the development of young...... in numbers of larvae during spring 1990–2011 for the shelf south of Iceland. Single variable-based GAMs indicated that phytoplankton biomass was generally the main environmental factor regulating euphausiid abundance. Multiple variable-based GAMs showed that phytoplankton biomass was the strongest predictor...

  16. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  17. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  18. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    . The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  20. Lithium Isotopes in Geothermal Fluids from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Asmundsson, R.; Sanjuan, B.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the HITI project (HIgh Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation), partially funded by the European Union, is to develop methods to characterize the reservoir and fluids of deep and very high temperature geothermal systems. The chemical composition of geothermal waters in terms of major and trace elements is related to the temperature, the degree of water/rock interaction and the mineralogical assemblage of the bedrock. Traditional geothermometers, such as silica, Na-K, Na-K-Ca or K-Mg applied to geothermal waters, make it possible to estimate the temperature at depth of the reservoir from which the waters are derived. However, the values estimated for deep temperature are not always concordant. The chemical geothermometer Na/Li which presents the singularity of associating two chemical elements, one a major element (sodium) and the other a trace element (Li), can be also used and gives an additional temperature estimation. The primary objective of this work was to better understand the behavior of this last geothermometer using the isotopic systematics of Li in order to apply it at very high temperature Icelandic geothermal systems. One particularly important aspect was to establish the nature, extent and mechanism of Li isotope fractionation between 100 and 350°C during water/rock interaction. For that purpose, we measured Li isotopes of about 25 geothermal waters from Iceland by using a Neptune MC-ICP-MS that enabled the analysis of Li isotopic ratios in geothermal waters with a level of precision of ±0.5‰ (2 standard deviations) on quantities of 10-50 ng of Li. Geothermal waters from Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Nesjavellir, Hveragerdi, Namafjall and Krafla geothermal systems were studied and particular emphasis was placed on the characterization of the behavior of Li isotopes in this volcanic context at high temperature with or without the presence of seawater during water

  1. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  2. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  3. Research Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: IDDP Wells of Opportunity at Reykjanes, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridleifsson, G. O.; Franzson, H.; Thorhallsson, S.; Elders, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    There are some 10 new geothermal wells at Reykjanes, in SW-Iceland, being considered by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) as potential candidate wells of opportunity to explore for deep (4-5 km) supercritical fluids. The drill field is located where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge emerges from the Atlantic ocean at the tip of the Reykjanes Peninsula. The site is an ideal locality for a combined study on the evolution of a rifted oceanic crust and an active black smoker-type geothermal system. However, the oceanic pillow basaltic crust at Reykjanes is some 2-3 times thicker than normal ocean floor crust, which undoubtedly relates to it being part of the Icelandic Large Igneous Province. The deepest of the geothermal wells at Reykjanes is Drillhole RN-17, that was completed to 3082 m depth in February 2005. It is currently the prime candidate for deepening by the IDDP. The plan is to deepen it to 4 km in 2006, and to 5 km depth in 2007, with funding coming from Icelandic energy companies (Hitaveita Sudurnesja, Landsvirkjun and Orkuveita Reykjavikur), the Government of Iceland, the International Scientific Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF). The well RN-17 was drilled as a conventional production well with a 12 ¼ inch drillbit to 3082 m depth, and left barefoot, with a 13 3/8 inch production casing cemented down to 900 m. It will be flow tested this autumn. If the RN-17 well is selected by the IDDP for deepening, a 9 5/8 inch in casing will be cemented to 3081 m and drilling will be continued with an 8 ½ inch tricone bit to 4 km in the autumn of 2006. The ICDP and NSF will fund spot coring for scientific studies in this depth interval and a second flow test would be performed in winter 2007. The following autumn, a 7 inch casing would be cemented to 4 km depth and then a 5 inch retrievable liner would be inserted to support a hybrid coring system to continuously core down to 5 km depth, retrieving HQ sized core. A third

  4. Icelandic: Linguistic Maintenance or Change? The Role of English. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda

    The Icelandic language has a long and stable history, and Old Icelandic is still accessible to modern day Icelanders. This is despite being ruled from Denmark, with influence by the Danish language, for about 500 years. Icelandic may now be under a more serious threat from the onslaught of English. This paper evaluates the linguistic situation in…

  5. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  6. Epidemiology of organising pneumonia in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G; Sveinsson, O; Isaksson, H J; Jonsson, S; Frodadottir, H; Aspelund, T

    2006-01-01

    Background Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) has also been called idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia. In secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) the causes can be identified or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and epidemiological features of COP and SOP nationwide in Iceland over an extended period. Methods A retrospective study of organising pneumonia (OP) in Iceland over 20 years was conducted and the epidemiology and survival were studied. All pathological reports of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COP or SOP in the period 1984–2003 were identified and the pathology samples were re‐evaluated using strict diagnostic criteria. Results After re‐evaluation, 104 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for OP (58 COP and 46 SOP). The mean annual incidence of OP was 1.97/100 000 population (1.10/100 000 for COP and 0.87/100 000 for SOP). The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years with a wide age range. The most common causes of death were lung diseases other than OP, and only one patient died from OP. Patients with OP had a lower rate of survival than the general population, but there was no statistical difference between COP and SOP. Conclusions The incidence of OP is higher than previously reported, suggesting that OP needs to be considered as a diagnosis more often than has been done in the past. PMID:16809413

  7. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    seedlings, compared to control seedlings. It is concluded that fertilization during afforestation in Iceland and other areas in the world with similar climatic and soil properties could make the difference between plantation success or failure. Growth; Survival; Foliar nutrient concentration; Frost heaving......A field trial was carried out in 1995 to study the effect of fertilization at planting on the survival, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings planted on Andisol soils at two sites in South Iceland. Nine fertilizer treatments were tested on three tree species Betula pubescens Ehrh., Larix sibirica...... survival and growth. Larger amounts of N increased mortality during the first year. Fertilized trees were less subject to frost heaving than untreated trees. In the year following application of NPK fertilizer the effect was insignificant on the foliar concentration of macronutrients of the fertilized...

  8. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems: Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio. Using this interpretational scheme, Iceland is found to be an area of hot-spot magmatic He implying an active volcanic source although the data are suggestive of high-temperature weathering release of crustal He incorporated in the geothermal fluids. By comparison to fumarolic gases from Hawaii and Juan De Fuca and Cayman Trench basaltic glass samples, The Geysers contains MOR type magmatic He again implying an active volcanic source possibly a 'leaky' transform related to the San Andreas Fault System. Raft River contains only crustal He indicating no active volcanic sources. Steamboat Springs He isotope ratios are distinctly less than typical plate margin volcanics but must still have a magmatic source. (author)

  9. Earthquake Prediction Research In Iceland, Applications For Hazard Assessments and Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, R.

    Earthquake prediction research in Iceland, applications for hazard assessments and warnings. The first multinational earthquake prediction research project in Iceland was the Eu- ropean Council encouraged SIL project of the Nordic countries, 1988-1995. The path selected for this research was to study the physics of crustal processes leading to earth- quakes. It was considered that small earthquakes, down to magnitude zero, were the most significant for this purpose, because of the detailed information which they pro- vide both in time and space. The test area for the project was the earthquake prone region of the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ). The PRENLAB and PRENLAB-2 projects, 1996-2000 supported by the European Union were a direct continuation of the SIL project, but with a more multidisciplinary approach. PRENLAB stands for "Earthquake prediction research in a natural labo- ratory". The basic objective was to advance our understanding in general on where, when and how dangerous NH10earthquake motion might strike. Methods were devel- oped to study crustal processes and conditions, by microearthquake information, by continuous GPS, InSAR, theoretical modelling, fault mapping and paleoseismology. New algorithms were developed for short term warnings. A very useful short term warning was issued twice in the year 2000, one for a sudden start of an eruption in Volcano Hekla February 26, and the other 25 hours before a second (in a sequence of two) magnitude 6.6 (Ms) earthquake in the South Iceland seismic zone in June 21, with the correct location and approximate size. A formal short term warning, although not going to the public, was also issued before a magnitude 5 earthquake in November 1998. In the presentation it will be shortly described what these warnings were based on. A general hazard assessmnets was presented in scientific journals 10-15 years ago assessing within a few kilometers the location of the faults of the two 2000 earthquakes and suggesting

  10. Holocene oceanographic changes in SW Labrador Sea, off Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Pearce, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages supported by selected geochemical data from three marine sediment cores collected in Placentia Bay, SE Newfoundland, are used to construct an ~13,000-year-long record of regional oceanographic changes in the SW Labrador Sea. The area is located in the boundary zo....... The Northern Hemisphere neoglacial cooling around 2.8 cal. kyr BP was characterized off SE Newfoundland by a further stabilization of the current system, dominated by the LC with some continued influx of GS water....

  11. Recently Discovered Near-Shore Gascharged Sediments and Pockmarks, Northern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Driscol, N.; Detrick, R. S.; Fornari, D.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2003-12-01

    The approx. 150 km long and 50 km wide Tjornes Fracture Zone (TFZ), formed in response to the eastward jump of the spreading axis in N-Iceland that began in late Miocene time (7-9 Ma). The fracture zone is made up of three N-S trending extensional half graben, Eyjafjordur, Skjalfandi and Oxarfjordur, and bordered to the south by a WNW-trending transtensional fault, the Husavik-Flatey fault (HFF). A 0.5-4 km thick sedimentary sequence has accumulated within the TFZ graben. Near-shore marine sediments are exposed on the Tjornes peninsula, at the eastern margin of the Skjalfandi graben, where approx. 500 m thick Miocene-Pliocene sediments contain several lignite layers. Natural gas emitting from geothermal areas at the shore of Oxarfjordur contain high concentrations of evolved hydrocarbons. The gas probably originates from marine sediments and lignites similar to those observed on the Tjornes peninsula. In 2001, a sidescan sonar imaging and CHIRP subbottom profiling were conducted along the HFF, within Skjalfandi Bay. CHIRP data show amplitude anomalies and acoustic wipe-out zones, indicative of gas accumulation within the sediments. In addition, the sidescan data reveal a number of shallow, circular and elongated depressions up to 30 m in diameter along the northern edge of the HFF. Areas of large, elongated and circular depressions (pockmarks) within Skjalfandi Bay were mapped during a multibeam bathymetric survey in 2002. A second Chirp subbottom and sidescan-sonar survey was conducted this summer along with gravity coring and digital bottom photography in order to assess the origin of these pockmarks and define the distribution of the gas charged sediments. Where present, acoustic wipe-out zones associated with the gas obscured all underlying reflectors as shallow as 5 meters below the ocean floor, in areas as large as 2 square km. The gas charged sediments are more widespread than previously observed within the bay. In northern Skjalfandi the gas seems connected

  12. Human induced impacts on soil organic carbon in southwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Lal, Rattan

    2013-04-01

    The Icelandic environment has been strongly influenced by natural processes during the Holocene. Since settlement in AD 874, the introduction of grazing animals and other land use has drastically affected the natural environment. This includes the diminishing of vegetative cover, which has led to soil exposure and accelerated erosion over large areas, especially when in conjunction with harsh climate. This has specifically impacted processes and properties of volcanic soils (Andosols), which are subject to accelerated erosion by wind and water. While approximately 46% of the land surface in Iceland has sustained continuous vegetation cover, large areas have lost some or all of their soil cover formed during the postglacial era. Elsewhere, remaining soils have sparse or no vegetation cover, thus impairing soil carbon (C) sequestration. Among their multifunctional roles, soils support plant growth, increase soil biotic activity, enhance nutrient storage and strengthen the cycling of water and nutrients. In contrast, soil degradation by accelerated erosion and other processes impairs soil quality, reduces soil structure and depletes the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Depletion of the SOM pool has also global implications because the terrestrial C pool is the third largest pool and strongly impacts the global C cycle. Erosional-depositional processes may deplete soil organic C (SOC) by erosion and increase by deposition. Some SOC-enriched sediments are redistributed over the landscape, while others are deposited in depression sites and transported into aquatic ecosystems. SOC decomposition processes are severely constrained in some environmental settings and any SOC buried under anaerobic conditions is protected against decomposition. Yet, the impact of the SOC transported by erosional processes and redistributed over the landscape is not fully understood because the variability in its turnover characteristics has not been widely studied. Thus, the fate of C

  13. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  14. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  15. Thermal regime of warm-dry permafrost in relation to ground surface temperature in the Source Areas of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, SW China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Dongliang; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai; Bense, Victor F.; He, Ruixia; Ma, Qiang; Gao, Shuhui; Jin, Xiaoying; Lu¨, Lanzhi

    2018-01-01

    Ecology, hydrology, and natural resources in the source areas of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers (SAYYR) are closely linked to interactions between climate and permafrost. However, a comprehensive study of the interactions is currently hampered by sparsely- and unevenly-distributed monitoring sites

  16. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and S

  17. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  18. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinius, Hrafn

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  19. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  20. Learning from Bjartur About Today's Icelandic Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economies are complex systems resulting from human action but not from human design. The economic success of Iceland in recent decades was the result of the development of good institutions combined with a positive global economic climate. The recent economic downturn, not just in Iceland but around the world, should be a reminder that good institutions matter and should serve as an exhortation to continue building good institutions rather than dismissing them in favor of institutions that generate poverty.

  1. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  2. LiDAR and 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography as a Supplement of Geomorphological Investigations in Urban Areas: a Case Study from the City of Wrocław (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Marek; Traczyk, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    In urbanized areas, particularly in lowland terrains and floors of large river valleys, the natural land configuration is often hard to recognize due to a long history of human activity. Accordingly, archaeological works in cities, which supply knowledge on settlement conditions, are usually accompanied by geological and geomophological research. Lately, data from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) have become a valuable source of information on urban land configuration. Geophysical methods are also becoming increasingly popular in background studies. The paper presents a method of using and linking these sources of spatial information about landforms in such areas. The main aim is to identify to what extent these complementary sources of data and the proposed method can be used in such a specific environment to reconstruct natural, buried terrain morphology. The city of Wrocław in Central Europe serves as an example. To this end geomorphometric studies were conducted with the use of digital elevation models (DEMs) based on LiDAR scanning and derivated land-surface parameters—SAGA Wetness Index, Channel Network Base Level and Altitude above Channel Network. The study also involved determining morphological edges and measurements of the meanders of the Odra, as well as expanding information on the spatial distribution of alluvia and the structure of slope breaks. To this end, geophysical measurements were conducted using the Two-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography method. Additionally, five typical sequences of man-made ground present within the perimeter of the city were distinguished. As a result, a map of the main landforms of Wrocław is presented. Finally, we argue that although high resolution DEM and derivate land-surface parameters are very useful in terrain analysis, places with thick man-made ground or strongly levelled areas must be recognized by geoarchaeological excavations or geological bore holes. The geophysical survey is useful to

  3. A first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland): from the volcanic crisis in 2014 towards a tool for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Jónsdottir, Kristín; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Larsen, Gudrun; Oddsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Bárdarbunga volcano is part of a large volcanic system that had its last confirmed eruption before the present unrest in 1910. This system is partially covered by ice within the Vatnajökull glacier and it extends further to the NNE as well as to SW. Based on historical data, its eruptive activity has been predominantly characterized by explosive eruptions, originating beneath the glacier, and important effusive eruptions in the ice-free part of the system itself. The largest explosive eruptions took place on the southern side of the fissure system in AD 1477 producing about 10 km3 of tephra. Due to the extension and location of this volcanic system, the range of potential eruptive scenarios and associated hazards is quite wide. Indeed, it includes: inundation, due to glacial outburst; tephra fallout, due to ash-rich plume generated by magma-water interaction; abundant volcanic gas release; and lava flows. Most importantly these phenomena are not mutually exclusive and might happen simultaneously, creating the premise for a wide spatial and temporal impact. During the ongoing volcanic crisis at Bárdarbunga, which started on 16 August, 2014, the Icelandic Meteorological Office, together with the University of Iceland and Icelandic Civil Protection started a common effort of drawing, day-by-day, the potential evolution of the ongoing rifting event and, based on the newest data from the monitoring networks, updated and more refined scenarios have been identified. Indeed, this volcanic crisis created the occasion for pushing forward the creation of the first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. We adopted the approach suggested by Newhall and Pallister (2014) and a preliminary ET made of nine nodes has been constructed. After the two initial nodes (restless and genesis) the ET continues with the identification of the location of aperture of future eruptive vents. Due to the complex structure of the system and historical eruptions, this third node

  4. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...

  5. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  6. Underemployment of Immigrant Women in Iceland – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Burdikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants living in Iceland has been steadily on the rise for the last decade; between 2007 and 2017, the percentage of immigrants living in Iceland has increased from 7.6 % to 11.9%. Akureyri, the largest town in the North of Iceland with considerable industry and service, has seen its immigrant population double in the last decade, and is now home to 931 immigrants for a total of 18 488 inhabitants. New research from the University of Akureyri[1]shows that immigrant women are the most vulnerable people in the labour market in Iceland. Many occupy positions that do not fit with their level of education; despite having received higher education than men. For example, in the survey conducted 30% of immigrant women in Akureyri answered that they are in employment that does not suit their background, compared to the same answer by only 8% of Icelandic women. This difference has a direct impact on the income: just 11% of immigrant women answered that they earn 300 000 ISK or more per month, compared to 37% for Icelandic women and 22% for immigrant men.

  7. Warming, Sheep and Volcanoes: Land Cover Changes in Iceland Evident in Satellite NDVI Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Raynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a greening Arctic, Iceland stands out as an area with very high increases in the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2010. We investigated the possible sources of this anomalous greening in Iceland’s dynamic landscape, analyzing changes due to volcanism and warming temperatures, and the effects of agricultural and industrial land use changes. The analysis showed the increases were likely due to reductions in grazing in erosion-prone rangelands, extensive reclamation and afforestation efforts, as well as a response to warming climate, including glacial retreat. Like Scandinavia and much of the rest of the Arctic, Iceland has shown a recent reduction in NDVI since 2002, but still above pre-2000 levels. Theil-Sen robust regression analysis of MODIS NDVI trends from 2002 to 2013 showed Iceland had a slightly negative NDVI trend of 0.003 NDVI units/year (p < 0.05, with significant decreases in an area three times greater (29,809 km2 than that with increases (9419 km2. Specific areas with large decreases in NDVI during the last decade were due to the formation of a large reservoir as a part of a hydroelectric power project (Kárahnjúkar, 2002–2009, and due to ashfall from two volcanic eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull, 2010; Grímsvötn, 2011. Increases in NDVI in the last decade were found in erosion control areas, around retreating glaciers, and in other areas of plant colonization following natural disturbance. Our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of MODIS NDVI for identifying the causes of changes in land cover, and confirms the reduction in NDVI in the last decade using both the AVHRR and MODIS satellite data.

  8. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  10. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments

  11. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-08-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents

  12. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  13. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  14. Supporting Document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for SX-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  15. Indexation of Consumer and Mortgage Credit in Iceland in 2014: A Critical Battle between Legality, Fairness and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elvira Mendez Pinedo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the financial crisis that led to the collapse of the banking system in 2008, the over-indebtedness of households is one of the most important problems in Iceland. This study aims to cast light on a specific feature of the Icelandic credit system in connection with the problem of over-indebtedness. The main research question is whether the end of indexation of credit is close or not. The author argues, in the first place, that indexation of credit ex-post to the consumer price index (CPI in negative amortization schemes is responsible for over-indebtedness. In the second place, the author describes the challenges ahead in the field of consumer and mortgage credit in Iceland in the light of European law (European Union EU and European Economic Area EEA. The incorporation of Directive 2008/48 on credit agreement for consumers to the Icelandic domestic order through the EEA Agreement allowed a preliminary legal review of the practice in light of EU/EEA consumer credit law, both at national and European level without a final conclusion. It has nevertheless led to the judicial review on the legality of some indexation alleged malpractices before national courts and to the EFTA Court for interpretation (mostly on Directives 93/13/EEC on unfair terms 87/102/EEC on consumer credit. A ruling from the Supreme Court is expected on several cases. A critical battle between the legality, the fairness and the legitimacy of indexation of credit is taking place in Iceland under the influence of European law.

  16. Understanding the fate of iron in a modern temperate estuary: Leirarvogur, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Gemma M.; Worden, Richard H.; Hodgson, David M.; Polya, David A.; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Barrie, Craig D.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fluvial Fe (aq) and Fe (total) concentrations drop upon mixing with seawater in estuaries. → The majority of Fe in estuaries is lost in the bay-head delta. → Our results suggest that the bay-head delta is a key location in Fe-mineral formation. → Isotopic variation in estuarine waters may play a role in the formation of Fe-minerals. - Abstract: Fluvial dissolved Fe concentrations decrease upon mixing with seawater, resulting in the formation of Fe-floccules. However, a clear understanding of the fate of these floccules has yet to be established. Assessing how tidal processes affect the formation of Fe-colloids in the Leirarvogur estuary, SW Iceland, is an important step in understanding the formation and potential deposition of estuarine Fe-rich minerals within this estuarine system. The Leirarvogur estuary drains predominately Fe-rich basalt, increasing the likelihood of detecting changes in Fe-phases. Fluvial waters and local lake waters that drain into the estuary were compared and the effects of seasonal changes were considered, in an attempt to understand how varying end-members and external factors play a role in Fe-rich mineral formation. Aqueous and colloidal Fe concentrations were found to be greater towards the head of the Leirarvogur estuary, suggesting that potential Fe-rich minerals and complexes are forming at sites of fluvial input. Increasing suspended colloidal Fe towards the estuary mouth suggests that Fe-colloids are readily transported seaward.

  17. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-08-29

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders.

  18. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  19. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  20. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood’. By tak......This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood...... stages to establish a clear derivational pattern that is productively used in the language to form new words. Having access to continuous written material in Icelandic from ca. 1200 to 2011 gives us the possibility to track this process through time and follow each step in the development....

  1. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  2. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  3. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  4. Quantitative risk analysis for landslides ‒ Examples from Bíldudalur, NW-Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various methods to carry out quantitative landslide risk analyses are available, applications are still rare and mostly dependent on the occurrence of disasters. In Iceland, two catastrophic snow avalanches killed 34 people in 1995. As a consequence the Ministry of the Environment issued a new regulation on hazard zoning due to snow avalanches and landslides in 2000, which aims to prevent people living or working within the areas most at risk until 2010. The regulation requires to carry out landslide and snow avalanche risk analyses, however, a method to calculate landslide risk adopted to Icelandic conditions is still missing. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this study is to develop such a method for landslides, focussing on debris flows and rock falls and to test it in Bíldudalur, NW-Iceland. Risk analysis, beside risk evaluation and risk management, is part of the holistic concept of risk assessment. Within this study, risk analysis is considered only, focussing on the risks to life. To calculate landslide risk, the spatial and temporal probability of occurrence of potential damaging events, as well as the distribution of the elements at risk in space and time, considering also changing vulnerabilities, must be determined. Within this study, a new raster-based approach is developed. Thus, all existent vector data are transferred into raster data using a resolution of 1m x 1m. The specific attribute data are attributed to the grid cells, resulting in specific raster data layers for each input parameter. The calculation of the landslide risk follows a function of the input parameters hazard, damage potential of the elements at risk, vulnerability, probability of the spatial impact, probability of the temporal impact and probability of the seasonal occurrence. Finally, results are upscaled to a resolution of 20m x 20m and are presented as individual risk to life and object risk to life for each process. Within the quantitative

  5. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  6. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  7. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  8. Holocene and latest Pleistocene climate and glacier fluctuations in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Axford, Yarrow; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís

    2009-10-01

    Multiproxy climate records from Iceland document complex changes in terrestrial climate and glacier fluctuations through the Holocene, revealing some coherent patterns of change as well as significant spatial variability. Most studies on the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation reveal a dynamic Iceland Ice Sheet (IIS) that responded abruptly to changes in ocean currents and sea level. The IIS broke up catastrophically around 15 ka as the Polar Front migrated northward and sea level rose. Indications of regional advance or halt of the glaciers are seen in late Alleröd/early Younger Dryas time and again in PreBoreal time. Due to the apparent rise of relative sea level in Iceland during this time, most sites contain evidence for fluctuating, tidewater glacier termini occupying paleo fjords and bays. The time between the end of the Younger Dryas and the Preboreal was characterized by repeated jökulhlaups that eroded glacial deposits. By 10.3 ka, the main ice sheet was in rapid retreat across the highlands of Iceland. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM) was reached after 8 ka with land temperatures estimated to be 3 °C higher than the 1961-1990 reference, and net precipitation similar to modern. Such temperatures imply largely ice-free conditions across Iceland in the early to mid-Holocene. Several marine and lacustrine sediment climate proxies record substantial summer temperature depression between 8.5 and 8 ka, but no moraines have been detected from that time. Termination of the HTM and onset of Neoglacial cooling took place sometime after 6 ka with increased glacier activity between 4.5 and 4.0 ka, intensifying between 3.0 and 2.5 ka. Although a distinct warming during the Medieval Warm Period is not dramatically apparent in Icelandic records, the interval from ca AD 0 to 1200 is commonly characterized by relative stability with slow rates of change. The literature most commonly describes Little Ice Age moraines (ca AD 1250-1900) as representing the

  9. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  10. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  11. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  12. Deglacial and Holocene sea-ice variability north of Iceland and response to ocean circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaotong; Zhao, Meixun; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Sha, Longbin; Eiríksson, Jón; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Sea-ice conditions on the North Icelandic shelf constitute a key component for the study of the climatic gradients between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans at the Polar Front between the cold East Icelandic Current delivering Polar surface water and the relatively warm Irminger Current derived from the North Atlantic Current. The variability of sea ice contributes to heat reduction (albedo) and gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and further affects the deep-water formation. However, lack of long-term and high-resolution sea-ice records in the region hinders the understanding of palaeoceanographic change mechanisms during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present a sea-ice record back to 15 ka (cal. ka BP) based on the sea-ice biomarker IP25, phytoplankton biomarker brassicasterol and terrestrial biomarker long-chain n-alkanols in piston core MD99-2272 from the North Icelandic shelf. During the Bølling/Allerød (14.7-12.9 ka), the North Icelandic shelf was characterized by extensive spring sea-ice cover linked to reduced flow of warm Atlantic Water and dominant Polar water influence, as well as strong meltwater input in the area. This pattern showed an anti-phase relationship with the ice-free/less ice conditions in marginal areas of the eastern Nordic Seas, where the Atlantic Water inflow was strong, and contributed to an enhanced deep-water formation. Prolonged sea-ice cover with occasional occurrence of seasonal sea ice prevailed during the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka) interrupted by a brief interval of enhanced Irminger Current and deposition of the Vedde Ash, as opposed to abruptly increased sea-ice conditions in the eastern Nordic Seas. The seasonal sea ice decreased gradually from the Younger Dryas to the onset of the Holocene corresponding to increasing insolation. Ice-free conditions and sea surface warming were observed for the Early Holocene, followed by expansion of sea ice during the Mid-Holocene.

