WorldWideScience

Sample records for area subproject phase

  1. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  2. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  3. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume IV - Hydrologic Parameter Data Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-09-01

    Volume IV of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the hydrologic parameter data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  4. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  5. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume III - Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Data Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume III of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the data covering groundwater recharge and discharge. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  6. External Peer Review Team Report Underground Testing Area Subproject for Frenchman Flat, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Marutzky

    2010-09-01

    for uncertainty in models of flow and transport in the Frenchman Flat except for a few deficiencies described in the report. Finally, the peer review team concludes that the UGTA subproject has explored a wide range of variations in assumptions, methods, and data, and should proceed to the next stage with an emphasis on monitoring studies. The corrective action strategy, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, states that the groundwater flow and transport models for each corrective action unit will consider, at a minimum, the following: • Alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models of the modeling domain. • Uncertainty in the radiological and hydrological source terms. • Alternative models of recharge. • Alternative boundary conditions and groundwater flows. • Multiple permissive sets of calibrated flow models. • Probabilistic simulations of transport using plausible sets of alternative framework and recharge models, and boundary and groundwater flows from calibrated flow models. • Ensembles of forecasts of contaminant boundaries. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of model outputs. The peer review team finds that these minimum requirements have been met. While the groundwater modeling and uncertainty analyses have been quite detailed, the peer review team has identified several modeling-related issues that should be addressed in the next phase of the corrective action activities: • Evaluating and using water-level gradients from the pilot wells at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in model calibration. • Re-evaluating the use of geochemical age-dating data to constrain model calibrations. • Developing water budgets for the alluvial and upper volcanic aquifer systems in Frenchman Flat. • Considering modeling approaches in which calculated groundwater flow directions near the water table are not predetermined by model boundary conditions and areas of recharge, all of which are very uncertain.

  7. External Peer Review Team Report Underground Testing Area Subproject for Frenchman Flat, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Marutzky

    2010-09-01

    for uncertainty in models of flow and transport in the Frenchman Flat except for a few deficiencies described in the report. Finally, the peer review team concludes that the UGTA subproject has explored a wide range of variations in assumptions, methods, and data, and should proceed to the next stage with an emphasis on monitoring studies. The corrective action strategy, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, states that the groundwater flow and transport models for each corrective action unit will consider, at a minimum, the following: • Alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models of the modeling domain. • Uncertainty in the radiological and hydrological source terms. • Alternative models of recharge. • Alternative boundary conditions and groundwater flows. • Multiple permissive sets of calibrated flow models. • Probabilistic simulations of transport using plausible sets of alternative framework and recharge models, and boundary and groundwater flows from calibrated flow models. • Ensembles of forecasts of contaminant boundaries. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of model outputs. The peer review team finds that these minimum requirements have been met. While the groundwater modeling and uncertainty analyses have been quite detailed, the peer review team has identified several modeling-related issues that should be addressed in the next phase of the corrective action activities: • Evaluating and using water-level gradients from the pilot wells at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in model calibration. • Re-evaluating the use of geochemical age-dating data to constrain model calibrations. • Developing water budgets for the alluvial and upper volcanic aquifer systems in Frenchman Flat. • Considering modeling approaches in which calculated groundwater flow directions near the water table are not predetermined by model boundary conditions and areas of recharge, all of which are very uncertain.

  8. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  9. The cross-border project between France and Italy MARS+. Sub-project - Innovative technologies for the mechanization of the areas hard to reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tirrò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The care and protection of the mountain areas and their traditional crops were some of the reasons that led regional governments of Liguria and Tuscany to participate in the strategic project “Sea, Countryside and Land: potentiate the strategic unitarily” (MARS +. This project has also involved the participation of the four cross-border regions: Tuscany (leader, Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica. The aim was to promote the development of the innovations and entrepreneurship in the rural areas in order to increase competitiveness. In particular, the subproject SC has provided the transfer of innovations to facilitate the processes of mechanization in vineyards and olive orchards in contexts defined as “heroic”, areas of high landscape and environmental value in which the typical cultures has been always carried out, generally, on terraces or slopes. These conditions require a great effort by the farmers and result in high production costs. The transfer of the innovations has provided the organization of demonstration days in which the technological solutions for the management of the farming operations in vineyards and olive orchards were proposed and tested. During these events, the participative process was fundamentally reconfirmed, not only as a means to expand the knowledge of innovative products, but also as an opportunity for farmers, retailers, manufacturers, researchers, and local administrators to interact and facilitate the development of other technologies. The parameters that led to the innovative solutions included: the small size, user-friendliness, agility, and the ability of operating on systems not easily accessible. These products must also ensure the ergonomics and safety of workers performing all the growing operations. A thorough research of the available technologies and prototypes, still under development, affirms the presence of many innovations. These innovations not only allow the execution of all the field

  10. A risk evaluation for the fuel retrieval sub-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, B.S.

    1996-10-11

    This study reviews the technical, schedule and budget baselines of the sub-project to assure all significant issues have been identified on the sub-project issues management list. The issue resolution dates are identified and resolution plans established. Those issues that could adversely impact procurement activities have been uniquely identified on the list and a risk assessment completed.

  11. Learning Approaches - Final Report Sub-Project 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Rodríguez Illera, José Luis; Escofet, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of Subproject 4 is to apply learning approaches that are appropriate and applicable using ICT. The task is made up of two components 4.1 dealing with learning approaches (see deliverable 4.1), and component 4.2 application of ICT (see deliverable 4.2, deliverable 4.3 & deliverable...

  12. SATURN. Studying Atmospheric Pollution in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moussiopoulos, N.; Hout, K. D. van den; Mestayer, P.

    SATURN is a subproject under EUROTRAC-2. (EUROTRAC-2 is the EUREKA Project on the Transport and Chemical Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents in the Troposphere over Europe; Second Phase)....

  13. Development of low emissivity layer systems for large area glass coating. Subproject: up-scaling of the processes to the large area cathode and development of applicable test procedures. Final report; Entwicklung von Waermedaemmungs-Schichtsystemen fuer die grossflaechige Glasbeschichtung. Teilprojekt: Skalierung der Prozesse auf die Grosskathode und Entwicklung anwendungsnaher Testverfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahr, J.; Dietrich, A.; Hong Dietrich Xian

    1998-12-31

    Within the project work was done in the area of development of coatings, the up-scaling of processes, the development of test procedures and the area of process optimization/process monitoring. The test procedure for coated isolating glazings produced important results to the long-term stability of different types of low-e coatings. The new development layer systems on the base of double-silver have very good optical and heat-conserving properties. The TwinMag-cathode developed by Leybold was successfully scaled-up to the large area cathode and integrated into the production process of a coater for architectural glazings. A tool for the puls-sputtering of silver was successfully tested at a large area cathode. Negativ effects to the properties of the coating were not found. A program for automatical and continuous aquisition of process- and product data was developed with the aim of total quality control. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes wurden Arbeiten zur Schichtentwicklung, zur Hochskalierung verschiedener Prozesse, zur Entwicklung von Testverfahren und zur Prozessoptimierung/Prozessueberwachung durchgefuehrt. Das Labortestverfahren fuer beschichtete Isolierglaeser hat wichtige Erkenntnisse zur Langzeitstabilitaet verschiedener Low-E-Schichten gebracht. Die beiden neuentwickelten Schichtsysteme auf Doppelsilberbasis weisen sehr gute optische und waermetechnische Eigenschaften auf. Das vom Projektpartner Leybold entwickelte Konzept der TwinMag-Kathode gepaart mit der Mittelfrequenztechnik wurde erfolgreich auf einer Grosskathode fuer eine Architekturglasbeschichtungsanlage hochskaliert und in den Produktionsprozess integriert. Ein Geraet zum Pulssputtern von Silber erwies in Tests an der Grosskathode seine Funktionstuechtigkeit. Negative Auswirkungen auf die Schichteigenschaften konnten nicht gefunden werden. Ein Programm zur automatischen und kontinuierlichen Erfassung der Prozess- und Produktdaten wurde entwickelt mit dem Ziel einer umfassenden

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-FG02-06ER64172 – Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2009-03-17

    project indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. This research sought to examine biogeochemical processes likely to take place in the less conductive materials above and below the gravel during the in situ ethanol biostimulation experiment conducted at Area 2 during 2005-2006. The in situ experiment in turn examined the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this layer would induce formation of a redox barrier in the less conductive materials, resulting in decreased mass transfer of uranium out these materials and attendant declines in groundwater U(VI) concentration. Our research was directed toward the following three major objectives relevant to formation of this redox barrier: (1) elucidate the kinetics and mechanisms of reduction of solid-phase Fe(III) and U(VI) in Area 2 sediments; (2) evaluate the potential for long-term sustained U(IV) reductive immobilization in Area 2 sediments; (3) numerically simulate the suite of hydrobiogeochemical processes occurring in experimental systems so as to facilitate modeling of in situ U(IV) immobilization at the field-scale.