  13. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  14. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  15. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  16. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  17. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  18. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  19. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    to a hybrid mixture between the depleted-MORB mantle and the enriched Iceland mantle plume, itself resulting from mixing between recycled oceanic crust and depleted lower mantle. This hybrid accounts for the high 3He/4He (28 Ra), high 143Nd/144Nd (0.5132), high 187Os/188Os (0.14) and low 87Sr/86Sr (0...

  20. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  1. Pressure Algometry in Icelandic Horses : Interexaminer and Intraexaminer Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Eveline S.; Blom, Guy; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Reliability of pressure algometry as an outcome measure in equine research and therapy needs to be studied. The aim of the present study was to establish interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability of pressure algometry in Icelandic horses and to determine reference mechanical nociceptive threshold

  2. The thirteenth-century runic revival in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2016-01-01

    alphabet. This paper examines a number of runic phenomenon from the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries in Denmark and Iceland to argue that they belong to a cultural revival movement rather than forming part of a continuous runic tradition stretching back into the early Middle Ages. Some...

  3. Island connections: Icelandic spatiality in the wake of worldly linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bjarnason

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notions and materiality of connections, through electronic networks as well as modes of mobility, play an ever-increasing role in how we define, understand, engage and experience the world we live in and the islands we live on. This article presents an account of Icelandic encounters with technologies of telecommunication and explores how electronic connections have participated in formulating a particularly connected, island spatiality. It is argued that an island can be regarded as a kind of connected laboratory suitable for studying how associations form around technologies of connections, which can be traced through various actors. For this purpose, the historical genealogy of connections and telecommunication in Iceland is analyzed, as well as more contemporary ideas and representations of mobile phone usage and network connectivity. It is maintained that connections have fundamentally altered the spatiality as well as representations of Iceland. While still an island in a geographical sense, and in that manner remote and isolated, the social space of the island now denies such connotations in many respects, valorizing the connectivity of Iceland and its people.

  4. Iceland and European Union accession - the whaling issue

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Peter G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to assess one of the important questions regarding Iceland’s potential accession to the EU, namely, whether Iceland could legitimately continue its whaling operations under current EU environmental law if it becomes a member of the regional economic integration organization

  5. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  6. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  7. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  8. The source and longevity of sulfur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Edmonds, Marie; Mather, Tamsin; Schmidt, Anja; Hartley, Margaret; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pope, Francis; Donovan, Amy; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Maclennan, John; Shorttle, Oliver; Francis, Peter; Bergsson, Baldur; Barsotti, Sara; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bali, Eniko; Keller, Nicole; Stefansson, Andri

    2015-04-01

    The Holuhraun fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, central Iceland) has been ongoing since 31 August 2014 and is now the largest in Europe since the 1783-84 Laki event. For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt fissure eruption (>1 km3 lava). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere in the past. The Laki eruption caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and potentially also increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulphur-bearing gas and aerosol. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The gas emissions from Holuhraun have been sustained since its beginning, repeatedly causing severe air pollution in populated areas in Iceland. During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally. This raises key questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulphur. A lack of understanding of the source of this sulfur, the conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. In 2015 our group is undertaking a project funded by UK NERC urgency scheme to investigate several aspects of the sulfur budget at Holuhraun using a novel and powerful approach involving simultaneous tracking of sulfur and

  9. Distribution of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) cysts in Greenland and Iceland, with an emphasis on viability and growth in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlen, Mindy L; Zielinski, Oliver; Holinde, Lars; Tillmann, Urban; Cembella, Allan; Lyu, Yihua; Anderson, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense has been extensively studied due its toxin-producing capabilities and consequent impacts to human health and economies. This study investigated the prevalence of resting cysts of A. fundyense in western Greenland and Iceland to assess the historical presence and magnitude of bloom populations in the region, and to characterize environmental conditions during summer, when bloom development may occur. Analysis of sediments collected from these locations showed that Alexandrium cysts were present at low to moderate densities in most areas surveyed, with highest densities observed in western Iceland. Additionally, laboratory experiments were conducted on clonal cultures established from isolated cysts or vegetative cells from Greenland, Iceland, and the Chukchi Sea (near Alaska) to examine the effects of photoperiod interval and irradiance levels on growth. Growth rates in response to the experimental treatments varied among isolates, but were generally highest under conditions that included both the shortest photoperiod interval (16h:8h light:dark) and higher irradiance levels (~146-366 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), followed by growth under an extended photoperiod interval and low irradiance level (~37 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ). Based on field and laboratory data, we hypothesize that blooms in Greenland are primarily derived from advected Alexandrium populations, as low bottom temperatures and limited light availability would likely preclude in situ bloom development. In contrast, the bays and fjords in Iceland may provide more favorable habitat for germling cell survival and growth, and therefore may support indigenous, self-seeding blooms.

  10. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  11. Compaction and evolution of rock properties and rock physics diagnostics of Albatross discovery, SW Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The Albatross discovery is located approximately 140 km northwest of Hammerfest (city of midnight sun), Norway in the central part of Hammerfest Basin, SW Barents Sea. The Albatross discovery included within Snøhvit field development project (the first gas development project in the Barents Sea) with two other discoveries, Snøhvit and Askeladd, in the area. The reservoirs contain gas and condensate in the Lower and Middle Jurassic sandstones of the Stø Formation. The study focuses compaction ...

  12. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    Through funding from the European FP7 programme, the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), as well as the local Icelandic government and RANNÍS research fund, the establishment of the Icelandic volcano observatory (VO) as a cross-disciplinary, international volcanological data node and data service is starting to materialize. At the core of this entity is the close collaboration between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a natural hazard monitoring and research institution, and researchers at the Earth Science Institute of the University of Iceland, ensuring long-term sustainable access to research quality data and products. Existing Icelandic Earth science monitoring and research infrastructures are being prepared for integration with the European EPOS infrastructure. Because the VO is located at a Met Office, this infrastructure also includes meteorological infrastructures relevant to volcanology. Furthermore, the FP7 supersite project, FUTUREVOLC cuts across disciplines to bring together European researchers from Earth science, atmospheric science, remote sensing and space science focussed on combined processing of the different data sources and results to generate a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. Integration with atmospheric and space science is to meet the need for better estimates of the volcanic eruption source term and dispersion, which depend not only on the magma flow rate and composition, but also on atmosphere-plume interaction and dispersion. This should lead to better estimates of distribution of ash in the atmosphere. FUTUREVOLC will significantly expand the existing Icelandic EPOS infrastructure to an even more multidisciplinary volcanological infrastructure. A central and sustainable part of the project is the establishment of a research-quality data centre at the VO. This data centre will be able to serve as a volcanological data node within EPOS, making multidisciplinary data accessible to

  13. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  14. Icelandic Public Pensions: Why time is running out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Icelandic public sector pension system enjoying a third party guarantee. Defined benefit funds fundamentally differ from defined contribution pension funds without a third party guarantee as is the case with the Icelandic general labour market pension funds. We probe the special nature of the public sector pension funds and make a comparison to the defined contribution pension funds of the general labour market. We explore the financial and economic effects of the third party guarantee of the funds, their investment performance and other relevant factors. We seek an answer to the question why time is running out for the country’s largest pension fund that currently faces the prospect of becoming empty by the year 2022.

  15. 230Th-238U disequilibria in historical lavas from Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condomines, M.; Morand, P.; Alleegre, C.J.; Sigvaldason, G.

    1981-01-01

    The 230 Th- 238 U disequilibrium studies on historical lavas from Iceland show a relative homogeneity for Th/U ratios and also a variation for ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) activity ratios at the scale of the island. The ( 230 Th/ 238 U) disequilibrium ratio is always greater than 1 which indicates that partial melting produces magmas with Th/U ratios greater than those of the mantle source. Furthermore, there seems to be a correlation between the variations of ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) (and delta 18 O) ratios and the geographical location of the samples along the active zones of Iceland. We develop and discuss several models in order to explain these variations. (orig.)

  16. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  17. The assent of a nation: genethics and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, M G

    1999-04-01

    The Icelandic parliament passed legislation authorizing the establishment of a national health sector database which will be sponsored financially by private enterprises through DeCode Genetics Inc. Health related data will be gathered from patients, without their informed consent, from all points of contact with Icelandic public and private health care providers. A centralized data curator will 'non-personalize' the identity of the subjects in a one-way coding system which the government and DeCode Genetics argue overrides the need for informed consent. This legislation is in conflict with the European Data Protection Act, which requires informed consent for the collection of personal data. The law raises many ethical questions regarding the central tenets of informed consent, the power of government, the rights of the human subject, and finally, the responsibility of the clinician balancing commitments of the patient and research.

  18. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abr...

  19. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2014-01-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the n...

  20. Icelandic boom and bust - Immigration and the housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Lúðvík Elíasson

    2014-01-01

    Possible explanations for the rapid increase in house prices and housing investment in Iceland between 2004 and 2007 and the subsequent market crash are studied. The boom was driven in part by banking liberalisation, international financial conditions, and domestic policies. A simple demand and supply model, based on the study by Elíasson and Pétursson (2009), is fitted to data through the recent boom-bust period. The model is remarkably robust through the cycle despite its unprecedented ampl...

  1. Alcohol and labor supply: the case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne

    2009-10-01

    At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.

  2. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson; Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir

    2014-01-01

    Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlat...

  3. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlation with staff job satisfaction using a new Dutch instrument (SLS measuring participants’ attitudes to their next superior. A single item job satisfaction question was included. Results showed considerable practice of servant leadership or 4,19 (scale: 1-6 and the strongest servant leadership characteristic was stewardship, followed by forgiveness and empowerment. 82,6% of participants reported job satisfaction with significant positive correlation with servant leadership. The relatively high degree of servant leadership supports previous study of the uiniversity’s working environment but not recent American studies indicating universities’ a low degree of servant leadership. The degree of servant leadership in the University of Iceland was lower compared to grammar schools (6,46 and general hospital wards (4,33 but identical to hospital emergency care units (4,19. Significant positive correlation of servant leadership with job satisfaction, confirms similar relationships in US universities and in various institutions in Iceland. Results indicate the importance of servant leadership for employees’ job satisfaction, not least empowerment and courage, and this has the potential to support peer management, employee independence and social responsibility of the University of Iceland.

  4. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  5. The involvement of family in child protection cases in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Haugen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of families in child protection cases in Iceland, as well as to shed light on the attitudes of child protection workers on the importance of including families while working on child protection cases. The study is part of an international comparative analysis called: Social Work with Families: Social Workers’ Constructions of Family in Professional Practice. This article only addresses the Icelandic segment of the research. In the study, qualitative methods were used and three focus groups were conducted, in which the same three-step vignette about a child protection case was presented. The findings highlighted how difficult child protection workers found it to define the family. The main element is that family are those individuals closest to the child and connected to them through emotional ties, as Icelandic child protection workers seem to strive to involve family in child protection cases. However, there are signs which show that when working with more complicated cases the definition of a family becomes narrower, and involvement is restricted mostly to parents and grandparents. The findings also show that attitudes toward fathers differ from those toward mothers. The mother is expected to support and create security for the child, while the father is judged mostly on his violent behaviour and is not automatically regarded as providing support or actively taking responsibility for his child.

  6. [Organising Pneumonia - a review and results from Icelandic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur A; Isaksson, Helgi J; Gudmundsson, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is a relatively rare interstitial lung disease. It s definition is based on a characteristic histological pattern in the presence of certain clinical and radiological features. Organising pneumonia represents also what has been called Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP). Recently it has been recommended to call OP cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) when no definite cause or characteristic clinical context is found and secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) when causes can be identified such as infection or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context such as connective tissue disorder. The most common clinical symptoms are dyspnea, cough, fever and general malaise. It is common that symptoms have been present for some weeks before the diagnosis is made. Patients commonly have lowered PO2 and a mildly restrictive spirometry. Radiographic features are most often patchy bilateral airspace opacities but an interstitial pattern or focal opacities can also be seen. Most of patients respond well to steroids but relapses are quite common. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the disease and the main results from studies on OP in Iceland. The mean annual incidence for OP in Iceland was 1.97/100,000 inhabitants. Annual incidence for COP was 1.10/100,000 and 0.87/100,000 for SOP. This is higher than in most other studies. In Iceland patients with OP had a higher standardized mortality ratio than the general population despite good clinical responses. No clinical symptoms could separate between SOP and COP.

  7. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2008-05-01

    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  8. Midwifery in Iceland: From vocational training to university education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Olof A; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2018-04-03

    Midwifery education is a foundation for health professionals' competence in providing quality healthcare for the benefit of women, their families and society. This paper describes midwifery and the development of midwifery education in Iceland. It examines policy and extensive reforms, from hospital-based vocational training in midwifery to an academic university education, and the impact on the scope of midwifery practice in Iceland. The university-based programme, with its emphasis on autonomy of the midwife, seems to have affected the context of home birth and strengthened midwives' role in primary healthcare. Education reform with a focus on evidence-based practice and midwife-led continuity of care has had limited influence within the hospital system, where the structure of care is fragmented and childbirth is under threat of increasing interventions. Research is needed on the role of education in supporting evidence-based practice, normal childbirth and reproductive health in the Icelandic context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  10. Depths of Magma Chambers in the Icelandic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Kapostasy, D. D.; Barton, M.

    2004-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the structure and thermal state of the crust in Iceland, which lies across the Mid Atlantic Ridge. However, interpretations of seismic and gravity data yield conflicting views of the nature of the lower crust. Some interpretations prefer a model in which the lower crust (15-25 km) is relatively cool and solid, whereas other interpretations, based largely on gravity data, prefer a model in which the lower crust is relatively warm and possibly partially molten. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradient in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of aphyric lavas and of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers have been compiled. The compositions are picritic and basaltic with SiO2 - 47 to 50 wt%, MgO - 6 to 15wt%, FeO - 8 to 14wt%, to, Na2O - 1.3 to 3.3 wt%, and K2O - 0.03-46 wt%. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Silica using methods described by Walker and coworkers and Grove and coworkers. The results (ca. 0.5 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 16 km depth. Equilibration pressures were also calculated using the method described by Yang and coworkers and by a modified version of this method. Calculated pressures (0.45±0.15 GPa) indicate magma chambers located at 15±4 km depth. Equilibration pressures for Rekjanes Ridge glasses determined using the same techniques are 0.2±0.1 GPa, corresponding to depths of 7.6±3 km. The results indicate the presence of magma chambers in the deep Icelandic crust and that the latter is relatively warm. Shallower chambers (3-7 km) have been identified from seismic studies suggesting a complex magma plumbing system. The results also confirm that magma chambers beneath Iceland are located at greater depths than those beneath the

  11. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  12. Sedimentological characteristics and seafloor failure offshore SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analysis results reveal two main deposition zones are located at the flank of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon and Lower Fangliao Basin offshore SW Taiwan. The non-event related sediments deposited in past 150 years (i.e., 632 Mt km-2 was delivered and transported from Gaoping River by suspension process with tides and coastal currents and gradually spread out offshore. Meanwhile, the total mass of accumulation sediments is 1922 Mt km-2, accounting for 40% Gaoping River’s sediment load and suggesting that the deposition process is mainly controlled by natural hazards. Sedimentation rates in much of the study area, except in the main deposition zones, are less than 0.5 cm yr-1 (5 m kyr-1. Compared with the studies at the instability seafloor caused by high sedimentation rates (~30 m kyr-1, the offshore southwestern Taiwan is relatively stable. In this study, we also discovered a series of sediment waves located on the upper continental slope between Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons, which is related to the creeping process on seafloor. In summary, our results reveal the fluid activities, existence of weak layers and earthquake triggering are potential factors which might induced seafloor failures offshore southwestern Taiwan.

  13. An overview of the Icelandic Volcano Observatory response to the on-going rifting event at Bárðarbunga (Iceland) and the SO2 emergency associated with the gas-rich eruption in Holuhraun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Jonsdottir, Kristin; Roberts, Matthew J.; Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Vögfjord, Kristin; Stefánsdóttir, Gerður; Jónasdóttir, Elin B.

    2015-04-01

    On 16 August, 2014, Bárðarbunga volcano entered a new phase of unrest. Elevated seismicity in the area with up to thousands of earthquakes detected per day and significant deformation was observed around the Bárðarbunga caldera. A dike intrusion was monitored for almost two weeks until a small, short-lived effusive eruption began on 29 August in Holuhraun. Two days later a second, more intense, tremendously gas-rich eruption started that is still (as of writing) ongoing. The Icelandic Volcano Observatory (IVO), within the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), monitors all the volcanoes in Iceland. Responsibilities include evaluating their related hazards, issuing warnings to the public and Civil Protection, and providing information regarding risks to aviation, including a weekly summary of volcanic activity provided to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in London. IVO has monitored the Bárðarbunga unrest phase since its beginning with the support of international colleagues and, in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Environment Agency of Iceland, provides scientific support and interpretation of the ongoing phenomena to the local Civil Protection. The Aviation Color Code, for preventing hazards to aviation due to ash-cloud encounter, has been widely used and changed as soon as new observations and geophysical data from the monitoring network have suggested a potential evolution in the volcanic crisis. Since the onset of the eruption, IVO is monitoring the gas emission by using different and complementary instrumentations aimed at analyzing the plume composition as well as estimating the gaseous fluxes. SO2 rates have been measured with both real-time scanning DOASes and occasional mobile DOAS traveses, near the eruption site and in the far field. During the first month-and-a-half of the eruption, an average flux equal to 400 kg/s was registered, with peaks exceeding 1,000 kg/s. Along with these measurements the dispersal model CALPUFF has

  14. Geologic mapping of the Hekla volcano (Iceland) using integrated data sets from optic and radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Tobias; Loercher, Gerhard

    1994-12-01

    During the MAC-Europe campaign in June/July 1991 different airborne data sets (AIRSAR, TMS and AVIRIS) were collected over Iceland. One test site is situated around the Hekla-volcano in South Iceland. This area is characterised by a sequence of lava flows of different ages together with tuffs and ashes. This case study shall contribute to demonstrate the potential of MAC-Europe data for geological mapping. The optical- and the SAR data was analysed separately to elaborate the preferences of the different sensors. An approach was carried out to process an image representing the advantages of the respective sensors in only one presentation. The synergetic approach improves the separation of geological units clearly by combination of two completely different data sets due to the utilisation of spectral bands in the visible and infrared region on one side and on the other side in the microwave region. Beside the petrographical information extracted from optical data using spectral signatures the combination includes physical information like roughness and dielectricity of a target. The geologic setting of the test area is characterised by a very uniform petrography hence the spectral signatures are showing only little variations. Due to this fact, the differentiation of geological units using optical data is limited. The additional use of SAR data establishes the new dimension of the surface roughness which improves the discrimination clearly. This additional parameter presents a new information tool about the state of weathering, age and sequence of the different lava flows. The NASA/JPL AIRSAR system is very suitable for this kind of investigation due to its multifrequency and polarimetric capabilities. The three SAR frequencies (C-, L- and P-Band) enable the detection of a broad range of roughness differences. These results can be enhanced by comprising the full scattering matrix of the polarimetric AIRSAR data.

  15. Late Holocene and modern glacier changes in the marginal zone of Sólheimajökull, South Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2012-01-01

    The forefield of the Sólheimajökull outlet glacier, South Iceland, has a variety of glacial landforms and sediments that are products of late Holocene and modern glacier oscillations. Several sets of moraine ridges reflect past ice front positions and river-cut sedimentary sections provide inform...... the last 50 years. The glacier margin thickened 70-100 m from 1960 to 1996 and then thinned 120-150 m between 1996 and 2010. In 2010, the glacier snout was 20-40 m thinner than in 1960. Additionally, the DEM time-series detect areas of erosion and deposition in the forefield....

  16. The triggering factors of the Móafellshyrna debris slide in northern Iceland: intense precipitation, earthquake activity and thawing of mountain permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Morino, Costanza; Kristinn Helgason, Jón; Conway, Susan J.; Pétursson, Halldór G.

    2017-04-01

    On the 20th of September in 2012, a large debris slide occurred in the Móafellshyrna Mountain in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, central north Iceland. Three factors are likely to have contributed to the failure of the slope: intense precipitation, earthquake activity and thawing of ground ice. The weather conditions prior the slide were somewhat unusual, with a warm and dry summer. From the 20th of August to the 20th of September, about 440 mm of precipitation fell in the area, where the mean annual precipitation at the nearest station is around 670 mm. The slide initiated after this thirty day period of intense precipitation, followed by a seismic sequence in the Eyjafjarðaráll graben, located about 60 km NNE of Móafellshyrna Mountain, a sequence that started on the 19th of September. The slide originated at elevation of 870 m a.s.l. on the NW-slope of the mountain. The total volume of the debris slide is estimated around 500,000 m3 and that its primary cause was intense precipitation. We cannot exclude the influence of the seismic sequence as a secondary contributing factor. The presence of ice-cemented blocks of talus immediately after the debris slide shows that thawing of ground ice could also have played an important role as a triggering factor. Ice-cemented blocks of talus have been observed in the deposits of two other recent landslides in northern Iceland, in the Torfufell Mountain and the Árnesfjall Mountain. The source areas for both the Móafellshyrna and the Torfufell slides are within the lower elevation limit of mountain permafrost in northern Iceland but the source area of the Árnesfjall slide is at much lower elevation, around 350 m a.s.l. The fact that there are now three documented landslides which are linked to ground ice-melting suggests that discontinuous permafrost is degrading in Iceland, consistent with the decadal trend of increasing atmospheric temperature in Iceland due to climate change. This study highlights that ground ice thaw

  17. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  18. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-01-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  19. Development of Indigenous Basic Interest Scales: Re-Structuring the Icelandic Interest Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Eyjolfsdottir, Katrin Osk; Rounds, James

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation used an emic approach to develop a set of Icelandic indigenous basic interest scales. An indigenous item pool that is representative of the Icelandic labor market was administered to three samples (N = 1043, 1368, and 2218) of upper secondary and higher education students in two studies. A series of item level cluster and…

  20. Spring production of Calanus finmarchicus at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Richardson, K.; Heath, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution and reproduction activity of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus were studied in the waters between Scotland and Iceland in April 1997 during the expected time of the animals' ascent to surface waters following diapause. Ascent was taking place on both sides of the Iceland-Scot...

  1. Report on a Survey Project in Iceland on the Use of Radiation Pasteurization of Various Seafoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannesson, G.; Dagbjartsson, B. [Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1970-11-15

    A survey project on the irradiation preservation of seafoods, sponsored by the Government of Iceland, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Atomic Energy Commission has been carried out at the Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories. A summary of results obtained on Norway lobster tails, deep-sea shrimp and cod fish is given in this paper. (author)

  2. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  3. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  4. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  5. Money Talks: Gender Budgeting in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnborg S. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes of the University of Iceland from a gender perspective. The newly appointed rector of the University of Iceland (elected 2015 together with the university council is currently revising the UI system of the distribution formula of budget allocation. This provides an opportunity to examine the system which is inspired by New Public Management, with emphasis on global competition and performance based indicators. The aim of the article is to scrutinize the current system of budget allocation and distribution and its significance when it comes to gender. We ask how the, allegedly gender neutral, system plays out for different schools and disciplines and for academics in different ranks, when the gender dimension is taken into account. We draw on empirical data collected as part of the GARCIA research project, Gendering the Academy and Research combating Career Instability and Asymmetries, which is supported by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. To shed a light on the process we focus on the male-dominated School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (SENS and the more feminised School of Social Sciences (SSS. The exploration shows that the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes at the University of Iceland are rather non-transparent, and biased in favour of the natural sciences. This applies to funding from the state; third party funding; the allocation of funding in the teaching part of the budgeting, as well as the research part. From the article it can be concluded that the current system contains an internal, though unintended, gender bias that needs to be corrected.

  6. Volcanic systems of Iceland and their magma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2017-04-01

    Several active hot-spot volcanoes produce magma from mantle sources which composition varies on decadal time scale. This is probably best demonstrated by the recent work of Pietruszka and collaborators on Kilauea, Hawaii. In marked contrast, basalt lavas from volcanic system in Iceland located above the presumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume have uniform isotope composition over the last 10 thousand years. Volcanic systems are composed of a central volcano and a fissure swarm, or a combination of both and they represent a fundamental component of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland. Four such systems, those of Askja, Bárðarbunga, Kverkfjöll and Grímsvötn in central Iceland were chosen for investigation. The last three have central volcanoes covered by the Vatnajökull ice-sheet whereas part of their fissure swarms is ice-free. Tephra produced during subglacial eruptions together with lavas from the fissure swarms of Holocene age have been collected and analysed for Sr, Nd and Th isotope ratios. Those volcanic formations that can be univocally correlated to a given volcanic system display uniform isotope ratio but different from one volcanic system to another. An exception to this regularity is that Askja products have isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of Gímsvötn, but since these volcanic systems lies far apart their lava fields do not overlap. A practical aspect of these findings was demonstrated during the rifting event of Bárðarbunga and fissure eruption forming the Holuhraun lava field. Relatively low, O isotope ratios in these basalts and heterogeneous macrocrystal composition have been ascribed to important metabasaltic crustal contamination with or without crystal mush recycling. In that case a surprisingly efficient magma mixing and melt homogenization must have occurred in the past beneath the volcanic systems. One possibility is that during the rapid deglaciation much mantle melting occurred and melts accumulated at the mantle

  7. Environmental mapping and monitoring of Iceland by remote sensing (EMMIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Falco, Nicola; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Rustowicz, Rose; Belart, Joaquin M.-C.; Gísladóttir, Gudrun; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is exposed to rapid and dynamic landscape changes caused by natural processes and man-made activities, which impact and challenge the country. Fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques are needed on a big spatial scale. However, currently there is lack of operational advanced information processing techniques, which are needed for end-users to incorporate remote sensing (RS) data from multiple data sources. Hence, the full potential of the recent RS data explosion is not being fully exploited. The project Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS) bridges the gap between advanced information processing capabilities and end-user mapping of the Icelandic environment. This is done by a multidisciplinary assessment of two selected remote sensing super sites, Hekla and Öræfajökull, which encompass many of the rapid natural and man-made landscape changes that Iceland is exposed to. An open-access benchmark repository of the two remote sensing supersites is under construction, providing high-resolution LIDAR topography and hyperspectral data for land-cover and landform classification. Furthermore, a multi-temporal and multi-source archive stretching back to 1945 allows a decadal evaluation of landscape and ecological changes for the two remote sensing super sites by the development of automated change detection techniques. The development of innovative pattern recognition and machine learning-based approaches to image classification and change detection is one of the main tasks of the EMMIRS project, aiming to extract and compute earth observation variables as automatically as possible. Ground reference data collected through a field campaign will be used to validate the implemented methods, which outputs are then inferred with geological and vegetation models. Here, preliminary results of an automatic land-cover classification based on hyperspectral image analysis are reported. Furthermore, the EMMIRS project

  8. Semi-supervised morphosyntactic classification of Old Icelandic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kryztof; Tangherlini, Timothy R; Vijūnas, Aurelijus; Broadwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    We present IceMorph, a semi-supervised morphosyntactic analyzer of Old Icelandic. In addition to machine-read corpora and dictionaries, it applies a small set of declension prototypes to map corpus words to dictionary entries. A web-based GUI allows expert users to modify and augment data through an online process. A machine learning module incorporates prototype data, edit-distance metrics, and expert feedback to continuously update part-of-speech and morphosyntactic classification. An advantage of the analyzer is its ability to achieve competitive classification accuracy with minimum training data.

  9. Family counts: deciding when to murder among the Icelandic Vikings

    OpenAIRE

    Palmstierna, Markel; Frangou, Anna; Wallette, Anna; Dunbar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    In small scale societies, lethal attacks on another individual usually invite revenge by the victim's family. We might expect those who perpetrate such attacks to do so only when their own support network (mainly family) is larger than that of the potential victim so as to minimise the risk of retaliation. Using data from Icelandic family sagas, we show that this prediction holds whether we consider biological kin or affinal kin (in-laws): on average, killers had twice as many relatives as th...

  10. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  11. Volcanic ash and daily mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic volcano eruption of May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-12-10

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24-31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study effects

  12. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  13. The validity and reliability of the handheld SW-100 autokeratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghosasere Iyamu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The agreement of new instruments or clinical tests with other instruments or tests defines the possibility of these being used interchangeably. Aim: To investigate the validity and reliability of the SW-100 autokeratometer using a Bausch & Lomb (B&L keratometer as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Eighty subjects (80 right eyes aged between 21 and 38 years were recruited. For intra-test repeatability, two measurements of the corneal radius of curvature were taken with the SW-100 and B&L keratometers. Forty of the 80 subjects participated in the inter-test repeatability measurement. Results: Corneal radius of curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001, with the SW-100 providing slightly flatter values of 0.11 mm and 0.05 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively, than the B&L keratometer. The average corneal curvature was 0.07 mm flatter with the SW-100 autokeratometer than with the B&L device. Agreement between the SW-100 and B&L keratometers’ axes was 45% within ± 5°, 60.3% within ± 10°, 78.8% within ± 15°, 80.3% within ± 20°, and 88.7% within ± 40°. Intertest repeatability was better for the B&L device than the SW-100 and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Both instruments demonstrated comparable intrasession repeatability. As such, both instruments were comparatively reliable (per coefficients of repeatability. The range of limits of agreement of ± 0.14 mm (horizontal meridian and ± 0.17 mm (vertical meridian between the SW-100 and B&L devices showed good agreement. Conclusion: The results suggest that the SW-100 autokeratometer is a reliable and objective instrument that, however, provides flatter radii of curvature measurements than the B&L keratometer. A compensating factor incorporated into the instrument could reduce the difference between the two instruments and make them more interchangeable.

  14. New voices in Iceland young adults with disabilities in Iceland: The importance of relationships and natural supports

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Dóra S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with young adults’ perspectives and experiences of growing up with a variety of impairments in Iceland, and how they impact the young disabled adults’ approach to the status of adulthood. The paper is based on a qualitative study that explored perspectives and experiences of 36 young disabled adults (16–24 years old), their parents, friends and teachers. The purpose of this paper is to share themes related to the way that choices made by and for disabled children and young pe...

  15. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pfood and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  16. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair

    2014-09-21

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  17. Icelandic media firms viewed from the perspective of agency theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been proposed that agency theory (principal-agent approach might be applied to media organizations to understand how media owners make sure that their companies are managed according to their wishes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate: a whether agency theory is applicable to three Icelandic media companies, and b how the theory manifests itself in the management practices of these companies. The media companies that were examined were: the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RÚV ohf., 365 miðlar ehf. and Árvakur hf. Qualitative interviews were conducted with three editors-in-chief, two CEOs/publishers, the director general of RÚV and the news director of RÚV in May of 2012. Two of the interviewees were also part- owners of the media companies. The results indicated that it is, indeed, possible to analyze management practices of media organizations from the perspective of agency theory. However, it varies how much the companies are driven by profit maximization, for instance – on which agency theory places an optimum emphasis. The media house 365 miðlar ehf. turned out to be the best example of how the underlying constructs of agency theory are incorporated into the management practices of a media organization.

  18. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...... an interrupted time series design that contrasts the monthly sales data for over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine before and after the legislation took effect. RESULTS: The total use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine as well as those containing paracetamol and codeine has risen...... leads to irrational use of over-the-counter medicines is not substantiated in the case of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  19. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair; André n, Margareta; Kristmannsdó ttir, Hrefna; Stockmann, Gabrielle; Mö rth, Carl-Magnus; Sveinbjö rnsdó ttir, Á rny; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Sturkell, Erik; Guð rú nardó ttir, Helga Rakel; Hjartarson, Hreinn; Siegmund, Heike; Kockum, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  20. The dynamic and ever-changing volcanic nature of Iceland -An outdoor laboratory for education on natural processes and the human impacts on them-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    "Tell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand" (Chinese Proverb). Throughout the global history fundamental knowledge on utilizing natural resources, nowadays known as ecoliteracy, was passed on to next generations by our ancestors. Nevertheless, their practices were often unsustainable and lead directly or indirectly to severe ecosystem degradation. Nowadays, overexploitation of natural resources is still a global main driver for ecological degradation, water quality decrease and climate change. While ecoliteracy is still an essential knowledge, the societal structures required to maintain the knowledge have diminished. Today, about 80% of the population in Western countries lives in urban areas dominated by concrete structures with frequently only isolated green spaces. Environmental education is dominated by theoretical concepts taught using a wide range of multimedia technologies to simulate direct experiences of natural processes. Nevertheless, these technologies can only provide a superficial insight into the functioning of natural processes. Only direct on-sight investigations can provide a thorough experience of the dynamic, ever-changing environmental processes. Iceland is a 103,000 km2 large island, located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge just south of the Arctic Circle. In that area the earth crust is only a few km thick, leading to frequent volcanic eruptions and seismic activity. Due to the long winter and the wet climate glaciers formed on all major peaks and cover 11% of the island. Most riverbeds are in their pristine state and water quality is in general excellent. The Icelandic nature may look pristine but is indeed severely degraded. Unsustainable landuse, namely deforestation and overgrazing, in an environment characterized by harsh winters and volcanic activities had devastating effects on the nature. Since settlement 1100 years ago 40% of its vegetation and soil have been lost. Soil conservation and

  1. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  2. Sulfur and lead isotope characteristics of the Pontes e Lacerda gold deposits, SW Amazonian Craton Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Babinski; M; Iyer, S

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the S and Pb isotope signatures in sulfides from the Pontes e Lacerda mesothermal gold deposits located in the SW sector of Amazonian craton. Stable and radiogenic isotopes have played an important role in the study of ore deposited and hydrothermal processes and they are most useful when can be used together. The purpose of this study is to constrain the sources and the mechanisms of gold deposition in Pontes e Lacerda region which may be a helpful contribution to an exploratory model in the area (au)

  3. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  4. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: a study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David E; Horwell, Claire J; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-09-11

    The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. Icelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m 2  g -1 , which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO • ), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after 'refreshing' sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m -2 , with mafic samples releasing more iron than silicic samples. All samples were non-reactive in a test of red blood cell-membrane damage. The primary particle-specific concern is the potential for future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to generate fine, respirable material and, thus, to

  5. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  6. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  7. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  8. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  9. Habitat mapping using hyperspectral images in the vicinity of Hekla volcano in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Falco, Nicola; Rustowicz, Rose; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Hekla, one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland, has created a diverse volcanic landscape with lava flows, hyaloclastite and tephra fields. The variety of geological formations and different times of formation create diverse vegetation within Hekla's vicinity. The region is subjected to extensive loss of vegetation cover and soil erosion due to human utilization of woodlands and ongoing sheep grazing. The eolian activity and frequent tephra deposition has created vast areas of sparse vegetation cover. Over the 20th century, many activities have centered on preventing further loss of vegetated land and restoring ecosystems. The benefit of these activities is now noticeable in the increased vegetation and woodland cover although erosion is still active within the area. For mapping and monitoring this highly dynamic environment remote sensing techniques are extremely useful. One of the principal goals of the project 'Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland with Remote Sensing' (EMMIRS) is to use hyperspectral images and LiDAR data to classify and map the vegetation within the Hekla area. The data was collected in an aerial survey in summer 2015 by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), UK. The habitat type classification, currently being developed at the Icelandic Institute of Natural History and follows the structure of the EUNIS classification system, will be used for classifying the vegetation. The habitat map created by this new technique's outcome will be compared to the existent vegetation maps made by the conventional vegetation mapping method and the multispectral image classification techniques. In the field, vegetation cover, soil properties and spectral reflectance were measured within different habitat types. Special emphasis was on collecting data on vegetation and soil in the historical lavas from Hekla for assessing habitats forming over the millennia. A lava-chronosequence was established by measuring vegetation and soil in lavas

  10. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  11. Environment and energy in Iceland: A comparative analysis of values and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Within an Icelandic framework plan for energy, environmental values and impacts were estimated in multicriteria analyses for 19 hydroelectric and 22 geothermal developments. Four natural environment classes were defined (geology + hydrology, species, ecosystems + soils, landscape + wilderness) with cultural heritage as the fifth class. Values and impacts were assessed through 6 agglomerated attributes: richness/diversity, rarity, size/continuity/pristineness, information/symbolic value, international responsibility and visual value. The project offers a unique opportunity for comparing environmental values and impacts within a large sample of sites and energy alternatives treated within a common methodological framework. Total values were higher in hydroelectric than in geothermal areas. Hydroelectric areas scored high for cultural heritage (particularly in rarity and information value), landscape and wilderness. Geothermal areas had high bedrock and hydrological diversity and information values, and a high landscape visual value but little cultural heritage. High values were correlated among some classes of the natural environment, all of which are likely to reflect functional relationships. In contrast, cultural heritage values were not related to natural environment values. Overall, landscape and wilderness had the highest mean value and were also most affected by energy development. Over 40% of the hydroelectric development had a predicted mean impact value of > 4 (out of a maximum of 10), compared with 10% of the geothermal projects. Excluding two outsized hydropower options, there was a significant correlation between plant capacity and impact on geology and hydrology but not with other environmental variables

  12. Geometric-kinematic characteristics of the main faults in the W-SW of the Lut Block (SE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Boshrabadi, Ahmad; Khatib, Mohamad Mahdi; Raeesi, Mohamad; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Djamour, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    The area to the W-SW of the Lut Block in Iran has experienced numerous historical and recent destructive earthquakes. We examined a number of faults in this area that have high potential for generating destructive earthquakes. In this study a number of faults are introduced and named for the first time. These new faults are Takdar, Dehno, Suru, Hojat Abad, North Faryab, North Kahnoj, Heydarabad, Khatun Abad and South Faryab. For a group of previously known faults, their mechanism and geological offsets are investigated for the first time. This group of faults include East Nayband, West Nayband, Sardueiyeh, Dalfard, Khordum, South Jabal-e-Barez, and North Jabal-e-Barez. The N-S fault systems of Sabzevaran, Gowk, and Nayband induce slip on the E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE fault systems. The faulting patterns appear to preserve different stages of fault development. We investigated the distribution of active faults and the role that they play in accommodating tectonic strain in the SW-Lut. In the study area, the fault systems with en-echelon arrangement create structures such as restraining and releasing stepover, fault bend and pullapart basin. The main mechanism for fault growth in the region seems to be 'segment linkage of preexisting weaknesses' and also for a limited area through 'process zone'. Estimations are made for the likely magnitudes of separate or combined failure of the fault segments. Such magnitudes are used in hazard analysis of the region.

  13. Strain Anomalies during an Earthquake Sequence in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, T.; Haines, A. J.; Geirsson, H.; Hreinsdottir, S.

    2017-12-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) accommodates E-W translation due to oblique spreading between the North American/Hreppar microplate and Eurasian plate, in South Iceland. Strain is released in the SISZ during earthquake sequences that last days to years, at average intervals of 80-100 years. The SISZ is currently in the midst of an earthquake sequence that started with two M6.5 earthquakes in June 2000, and continued with two M6 earthquakes in May 2008. Estimates of geometric strain accumulation, and seismic strain release in these events indicate that they released at most only half of the strain accumulated since the last earthquake cycle in 1896-1912. Annual GPS campaigns and continuous measurements during 2001-2015 were used to calculate station velocities and strain rates from a new method using the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS). This new method allows higher resolution of strain rates than other (older) approaches, as the strain rates are estimated by integrating VDoHS rates obtained by inversion rather than differentiating interpolated GPS velocities. Estimating the strain rates for eight 1-2 year intervals indicates temporal and spatial variation of strain rates in the SISZ. In addition to earthquake faulting, the strain rates in the SISZ are influenced by anthropogenic signals due to geothermal exploitation, and magma movements in neighboring volcanoes - Hekla and Eyjafjallajökull. Subtle signals of post-seismic strain rate changes are seen following the June 2000 M6.5 main shocks, but interestingly, much larger strain rate variations are observed after the two May 2008 M6 main shocks. A prominent strain anomaly is evident in the epicentral area prior to the May 2008 earthquake sequence. The strain signal persists over at least 4 years in the epicentral area, leading up to the M6 main shocks. The strain is primarily extension in ESE-WNW direction (sub-parallel to the direction of plate spreading), but overall shear across the N

  14. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  15. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabe, R.; Tryggvadottir, L.; Sigfusson, B.F.; Olafsdottir, G.H.; Sigurarsson , K. [Icelandic Cancer Society (Krabbameinsfelag Islands), Reykjavik (Iceland); Duffy, S.W. [Cancer Research UK, Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Stati stics, Wolfson Inst. of Preventive Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs.

  16. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabe, R.; Tryggvadottir, L.; Sigfusson, B.F.; Olafsdottir, G.H.; Sigurarsson, K.; Duffy, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs

  17. Temperature of the Icelandic crust: Inferred from electrical conductivity, temperature surface gradient, and maximum depth of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Axel

    2008-02-01

    Two different models of the structure of the Icelandic crust have been presented. One is the thin-crust model with a 10-15 km thick crust beneath the axial rift zones, with an intermediate layer of partially molten basalt at the base of the crust and on the top of an up-domed asthenosphere. The thick-crust model assumes a 40 km thick and relatively cold crust beneath central Iceland. The most important and crucial parameter to distinguish between these different models is the temperature distribution with depth. Three methods are used to estimate the temperature distribution with depth. First, the surface temperature gradient measured in shallow wells drilled outside geothermal areas. Second, the thickness of the seismogenic zone which is associated with a 750 °C isothermal surface. Third, the depth to a layer with high electrical conductivity which is associated with partially molten basalt with temperature around 1100 °C at the base of the crust. Combination of these data shows that the temperature gradient can be assumed to be nearly linear from the surface down to the base of the crust. These results are strongly in favour of the thin-crust model. The scattered deep seismic reflectors interpreted as Moho in the thick-crust model could be caused by phase transitions or reflections from melt pockets in the mantle.

  18. Icelandic inclusion, German hesitation and American fear: A cross-cultural comparison of mental-health stigma and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Bianca; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative survey research findings reveal that Western countries have lower rates of public stigma surrounding mental illness than other nations. However, qualitative media research across selected Western countries reports differences in stigmatising messages. Here, we take an in-depth look at country-level data exploring both similarities and differences in this stigma across three countries. Specifically, we use previous findings on global differences in public stigma and media to examine whether there is a correspondence between themes in newspaper reporting and variations in attitudes across seven stigma dimensions. The Stigma in Global Context - Mental Health Study provides nationally representative data from Iceland ( N=1033; response rate=71%), Germany ( N=1255; response rate=63.16%) and the USA ( N=1425; response rate=67.31%). We limit analyses to respondents who received a vignette describing an individual meeting clinical criterion for schizophrenia or depression. Exploratory data analyses are used to examine overall patterns and cross-national differences. Graphical analyses show patterned similarities, especially for more individuals endorsing social distance as contact becomes more intimate. However, results also corroborate cross-national differences documented in media research. More Americans endorse evaluations of dangerousness, to both self and others. Fewer Icelanders report exclusionary tendencies, whilst Germans report the most consistently moderate levels of stigma. While Western nations tend to report similar, lower levels of stigma globally, they each have unique areas of concern. Anti-stigma programs must take note of both similarities and differences to tailor their efforts to the local context.

  19. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked......, while also insisting that former students should already have strong ethical standards when entering the workplace. Third, managers call for business schools not only to contribute more to influencing students’ ethical standards, but also to reshape the knowledge and capabilities of practicing managers...

  20. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... to a standardised handling procedure whereas controls (n = 12) remained untrained. Behavioural and heart rate responses in a novel object test and 2 handling fear tests (HFTs) were measured. The HFTs were conducted with both an unknown (HFT-unknown) and a known handler (HFT-known). Results There was no effect...... correlated significantly between tests. Conclusions Previous handling may affect the behavioural fear response of horses when handled by their usual handler, whereas this effect did not apply to an unknown handler. Heart rates appeared unaffected by handling and may be a more reliable indicator...

  1. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  2. Fractionation of boron isotopes in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive δ 1 1B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive δ 1 1B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to absorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  3. Hydrogeology of the Krafla geothermal system, northeast Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Krafla geothermal system is located in Iceland's northeastern neovolcanic zone, within the Krafla central volcanic complex. Geothermal fluids are superheated steam closest to the magma heat source, two-phase at higher depths, and sub-boiling at the shallowest depths. Hydrogen isotope ratios...... of geothermal fluids range from -87‰, equivalent to local meteoric water, to -94‰. These fluids are enriched in 18O relative to the global meteoric line by +0.5-3.2‰. Calculated vapor fractions of the fluids are 0.0-0.5 wt% (~0-16% by volume) in the northwestern portion of the geothermal system and increase...... the benefits of combining phase segregation effects in two-phase systems during analysis of wellhead fluid data with stable isotope values of hydrous alteration minerals when evaluating the complex hydrogeology of volcano-hosted geothermal systems....

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  5. A Saga for Dinner: Landscape and Nationality in Icelandic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Hennig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s attempted industrialisation through an expansion of hydropower andaluminium smelters can lead to a significant reshaping of the country’slandscapes. There has been considerable resistance against such plans since the1970s, culminating in the debate about the Kárahnjúkar project between 2001and 2006. The book Draumalandið. Sjálfshjálparbók handa hræddri þjóð[Dreamland. A Self-Help Manual for a Frightened Nation] by the writer AndriSnær Magnason has been particularly influential. It combines ecologicalconsciousness with an appreciation of Iceland‘s literary tradition and history.Thus it displays a view of landscape which connects nature preservation closelyto cultural achievements and to national sovereignty. This perception oflandscape originates from the assumption that Iceland experienced a golden agefrom the beginning of colonisation in the Viking age until the subordinationunder the Norwegian and later Danish kings in the 13th century, which led to anall-embracing degeneration. Nationalist poets such as Jónas Hallgrímsson inthe 19th century based their demands for independence on Iceland‘s medievalsaga literature and the country‘s landscapes. These seemed to provide evidencefor a high culture in unity with nature during the time of the Commonwealth.Although the historical reliability of the sagas is doubtful, they are still used asan important argument in Draumalandið. Now the narratives as such are put inthe foreground, as they can give value and meaning to the landscapes and placesthey describe. Thus a turn from a realistic to a more constructivist perception oflandscape can be observed in contemporary Icelandic environmental literature.

  6. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen; Bennett, Richard A.; Hreinsdó ttir, Sigrú n

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth's present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  8. ICDP supported coring in IDDP-2 at Reykjanes - the DEEPEGS demonstrator in Iceland - Supercritical conditions reached below 4.6 km depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ómar Friðleifsson, Guðmundur; Elders, Wilfred A.; Zierenberg, Robert; Steafánsson, Ari; Sigurðsson, Ómar; Gíslason, Þór; Weisenberger, Tobias B.; Harðarson, Björn S.; Mesfin, Kiflom G.