  15. On the distribution of signal phase in body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotton, Simon L.; Dias, Ugo S.; Scanlon, William G.; Yacoub, Michel D.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the distribution of the phase component of the complex received signal observed in practical experiments using body area networks. Two phase distributions, the recently proposed κ-μ and η-μ probability densities, which together encompass the most widely used fading mod

  16. Local Area Network Implementation: Moving toward Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Susan B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a LAN (local area network)-based automation project which has neared completion of the first phase of implementation at the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Changes in the library and its objectives with increased technological experience are examined. Diagrams of the current LAN configuration and…

  17. The future market for biogas from waste - Sub-Project 3; Framtida marknaden foer biogas fraan avfall - Delprojekt 3 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias; Eriksson, Ola; Hellstroem, Hanna; Nilsson, Karolina

    2013-09-01

    The overall aim of the project was to study the conditions, opportunities and constraints for the development of the market for biogas from waste in Sweden. Seven areas of importance to the development have been identified in previous projects. The areas are: market and competition, supply and demand for waste, environmental benefits of biogas utilization, technology development, economic value of biogas, political instruments and the handling of digestate. The ambition has been to create a fact and market report for these areas for stake holders such as operators, representatives of authorities and decision makers. The project is a sub-project of 'Perspectives on future waste treatment'. The goal achievement of the project is expected to be good. During the project, there has also been considerable interest in the results, which is already used by a number of operators, both within and outside the project. Thereby, the results have a good spread, even before the project is completed.

  18. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  19. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and {sup 137}Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of {sup 137}Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations.

  20. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  1. Area Based Approach for Three Phase Power Quality Assessment in Clarke Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an area-based approach for electric power quality analysis. Some specific reference signals have been defined and areas formed by the real power system data with the reference signal have been calculated wherefrom contributions of fundamental waveform and harmonic components have been assessed separately. Active power, reactive power and total harmonic distortion factors have been measured. Clarke transformation technique has been used for analysis in three-phase system, which has reduced the computational effort to a great extent. Distortion factors of individual phase of a three-phase system have also been assessed.

  2. INSAR Flat-earth Phase Removal Approach Based on DEM to Settlement Area

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The difficulties of phase unwrapping was increased with the existence of flat-earth phase removal, at the same time, it covered up the real topographical conditions. In order to solve this problem, the paper presented a method of re-flattening. based on DEM to eliminate flat-earth phase, with the interferogram, and then chose some special control points to construct polynomial fitting, removed residual phase and noise. By analyzing the ALOS/PALSAR at the mine subsidence area, the contrast exp...

  3. Estimating winter wheat yield through the decreasing phase of its green area

    OpenAIRE

    Kouadio, Amani Louis; Djaby, Bakary; Grégory, Duveiller; El Jarroudi, Moussa; TYCHON Bernard

    2012-01-01

    A large number of agrometeorological models for crop yield assessment are available with various levels of complexity and empiricism. However, the current development of models for wheat yield forecasting does not always reflect the inclusion of the loss of valuable green area and its relation to biotic and abiotic processes in production situation. In this study the senescence phase of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is monitored through the GAI (Green Area Index), calculated from digita...

  4. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  5. In-phase output beam from broad-area diode array using Talbot cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei Zhao; Qiang Li; Weirong Guo; Bo Liu; Tiechuan Zuo

    2007-01-01

    The robust phase locking of a linear diode array consisting of 49 broad-area emitters was demonstrated.The single lobe in the far field with output power of 0.83 W was observed. The far-field divergence was reduced to 2.0 mrad. The spectral bandwidth was reduced from 1.7 to 0.13 nm.

  6. Attention decreases phase-amplitude coupling, enhancing stimulus discriminability in cortical area MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein eEsghaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Local field potentials (LFPs in cortex reflect synchronous fluctuations in the activity of local populations of neurons. The power of high frequency (>30 Hz oscillations in LFPs is locked to the phase of low frequency (<30 Hz oscillations, an effect known as phase-amplitude coupling (PAC. While PAC has been observed in a variety of cortical regions and animal models, its functional role particularly in primate visual cortex is largely unknown. Here we document PAC for LFPs recorded from extra-striate area MT of macaque monkeys, an area specialized for the processing of visual motion. We further show that directing spatial attention into the receptive field of MT neurons decreases the coupling between the low frequency phase and high frequency power of LFPs. This attentional suppression of PAC increases neuronal discriminability for attended visual stimuli. Therefore we hypothesize that visual cortex uses PAC to regulate inter-neuronal correlations and thereby enhances the coding of relevant stimuli.