    2017-04-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is exploring the technical and economic feasibility of producing supercritical geothermal resources. The IDDP-2 well is located in the Reykjanes saline geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where we are probing the analog of the root zone of a black smoker. In 2009, Phase 1 of the IDDP was unsuccessful in reaching supercritical conditions in the Krafla volcanic caldera in NE Iceland, when the IDDP-1 drill hole unexpectedly encountered 900°C rhyolite magma at only 2.1 km depth. The completed well produced superheated steam with a well head temperature of 453°C with an enthalpy and flow rate sufficient to generate 35 MWe. Drilling the IDDP-2 began by deepening an existing 2.5 km deep production well (RN-15) to 3 km depth, casing it to 2941m depth and drilling it to 4626m. Total circulation losses which were encountered below 3 km depth, could not be cured by LCM and multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued "blind" to total depth, without return of drill cuttings. We attempted 12 core runs below 3 km depth, half of which recovered some core. The cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from upper greenschist facies to amphibolite facies, suggesting formation temperatures >450°C. After a final report from the on-site science team, expected mid-year 2017, detailed petrological, petrophysical, and geochemical analyses of cores will be undertaken by the IDDP science team and collaborators and published in a special issue of a main-stream scientific journal. The drilling of the IDDP-2 was funded by the field operator HS Orka, and by Statoil, and the IDDP industry consortium. The coring was funded by ICDP and the science program of the IDDP. Deepening the RN-15 began 11th August 2016, and was completed to 4626m, 17th December 2016. A perforated liner was inserted to 4,571m and the well subsequently logged for temperature, pressure and injectivity, after 6

  9. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  10. Guðrún Johnsen: Bringing Down the Banking System: Lessons from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Conrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the myths that have been spun not only on the causes of the crisis, but maybe more importantly on the democratic awakening in Icelandic society in the aftermath, it is evident that a much broader audience – especially outside Iceland – should have a keen interest in understanding the political and societal climate that facilitated the emergence of the phenomenon that has also been termed "Viking Capitalism".

  11. The association between lifting an administrative restriction on antidepressant dispensing and treatment patterns in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thengilsdottir, G; Gardarsdottir, H; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2013-01-01

    On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated.......On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated....

  12. Weathering The Storm – Icelandic Municipalities’ Handling of an Unprecedented Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Skjöld MAGNÚSSON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within a few days in October 2008, following serious turmoil on financial markets worldwide, some 85% of the Icelandic banking sector collapsed, together with the Icelandic currency, the króna. Almost all the rest followed early in 2009. The Icelandic stock market took a nosedive. The Republic of Iceland had entered the worst economic crisis of its history. Icelandic municipalities, which had taken on an increasing burden of running the welfare state, were hard hit financially, without the ability of the state to help out. In fact, some of the post-crisis actions of the state, under IMF direction, were difficult for the municipalities. It did not make things easier that the crisis had been precluded by an unprecedented period of growth, encouraging the municipalities to borrow in international markets and invest in infrastructure that turned out to be superfluous in the post-crisis period. This paper will look at the reactions of the Icelandic municipalities to the crisis, the political implications of it, where they are now and if there are lessons that can be learned from the difficult years in the last decade.

  13. Fingerprinting North Atlantic water masses near Iceland using Nd-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Norbert [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, INF229, Heidelberg (Germany); Waldner, Astrid [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Montagna, Paolo [CNR - ISMAR, Bologna (Italy); Colin, Christophe [IDES, Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Wu, Qiong [State Key Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-01

    The radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio of seawater is a valuable tracer of north Atlantic circulation pathways, driven by continental runoff (freshwater and Aeolian dust), boundary exchange and advection and thus mixing patterns. A region of particular interest in the North Atlantic is the overflow across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge injecting water from the Arctic Ocean into the Iceland basin (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water). However, Iceland itself constitutes a local source for Nd due to possible leaching of young volcanic basalts adding radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd to seawater. We have conducted an intense survey of physical properties and Nd-isotope composition between Iceland and the Azores that allows to fingerprint different water masses of the North Atlantic through the {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio and that demonstrates the very local influence of volcanic material to the seawater Nd cycle. A first local transect is achieved from the open ocean to the outflow of the Vatnajoekull glacier. Runoff influences seawater Nd in close vicinity (< 40 km near the outflow). A along shelf transect provide a similar observation. From Iceland to the Azores, however, water masses of the sub-tropical and sub-polar gyre are clearly distinguishable.

  14. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preferences, power and policy outcomes in public policy in Iceland: The Icelandic Housing Fund fiasco 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the interplay of politics, bureaucracies and markets in Iceland. It aims to explain theoretically how politics and bureaucracies operate when a coalition government makes and implements decisions in a policy environment in which decisions and their effects intersect public bureaucracies’ and markets’ boundaries. The decision to raise the limits of Housing Fund mortgages in 2003 is a case examined by agenda-setting theories in public policy. The research is based on the data from parliamentary Special Investigation reports on the collapse of the Icelandic banks and the Housing Fund as well as the author’s interviews home and abroad. The research shows that, when made, the decision ignited competition between the Housing Fund and the recently privatized banks and that between the banks themselves. The Independence Party’s attempts to delay implementation of the decision involved system change backed by an instrument designed to stem a run on the Fund. The impact of this instrument (a tax on pre-payments was incompatible with the Progressive Party’s political interests. In a hasty attempt to implement its election promises, the Progressive Party ignored the fact that the Fund was operating within a transformed financial system. The conclusions indicate that those who think long-term in politics make policies by changing system dynamics, those who think short-term change programmes. System dynamics, however, change the balance of power and influence between actors, leaving legacies which curb the government’s attempt at change, unless consolidated and sustained political authority and will are established to see changes through.

  16. Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location

  17. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-09

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected.

  18. The role of occupational participation and environment among Icelandic women with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmadottir, Gudrun

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis generally causes a disruption of occupational life. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupational participation and environment in the perception of health and well-being of Icelandic women with breast cancer. Eighteen women were interviewed using the main areas from the Occupational Performance History Interview as a guideline. An inductive analysis revealed seven categories that were organized under two main headings: occupational participation and environment. The categories were labelled "maintaining control and stability", "experiencing sense of self-worth", "enhancing self development", "access to information", "support and care", "refuge in community", and "rehabilitative opportunities". Through occupational participation the women were able to regain control of life and a sense of competence and development. Information, emotional support, safety, and stimulating environments were crucial in alleviating distress and facilitate satisfactory coping with the cancer experience. The results support that occupational participation in a safe and supportive environment has powerful restorative properties. Rehabilitative and supportive services should be based on a holistic perspective and emphasize the healthy aspects of a women's life. Furthermore, occupational therapists need to widen their approach when working with women with breast cancer and focus on their needs as occupational beings.

  19. Crustal movements due to Iceland's shrinking ice caps mimic magma inflow signal at Katla volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar

    2015-05-20

    Many volcanic systems around the world are located beneath, or in close proximity to, ice caps. Mass change of these ice caps causes surface movements, which are typically neglected when interpreting surface deformation measurements around these volcanoes. These movements can however be significant, and may closely resemble movements due to magma accumulation. Here we show such an example, from Katla volcano, Iceland. Horizontal movements observed by GPS on the flank of Katla have led to the inference of significant inflow of magma into a chamber beneath the caldera, starting in 2000, and continuing over several years. We use satellite radar interferometry and GPS data to show that between 2001 and 2010, the horizontal movements seen on the flank can be explained by the response to the long term shrinking of ice caps, and that erratic movements seen at stations within the caldera are also not likely to signify magma inflow. It is important that interpretations of geodetic measurements at volcanoes in glaciated areas consider the effect of ice mass change, and previous studies should be carefully reevaluated.

  20. Postseismic deformation following the June 2000 earthquake sequence in the south Iceland seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, T.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Pollitz, F.F.; Jiang, W.; Feigl, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    We observe postseismic deformation on two spatiotemporal scales following Mw = 6.5 earthquakes in the south Iceland seismic zone on 17 and 21 June 2000. We see a rapidly decaying deformation transient lasting no more than 2 months and extending about 5 km away from the two main shock ruptures. This local, month-scale transient is captured by several radar interferograms and is also observed at a few campaign GPS sites located near the faults. A slower transient with a characteristic timescale of about a year is detected only by GPS measurements. The month-scale deformation pattern has been explained by poroelastic rebound due to postearthquake pore pressure changes. In contrast, the year-scale deformation can be explained by either afterslip at 8-14 km depth or viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle in response to the coseismic stress changes. The optimal viscoelastic models have lower crustal viscosities of 0.5-1 ?? 1019 Pa s and upper mantle viscosity of ???3 ?? 1018 Pa s. Because of the limitations of our GPS campaign data, we consider both afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation as plausible mechanisms explaining the deformation field. Both types of postseismic deformation models suggest that the areas of large coseismic stress increase east of the 17 June and west of the 21 June ruptures continue to be loaded by the postseismic deformation. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Floating like a cork: The importance of glacial isostasy in the deglaciation progress in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norddahl, H.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Being positioned on top of a hotspot and between two spreading ocean plates explains rheological structure of Iceland and the properties of a 30-35 km thick lithosphere, possibly with high proportion of partial melt, on top of a low viscous asthenosphere below Iceland, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Rapid variations in glacier loading on the Iceland crust have been proved to generate more or less an instantaneous depression or uplift of the crust and, thus, uphold both temporal and spacial glacio-isostatic equilibrium. Formation of a shoreline requires at least temporal equilibrium between glacial isostasy and eustasy. Eminent raised shorelines - found throughout Iceland - were formed during two separate but consecutive culmination of climatically induced glacier re-advance and consequent transgression of relative sea-level in Younger Dryas and Preboreal times (12.0 and 11.3 kcal BP). A Marine Limit shoreline in W Iceland was formed at 14.7 kcal BP, subsequent to a collapse-like retreat of the marine based part of the Icelandic Ice Sheet (IIS) and just prior to the onset of the Bølling warming, i.e. during a period of anticipated rapid isostatic uplift. A temporary glacio-isostatic equilibrium at that time is best explained by changes in the mode of deglaciation generating dynamic changes within the Ice Sheet itself, changes that resulted in reduced rates of mass-loss and glacio-isostatic uplift to such a degree that a temporal quasi-equilibrium between eustatic rise and isostatic uplift was established. Formation of well-developed raised shoreline is generally regarded as a deglaciation proxy signaling large ice volume changes. Formation of the ML shoreline in W Iceland during the rapid climatic improvement at the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial underlines the importance of, beside the geological data, also to take into consideration physical properties of both the lithosphere and asthenosphere in each location.

  2. Grammatical morphology is not a sensitive marker of language impairment in Icelandic in children aged 4-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical morphology continues to be widely regarded as an area of extraordinary difficulty in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). A main argument for this view is the purported high diagnostic accuracy of morphological errors for the identification of SLI. However, findings are inconsistent across age groups and across languages. Studies show morphological difficulty to be far less pronounced in more highly inflected languages and the diagnostic accuracy of morphology in such languages is largely unknown. This study examines the morphological use of Icelandic children with and without SLI in a cross-sectional sample of children ranging from preschool age to adolescence and assesses the usefulness of morphology as a clinical marker to identify SLI. Participants were 57 monolingual Icelandic-speaking children age 4-14 years; 31 with SLI and 26 with typical language development (TD). Spontaneous language samples were coded for correct and incorrect use of grammatical morphology. The diversity of use of grammatical morphemes was documented for each group at different age and MLU levels. Individual accuracy scores were plotted against age as well as MLU and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. MLU and morphological accuracy increased with age for both children with SLI and TD, with the two groups gradually approaching each other. Morphological diversity and sequence of acquisition was similar across TD and SLI groups compared based on age or MLU. Morphological accuracy was overall high, but was somewhat lower in the SLI group, in particular at ages below 12 years and MLU levels below 6.0. However, overlap between the groups was important in all age groups, involving a greater tendency for errors in both groups at young ages and scores close to or at ceiling at older ages. Sensitivity rates as well as likelihood ratios for each morpheme were all below the range considered acceptable for clinical application, whereas better specificity rates in some age

  3. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth

    2015-01-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing r...... intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research....... research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has......Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing...

  4. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  5. Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Berglund

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of "participation" is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency's tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel's understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.

  6. Xylanases of thermophilic bacteria from Icelandic hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertulla, M; Raettoe, M; Viikari, L [VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland); Kondradsdottir, M [Dept. of Biotechnology, Technological Inst. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Kristjansson, J K [Dept. of Biotechnology, Technological Inst. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland) Inst. of Biotechnology, Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1993-02-01

    Thermophilic, aerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic hot springs were screened for xylanase activity. Of 97 strains tested, 14 were found to be xylanase positive. Xylanase activities up to 12 nkat/ml were produced by these strains in shake flasks on xylan medium. The xylanases of the two strains producing the highest activities (ITI 36 and ITI 283) were similar with respect to temperature and pH optima (80deg C and pH 8.0). Xylanase production of strain ITI 36 was found to be induced by xylan and xylose. Xylanase activity of 24 nkat/ml was obtained with this strain in a laboratory-scale-fermentor cultivation on xylose medium. [beta]-Xylosidase activity was also detected in the culture filtrate. The thermal half-life of ITI 36 xylanase was 24 h at 70deg C. The highest production of sugars from hydrolysis of beech xylan was obtained at 70deg C, although xylan depolymerization was detected even up to 90deg C. (orig.).

  7. Political control and perceptions of corruption in Icelandic local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.

  8. The Impact of Amalgamations on Services in Icelandic Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grétar Thór Eythórsson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with answering the question whether municipal amalgamations can meet the wishes at the root of the most common motives behind them: to gain cost-efficiency and more quality in the municipal services. The analysis is partly based on a survey among Icelandic local leaders in 2015 and partly on survey among citizens in 8 recently amalgamated municipalities collected with a snowball method through Facebook in the spring and summer 2013. The main results are that the impact of amalgamations on municipal services seems to depend on whether we look at the central or peripheral parts of the municipality. Both leaders and citizens seem to perceive developments of services differently depending on the position in the municipality. In the peripheries, they have significantly more negative view than in the service centres. This has to do with both their evaluation of specific services and their general evaluation of service development. However, in the general evaluation the difference is significantly larger.

  9. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  10. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurður Kristinsson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents’ wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  12. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2016-12-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents' wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  13. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Iceland as a western country. How to classify medieval church law in the vernacular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lára Magnúsardóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s subjection to the king of Norway in 1262-64 was followed by a legislation in which a law book for Church and spiritual matters was composed in the vernacular for each country. Such law was implemented in Iceland in 1275 along with a separate secular law book in 1281. Both books remained in force until the middle of the 16th century. A church law that was separate, both from the secular law and that of Roman Church appears to set Iceland apart from other Western European countries where spiritual matters were governed according to the Latin law of the Roman Church. This has been viewed as an indication of constant rivalry between the religious and secular authorities, usually presenting the Church as an overreaching and even oppressive institution against which laity struggled. But a comparison of Icelandic Church law with the Latin Canon law shows that the Church in Iceland submitted entirely to the authority of the Roman Church and thus shows that the Icelandic Church law was, despite its obscure language, a specific representation of the law of the Roman Church. A Norwegian concordat from 1277 shows the king’s recognition of separate spiritual and temporal jurisdictions. This cooperation is readily apparent in later court cases.

  15. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Rennie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher enegagement with online and open delivery methods of higher education. The Net-University Project was an EU Leonardo-funded initiative to compare approaches to open and distance education in Iceland, Sweden, and Scotland, with additional lessons from Atlantic Canada. In particular, it sought to focus on the transfer of innovation in continuing university education, with particular emphasis on the development and delivery of online higher education courses throughout rural Iceland (i.e., outside of Reykjavik. The partners concentrated on how knowledge and experience about distributed and distance learning models could be transferred between the partner countries and how such models can be integrated into the education system to better support higher education and lifelong learning. There was a particular interest in the practical use of open educational resources (OER for course design and in the sharing of these course modules among university partners. Some good practice and lessons from OER use in course creation are listed.

  16. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  17. Economic conditions, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: analysis of the Icelandic economic collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, Kristín Helga; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has found a positive short-term relationship between the 2008 collapse and hypertension in Icelandic males. With Iceland's economy experiencing a phase of economic recovery, an opportunity to pursue a longer-term analysis of the collapse has emerged. Using data from a nationally representative sample, fixed-effect estimations and mediation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 and the longer-term impact on hypertension and cardiovascular health. A sensitivity analysis was carried out with pooled logit models estimated as well as an alternative dependent variable. Our attrition analysis revealed that results for cardiovascular diseases were affected by attrition, but not results from estimations on the relationship between the economic crisis and hypertension. When compared to the boom year 2007, our results point to an increased probability of Icelandic women having hypertension in the year 2012, when the Icelandic economy had recovered substantially from the economic collapse in 2008. This represents a deviation from pre-crisis trends, thus suggesting a true economic-recovery impact on hypertension.

  18. The impact of divergence time on the nature of population structure: an example from Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic population has been sampled in many disease association studies, providing a strong motivation to understand the structure of this population and its ramifications for disease gene mapping. Previous work using 40 microsatellites showed that the Icelandic population is relatively homogeneous, but exhibits subtle population structure that can bias disease association statistics. Here, we show that regional geographic ancestries of individuals from Iceland can be distinguished using 292,289 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We further show that subpopulation differences are due to genetic drift since the settlement of Iceland 1100 years ago, and not to varying contributions from different ancestral populations. A consequence of the recent origin of Icelandic population structure is that allele frequency differences follow a null distribution devoid of outliers, so that the risk of false positive associations due to stratification is minimal. Our results highlight an important distinction between population differences attributable to recent drift and those arising from more ancient divergence, which has implications both for association studies and for efforts to detect natural selection using population differentiation.

  19. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Robust Software Feedback Model: An Effective Waterfall Model Tailoring for Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Gotz, Christoph; Ferraguto, Massimo; Troiano, Luigi; Bruenjes, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The selection of the most suitable software life cycle process is of paramount importance in any space SW project. Despite being the preferred choice, the waterfall model is often exposed to some criticism. As matter of fact, its main assumption of moving to a phase only when the preceding one is completed and perfected (and under the demanding SW schedule constraints) is not easily attainable. In this paper, a tailoring of the software waterfall model (named “Robust Software Feedback Model”) is presented. The proposed methodology sorts out these issues by combining a SW waterfall model with a SW prototyping approach. The former is aligned with the SW main production line and is based on the full ECSS-E-ST-40C life-cycle reviews, whereas the latter is carried out in advance versus the main SW streamline (so as to inject its lessons learnt into the main streamline) and is based on a lightweight approach.

  1. Patterns in the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Composition of Icelandic Lakes and the Dominant Factors Controlling Variability Across Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Fourteen lakes were sampled in the southern and western area of Iceland in June of 2017. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes that produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse and located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Physical variables (temperature, oxygen concentration, and water clarity), chemical variables (pH, conductivity, dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon concentration), and biological variables (algal biomass) were compared across the lakes sampled in these geographic regions. There was a large range in lake characteristics, including five to eighteen times higher algal biomass in the southern systems that experience active ash input to lakes. The lakes located in the Eastern Volcanic Zone also had higher conductivity and lower pH, especially in systems receiving substantial geothermal input. These results were analyzed in the context of more extensive lake sampling efforts across Iceland (46 lakes) to determine defining characteristics of lakes in each region and to identify variables that drive heterogeneous patterns in physical, chemical, and biological lake features within each region. Coastal systems, characterized by high conductivity, and glacially-fed systems, characterized by high iron concentrations, were unique from lakes in all other regions. Clustering and principal component analyses revealed that lake type (plateau, valley, spring-fed, and direct-runoff) was not the primary factor explaining variability in lake chemistry outside of the coastal and glacial lake types. Instead, lakes differentiated along a gradient of iron concentration and total nitrogen concentration. The physical and chemical properties of subarctic lakes are especially susceptible to both natural and human-induced environmental impacts. However, relatively little is known about the

  2. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and The Influence of Special Interest Groups: Taxation in Iceland from 1930 to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.

  3. Imaging of bone spavin. A radiographic and scintigraphic study of degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsus in Icelandic horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eksell, P.

    2000-01-01

    Radiography and scintigraphy are commonly used for the diagnosis of skeletal disorders in horses. Icelandic Horses have a high prevalence of degenerative joint disease of the distal tarsus, generally known as bone spavin (BS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and develop the use of radiography and scintigraphy for the detection of BS in Icelandic Horses

  4. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  5. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  6. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  7. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  8. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries...... in the Faroe Islands and Iceland, whereas in Denmark it increased gradually from 13.5 DID in 1999 to 19.5 DID in 2011. The higher use in Iceland can be explained by much higher consumption of tetracyclines. There was also considerable variation in the use of individual penicillins and macrolides between...... the countries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the great ethnic and cultural similarities of these 3 countries, we found marked differences in total antibacterial use and important differences in the use of individual antibacterials....

  9. Network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur - the Sagas of Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Carron, P.; Kenna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Íslendinga sögur - or Sagas of Icelanders - constitute a collection of medieval literature set in Iceland around the late 9th to early 11th centuries, the so-called Saga Age. They purport to describe events during the period around the settlement of Iceland and the generations immediately following and constitute an important element of world literature thanks to their unique narrative style. Although their historicity is a matter of scholarly debate, the narratives contain interwoven and overlapping plots involving thousands of characters and interactions between them. Here we perform a network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur in an attempt to gather quantitative information on interrelationships between characters and to compare saga society to other social networks.

  10. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  11. 87Sr/86Sr isotope fingerprinting of Scottish and Icelandic migratory shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane; Bullman, Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Biosphere Sr isotope composition data from Iceland and Scotland suggest that terrestrially feeding birds from these two countries will have significantly different 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope composition in their tissues. The aim of this study is to test if these differences can be measured within the bone and feather of migratory wading birds, who feed terrestrially as juveniles, thus providing a provenance tool for these birds. The study shows that birds can be distinguished on the basis of the Sr isotope composition of their bone. The field for Icelandic birds is defined by data from juvenile common redshank (Tringa totanus) and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) which give 0.7056 ± 0.0012, (2σ, n = 7). The majority of Scottish birds in this study are from coastal regions and have a signature close to that of seawater of 0.7095 ± 0.0006 (2σ, n = 9). The Sr ratios in the body tissue of these two populations of all Icelandic and Scottish adult and juvenile birds analysed are significantly different (p 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values as high as 0.7194 which reflect their non-marine diet. Icelandic redshank (Tringa totanus robusta) that have flown to Scotland and returned to Iceland show the effect of the Scottish contribution to their diet with elevated values of 0.7086 ± 0.0004, (2σ, n = 6). Redshank found in Scotland that cannot be classified on the basis biometric analysis are shown to be of Icelandic origin and analysis of the primary feathers from two birds demonstrates that isotope variation between feathers could be used to track changes in diet related to the timing of individual feather growth.

  12. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huse-Olsen Lisel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months, tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months, and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of

  13. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  14. Carbon sequestration by afforestation and revegetation as a means of limiting net-CO2 emissions in Iceland. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurdsson B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Iceland has lost about 95/ of its woodlands and 50/ of its vegetative cover during the 1,100 years of human settlement. Efforts to reclaim lost woodlands and herbaceous ecosystems have been continuing since the early 20th century. It is emphasised that for Icelandic conditions, effective carbon sequestration can be achieved by restoring (reclaiming herbaceous ecosystems on carbon-poor soils. Since 1990, about 4,000 ha per year have been afforested or revegetated. In 1995, the estimated C-sequestration of those areas was 65,100 t CO2, or 2.9/ of the national emissions for that year. In 1999, the estimated sequestration was up in 127,600 t CO2, or 4.7/ of the predicted CO2 emissions for the year 2000.

  15. The influence of coastal access on isotope variation in Icelandic arctic foxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Dalerum

    Full Text Available To quantify the ecological effects of predator populations, it is important to evaluate how population-level specializations are dictated by intra- versus inter-individual dietary variation. Coastal habitats contain prey from the terrestrial biome, the marine biome and prey confined to the coastal region. Such habitats have therefore been suggested to better support predator populations compared to habitats without coastal access. We used stable isotope data on a small generalist predator, the arctic fox, to infer dietary strategies between adult and juvenile individuals with and without coastal access on Iceland. Our results suggest that foxes in coastal habitats exhibited a broader isotope niche breadth compared to foxes in inland habitats. This broader niche was related to a greater diversity of individual strategies rather than to a uniform increase in individual niche breadth or by individuals retaining their specialization but increasing their niche differentiation. Juveniles in coastal habitats exhibited a narrower isotope niche breadth compared to both adults and juveniles in inland habitats, and juveniles in inland habitats inhabited a lower proportion of their total isotope niche compared to adults and juveniles from coastal habitats. Juveniles in both habitats exhibited lower intra-individual variation compared to adults. Based on these results, we suggest that foxes in both habitats were highly selective with respect to the resources they used to feed offspring, but that foxes in coastal habitats preferentially utilized marine resources for this purpose. We stress that coastal habitats should be regarded as high priority areas for conservation of generalist predators as they appear to offer a wide variety of dietary options that allow for greater flexibility in dietary strategies.

  16. Drilling into Rhyolitic Magma at Shallow depth at Krafla Volcanic Complex, NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, A. K.; Markússon, S. H.; Gudmundsson, Á.; Pálsson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Krafla volcanic complex in NE-Iceland is an active volcano but the latest eruption was the Krafla Fires in 1975-1984. Though recent volcanic activity has consisted of basaltic fissure eruptions, then it is rhyolitic magma that has been intercepted on at least two occasions while drilling geothermal production wells in the geothermal field suggesting a layered magma plumbing system beneath the Krafla volcanic complex. In 2008 quenched rhyolitic glass was retrieved from the bottom of well KJ-39, which is 2865 m deep ( 2571 m true vertical depth). In 2009 magma was again encountered at an even shallower depth and in more than 2,5 km distance from the bottom of well KJ-39, but in 2009 well IDDP-1 was drilled into magma three times just below 2100 m depth. Only on the last occasion was quenched glass retrieved to confirm that magma had been encountered. In well KJ-39 the quenched glass was rhyolitic in composition. The glass contained resorbed minerals of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite, but the composition of the glass resembles magma that has formed by partial melting of hydrated basalt. The melt was encountered among cuttings from impermeable, coarse basaltic intrusives at a depth, where the well was anticipated to penetrate the Hólseldar volcanic fissure. In IDDP-1 the quenched glass was also rhyolitic in composition. The glass contained less than 5% of phenocrysts, but the phenocryst assemblage included andesine plagioclase, augite, pigeonite, and titanomagnetite. At IDDP-1 the melt was encountered below a permeable zone composed of fine to coarse grained felsite and granophyre. The disclosure of magma in two wells at Krafla volcanic complex verify that rhyolitic magma can be encountered at shallow depth across a larger area within the caldera. The encounter of magma at shallow depth conforms with that superheated conditions have been found at >2000 m depth in large parts of Krafla geothermal field.

  17. Field Comparisons of Three Biomarker Detection Methods in Icelandic Mars Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Jacobsen, M.; Murusekan, G.; Schwieterman, E.; Stevens, A.; Stockton, A.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to estimate the spatial and temporal distributions of biomarkers has been identified as a key need for planning life detection strategies. In a typical planetary exploration scenario, sampling site selection will be informed only by remote sensing data; however, if a difference of a few tens of meters, or centimeters, makes a significant difference in the results, science objectives may not be met. We conducted an analogue planetary expedition to test the correlation of three common biomarker detection methods -- cell counts through fluorescence microscopy, ATP quantification, and quantitative PCR with universal primer sets (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) -- and their spatial scale representativeness. Sampling sites in recent Icelandic lava fields (Fimmvörđuháls and Eldfell) spanned four nested spatial scales: 1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and > 1 km. Each site was homogeneous at typical 'remote sampling' resolution (overall temperature, apparent moisture content, and regolith grain size). No correlation between cell counts and either ATP or qPCR data was significant at any distance scale; ATP quantification and the archaeal and fungal qPCR data showed a marginal negative correlation at the 1 m level. Visible cell count data was statistically site-dependent for sites 10 m and 100 m apart, but not for sites > 1 km apart, whereas ATP results and qPCR data showed site dependence at all four scales. Distance had no significant effect on variability in cell counts and qPCR data, but was positively correlated with ATP variability. These results highlight the difficulty of choosing a 'good' biomarker: not only may different methods yield conflicting results, but they may also be differentially representative of the overall area. We intend to expand on this work with a follow-up campaign using comprehensive assays of physicochemical site properties to better distinguish between effects of environmental variability and intrinsic biomarker variability.

  18. Volumetric evolution of Surtsey, Iceland, from topographic maps and scanning airborne laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J.B.; Williams, R.S.; Frawley, J.J.; Krabill, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The volumetric evolution of Surtsey has been estimated on the basis of digital elevation models derived from NASA scanning airborne laser altimeter surveys (20 July 1998), as well as digitized 1:5,000-scale topographic maps produced by the National Land Survey of Iceland and by Norrman. Subaerial volumes have been computed from co-registered digital elevation models (DEM's) from 6 July 1968, 11 July 1975, 16 July 1993, and 20 July 1998 (scanning airborne laser altimetry), as well as true surface area (above mean sea level). Our analysis suggests that the subaerial volume of Surtsey has been reduced from nearly 0.100 km3 on 6 July 1968 to 0.075 km3 on 20 July 1998. Linear regression analysis of the temporal evolution of Surtsey's subaerial volume indicates that most of its subaerial surface will be at or below mean sea-level by approximately 2100. This assumes a conservative estimate of continuation of the current pace of marine erosion and mass-wasting on the island, including the indurated core of the conduits of the Surtur I and Surtur II eruptive vents. If the conduits are relatively resistant to marine erosion they will become sea stacks after the rest of the island has become a submarine shoal, and some portions of the island could survive for centuries. The 20 July 1998 scanning laser altimeter surveys further indicate rapid enlargement of erosional canyons in the northeastern portion of the partial tephra ring associated with Surtur I. Continued airborne and eventually spaceborne topographic surveys of Surtsey are planned to refine the inter-annual change of its subaerial volume.

  19. Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demars B. O.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP − ER has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015, GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake

  20. Variation of Geochemical Signatures and Correlation of Biomarkers in Icelandic Mars Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Stockton, A.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration missions to Mars rely on rovers to perform deep analyses over small sampling areas; however, landing site selection is done using large-scale but low-resolution remote sensing data. Using Earth analogue environments to estimate the small-scale spatial and temporal distributions of key geochemical signatures and (for habitability studies) biomarkers helps ensure that the chosen sampling strategies meet mission science goals. We conducted two rounds of analogue expeditions to recent Icelandic lava fields. In July 2013, we tested correlation between three common biomarker assays: cell quantification via fluorescence microscopy, ATP quantification via bioluminescence, and quantitative PCR with universal primer sets. Sample sites were nested at four spatial scales (1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and > 1 km) and homogeneous at 'remote imaging' resolution (overall temperature, apparent moisture content, and regolith grain size). All spatial scales were highly diverse in ATP, bacterial 16S, and archaeal 16S DNA content; nearly half of sites were statistically different in ATP content at α = 0.05. Cell counts showed significant variation at the 10 m and 100 m scale; at the > 1 km scale, the mean counts were not distinguishable, but the median counts were, indicating differences in underlying distribution. Fungal 18S DNA content similarly varied at 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m scales only. Cell counts were not correlated with ATP or DNA content at any scale. ATP concentration and DNA content for all three primer sets were positively correlated. Bacterial DNA content was positively correlated with archaeal and fungal DNA content, though archaeal correlation was weak. Fungal and archaeal correlation was borderline. In July 2015, we repeated the sampling strategy, with the addition of a smaller-scale sampling grid of 10 cm and a third > 1 km location. This expedition also measured reflectance of the tephra cover and preserved mineral samples for future Raman spectroscopy in order to

  1. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules...

  2. Insights from Askja sand sheet, Iceland, as a depositional analogue for the Bagnold Dune Field, Gale Crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukstins, I.; Sara, M.; Riishuus, M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Yingst, R. A.; Berger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Examining the compositional effect of aeolian transport and sorting processes on basaltic sands is significant for understanding the evolution of the Bagnold dune field, as well as other martian soils and sedimentary units. We use the Askja sand sheet, Iceland, as a testbed to quantify the nature of soil production and aeolian transport processes in a mafic system. Basalts from Askja and surrounding volcanic units, which can have high MgO (5-18 wt %) and high Fe2O3 (5-18 wt %), have been weathered to form mafic volcaniclastic deposits which are incorporated into a 40-km long sand sheet to the E-SE of the caldera, ranging from 10 cm to 10 m thick, and covering 240 km2. Ash and lava from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption were emplaced onto the southeastern part of the sand sheet. The SW section is deflationary and defined by very fine to medium grained basaltic sand with ventifact cobbles and boulders. The central part is inflating and dominated by very fine-grained sand, relict lava fields, and small to large sand ripples (1 to 30 cm). The NE portion is also inflating but accumulation is limited to topographic depressions. Bulk chemistry of >200 sand samples are similar to Martian crust (SiO2: 48-52 wt %, MgO: 5-8 wt %, Fe2O3: 13-15 wt %). MgO concentrations vary with distance along the sand sheet, increasing by 1.5% over 10 km in the downwind direction (E, NE), then maintaining a relatively consistent concentration of 6.75 wt % over 18 km. Mean equancy of grains decreases 15 % to the E over 10 km followed by a plateau at 65 to 75 %. Material at depth tends to be of higher sphericity than material on or near the surface. Notably, MgO increases while the sphericity decreases and both data sets level off at 10 km, which suggests these two variables are related. These indicate input of material with prismoidal morphology around 10 km, and may be due to the Holuhraun eruption.

  3. Mapping Potential Environmental Impacts from Tourists Using Data from Social Media: A Case Study in the Westfjords of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Brack W

    2018-05-07

    With tourism increasing in remote regions, it is important to be able to estimate potential environmental impacts from the tourists in order to plan and manage natural areas. This study combines measures of ecological sensitivity with data from publicly available geotagged photographs posted on the social media site Flickr to assess the vulnerability of the locations frequented by foreign tourists in the Westfjords region of Iceland between 2014 and 2016. The results suggest that tourists cluster primarily around six hotspots that represented some of the major known tourist destinations of the region. Although tourists generally frequented areas with lower ecological sensitivity and rarely went far beyond the main roads, one of the hotspots was in an area of higher ecological sensitivity. Further, tourists also appeared to have higher intensity stays when they entered areas of higher ecological sensitivity. Overall, these findings highlight the usefulness of combining data from social media in assessing potential environmental impacts of tourism. However, natural resource managers should be aware of limitations in the use of such data.

  4. Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Klængur Jónsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. Objective: In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. Methods: Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. Results: We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. Conclusions: During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. Contribution: The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  5. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen

    2015-02-06

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth\\'s present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  6. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  7. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  8. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  9. Interaction of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow with Iceland Basin intermediate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullgren, Jenny E.; Fer, Ilker; Darelius, Elin; Beaird, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The narrow and deep Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is an important pathway for cold, dense waters from the Nordic Seas to flow across the Iceland-Scotland ridge into the North Atlantic. The swift, turbulent FBC overflow is associated with strong vertical mixing. Hydrographic profiles from a shipboard survey and two Slocum electric gliders deployed during a cruise in May-June 2012 show an intermediate water mass characterized by low salinity and low oxygen concentration between the upper waters of Atlantic origin and the dense overflow water. A weak low-salinity signal originating north-east of Iceland is discernible at the exit of the FBC, but smeared out by intense mixing. Further west (downstream) marked salinity and oxygen minima are found, which we hypothesize are indicators of a mixture of Labrador Sea Water and Intermediate Water from the Iceland Basin. Water mass characteristics vary strongly on short time scales. Low-salinity, low-oxygen water in the stratified interface above the overflow plume is shown to move along isopycnals toward the Iceland-Faroe Front as a result of eddy stirring and a secondary, transverse circulation in the plume interface. The interaction of low-salinity, low-oxygen intermediate waters with the overflow plume already at a short distance downstream of the sill, here reported for the first time, affects the final properties of the overflow waters through entrainment and mixing.

  10. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...

  11. Environmental Education. University Level. 10 Years Development; Recommendations. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The Nordic countries have worked together over the last decade to enhance the efforts of environmental educators. This document details: (1) the history and activities of the group responsible for the coordination of efforts at the university level; (2) the types of environmental education occurring in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and…

  12. Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin M.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Walrus-tusk ivory and walrus-hide rope were highly desired goods in Viking Age north-west Europe. New finds of walrus bone and ivory in early Viking Age contexts in Iceland are concentrated in the south-west, and suggest extensive exploitation of nearby walrus for meat, hide and ivory during the ...

  13. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  14. Design and Craft Education in Iceland, Pedagogical Background and Development: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Brynjar; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2009-01-01

    Sloyd pedagogy was introduced towards the close of the 18th century to Icelandic educators. Subsequently craft was established as a specific subject aimed at general education. In the beginning craft was called "school industry," to distinguish it from "home industry" whose aim was to help homes to be self-sufficient for…

  15. Learning Icelandic Language and Culture in Virtual Reykjavik: Starting to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédi, Branislav; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Helgadóttir, Hafdís Erla; Ólafsson, Stefán; Björgvinsson, Elías

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how beginners of Icelandic as a foreign and second language responded to playing the first scene in Virtual Reykjavik, a video game-like environment where learners interact with virtual characters--Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). This game enables learners to practice speaking and listening skills, to learn about the…

  16. How to deal with the collapse of a banking system the Icelandic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solnes, Valgerdur

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, a crisis materialized in the global financial markets, creating the imminent risk of collapse in Icelandic's largest financial institutions and the banking system as a whole. The perilous situation originated in similar conditions that formed overseas in the US and around...

  17. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  18. Manifestations of Heterosexism in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools and the Responses of LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2013-01-01

    How does institutionalized heterosexism manifest itself in Icelandic upper secondary schools and how do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students respond to these manifestations? In addressing these questions, interviews were conducted with six current and former LGBT upper secondary school students, using queer theory and thematic…

  19. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  20. Leading the Small Rural School in Iceland and Australia: Building Leadership Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Siguräardóttir, Sigríäur Margrét; Faulkner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on a set of Australian case studies exploring the impact of Place on the work of principals and of the importance of Place in the preparation and development of principals. The project compares the ways that principals in Iceland and Australia build leadership capacity in small rural schools. Leaders of small schools in both…

  1. CITY, COUNTRYSIDE AND NATURE AS DISCURSIVE DEVICES USED TO STRENGTHEN THE NATIONAL IDENTITY IN ICELANDIC CINEMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sebastian Konefał

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception the Icelandic film industry has used the strategy of combining telluric elements with national- istic narratives. In many films one may also find visual structures that can be linked with the ‘tourist gaze’ – the term as we know it from the texts of John Urry. Despite a focus on some unique qualities of Icelandic nature and its cultural heritage (that can be attractive to foreign viewers the specificity of cinematic production processes on the island belong to the structure of local, national cinema. Moreover, the 1980s, considered as the time of the rebirth of the Icelandic film industry and its rapid modernization, are full of films containing conservative or leftist telluric topics which are difficult for foreign audiences to understand. A new, transnational quality of Icelandic film features began with the film debut of Friðrik Þór Friðriksson in 1987. His fusion of modernist and postmodernist plots has encouraged other filmmakers to start the process of re-interpretation of the classic narrative structures, and to render the ironic demystification of some nationalistic themes.

  2. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level....

  3. Kernel based pattern analysis methods using eigen-decompositions for reading Icelandic sagas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    We want to test the applicability of kernel based eigen-decomposition methods, compared to the traditional eigen-decomposition methods. We have implemented and tested three kernel based methods methods, namely PCA, MAF and MNF, all using a Gaussian kernel. We tested the methods on a multispectral...... image of a page in the book 'hauksbok', which contains Icelandic sagas....

  4. Development of Bioavailable Pools of Base Cations and P after Afforestation of Volcanic Soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Few long-term studies have been conducted on changes in soil nutrients after afforestation in Iceland, a country with a young history of forest management. While fertilization was shown to improve survival of seedlings in the first years after planting on the nutrient limited soils, knowledge about...

  5. [Scientific articles in the Icelandic Medical Journal 2004-2008: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbjartsson, Tómas; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2009-10-01

    In the past 5 years the Icelandic Medical Journal has undergone many changes during a period of flourishing research in Iceland. The process of reviewing and editing scientific articles has been revised since the Journal joined the Medline database in 2005 and the proportion of rejected articles has risen. New columns have been launched covering medical history, professionalism, ethics and hobbies of the medical profession. We categorized all scientific articles from the period 2004-2008, that is research articles, review articles, case reports and clinical guidelines, according to types of articles and to which medical speciality or subspeciality the publication should belong. The number of scientific articles rose during the period but the number of research articles remained around 20 most years during the period. The relative proportion of research articles therefore fell whereas the number and proportion of review articles and case reports increased. Clinical guidelines ceased to appear in the Journal. The contribution of individual specialities to the Journal varied widely. Researchers amongst doctors and related professions need be encouraged to submit scientific articles to the Journal. The publication of scientific articles in English in the web-based form of the Journal may prove to be stimulating in this regard for Icelandic doctors abroad as well as for some researchers in Iceland.

  6. A chironomid-based reconstruction of summer temperatures in NW Iceland since AD 1650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Caseldine, C. J.; Croudace, I. W.; Jarvis, S.; Wastegård, S.; Crowford, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Few studies currently exist that aim to validate a proxy chironomid-temperature reconstruction with instrumental temperature measurements. We used a reconstruction from a chironomid percentage abundance data set to produce quantitative summer temperature estimates since AD 1650 for NW Iceland through a transfer function approach, and validated the record against instrumental temperature measurements from Stykkishólmur in western Iceland. The core was dated through Pb-210, Cs-137 and tephra analyses (Hekla 1693) which produced a well-constrained dating model across the whole study period. Little catchment disturbance, as shown through geochemical (Itrax) and loss-on-ignition data, throughout the period further reinforce the premise that the chironomids were responding to temperature and not other catchment or within-lake variables. Particularly cold phases were identified between AD 1683-1710, AD 1765-1780 and AD 1890-1917, with relative drops in summer temperatures in the order of 1.5-2°C. The timing of these cold phases agree well with other evidence of cooler temperatures, notably increased extent of Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciers. Our evidence suggests that the magnitude of summer temperature cooling (1.5-2°C) was enough to force LIA Icelandic glaciers into their maximum Holocene extent, which is in accordance with previous modelling experiments for an Icelandic ice cap (Langjökull).

  7. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  8. Organizational structure in Icelandic companies 2004-2007 Skipulag íslenskra fyrirtækja 2004-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Svansson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is to discuss the development of organizational structures, processes and the scope of activities among the 200 biggest companies in Iceland in the period of 2004-2007, based on a survey conducted in 2007. The survey was posted in standard mail.The questionnaire was translated from an international research on innovating forms of organizing (Innform. The main goal was to investigate whether new forms of organizing had been adopted extensively by big Icelandic companies or were developing alongside use of traditional organizational forms. The questionnaire was sent to 192 companies and 62 were received (32.3% answer ratio. The main results of the survey are as follows: The biggest companies seem to put the main emphasis on the multi-divisional form (the M-form based on products and services as well as with a focus on the customer. Well over half of the companies that responded (70% uses also or mainly the functional form (the U-form. The main results are therefore that the structure of big Icelandic companies is in very many respects similar to the structural characteristics that was revealed in the Innform project, especially in the European countries studied. The results also confirm that the organizational structure in big Icelandic companies is developing during the period of the study. It is confirmed that project based structure is taking hold and there is a clear increase in the use of a holding structure. The biggest change during the period in any one area measured during the period is in human resource management. Change in scope, outsourcing and use of strategic alliances are modest and are measured less than was the case in the Innform study at the time it was conducted in Europe a decade earlier than the study in Iceland. Further research based on the same questionnaire and also on case studies are now planned to make it possible to compare the present results with data on the development of organizational

  9. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  10. Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: A study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Larsen, Gudrun; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Donaldson, Ken

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland’s volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. MethodsA physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network. ResultsIcelandic ash can be of a respirable size (up to 11.3 vol.% < 4 μm), but the samples did not display physicochemical characteristics of pathogenic particulate in terms of composition or morphology. Ash particles were generally angular, being composed of fragmented glass and crystals. Few fiber-like particles were observed, but those present comprised glass or sodium oxides, and are not related to pathogenic natural fibers, like asbestos or fibrous zeolites, thereby limiting concern of associated respiratory diseases. None of the samples contained cristobalite or tridymite, and only one sample contained quartz, minerals of interest due to the potential to cause silicosis. Sample surface areas are low, ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 m2 g−1, which aligns with analyses on ash from other eruptions worldwide. All samples generated a low level of hydroxyl radicals (HO•), a measure of surface reactivity, through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction compared to concurrently analyzed comparative samples. However, radical generation increased after ‘refreshing’ sample surfaces, indicating that newly erupted samples may display higher reactivity. A composition-dependent range of available surface iron was measured after a 7-day incubation, from 22.5 to 315.7 μmol m−2, with mafic samples releasing more iron

  11. The relative roles of climate and land use in the degradation of a terrestrial ecosystem: a case study from Kjarardalur, West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Around AD 870 the virgin environment of Iceland became populated by humans and mammal land herbivores. Since then, the island has lost nearly all of its native birch woodland, resulting in dramatic degradation of landscapes and ecosystems, attributed mainly to over-exploitation of woodlands and late-medieval climate deterioration. As part of policy making in agriculture, a heated debate is ongoing over limitations to sheep grazing in pastures suffering from long-term degradation. In this context the history of climate and land use is of great importance. Those who consider grazing a minimal attribute to land degradation argue that the harsh climate conditions of the little ice age are the primary mechanism behind the current degraded landscape. Others err on the side of caution and propose a careful approach to grazing. This study forms a contribution to the historical context of the impact of grazing upon the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem. Using the analyses of pollen and spores from coprophilous fungi as principal methods, we present data about historical environmental change from within two different land holdings in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland. One dataset comes from within a landholding governed by the chieftain farm Reykholt, the other comes from within the land of the indipendent farm, Norðtunga. In the past the valley was used primarily as a pasture, associated with shielings (organised seasonal grazing). Pollen data from the pasture in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland, demonstrate a rapid loss of birch (Betula pubescens) woodland from grazing areas owned by the major farm and institution, Reykholt. The suppressive nature of grazing is demonstrated by the expansion of woodland as soon when animal stocks are reduced, probably as a consequence of the bubonic plague after AD 1402. Resumed exploitation of resources eventually depleted all birch woodland from the Reykholt landholding and precipitated soil erosion. The trajectory of environmental change

  12. Hydrothermal Alteration in Submarine Basaltic Rocks from the Reykjanes Geothermal Field, Iceland. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Fowler, A. P.; Marks, N.; Fridleifsson, G.; Elders, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is preparing to drill to 4-5 km in the Reykjanes Geothermal Field to sample geothermal fluids at supercritical temperature and pressure for power generation. The Reykjanes geothermal field is the on-land extension of the Reykjanes Ridge spreading center. The upper 1-2 kilometers drilled at Reykjanes are submarine basalts and basaltic sediments, hyalloclastites, and breccias, with an increasing proportion of basaltic intrusive rocks below 2 km depth. Geothermal fluids are evolved seawater with a composition similar to mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Zn- and Cu-rich sulfide scale, locally enriched in Au and Ag, are deposited in production pipes. The sulfide deposits are compositionally and isotopically similar to seafloor massive sulfides. In anticipation of deeper drilling, we have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of drill cuttings from a 3 km deep well (RN-17). The depth zoning of alteration minerals is similar to that described from other Icelandic geothermal fields, and is comparable to observed seafloor metamorphic gradients in ODP drill holes and ophiolites. Chlorite-epidote alteration occurs at depths >400 m and passes downhole through epidote-actinolite alteration and into amphibole facies (hornblende-calcic plagioclase) alteration below 2.5 km. Local zones of high temperature (>800°C), granoblastic-textured, pyroxene hornfels, are interpreted to form by contact metamorphism during dike/sill emplacement. Similar granoblasically altered basalts were recovered from the base of the sheeted dikes in IODP Hole 1256D. Downhole compositional variations of drill cuttings, collected every 50 m, suggest that rocks below ~ 2 km are little altered. Whole-rock oxygen isotope profiles are consistent with low water/rock ratios, but suggest that early stages of hydrothermal alteration included meteoric water-derived fluids. Strontium isotope profiles indicate more extensive exchange with seawater-derived fluids

  13. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  14. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  15. Controlling factors on earthquake swarms associated with magmatic intrusions; constraints from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Einarsson, P.; Brandsdottir, B.; Arnadottir, T.

    2005-12-01

    Intrusion of magma into the Earth's crust is frequently associated with seismic activity, often occurring as distinct earthquake swarms. Understanding the nature of these swarms is important for evaluating crisis situations in volcanic areas. However, there often seem to be little correlation between the amount of seismic energy release, the spatial extent of the volume of rock affected by the stress perturbations, and the volume of magma on the move, which complicates the immediate risk evaluation. A number of factors may influence the evolution of a magmatically induced seismic swarm and the resulting seismic energy release. A number of factors need to be evaluated in each individual case. These are, in random order: the crustal thickness, presence/absence of a crustal magma chamber, geothermal gradient, magmatic flow rate/stressing rate, intrusion volume, depth of intrusion, tectonic setting of the intruded area, regional stresses and tectonic history. Based on three case studies, where seismic swarm activities have been confirmed through deformation measurements to be related to magmatic movements, we attempt to evaluate the relative importance of the assumed controlling factors. All case examples are located within Iceland, but in different tectonic settings. 1. The Hengill triple junction, situated where two extensional plate boundaries join a transform zone. The area experienced a period of unusually persistent earthquake activity from 1994 to 1999, contemporaneously with ground uplift at a rate of 1-2 cm/yr. The uplift was modeled as a response to magma injection at about 7 km depth. 2. The Eyjafjallajokull volcano, situated in a volcanic flank zone where extensional fractures are only poorly developed. Two minor seismic swarms, in 1994 and 1999; were associated with a cumulative surface uplift of more than 35 cm. The two uplift events were modeled as sill intrusions at depths of 4.5 to 6.5 km. 3. The Krafla rift segment, forming part of an extensional

  16. Shallow conduit processes of the 1991 Hekla eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, J.; Thordarson, T.; Houghton, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    ., et al., The 1991 eruption of Hekla, Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 1992. 54(3): p. 238-246. 2. Höskuldsson, Á., Óskarsson, N., Pedersen, R., Grönvold, K., Vogfjörd, K. & Ólafsdóttir, R. 2007. The millennium eruption of Hekla in February 2000. Bull Volcanol, 70:169-182. 3. Larsen, G., E.G. Vilmundardóttir, and B. Thorkelsson, Heklugosid 1991: Gjóskufall og gjóskulagid frá fyrsta degi gossins. Náttúrufrædingurinn, 1992. 61(3-4): p. 159-176.

  17. Growth inhibitory alkaloids from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Eri; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-03-01

    Plant growth inhibitory alkaloids were isolated from the extract of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.] leaves. Their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra analysis. The I50 value (concentration required for 50% inhibition of control) for root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings was 400 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 500 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 100 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum concentration exhibiting inhibitory effect on shoot growth of cress seedlings was 10 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 100 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 1 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. Among these compounds, a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of cress seedlings.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland: Early introductions, transmission dynamics and recent outbreaks among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Malik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún; Indriðason, Hlynur; Björnsdóttir, Thora Björg; Widell, Anders; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Löve, Arthur; Medstrand, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters. Timing and demographic growth patterns were determined in BEAST. HIV-1 infection in Iceland was dominated by subtype B (63%, n=145) followed by subtype C (10%, n=23), CRF01_AE (10%, n=22), sub-subtype A1 (7%, n=15) and CRF02_AG (7%, n=15). Trend analysis showed an increase in non-B subtypes/CRFs in Iceland over the study period (p=0.003). The highest proportion of phylogenetic clustering was found among injection drug users (IDUs; 89%), followed by heterosexuals (70%) and men who have sex with men (35%). The time to the most recent common ancestor of the oldest subtype B cluster dated back to 1978 (median estimate, 95% highest posterior density interval: 1974-1981) suggesting an early introduction of HIV-1 into Iceland. A previously reported increase in HIV-1 incidence among IDUs 2009-2011 was revealed to be due to two separate outbreaks. Our study showed that a variety of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were prevalent in Iceland 1985-2012, with subtype B being the dominant form both in terms of prevalence and domestic spread. The rapid increase of HIV-1 infections among IDUs following a major economic crisis in Iceland raises questions about casual associations between economic factors, drug use and public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a challenge to current guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B.J.; Hardardottir, H.; Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi

    2010-01-01

    and microbiological data of all MRSA patients from the years 2000 to 2008 were collected prospectively. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the repeat region of the Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa typing), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing...... setting. However, MRSA in Iceland is now shifting into the community, challenging the current Icelandic guidelines, which are tailored to the health care system....

  20. Iceland Scotland Overflow Water flow through the Bight Fracture Zone in June-July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Herle; Petit, Tillys; Thierry, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    ISOW (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water) is the densest water in the northern Iceland Basin and a main constituent of the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). ISOW is the product of mixing of dense water originating from the Nordic Seas with Atlantic Water and Labrador Sea Water during its crossing of the Iceland-Faroe-Scotland Ridge and downstream acceleration. In the northern Iceland Basin, ISOW is characterized by potential density σ0 > 27.8 and salinity > 34.94. Downstream of the Iceland-Scotland Ridge, ISOW flows southwestward in a Deep Western Boundary Current along the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge. Models and float trajectories previously suggested that part of the ISOW flow could cross the Reykjanes Ridge through the Bight Fracture Zone. However, no direct observations of the ISOW flow through the Bight Fracture Zone are available that would allow us to quantify its transport and water mass transformation. This lack of direct observations also prevents understanding the dynamics of the throughflow. In this study, we analyzed a set of CTDO2 and LADCP stations acquired in June-July 2015 during the Reykjanes Ridge Experiment cruise and provide new insights on the ISOW flow through the Bight Fracture Zone. The evolution of the properties as well as the velocity measurements confirm an ISOW flow from the Iceland Basin to the Irminger Sea. A main constrain to the throughflow is the presence of two sills of about 2150 m depth and two narrows. With potential densities between 27.8-27.87 kg m-3 and near bottom potential temperature of 3.02°C and salinity of 34.98, only the lightest variety of ISOW is found at the entrance of the BFZ east of the sills. In the central part of the Bight Fracture Zone, the evolution of ISOW is characterized by a decrease of 0.015 kg m-3 in the near bottom density, ascribed to the blocking of the densest ISOW variety by the sills and/or diapycnal mixing. To the West, at the exit of the BFZ, ISOW overlays

  1. Insights into Earth's Accretion and Mantle Structure from Neon and Xenon in Icelandic Basalt (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    The noble gases provide important constraints for planet accretion models and understanding mantle structure and dynamics. Recent work based on continental well gases indicate that the MORB source 20Ne/22Ne ratio is similar to the Ne-B component in chondrites [1,2]. However, ratios higher than Ne-B have been reported in plume-derived Devonian rocks form the Kola Peninsula [3]. Here I report high-precision noble gas data in an Icelandic basaltic glass that demonstrate plumes have a different 20Ne/22Ne ratio than the MORB source. The highest measured 20Ne/22Ne ratio from Iceland is ~12.9, very similar to values in the Kola plume, but quite distinct from the convecting upper mantle as constrained from the well gases [1,2]. Hence, the Icelandic and Kola plume data indicate that OIBs and MORBs have different 20Ne/22Ne ratios. Since 20Ne/22Ne ratios in the mantle cannot change, Earth must have accreted volatiles from at least two separate reservoirs. The differences in 20Ne/22Ne ratios between OIBs and MORBs further indicate that early heterogeneities in the Earth’s mantle have not been wiped away by 4.5 Gyrs of mantle convection, placing strong constraints on mixing and mass flow in the mantle. The requirement of limited direct mixing between plumes and MORB source is supported by 129Xe, formed through radioactive decay of now extinct 129I. Combined He, Ne, and Xe measurements demonstrate that the Iceland plume has a lower 129Xe/130Xe ratio than MORBs because it evolved with a I/Xe ratio distinct from the MORB source and not because of recycled atmosphere (which has low 129/130Xe) in the plume source. Since 129I became extinct 80 Myrs after solar system formation, limited mixing between plume and MORB source is a stringent requirement. Additionally, the high-precision Xe measurements reveal for the first time that the Iceland plume source has significantly higher proportion of plutonium derived fission xenon than MORBs, requiring the plume source to be less degassed

  2. [Overexpression of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in SW480 rectal cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yang; Wan, Hongxing; Chai, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) gene in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of rectal cancer cells. Methods Human rectal cancer SW480 cells were cultured and transfected with pCDNA3.1-NDRG2 and empty vector (SW480-Ve). SW480 cells were set as a control group. Cell proliferation was detected in SW480 cells, SW480-Ve cells and SW480-NDRG2 cells by MTT assay; cell migration distance in the three groups at 24, 48, 72 hours was tested by wound healing assay; apoptosis rate was determined in the three groups at 48 hours by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2 proteins in the three groups were examined by Western blotting. Results After the cells were cultured for 7 days, cell survival rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; the cell survival rate decreased gradually with the prolongation of the culture time; and it had no significant difference between SW480-Ve group and SW480 group. Cell migration distance in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells, and it had also no significant difference between SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells. The apoptosis rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly higher than that in SW480 group and SW480-Ve group, and SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells had no significant difference in the rate. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480-NDRG2 group were significantly higher than those in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly lower in SW480-NDRG2 group than in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; and the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins were not significantly different between SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells. Conclusion Overexpression of NDRG2 can inhibit the proliferation, reduce cell migration, and promote cell apoptosis by regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480 cells.

  3. Theoretical calculation of shakeup intensities using Xa--SW wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, J.S.; Loubriel, G.

    1981-01-01

    The ground and 1s core hole state molecular wave functions of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF obtained from Xa--SW calculations using the touching spheres (TS) and overlapping spheres (OS) approximations are used to calculate the intensity of shakeup satellites observed in their ls core level photoelectron spectra. The sudden approximation was assumed in the calculation. In case of TS Xa--SW wave functions, the one electron overlap integral inside the intersphere was calculated via Green's theorem. For OS Xa--SW wave functions, the integration over the awkwardly shaped intersphere region was circumvented by distributing the intersphere charge into the atomic spheres according to the charge partition scheme suggested by Case and Karplus. Our results show that there are no significant differences between the shakeup energies calculated from the TS and OS approximations. However, shakeup intensities calculated from TS Xa--SW wave functions are more reliable and in better numerical agreement with experiment

  4. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  5. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The seasonal variation of water quality of Orle River and its tributatries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated forthnightly or two ... KEYWORD: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution. ..... Environmental Modeling and Software,.

  6. Redefinition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz L. Szlachetko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton is presented. The genera are briefly described and illustrated. A list of Microstylis species is added. Four new nomenclatural combinations are proposed.

  7. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Fujio

    2017-07-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φ pl w , and chamber ionization ratio k pl , of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φ pl w for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φ pl w for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φ pl w with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of k pl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The k pl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of k pl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated k pl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated k pl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep crustal melt plumbing of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T. S.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T.; Ágústsdóttir, T.; Brisbourne, A.; Green, R. G.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding magmatic plumbing within the Earth's crust is important for understanding volcanic systems and improving eruption forecasting. We discuss magma plumbing under Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, over a 4 year period encompassing the largest Icelandic eruption in 230 years. Microseismicity extends through the usually ductile region of the Earth's crust, from 7 to 22 km depth in a subvertical column. Moment tensor solutions for an example earthquake exhibits opening tensile crack behavior. This is consistent with the deep (>7 km) seismicity being caused by the movement of melt in the normally aseismic crust. The seismically inferred melt path from the mantle source is offset laterally from the center of the Bárðarbunga caldera by 12 km, rather than lying directly beneath it. It is likely that an aseismic melt feed also exists directly beneath the caldera and is aseismic due to elevated temperatures and pervasive partial melt under the caldera.

  9. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  10. Spatiotemporal evolution of the completeness magnitude of the Icelandic earthquake catalogue from 1991 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Francesco; Mignan, Arnaud; Vogfjörð, Kristin S.

    2017-07-01

    In 1991, a digital seismic monitoring network was installed in Iceland with a digital seismic system and automatic operation. After 20 years of operation, we explore for the first time its nationwide performance by analysing the spatiotemporal variations of the completeness magnitude. We use the Bayesian magnitude of completeness (BMC) method that combines local completeness magnitude observations with prior information based on the density of seismic stations. Additionally, we test the impact of earthquake location uncertainties on the BMC results, by filtering the catalogue using a multivariate analysis that identifies outliers in the hypocentre error distribution. We find that the entire North-to-South active rift zone shows a relatively low magnitude of completeness Mc in the range 0.5-1.0, highlighting the ability of the Icelandic network to detect small earthquakes. This work also demonstrates the influence of earthquake location uncertainties on the spatiotemporal magnitude of completeness analysis.

  11. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  12. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  13. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...... fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) Lemmon) was established at three sites in Denmark and at one site in Iceland in 1999. Adaptability, Christmas tree quality, growth rhythm and susceptibility to pests and pathogens were measured and assessed...... and the most spring frost damage on buds. The westernmost subalpine fir provenances from Washington state and British Columbia showed the overall best results in Denmark, with the highest survival (after 15 years), fastest height growth and highest Christmas tree quality and profitability, as well as both good...

  14. Effect of year of birth on the breast cancer age-incidence curve in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnason, O [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik; Day, N; Snaedal, G; Tulinius, H

    1974-01-01

    Among different populations, the shape of the age-incidence curve for breast cancer is strongly related to the overall incidence of breast cancer in the respective population. Data are available from Iceland for the period 1911--1972. These data show that breast cancer has increased very markedly in Iceland during this period, and that as the overall incidence has risen, so the age-incidence curve has changed in shape, the relation between the shape and the overall incidence being the same as that now observed in other countries. The change in shape is shown to be explicable entirely as a cohort phenomenon, each decade of birth cohort having an age-incidence curve of similar shape, but with different overall incidence. Data from some other regions of the world indicate that many of the present differences in the shape of the age-incidence curve may be the reflection of cohort phenomena.

  15. Management Implications for the Most Attractive Scenic Sites along the Andalusia Coast (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mooser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coastal scenery assessment was carried out at 50 sites along the 910 km long Andalusia coast (SW Spain using a checklist of 26 natural and human parameters, parameter weighting matrices, and fuzzy logic. A scenic classification was utilised that can rate sites as Class I (natural areas of great scenic beauty to Class V (urbanised areas of poor scenic interest, but, for this study, only natural sites of great scenic value were investigated; 41 sites were included in Class I, 9 in Class II and, apart from four, all of the sites were under some feature of protection—managed by the Andalusia Environmental Agency (RENPA, in Spanish. Sites belong to the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar (24% of sites, the Natural Park of Gibraltar Strait (18%, the Natural Place Acantilado de Maro-Cerro Gordo (12%, and the Natural and National parks of Doñana (8%. Results obtained by means of scenic evaluation constitute a sound scientific basis for any envisaged management plan for investigated coastal areas preservation/conservation and responsible future developments, especially for natural protected areas, which represent the most attractive coastal tourist destinations. With respect to natural parameters, excellent scenic values appeared to be linked to the geological setting and the presence of mountainous landscapes related to the Betic Chain. Human parameters usually show good scores because null or extremely reduced human impacts are recorded, but, at places, conflicts arose between conservation and recreational activities because visitors are often interested in beach activities more so than ecotourism. Low scores of human parameters were often related to litter presence or the unsuitable emplacement of utilities, such as informative panels, litter bins, etc.

  16. Environmental isotope application to investigate the hydrogeological aquifers of Yarmouk basin SW of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental isotopic variations have been used to investigate the source of recharge and age in the basaltic and deep limestone aquifers system in the Yarmouk basin, SW of Syria. Isotopic results show that recharge of basaltic aquifer is directly related to infiltration of rainwater from high and transitional zones. However, the homogeneity noted of stable and radioactive isotopes values (δ 18 O= -5.58± 0.25%, 14 C=46.2± 4.45 % pmc) in Laja plateau and central zone, confirm the mechanism of common recharge and critical role of this plateau in absorbing great amount of precipitation. In addition these values indicate, to a high rate mixing taking place in this plateau and the central zone. In the Kahiel area, the groundwater is of recent age as shown from the high values of 14 C activity ( 14 C= 66.3 ± 5.3 % pcm) accompanied by enriched 18 O (δ 18 O=-4.7±0.22 %). The recharge of groundwater is related to the leakage of water from dams and drainage network. The tectonic setting in this area constitutes an additional factor in increasing this recharge. Netpath model was used to determine the age of groundwater. the age of groundwater in the basaltic aquifer is generally modern and reaches 2000 y BP in discharge area. Preliminary conclusion of deep limestone aquifer, indicate that its groundwater occur under high piezometric pressure. The salinity is less than 1g/L and the temperature water varied between 35 to 45 degreed centigrade. The low 14 C activities in deep groundwater suggest pleistocene and holocene recharge, although their stable isotopes values indicate recharge by modern meteoric precipitation. The corrected age of this groundwater determined by Netpath model indicate that this age fall between recent water in recharge area and 20 Ky BP. (author)

  17. Hot topics in Modern Cosmology - SW9 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.; Sigl, G.; Biondi, R.; Volkov, M.; Noller, J.; Starobinsky, A.; Toporensky, A.; Renaux, S.; Pilo, L.; Comelli, D.; Slagter, R.; Novello, M.; Padilla, A.; Antunes, V.; Kamenshchik, A.; Vernieri, D.; Kaloper, N.; Denkiewics, T.; Gohar, H.; Zahariade, G.; Frusciante, N.; Von Strauss, M.

    2016-01-01

    This 9. Spontaneous Workshop (SW9) brought together specialists on recent insights in Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The aim was to stimulate debate on common topics in views of providing us with innovating ideas. SW9 topics includes: 1) Cosmological parameters - Anomalies in CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background); 2) Dark matter and neutrinos; 3) Gravity - Dark energy; 4) Singular universes; and 5) Cosmological Large Scale Structures - Magnetic Fields; This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  18. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  19. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Provice (SW Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan

    2010-01-01

    The current study is a new approach to vegetation mapping in Iran using remote sensing (RS) and the geographic information system (GIS). One of the most important problems in remote sensing of desert vegetation is that the reflectance from soil and rocks is often much greater than that of sparse vegetation and this makes it difficult to separate out the vegetation signal (Gates et al. 1965); and there is spectral variability within shrubs of the same species (Duncant et al., 1993). These prop...

  20. Effective Project Risk management in Micro Companies : Case study for Persona Optima Iceland ehf.

    OpenAIRE

    Bražinskaitė, Justina

    2011-01-01

    This study is meant to be a guide for micro companies regarding effective project risk management. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce project risk management and build a user-friendly managerial model toward effective project risk management in micro companies. The research is based on a case company Persona Optima Iceland ehf. analysis. The study investigates risk management, uncertainties and risks in projects, project risk management, its models and particularities in orde...

  1. Thirteen million years of silicic magma production in Iceland: Links between petrogenesis and tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-04-01

    The origin of the Quaternary silicic rocks in Iceland is thought to be linked to the thermal state of the crust, which in turn depends on the regional tectonic settings. This simple model is tested here on rocks from the Miocene to present, both to suggest an internally consistent model for silicic magma formation in Iceland and to constrain the link between tectonic settings and silicic magma petrogenesis. New major and trace-element compositions together with O-, Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios have been obtained on silicic rocks from 19 volcanic systems ranging in age from 13 Ma to present. This allows us to trace the spatial and temporal evolution of both magma generation and the corresponding sources. Low δ18O (geothermal gradient. But later than 5.5 Ma they were produced in a flank zone environment by fractional crystallisation alone, probably due to decreasing geothermal gradient, of basalts derived from a mantle source with lower 143Nd/ 144Nd. This is in agreement with an eastwards rift-jump, from Snæfellsnes towards the present Reykjanes Rift Zone, between 7 and 5.5 Ma. In the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (SIVZ), the intermediate Nd-signature observed in silicic rocks from the Torfajökull central volcano reflects the transitional character of the basalts erupted at this propagating rift segment. Therefore, the abundant evolved rocks at this major silicic complex result from partial melting of the transitional alkaline basaltic crust (Iceland can, therefore, be used for deciphering past geodynamic settings characterized by rift- and off-rift zones resulting from interaction of a mantle plume and divergent plate boundaries.

  2. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    Guidance on selection of breakwater types and related design safety levels for breakwaters are almost non-existent, which is the reason that PIANC has initiated working group 47 on this subject. This paper presents ongoing work particulary on the Icelandic type berm breakwater within the PIANC...... working group. It will concentrate on design guidance and on the optimum safety levels for this type of structure....

  3. Impact of soil warming on the plant metabolome of Icelandic grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Ayala-Roque, M.; Sardans, J.; Bartrons, M.; Granda, V.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Leblans, N. I.W.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Janssens, I. A.; Peñuelas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 44. E-ISSN 2218-1989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Climate change * Geothermal bedrock channels * Grassland * Iceland * Metabolome * Warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  4. Multiple ways of producing intermediate and silicic rocks within Thingmúli and other Icelandic volcanoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian; Haase, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Major and trace element compositions of rocks and coexisting phenocrysts of the ThingmA(0)li volcano suggest a revision of the existing models for the formation of intermediate and silicic melts in Iceland. The new data define two compositional tholeiitic trends with a significant gap between the...... between the compositions of intermediate and silicic rocks and plate tectonic setting, therefore, should be avoided....

  5. Social Media Used by Government Institutions in Iceland: Application, Role and Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Einarsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the use and role of social media hosted by government institutions in Iceland. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative research methods. A survey was sent electronically to all government institutions in Iceland and semi-structured interviews were conducted with specialists working for institutions. No research has been conducted on this subject in Iceland before. It was therefore considered timely that a research was conducted on the use of social media in public institutions, with the intention of adding new knowledge to the field. No similar research from outside of Iceland was found, but this research was based on related studies and sources from abroad. A little less than half of government institutions used social media as part of their activities and Facebook and YouTube were most widely used. Popularity, circulation, usefulness and convenience were the most important factors when choosing social media. The majority of institutions had neither defined social media goals nor the role and responsibility of employees when using social media. The institutions placed strong emphasis on publishing adverts and news items on the institutions’ activities via social media pages and there were a considerable number of references to material on other web pages. Among other things the interviewees said that the purpose of using social media was information dissemination, reception of information, more visibility, the opening of institutions to the public and increased transparency. They talked about the importance of being informal on social media, but they also pointed out that there had been some fear among institutions of using them, in particular fear of employees showing a human side via social media. There was minimal use of original material on institutions’ social media pages, while institutions were quite systematic in posting material from their website through social media

  6. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  7. The Icelandic economic collapse, smoking, and the role of labor-market changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse.

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of a Wind Power Generation System at Búrfell in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Freyr Ragnarsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy harnessing is a new energy production alternative in Iceland. Current installed wind power in Iceland sums to 1.8 MW, which in contrast is 0.1% of the country’s total electricity production. This article is dedicated to the exploration of the potential cost of wind energy production at Búrfell in the south of Iceland. A levelized cost of energy (LCOE approach was applied to the estimation of the potential cost. Weibull simulation is used to simulate wind data for calculations. A confirmation of the power law is done by comparing real data to calculated values. A modified Weibull simulation is verified by comparing results with actual on-site test wind turbines. A wind farm of 99MWis suggested for the site. Key results were the capacity factor (CF at Búrfell being 38.15% on average and that the LCOE for wind energy was estimated as 0.087–0.088 USD/kWh (assuming 10% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, which classifies Búrfell among the lowest LCOE sites for wind energy in Europe.

  9. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  10. Measuring and modelling water transport on Skaftafellsheioi, Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.; Avis, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Areas with thick basaltic aquifers are used for drinking water supply and irrigation purposes, such as the Columbia River Basalt group in northwest USA and the Deccan Traps in India. However, rainfall-runoff processes in these basaltic areas are poorly understood. Cooling joints can transport large

  11. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  12. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  13. Biochemical indicators of pollution exposure in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), caught in four harbours on the southwest coast of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephensen; Svavarsson; Sturve; Ericson; Adolfsson-Erici; Förlin

    2000-04-01

    Shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) were caught in four Icelandic harbours, differing in size, use and traffic. Biochemical responses in liver were measured and chemicals analysed in bile. Eyrarbakki harbour, which has not been in use for many years was chosen as a control site. Njar partial differentialvík harbour is a small fishing harbour and a marina, Sandger partial differentiali harbour is a large fishing harbour, and Reykjavík harbour is a large fishing harbour and an international transport harbour. Higher levels of DNA-adducts and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in the fish from the harbours in Sandger partial differentiali, Njar partial differentialvík and Reykjavík, compared to Eyrarbakki harbour, indicate PAH exposure. This was confirmed by PAH analysis in bile. The higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in fish caught in Sandger partial differentiali, than in fish caught in the other harbours, indicate exposure of sculpin to prooxidative compounds in Sandger partial differentiali harbour. Shorthorn sculpin seems to be a convenient species for monitoring pollution in northern coastal areas.

  14. Hydrothermal fluid flow within a tectonically active rift-ridge transform junction: Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, M.; Geiger, S.; Graham, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the regional fluid flow dynamics in a highly faulted transform area, the Tjörnes Fracture Zone in northern Iceland which is characterized by steep geothermal gradients, hydrothermal activity, and strong seismicity. We simulate fluid flow within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone using a high-resolution model that was based on the available geological and geophysical data and has the aim to represent the complex geological structures and the thermodynamical processes that drive the regional fluid flow in a physically realistic way. Our results show that convective heat flow and mixing of cold and saline seawater with deep hydrothermal fluids controls the large-scale fluid flow. The distribution of faults has a strong influence on the local hydrodynamics by focusing flow around clusters of faults. This explains the nature of isolated upflow zones of hot hydrothermal fluids which are observed in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. An important emergent characteristic of the regional fluid flow in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone are two separate flow systems: one in the sedimentary basins, comprising more vigorous convection, and one in the crystalline basement, which is dominated by conduction. These two flow systems yield fundamental insight into the connection between regional hydrothermal fluid flow and seismicity because they form the basis of a toggle switch mechanism that is thought to have caused the hydrogeochemical anomalies recorded at Húsavik before and after the 5.8 M earthquake in September 2002.

  15. Pregnant women's expectations about pain intensity during childbirth and their attitudes towards pain management: Findings from an Icelandic national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsdottir, Sigfridur Inga; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Olafsdottir, Olof Asta; Kristjansdottir, Hildur

    2015-12-01

    Pregnant women expect childbirth to be painful. However, little is known about their expectations of the intensity of pain in childbirth (EIPC) and their attitudes to pain management. The design was a cross-sectional survey, with self-reported questionnaires used to collect data from low-risk pregnant women (N = 1111) early in pregnancy at 26 of the largest primary health care centres in Iceland. This consecutive national sample was stratified by residency. The mean score for the EIPC was 5.58 (SD = 1.38) measured on a 7 point scale. The strongest predictors of a high EIPC score were: negative attitude to the impending childbirth (OR = 2.39), low manifestation of a sense of security (OR = 1.80), and a positive attitude to pain management with medication (OR = 1.63). Women living outside the capital area were less likely to have a high EIPC (OR = 0.68). Most women (77%) had a positive attitude towards pain management without medication and 35% had a positive attitude to pain management with medication. The study detected multiple predictors of women's EIPC and attitude to pain management. Early and throughout pregnancy, midwives and health care professionals need to address these predictors in order to assist women to prepare themselves for the pain of labour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An airborne gamma ray survey of parts of SW Scotland in February 1993. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Tyler, A.N.; Ni Riain, S.; Murphy, S.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne gamma ray survey was conducted for the Scottish Office Environment Department of coastal and inland parts of SW Scotland to define existing background levels, to locate features worthy of further attention, and to demonstrate the emergency response capabilities of radiometric methods. Coastal areas were surveyed with 500 m line spacing. Inland areas were specified to 2 km line spacing, however it was possible to achieve 1 km line spacing in the majority of the inland zone. The radiometric maps show clearly the distributions of each individual nuclide and indicate the contribution which individual localised features make to the overall gamma ray dose rate. Naturally occurring nuclides reflect the underlying geological and geomorphological contexts of the landscapes. The main granite intrusions, most notably at Cairnsmore of Fleet, the Loch Doon Granodiorite, Glencairn of Carsphairn, the Dalbeattie granite, and Criffel Pluton are readily visible in 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 Tl maps, and control their local radiation environments. A number of areas of enhanced 214 Bi, which may reflect radon potential, were noted. A transient radon associated 214 Bi signal was observed on the west of the Wigtown peninsular during the survey. Examination of spectral data in the vicinity Dundrennan has confirmed that there is no evidence of widespread terrestrial contamination arising from the use of depleted uranium projectiles on the range. The 137 Cs map indicates the environmental distribution of this nuclide in considerable detail. Levels of 137 Cs range from approximately 2 kBq m -2 , a level consistent with global weapons' testing fallout, from 2-40 kBq m -2 on terrestrial sites affected by deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and from 40 kBq m -2 to over 200 kBq m -2 on tide washed pastures which have accumulated marine sediments from the Irish sea. (author)

  17. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW–SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW–NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area. (paper)

  18. The impact of economic factors on migration considerations among Icelandic specialist doctors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ingunn Bjarnadóttir; Tómasson, Kristinn; Aasland, Olaf; Tyssen, Reidar

    2013-12-18

    Globalization has facilitated the employability of doctors almost anywhere in the world. In recent years, the migration of doctors seems to have increased. However, we lack studies on doctors' migration from developed countries. Because the economic recession experienced by many countries might have affected the migration of doctors, research on this topic is important for the retention of doctors. Iceland was hit hard by the economic recession in 2008. Therefore, we want to explore how many specialist doctors in Iceland have considered migrating and whether economic factors at work and in private life, such as extensive cost-containment initiatives at work and worries about personal finances, are related to doctors' migration considerations. In 2010, all doctors in Iceland registered with the Icelandic Medical Association were sent an electronic cross-sectional survey by email. The 467 specialists who participated in this study represent 55% of all specialist doctors working in Iceland. Information on doctors' contemplation of migration was available from responses to the question: "Have you considered moving and working abroad?" The predictor variables in our logistic regression model are perceived cost-containment initiatives at work, stress related to personal finances, experience of working abroad during vacations, job dissatisfaction, job position, age, and gender. Sixty-three per cent of Iceland's specialist doctors had considered relocation abroad, 4% were moving in the next year or two, and 33% had not considered relocating. Logistic regression analysis shows that, controlling for age, gender, job position, job satisfaction, and experience of working abroad during vacations, doctors' migration considerations were significantly affected by their experiences of cost-containment initiatives at work (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, p Economic factors affect whether specialist doctors in Iceland consider migration. More studies on the effect of economic recession

  19. Mantle Convection beneath the Aegir Ridge, a Shadow in the Iceland Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Breivik, A. J.; Hanan, B. B.; Mjelde, R.; Sayit, K.; Vogt, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Hotspot has produced extensive volcanism spanning much of the ocean basin between Greenland and Norway, forming one of the world's largest igneous provinces. However, an apparent igneous "shadow" in hotspot activity is located at the fossil Aegir Ridge, which formed anomalously thin crust, despite this ridge being near the Iceland hotspot when it was active. The Aegir Ridge accommodated seafloor spreading northeast of present-day Iceland from the time of continental breakup at ~55 Ma until ~25 Ma, at which point spreading shifted west to the Kolbeinsey Ridge. To address the cause of the anomalously thin crust produced by the Aegir Ridge, we use three-dimensional numerical models to simulate the interaction between a mantle plume beneath the Iceland hotspot, rifting continental lithosphere, and the time-evolving North Atlantic ridge system. Two end-member hypotheses were investigated: (1) Material emanating from the Iceland mantle plume was blocked from reaching the Aegir Ridge by the thick lithosphere of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent as the Kolbeinsey Ridge began rifting it from Greenland at ~30 Ma, just east of the plume center; (2) Plume material was not blocked and did reach the Aegir Ridge, but had already experienced partial melting closer to the hotspot. This material was then unable to produce melt volumes at the Aegir Ridge comparable to those of pristine mantle. To test these hypotheses, we vary the volume flux and viscosity of the plume, and identify which conditions do and do not lead to the Aegir Ridge forming anomalously thin crust. Results show that the combination of plume material being drawn into the lithospheric channels beneath the Reykjanes Ridge and Kolbeinsey Ridge after their respective openings, and the impedance of plume flow by the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (hypothesis 1), can deprive the Aegir Ridge of plume influence. This leads to low crustal thicknesses that are comparable to those observed. We have yet to produce a model

  20. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  1. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  2. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills. Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm. Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  3. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Droplaug; MacKenzie, Brian; Chosson-P, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) is a large highly mobile predator fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Knowledge of its trophic role in marine food webs in summer feeding areas is presently based on recent (1980–2010s) sampling in the Bay of Biscay, Gulfs...... of Maine and St. Lawrence, and from historical (1950–1960s) sampling in the Norwegian-North Sea-Kattegat. No study has yet investigated the diets of ABFT in Icelandic waters, where it supported an experimental fishery during 1996–2005, nor in any region north of the Bay of Biscay since the 1960s. However......, north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e.g., mackerel) have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration...

  4. Properties of Thermus ruber Strains Isolated from Icelandic Hot Springs and DNA:DNA Homology of Thermus ruber and Thermus aquaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Richard J.; Williams, Ralph A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen pink-pigmented strains of the genus Thermus were isolated from samples collected from thermal areas of Iceland. The strains were examined by using phenotypic characterization and DNA:DNA homology and were compared with recognized strains. Visually, the strains could be divided into three groups based on their pigmentation; however, spectroscopic studies of the pigments indicated little difference among them. Most strains required a vitamin supplement for growth and used fructose, maltose, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the presence of nitrate, two strains were able to grow under anaerobic conditions. The optimum growth temperature was 60°C; growth did not occur at 30 or 70°C. PMID:16347714

  5. Significant strain accumulation between the deformation front and landward out-of-sequence thrusts in accretionary wedge of SW Taiwan revealed by cGPS and SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.

  6. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  7. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  8. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroma, E.; Nordbaeck, N.; Engstroem, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    In October 2012, the geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site. The SE-NW trending, ca. 85 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island next to investigation trenches OL-TK18 and OL-TK4. The lithology in investigation trench OL-TK19 is of heterogeneous character, with rock type varying from veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss to pegmatitic granite, along with portions of mica gneiss and K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. In addition, inclusions of mica gneiss, quartz gneiss and skarn are encountered. The rocks have been subjected to a multiphase ductile deformation and the trench is situated in an area where the latest ductile deformation phase, D4 prevails. The investigation trench can be divided into three domains according to its dominant deformation phase and foliation; the eastern part of the trench is dominated by the D3 deformation phase whereas the middle and western parts are dominated by the D4 deformation phase. The S3 foliation has a more ENE-WSW oriented direction whereas the S4 is trending NE-SW. In addition to this difference in orientation, the different structural signature of these two deformation types is observed, the S3 foliation is defined by smaller scaled granitic leucosome veining whereas the S4 foliation is intensely sheared and have a schistose character. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 132 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency 1.53 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations, three fracture sets can be defined. The first set is vertical and NW-SE trending, second set strikes NE-SW with a moderate dip towards the SE and the third set is vertical and NE-SW trending. The median fracture length is 1.38 m and most fractures do not exceed 0.5 m in length, the longest measured fracture being 5.30 m in length. Fracture fillings are mostly

  9. The CarbFix Pilot Project in Iceland - CO2 capture and mineral storage in basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, H.; Sigfusson, B.; Aradottir, E. S.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Gislason, S. R.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Broecker, W. S.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Oelkers, E.

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of the CarbFix project is to develop and optimize a practical and cost-effective technology for capturing CO2 and storing it via in situ mineral carbonation in basaltic rocks, as well as to train young scientist to carry the corresponding knowledge into the future. The project consists of a field injection of CO2 charged water at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in SW Iceland, laboratory experiments, numerical reactive transport modeling, tracer tests, natural analogue and cost analysis. The CO2 injection site is situated about 3 km south of the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant. Reykjavik Energy operates the power plant, which currently produces 60,000 tons/year CO2 of magmatic origin. The produced geothermal gas mainly consists of CO2 and H2S. The two gases will be separated in a pilot gas treatment plant, and CO2 will be transported in a pipeline to the injection site. There, CO2 will be fully dissolved in 20 - 25°C water during injection at 25 - 30 bar pressure, resulting in a single fluid phase entering the storage formation, which consists of relatively fresh basaltic lavas. The CO2 charged water is reactive and will dissolve divalent cations from the rock, which will combine with the dissolved carbon to form solid thermodynamically stable carbonate minerals. The injection test is designed to inject 2200 tons of CO2 per year. In the past three years the CarbFix project has been addressing background fluid chemistries at the injection site and characterizing the target reservoir for the planned CO2 injection. Numerous groundwater samples have been collected and analysed. A monitoring and accounting plan has been developed, which integrates surface, subsurface and atmospheric monitoring. A weather station is operating at the injection site for continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO2 and to track all key parameters for the injection. Environmental authorities have granted licenses for the CO2 injection and the use of tracers, based

  10. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  11. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla-SVR sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.

  12. "The Fact that I'm a Woman May Have Been the Defining Factor": The Moral Dilemmas of an Icelandic Headteacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larusdottir, Steinunn Helga

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the values and moral dilemmas of one Icelandic headteacher. The article draws on doctoral research currently being conducted with educational leaders in Icelandic basic schools. The research explores the values underpinning the work of female and male educational leaders and how values impact upon their actions, in…

  13. Herman Salton, Arctic Host, Icy Visit: China and Falun Gong Face Off in Iceland (Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníta Einarsdóttir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the controversial nature of the book reviewed, Nordicum-Mediterraneum is taking the unusual step of seeking two reviews from contrasting perspectives. The first is a review by an Icelandic citizen and the second by a Chinese citizen who is resident in Iceland.

  14. Indications of Hydrocarbons in the Tjörnes Basin, North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Detrick, R.; Helgadóttir, G.; Kjartansson, E.; Gunnarsson, K.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Tjörnes basin, located within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) was initiated during the Miocene (7-9 Ma), following an eastward jump of the spreading axis in N-Iceland. The roughly 150 km long (EW) and 50 km wide (NS) basin has since accumulated a 0.5-4 km thick sedimentary sequence within three extensional grabens, Eyjafjardaráll, Skjálfandadjúp and Öxarfjördur. The transtensional Húsavík-Flatey fault defines the southern margin of the basin. The hangingwalls within the westernmost and deepest graben (Eyjafjardaráll) are transected by series of synthetic and antithetic listric faults. These structures are affiliated with a crustal-scale, listric east- to north-easterly dipping master fault which soles out in the lower crust, at about 7500 m depth. Near shore sediments are exposed on the Tjörnes peninsula, at the eastern margin of the central graben, where a basal unit of Tertiary lava flows, up to 10 Ma old is overlain by 500 m thick Miocene-Pliocene sediments (Tjörnes Beds). Several lignite layers are present within this predominantly marine succession. Multichannel Seismic data show that the Tjörnes Beds extend westwards into the Skjálfandi Bay. In 1989, gas emissions of thermogenic hydrocarbons were detected during a core-drilling in the easternmost basin, Öxarfjördur. Analyses of natural gas-emissions within the geothermal areas at Skógarlón and Skógar in Öxarfjördur also revealed hydrocarbons (methane-hexane) in high concentrations. These gasses probably originate from marine sediments and lignites similar to those found in the Tjörnes Beds. The Tjörnes Beds, as seen in the Tjörnes horst, are thermally immature with respect to petroleum generation. However, based on the tectonic history, this is probably a minimum-maturity indication as organic geochemical analysis and maturation simulations indicate that high geothermal gradient enhances the formation of dry and wet gasses and waxy oil. In 2001 a sidescan sonar imaging was

  15. Ambitious Icelanders: The Background and Beginning of Icelandic International Development Stórhuga Íslendingar: Forsaga og upphaf íslenskrar þróunarsamvinnu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Loftsdóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of development gained hegemonic status in the middle of the 20th century as a way of understanding the relationship between different parts of the world. Even though debated how development would best be achieved, the idea as such was generally not critically assessed. Development institutions were seen as objective institutions with the technological knowledge necessary to move one society to the next level of development.The collection of data of these institutions in the so-called underdeveloped parts of the world involved the most intimate aspects of societies,and gave the idea of development content and meaning. The article looks at the origin of Icelandic development aid and aims at contextualizing it within international ideas of aid. The discussion starts with overview of historical appearance of international development globally and its hegemonic position. It focuses then on how the idea of development takes shape in an Icelandic context at a particular period and how it was shaped by international discourses, as is for example reflected in increased pressure on the Icelandic government to initiate an aid institution. The establishment of Iceland’s first governmental institutions focusing on aid in 1971 reflects still little interest by the Icelandic government at that time in international development. The article also shows how these international discourses become entangled with Icelandic nationalism, and thus the emphasis that the Icelandic nation-state would be engaged in international development.Hugmyndin um þróunarhjálp til handa fátækari hlutum heimsins fékk hugmyndafræðilegt forræði um miðja 20. öld og þá sem leið til að skilja stöðu ólíkra hluta heimsins. Þrátt fyrir að deilt hafi verið um leiðir eða útfærslu að þróun, var sú hugmynd, að sumar þjóðir væru vanþróaðar og aðrar þróaðar, ekki gagnrýnd sem slík. Litið var á þróunarsamvinnustofnanir sem hlutlaus fyrirb

  16. Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

    2008-01-01

    During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

  17. Sr-Nd isotope systematics of xenoliths in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.

    1993-01-01

    Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)

  18. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  19. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  20. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-12-04

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  1. Bookshelf faulting and transform motion between rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. G.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Plate spreading is segmented on length scales from 10 - 1,000 kilometres. Where spreading segments are offset, extensional motion has to transfer from one segment to another. In classical plate tectonics, mid-ocean ridge spreading centres are offset by transform faults, but smaller 'non-transform' offsets exist between slightly overlapping spreading centres which accommodate shear by a variety of geometries. In Iceland the mid-Atlantic Ridge is raised above sea level by the Iceland mantle plume, and is divided into a series of segments 20-150 km long. Using microseismicity recorded by a temporary array of 26 three-component seismometers during 2009-2012 we map bookshelf faulting between the offset Askja and Kverkfjöll rift segments in north Iceland. The micro-earthquakes delineate a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. Well constrained fault plane solutions show consistent left-lateral motion on fault planes aligned closely with epicentral trends. The shear couple across the transform zone causes left-lateral slip on the series of strike-slip faults sub-parallel to the rift fabric, causing clockwise rotations about a vertical axis of the intervening rigid crustal blocks. This accommodates the overall right-lateral transform motion in the relay zone between the two overlapping volcanic rift segments. The faults probably reactivated crustal weaknesses along the dyke intrusion fabric (parallel to the rift axis) and have since rotated ˜15° clockwise into their present orientation. The reactivation of pre-existing rift-parallel weaknesses is in contrast with mid-ocean ridge transform faults, and is an important illustration of a 'non-transform' offset accommodating shear between overlapping spreading segments.

  2. A Tale of Two Lakes: Catchment-Specific Responses to Late Holocene Cooling in Northwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, S. E.; Florian, C. R.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Zalzal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Lake sediments are frequently utilized for reconstructing paleoclimate in the Arctic, particularly in Iceland, where high sedimentation rates and abundant tephra layers allow for the development high-resolution, well-dated records. However, when developing climate records using biological proxies, catchment-specific processes must be understood and separated from the primary climate signal in order to develop accurate reconstructions. In this study, we compare proxy records (biogenic silica [BSi], C:N, ∂13C, and algal pigments) of the last 2 ka from two nearby lakes in northwest Iceland in order to elucidate how different catchments respond to similar climate history. Torfdalsvatn and Bæjarvötn are two coastal lakes located 60 km apart; mean summer temperatures are highly correlated between the two sites over the instrumental record, and likely for the past 2 ka as well. Consistent with other Icelandic records, both lakes record cooling as decreasing aquatic productivity (BSi) over the last 2 ka. Both sediment cores also record the onset of landscape destabilization, reflected by increased terrestrial input (C:N and ∂13C), which suggests an intensification of cooling. However, the timing and magnitude of this shift differ markedly between lakes. Biological proxies indicate gradual landscape destabilization beginning ~900 AD at Torfdalsvatn in contrast to a sharper, more intense landscape destabilization at ~1400 AD at Bæjarvötn. Because temperatures at the two lakes are well correlated, contrasting proxy responses are likely the result of catchment-specific thresholds and processes. Specifically, a steeper catchment at Bæjarvötn may allow for a more pronounced influx of terrestrial material as the critical shear stress for soil erosion is surpassed more readily. The impact of human colonization on erosion rates is also critical to assess, and recent developments in lipid biomarkers will allow for more precise reconstructions of human activity in each

  3. Potential impact of transition to a low-carbon transport system in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Ehsan; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Leaver, Jonathan; Stefansson, Hlynur; Asgeirsson, Eyjolfur Ingi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a system dynamics model of Iceland's energy sector (UniSyD I S) that is based on the UniSyD N Z model of New Zealand's energy economy. The model focuses on the energy supply sector with endogenous representation of road transport energy demand. Equilibrium interactions are performed across electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and road transport sectors. Possible transition paths toward a low-carbon transport in Iceland are explored with implications for fuel demand, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated costs. The consumer sector simulates the long-term evolution of light and heavy-duty vehicles through a vehicle choice algorithm that accounts for social influences and consumer preferences. Through different scenarios, the influences of four fundamental driving factors are examined. The factors are oil price, carbon tax, fuel supply-push, and government incentives. The results show that changes in travel demand, vehicle technologies, fuel types, and efficiency improvements can support feasible transition paths to achieve sufficient reduction in GHG for both 4 °C and 2 °C climate scenarios of the Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives study. Initial investment in supply infrastructure for alternative fuels will not only mitigate GHG emissions, but also could provide long-term economic benefits through fuel cost saving for consumers and reduced fuel import costs for government. - Highlights: • UniSyD I S is an energy system model with endogenous road transport energy demand. • Possible transition paths to low-carbon road transport system in Iceland are explored. • Vehicle choice sector accounts for social influences and consumers’ preferences. • Supply-push costs can be offset by mitigation benefits and fuel cost savings

  4. Observed and modeled pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sijia; Lozier, Susan; Zenk, Walter; Bower, Amy; Johns, William

    2017-12-01

    The spreading of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) in the eastern North Atlantic has largely been studied in an Eulerian frame using numerical models or with observations limited to a few locations. No study to date has provided a comprehensive description of the ISOW spreading pathways from both Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives. In this paper, we use a combination of previously unreported current meter data, hydrographic data, RAFOS float data, and a high resolution (1/12°) numerical ocean model to study the spreading pathways of ISOW from both of these perspectives. We identify three ISOW transport cores in the central Iceland Basin (∼59°N), with the major core along the eastern boundary of the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) and the other two in the basin interior. Based on trajectories of observed and/or numerical floats seeded along 59°N, we also describe the ISOW spreading pathways and quantify their relative importance. Within 10 years, 7-11% of ISOW from 59°N escapes into the Irminger Sea via gaps in the RR north of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ); the water that moves through these gaps principally originates from the shallower ISOW layer along the RR eastern boundary. 10-13% travels further southward until the CGFZ, where it crosses westward into the western subpolar gyre. 18-21% of ISOW spreads southward along the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge into the Western European Basin (WEB). Most of the remaining water stays in the Iceland Basin over the 10-year period. A model-based investigation provides a first look at the temporal variability of these ISOW pathways. We find that the fraction of southward water exported into the WEB is anti-correlated with the export through the CGFZ, a result assumed to reflect these pathways' interactions with the North Atlantic Current in magnitude and/or position shift.

  5. FUTUREVOLC: A European volcanological supersite in Iceland, a monitoring system and network for the future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Kristinsson, I.; Loughlin, S. C.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Hooper, A. J.; Kylling, A.; Witham, C. S.; Bean, C. J.; Braiden, A.; Ripepe, M.; Prata, F.; Jordan, C. J.; Team, F.

    2013-12-01

    FUTURVOLC is a collaborative project funded through a FP7 Environment 'supersite' call of the European Union, with 26 partners in 10 countries. The main objectives of FUTUREVOLC are to establish an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure, develop new methods to evaluate volcanic crises, increase scientific understanding of magmatic processes and improve delivery of relevant information to civil protection and authorities. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise in seismology, volcano deformation, volcanic gas and geochemistry, infrasound, eruption monitoring, physical volcanology, satellite studies of plumes, meteorology, ash dispersal forecasting, and civil protection. The consortium members together with a more extensive group of collaborators, has applied to CEOS for making the Iceland volcanoes a permanent geohazard supersite. In summer 2013 FUTUREVOLC partners improved volcano monitoring in Iceland by installing new equipment, including seismometers, GPS receivers, an infrasound array, and electrical sensors. A key element of the project is to combine Icelandic ground based monitoring data with satellite observations in an improved manner. This applies to different disciplines, including e.g. deformation from ground observations and InSAR, and quantification of volcanic ash clouds during eruptions by combining measurements from ground based infrared (IR) cameras and satellite microwave and IR detectors. The FUTUREVOLC project has open data policy for real-time data streams, near real-time data and science products. Implementation of a data hub will begin in 2013 with making available data for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access of monitoring data through one common interface will allow timely information on magma movements from combined interpretation of relocated earthquake sources, magma sources inferred from ground and space geodetic data, and measurements of volcanic volatiles. For better response during eruptions, the

  6. Iceland and Cyber-threats: Is it more than fear of fear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jón Kristinn Ragnarsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of cyber-threats is a modern reality from which no state, including Iceland, can hope to escape. Cyber-attacks can cause major damage remotely, at minimal cost and while concealing the culprits. Groups and individuals can carry them out as effectively as states, reversing traditional power calculations and making deterrence especially difficult. Individuals can use the Net both for mischief and to escape from authoritarian controls; groups such as terrorists and criminals can target states, commerce and individuals; and states can attack other states both directly and by proxy. The complexity of possible online conflicts was seen clearly in the events triggered by Wikileaks disclosures against the USA in 2010 and 2011. Among other recent developments, an attack on the Pentagon and the ‘Stuxnet’ virus used against Iranian nuclear plants have shown how even the smallest devices can penetrate high-security systems, and that computer-driven infrastructures are no longer immune. Iceland, for its part, acknowledged the relevance of cyber-threats in its 2009 risk assessment, and recently decided to set up a coordinating team for protection; but it has lagged behind its Nordic neighbours in this field and should take full advantage of cooperation with them now. Vulnerable states also have an interest in international regulation and restraint on the use of cyber-weapons, but the context for this is complex and viable proposals are slow to emerge. Iceland can and should contribute to new thinking, and perhaps also assist poorer states: but it needs to put its own house in order first.

  7. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  8. Energy projects in Iceland – Advancing the case for the use of economic valuation techniques to evaluate environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, David; Davíðsdóttir, Brynhildur; Kristófersson, Daði Már

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making in Iceland has occurred without reference to economic valuations of the environmental impacts of energy projects. Environmental Impact Assessments, a legal requirement for nearly all energy projects in Iceland since 1994, have played an important role in identifying the environmental impacts of energy projects, and proposing mitigation measures. However, a purely qualitative description of environmental impacts is insufficient to ensure that they are accounted for equivalently with all of the other costs and benefits of a proposed project. Instead, as monetary information concerning the welfare gains or losses of proposed projects is not currently required to be provided to the licensing body, Orkustofnun, there is the potential for sub-optimal decision-making to occur. As this paper sets out, a broad variety of non-market valuation techniques already exist and could be applied to estimate the value of environmental benefits sacrificed to accommodate such developments. These methods and their outcomes could be incorporated within mandatory cost-benefit assessments for proposed Icelandic energy projects, communicating an estimate of the full welfare implications of approvals to decision-makers and the public alike, and fulfilling an OECD demand for the country to commence such processes. - Highlights: •Current risk of sub-optimal decision-making by licensing body, Orkustofnun. •OECD call for monetary valuations of environmental impacts linked to Icelandic energy projects. •Lessons to be learned from US regulatory approach to advance cost-benefit assessment practice in Iceland. •Practice of conducting non-market valuation techniques limited in Iceland, but now growing.

  9. The Predictive Value of Preschool Language Assessments on Academic Achievement: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Björnsdóttir, Amalía; Símonardóttir, Ingibjörg

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between language knowledge at 5 years of age and later academic achievement throughout compulsory school in Iceland. Between 1997 and 1998, 267 Icelandic preschool children aged from 5;4 (years;months) to 5;10 were tested with the HLJÓM-2 (an Icelandic test of phonological awareness; Símonardóttir, Einarsdóttir, & Björnsdóttir, 2002) and the Icelandic version of the Test of Language Development-Primary: Second Edition (TOLD-2P; oral comprehension tasks; Símonardóttir, Guðmundsson, Skúlason, & Pétursdóttir, 1995). In 2011 these individuals, now aged 18-19 years, were contacted again. Of the original 267 participants, 221 (83%) gave permission to link their results from the preschool language assessments with their performance on national tests in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. The results showed strong correlation between phonological awareness (as measured by the HLJÓM-2) and academic achievement (Icelandic and mathematics) in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. There was also a significant but lower correlation with oral comprehension skills, as measured with the TOLD-2P. Regression analysis showed that the preschool oral-language assessments in phonological awareness and oral comprehension explained between 35% and 43% of variability in scores on national tests in Icelandic and between 20% and 39% of variability in scores in mathematics. Preschool language knowledge is a reliable predictor of later academic achievement.

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Iceland 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Iceland carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A; Witham, CS; Theys, N; Richards, NAD; Thordarson, T; Szpek, K; Feng, W; Hort, MC; Woolley, AM; Jones, AR; Redington, AL; Johnson, BT; Hayward, CL; Carslaw, KS

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We h...

  12. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  13. Iceland's meltdown: the rise and fall of international banking in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how rapid privatization and liberalization of Iceland's small local banks around 2000, combined with well-developed crony relations among the elite, enabled a small group of financiers to leverage government-guaranteed deposits into a vast wave of mergers and acquisitions abroad, and redistribute enough of the profits back home to make the economy boom. Negative policy feedback loops were systematically undermined. The incoming left-wing government, with IMF support, has managed to protect the bulk of the population from the worst of the effects.

  14. Study of the alteration of the Vatnajokull volcanic glasses (Iceland). Mechanisms and situation at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal, X.

    1999-01-01

    Volcanic glasses have been considered for several years to be good analogues of nuclear glasses. The main objective of this study is to look at the long term behaviour of natural glasses subjected to meteoric alteration. Basaltic hyalo-clasts, essentially from Hengill, Husafell and Vatnajokull, in Iceland, were studied. These glasses, ranging from 0.09 to 4 My in age, and altered by meteoric water, are surrounded by alteration layers. In the youngest samples ( 18 O measurements indicate, major modification of the initial glass structure during gel formation. Chemical budgets show that elements are not completely retained by alteration products in such geological environments. (author)

  15. Cellular processing of the amyloidogenic cystatin C variant of hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Icelandic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Merz, G S; Schwenk, V

    1999-01-01

    of an amyloidogenic mutation on the intracellular processing of its protein product. The protein, a mutant of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, is the amyloid precursor protein in Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis--Icelandic type (HCHWA-I). The amyloid fibers are composed of mutant cystatin C...... (L68Q) that lacks the first 10 amino acids. We have previously shown that processing of wild-type cystatin C entails formation of a transient intracellular dimer that dissociates prior to secretion, such that extracellular cystatin C is monomeric. We report here that the cystatin C mutation engenders...

  16. Alteration of basaltic glass in Iceland as a natural analogue for nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.; Advocat, T.; Fritz, B.; Petit, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the longer term geochemical consequences of basaltic glass dissolution in fresh water at 0 0 C calculated with the computer code DISSOL. The clay minerals were represented by an ideal solid solution model (CISSFIT) able to describe variations in chemical composition of a clay phase in response to variations of the solution chemistry. The predicted mineral phases were iron hydroxides followed by kaolinite, TOT clays, chabazite and clinoptilolite. These results are in reasonably good agreement with experimental results and observations of altered subglacial hyaloclastites from Iceland. The formation of secondary products are mainly controlled by thermodynamic constraints. Kinetic effects, such as diffusion in the near glass surface are not important

  17. QMM – A Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Icelandic Economy. Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper documents and describes Version 2.0 of the Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Central Bank of Iceland (QMM). QMM and the underlying quarterly database have been under construction since 2001 at the Research and Forecasting Division of the Economics Department at the Bank and was first...... implemented in the forecasting round for the Monetary Bulletin 2006/1 in March 2006. QMM is used by the Bank for forecasting and various policy simulations and therefore plays a key role as an organisational framework for viewing the medium-term future when formulating monetary policy at the Bank. This paper...

  18. Modelling the effects of ice-sheet activity on CO2 outgassing by Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, J. J.; Ferguson, D.; Petersen, K. D.; Creyts, T. T.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial cycles may play a significant role in mediating the flux of magmatic CO2 between the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. In Iceland, it is thought that late-Pleistocene deglaciation led to a significant volcanic pulse, evidenced by increased post-glacial lava volumes and changes in melt chemistry consistent with depressurization. Investigating the extent to which glacial activity may have affected volcanic CO2 emissions from Iceland, and crucially over what timescale, requires detailed knowledge of how the magma system responded to the growth and collapse of the ice-sheet before and after the LGM. To investigate this, we coupled a model of magma generation and transport with a history of ice-sheet activity. Our results show that the emplacement and removal of the LGM ice-sheet likely led to two significant pulses of magmatic CO2. The first, and most significant of these, is associated with ice-sheet growth and occurs as the magma system recovers from glacial loading. This recovery happens from the base of the melting region upwards, producing a pulse of CO2 rich magma that is predicted to reach the surface around 20 ka after the loading event, close in time to the LGM. The second peak in CO2 output occurs abruptly following deglaciation as a consequence of increased rates of melt generation and transport in the shallow mantle. Although these post-glacial melts are relatively depleted in CO2, the increase in magma flux leads to a short-lived period of elevated CO2 emissions. Our results therefore suggest a negative feedback, whereby ice-sheet growth produces a delayed pulse of magmatic CO2, which, in addition to increased geothermal heat flux, may contribute towards driving deglaciation, which itself then causes further magmatism and CO2 outgassing. This model is consistent with the seismic structure of the asthenosphere below Iceland, and the established compositional and volumetric trends for sub- and post-glacial volcanism in Iceland. These trends show that

  19. "We are like the Poles": On the ambiguous labour market position of young Icelanders

    OpenAIRE

    Margrét Einarsdóttir; Jónína Einarsdóttir; Guðbjörg Linda Rafnsdóttir

    2015-01-01

    Paid work is quite common amongst young people under the age of 18 in the Western world, although most undertake flexible part-time work. Nevertheless, studies on their labour market position are rare. The aim of this article is to examine the labour market position of young people in Iceland, a high-income Nordic country. We ask about: (i) young people’s general labour market rights regarding payslips and formal work contracts; (ii) their special labour market rights, safeguarded by child la...

  20. Detailed site effect estimation in the presence of strong velocity reversals within a small-aperture strong-motion array in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar

    2016-08-11

    The rock site characterization for earthquake engineering applications in Iceland is common due to the easily exposed older bedrock and more recent volcanic lava rock. The corresponding site amplification is generally assumed to be low but has not been comprehensively quantified, especially for volcanic rock. The earthquake strong-motion of the Mw6.3 Ölfus earthquake on 29 May 2008 and 1705 of its aftershocks recorded on the first small-aperture strong-motion array (ICEARRAY I) in Iceland showed consistent and significant variations in ground motion amplitudes over short distances (<2 km) in an urban area located mostly on lava rock. This study analyses the aftershock recordings to quantify the local site effects using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) methods. Additionally, microseismic data has been collected at array stations and analyzed using the HVSR method. The results between the methods are consistent and show that while the amplification levels remain relatively low, the predominant frequency varies systematically between stations and is found to correlate with the geological units. In particular, for stations on lava rock the underlying geologic structure is characterized by repeated lava-soil stratigraphy characterized by reversals in the shear wave velocity with depth. As a result, standard modeling of HVSR using vertically incident body waves does not apply. Instead, modeling the soil structure as a two-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is found to capture the observed predominant frequencies of site amplification. The results have important implications for earthquake resistant design of structures on rock sites characterized by velocity reversals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  2. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  3. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  4. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  5. The Manila clam population in Arcachon Bay (SW France): Can it be kept sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gam, Mériame; Paroissin, Christian; Bru, Noëlle; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2010-02-01

    The venerid clam Ruditapes philippinarum is the most prominent suspension-feeding bivalve inhabiting muddy intertidal seagrass beds in Arcachon Bay (SW France). It is exploited by fishermen, and Arcachon Bay ranks number one in France in terms of production and total biomass of this species. Previous studies revealed a decrease in the standing stock of R. philippinarum since 2003 and unbalanced length-frequency distributions with a lack of juveniles and of adults > 40 mm. Consequently, the population dynamics of this bivalve were studied at four intertidal sites and one oceanic site in Arcachon Bay. As clam size structure did not allow classical dynamics computations, field monitoring was coupled with field experiments (tagging-recapture) over two years. Monitoring of condition index and gonadal maturation stages highlighted a high variability in spawning number and intensity between sites. Recruitment events in the exploited area varied spatially but with uniformly low values. Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters ( K, L∞) were determined using Appeldoorn and ELEFAN methods. In the exploited sites in the inner lagoon, K was relatively high (mean = 0.72 yr - 1 ) but L∞ was low (mean = 41.1 mm) resulting in a moderate growth performance index (Φ' = 2.99). Growth parameters were not correlated with immersion time and L∞ was different between sites. Comparison of mortality coefficients ( Z) between cage experiments and field monitoring suggested that fishing accounts for 65-75% of total adult mortality. Low recruitment, a low growth rate and a normal mortality rate led to low somatic production (4.1 and 8.7 g Shell-Free Dry Weight (SFDW) m - 2 yr - 1 ) and an annual P/ B ratio from 0.44 to 0.92 yr - 1 . Under current conditions, the possibility of a sustainable population in Arcachon Bay will strongly depend on recruitment success and fishing management.

  6. Characterisation of the heterogeneity of karst using electrical geophysics - applications in SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, A. M.; Cheng, Q.; Tao, M.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The southwest China karst region is one of the largest globally continuous karst areas. The great (structural, hydrological and geochemical) complexity of karstic environments and their rapidly evolving nature make them extremely vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic processes/activities. Characterising the location and properties of structures within the karst critical zone, and understanding how the landform is evolving is essential for the mitigation and adaption to locally- and globally-driven changes. Because of the specific nature of karst geology and geomorphology in the humid tropics and subtropics, spatial heterogeneity is high, evidenced by specific landforms features. Such heterogeneity leads to a high dynamic variability of hydrological processes in space and time, along with a complex exchange of surface water and groundwater. Investigating karst hydrogeological features is extremely challenging because of the three-dimensional nature of the system. Observations from boreholes can vary significantly over several metres, making conventional aquifer investigative methods limited. Geophysical methods have emerged as potentially powerful tools for hydrogeological investigations. Geophysical surveys can help to obtain more insight into the complex conduit networks and depth of weathering, both of which can provide quantitative information about the hydrological and hydrochemical dynamics of the system, in addition to providing a better understanding of how critical zone structures have been established and how the landscape is evolving. We present here results from recent geophysical field campaigns in SW China. We illustrate the effectiveness of electrical methods for mapping soil infil in epikarst and report results from field-based investigations along hillslope and valley transects. Our results reveal distinct zones of relatively high electrical conductivity to depths of tens of metres, which we attribute to localised increased fracture density. We

  7. A Novel Halotolerant Thermoalkaliphilic Esterase from Marine Bacterium Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase gene, e69, was cloned from Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135, which was isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea. This gene is 825 bp in length and codes for a 29.54 kDa protein containing 274 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E69 is a new member of the bacterial lipolytic enzyme family IV. This enzyme exhibited the highest level of activity toward p-nitrophenyl (NP butyrate but little or no activity toward the other p-NP esters tested. The optimum temperature and pH of the catalytic activity of E69 were 60°C and pH 10.5, respectively. The enzyme exhibited stable activity over a wide range of alkaline pH values (7.5–9.5. In addition, E69 was found to be a halotolerant esterase as it exhibited the highest hydrolytic activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and was still active in the presence of 3 M NaCl. Moreover, it possessed some degree of tolerance to Triton X-100 and several organic solvents. Through homology modeling and comparison with other esterases, it was suggested that the absence of the cap domain and its narrow substrate-binding pocket might be responsible for its narrow substrate specificity. Sequence and structural analysis results suggested that its high ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, large hydrophobic surface area, and negative electrostatic potential on the surface may be responsible for its alkaline adaptation. The results of this study provide insight into marine alkaliphilic esterases, and the unique properties of E69 make it a promising candidate as a biocatalyst for industrial applications.

  8. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  9. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  10. Deep-Sea Mega-Epibenthic Assemblages from the SW Portuguese Margin (NE Atlantic Subjected to Bottom-Trawling Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia P. Ramalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-trawling fisheries are a common threat to the health of continental margins worldwide. Together with numerous environmental and biological processes, physical disturbance induced by trawlers can largely shape the benthic habitats and their associated assemblages. At the SW Portuguese Margin, crustacean bottom trawlers have exploited deep-sea habitats for a few decades, but its effects on the benthic biodiversity are practically unknown. During the spring-summer of 2013 and 2014, several Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video transects were used to investigate mega-epibenthic abundance, composition, and diversity in soft-sediment areas subjected to varying trawling pressures off Sines and Setúbal (200–800 m. Differences in mega-epibenthic assemblages were linked with environmental changes (depth, grain size, primary productivity and trawling disturbance. The effect of trawling was assessed between segments with similar habitat characteristics, i.e., muddy-sand bottoms between 300 and 500 m. Areas subjected to intensive trawling pressure showed a generally flattened seabed, with abundant recent trawl marks (up to 3 scars.100 m−1, indicating that the seabed physical integrity was compromised. Significant negative correlations were detected between various mega-epibenthic diversity indices [S, H′, and ET(20] and trawling pressure (h.cell−1.y−1. Furthermore, the distinct mega-epibenthic assemblages and absence of several sessile erect morphospecies at both low and highly disturbed locations by trawling off Sines, namely all seapen morphospecies found in non-trawled areas, demonstrates the negative influence of trawling fisheries on the benthic component of the study area. Also, low dissimilarity between assemblages from the main fishing grounds and the adjacent low-disturbance locations, suggests that the potentially negative influence of trawling can extend beyond the targeted areas (e.g., by the plumes of re-suspended sediments. The

  11. Holocene eruption history in Iceland - Eruption frequency vs. Tephra layer frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladottir, B. A.; Larsen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic deposits of all kinds are used to reconstruct eruption history of volcanoes and volcanic zones. In Iceland tephra is the ideal volcanic deposit to study eruption history as two out of every three eruptions taking place there during the last 11 centuries have been explosive, leaving tephra as their only product. If eruptions producing both lava and tephra are included three out of every four eruptions have produced tephra. Tephra dispersal and deposition depends on factors such as eruption magnitude, eruption cloud height, duration of eruption and prevailing wind directions at the time of eruption. Several outcrops around a particular volcano must therefore be measured to obtain optimal information of its eruption history. Vegetation in the area of deposition is also of great importance for its preservation. Tephra deposited on un-vegetated land is rapidly eroded by wind and water, and deposits up to few tens of cm thickness may be lost from the record. Such tephra deposited on grassy or forested land is at least partly sheltered from the wind after deposition. Soon after tephra deposition (how soon depends on tephra thickness) the root system of the vegetation creates an even better shelter for the tephra and when this stage is reached the tephra is preserved in the soil for millennia, given that no soil erosion takes place. Vegetation is often boosted in the first years after tephra deposition which in turn helps tephra preservation. A setback of using soil sections for reconstructing Holocene eruption history is the lack of soil at the beginning of the era but for that time period tephra records in lake and marine sediments can be used. When tephra stratigraphy in soil sections is measured to study eruption history and eruption frequency of a volcano it must be kept in mind that what is seen is in fact the tephra layer frequency. One section only shows tephra layers deposited in that location and more importantly only the layers preserved there. The

  12. Groundwater chemistry characterization using multi-criteria approach: The upper Samalá River basin (SW Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Arianna; Franchino, Elisa; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Malandrino, Mery; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Hernández Sac, Humberto Osvaldo; Coyoy, Israel Macario; Sac Escobar, Edwin Osvaldo; Hernández, Ardany

    2017-10-01

    Improving understanding on groundwater chemistry is a key priority for water supply from groundwater resources, especially in developing countries. A hydrochemical study was performed in an area of SW Guatemala (Samalà River basin), where water supply to population is groundwater-based and no systematic studies on its groundwater resources have been performed so far. Traditional hydrochemical analyses on major ions and some trace elements metals coupled with chemometric approach were performed, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results evidence that chemical differentiation is linked to the spatial distribution of sampled waters. The most common hydrochemical facies, bicarbonate calcium and magnesium, is linked to infiltration of meteoric waters in recharge areas represented by highlands surrounding Xela caldera, a wide plateau where most of population is concentrated. This trend undergoes chemical evolution in proximity of active volcanic complexes in the southern area, with enrichment in sulphate, chloride and magnesium. Chemical evolution also occurs towards the centre of Xela caldera due to slow circulation in aquifer and consequent sodium enrichment due to ion exchange with the porous medium. Water quality did not reveal severe concerns, even though some sources of contamination could be identified; in particular, agriculture and urban wastewater could be responsible for observed threshold exceedances in nitrate and lead. This integrated multi-approach to hydrochemical data interpretation yielded to the achievement of important information that poses the basis for future groundwater protection in an area where main water features were almost unknown.

  13. Rapid identification of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus using high resolution melting and TaqMan SNP Genotyping assays as allelic discrimination techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina di Rienzo

    Full Text Available In tomato, resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is conferred by the dominant gene, designated Sw-5. Virulent Sw-5 resistance breaking (SRB mutants of TSWV have been reported on Sw-5 tomato cultivars. Two different PCR-based allelic discrimination techniques, namely Custom TaqMan™ SNP Genotyping and high-resolution melting (HRM assays, were developed and compared for their ability to distinguish between avirulent (Sw-5 non-infecting, SNI and SRB biotypes. TaqMan assays proved to be more sensitive (threshold of detection in a range of 50-70 TSWV RNA copies and more reliable than HRM, assigning 25 TSWV isolates to their correct genotype with an accuracy of 100%. Moreover, the TaqMan SNP assays were further improved developing a rapid and simple protocol that included crude leaf extraction for RNA template preparations. On the other hand, HRM assays showed higher levels of sensitivity than TaqMan when used to co-detect both biotypes in different artificial mixtures. These diagnostic assays contributed to gain preliminary information on the epidemiology of TSWV isolates in open field conditions. In fact, the presented data suggest that SRB isolates are present as stable populations established year round, persisting on both winter (globe artichoke and summer (tomato crops, in the same cultivated areas of Southern Italy.

  14. Deformation derived from GPS geodesy associated with Bárðarbunga 2014 rifting event in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar; Hreinsdó ttir, Sigrú n; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Frið riksdó ttir, Hildur; Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stephanie; Á rnadó ttir, Þ ó ra; Geirsson, Halldó r; Hooper, Andrew; Roberts, Matthew; Bennett, Rick; Sturkell, Erik; Jó nsson, Sigurjó n|

    2015-01-01

    On August 16, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the eastern part of Bárðarbunga Caldera in the north-western corner of Vatnajökull ice-cap, Iceland, marking the onset of the first rifting event in Iceland since the Krafla fires (1975-1984). The migration of the seismicity was corroborated by ground deformation in areas outside the ice cap and on nunataks within the ice cap suggesting a lateral propagation of magma, from the Bárðabunga system. The sesimicity migrated out of the caldera forming a dyke with roughly three segments, changing direction each time until August 28 when the migration stopped around 10 km south of Askja Volcano, eventually leading to a short lived eruption in Holuhraun north of Dyngjujökull. A second fissure eruption started in Holuhraun on August 31 which is still ongoing at the time of this writing. In the months prior to the onset of the activity, subtle signs of inflation where observed on continuous GPS sites around the Bárðarbunga indicating a volume increase in the roots of the volcanic system. When the activity started on August 16, the deformation pattern indicated a simultaneous deflation centered within the caldera and a lateral growth of a dyke also reflected in the migration of seismicity along segments of variable strike. A maximum widening of 1.3 m occurred between stations on opposite sides of the dyke spaced 25 km apart. Significant movements where detected on GPS site more then 80 km away from the tip of dyke. Displacements indicated the fastest rate of widening at any time in the most distal segment of the dyke throughout its evolution. After the dyke stopped propagating, the inflation continued, decaying exponentialy with time. On September 4, five days into the second fissure eruption, the movements associated with the dyke where no longer significant. As the fissure eruption continues, a slowly decaying contraction is observed around the Bárðarbunga central volcano, both shown in the piston like

  15. Deformation derived from GPS geodesy associated with Bárðarbunga 2014 rifting event in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    On August 16, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the eastern part of Bárðarbunga Caldera in the north-western corner of Vatnajökull ice-cap, Iceland, marking the onset of the first rifting event in Iceland since the Krafla fires (1975-1984). The migration of the seismicity was corroborated by ground deformation in areas outside the ice cap and on nunataks within the ice cap suggesting a lateral propagation of magma, from the Bárðabunga system. The sesimicity migrated out of the caldera forming a dyke with roughly three segments, changing direction each time until August 28 when the migration stopped around 10 km south of Askja Volcano, eventually leading to a short lived eruption in Holuhraun north of Dyngjujökull. A second fissure eruption started in Holuhraun on August 31 which is still ongoing at the time of this writing. In the months prior to the onset of the activity, subtle signs of inflation where observed on continuous GPS sites around the Bárðarbunga indicating a volume increase in the roots of the volcanic system. When the activity started on August 16, the deformation pattern indicated a simultaneous deflation centered within the caldera and a lateral growth of a dyke also reflected in the migration of seismicity along segments of variable strike. A maximum widening of 1.3 m occurred between stations on opposite sides of the dyke spaced 25 km apart. Significant movements whe