  7. Porous MgO material with ultrahigh surface area as the matrix for phase change composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yonggan; Shao, Xiankun; Liu, Tongxuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Li, Benxia, E-mail: libx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Nie, Shibin, E-mail: nsb@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Energy Resources and Safety, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • Porous MgO material with ultrahigh surface area was synthesized. • A composite PCM was prepared from PEG-1000 and the porous MgO. • The phase change temperatures and enthalpy of the composite were measured. • The composite PCM performed good shape-stabilized property. - Abstract: Mesoporous magnesium oxide (MgO) material was synthesized using an integration of the evaporation-induced surfactant assembly and magnesium nitrate pyrolysis. The as-prepared MgO material is well crystalline, and possesses three-dimensional interconnected mesopores and a surface area as high as 596 m{sup 2}/g. Using the porous MgO as a matrix and polyethylene glycol (PEG-1000) as the functional phase for heat energy storage, a shape-stabilized phase change composite of PEG/MgO was fabricated by an easy impregnation method. In the composite, mesoporous MgO material provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the molten PEG during the phase change process. The compositions and microstructures of the PEG/MgO composite were determined by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. The phase change properties of the PEG/MgO composite were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The high heat-energy storage capability and good thermal stability of the composite enable it extensive applications in the future.

  8. High-frequency rTMS on leg motor area in the early phase of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Abo, Masahiro; Hara, Takatoshi; Yamada, Naoki; Niimi, Masachika; Kakuda, Wataru

    2017-03-01

    Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for upper limb motor area in stroke patients is beneficial, it has been poorly investigated in rTMS for leg motor area. Furthermore, no study has examined the usefulness of rTMS for leg motor area in patients in the early phase of stroke. Twenty-one patients with a hemispheric stroke lesion in the early phase were randomly assigned into two groups: the high-frequency (HF)-rTMS group [N = 11] and the sham stimulation group [N = 10]. Patients received rTMS for 5 consecutive days, beginning 10.9 ± 6.6 days on average after the onset. Brunnstrom Recovery Stages (BRS) for the lower limbs and the Ability for Basic Movement Scale Revised (ABMS II) were assessed before and after the intervention. The improvement in BRS for the lower limbs was significant after the intervention in the HF-rTMS group. Although both the HF-rTMS and sham stimulation groups had significant improvements in ABMS II scores, the extent of improvement in the AMBS II was significantly greater in the HF-rTMS group than in the sham stimulation group. Application of HF-rTMS over the bilateral leg motor areas has potential to be a new rehabilitation therapy for patients in the acute phase of stroke.

  9. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  10. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  11. HARMONIC DISTORTION ASSESSMENT BY AREA BASED APPROACH AT SINGLE PHASING OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper presents harmonic distortion assessment by area based approach at single phasing of an induction motor. This has been achieved by assessing voltage and current signals using area based approach. Some specific reference signals have been defined, after which, real power system data are plotted with this reference signal and areas thus formed by the real power system data with the reference signal have been calculated wherefrom contributions of fundamental waveform and harmonic components in real and reactive powers have been assessed separately. Single phasing is done on induction machine and total harmonic distortion factors have then been calculated. Significant change is observed in harmonic distortion due to single phasing. ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan penilaian herotan harmonik menggunakan kaedah keluasan kawasan pada pemfasaan tunggal motor aruhan. Menggunakan kaedah keluasan kawasan, penilaian terhasil dengan memantau isyarat arus dan voltan. Sesetengah isyarat rujukan tertentu dikenal pasti, di mana, data sistem kuasa sebenar diplotkan berdasarkan isyarat rujukan ini. Kawasan kemudiannya dibentuk dengan adanya data sistem kuasa sebenar dengan menggunakan pengiraan isyarat rujukan. Pengiraan ini memberikan bentuk gelombang asas dan komponen harmonik sebenar di mana kuasa reaktif ditentukan secara berasingan. Pemfasaan tunggal ditentukan menggunakan mesin aruhan dan faktor jumlah herotan harmonik diambil kira .Perubahan yang ketara dikenal pasti dalam herotan harmonik yang disebabkan oleh pemfasaan tunggal.

  12. On families of differential equations on two-torus with all phase-lock areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutsyuk, Alexey; Rybnikov, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    We consider two-parametric families of non-autonomous ordinary differential equations on the two-torus with coordinates (x, t) of the type \\overset{\\centerdot}{{x}} =v(x)+A+Bf(t) . We study its rotation number as a function of the parameters (A, B). The phase-lock areas are those level sets of the rotation number function ρ =ρ (A,B) that have non-empty interiors. Buchstaber, Karpov and Tertychnyi studied the case when v(x)=\\sin x in their joint paper. They observed the quantization effect: for every smooth periodic function f(t) the family of equations may have phase-lock areas only for integer rotation numbers. Another proof of this quantization statement was later obtained in a joint paper by Ilyashenko, Filimonov and Ryzhov. This implies a similar quantization effect for every v(x)=a\\sin (mx)+b\\cos (mx)+c and rotation numbers that are multiples of \\frac{1}{m} . We show that for every other analytic vector field v(x) (i.e. having at least two Fourier harmonics with non-zero non-opposite degrees and nonzero coefficients) there exists an analytic periodic function f(t) such that the corresponding family of equations has phase-lock areas for all the rational values of the rotation number.

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning subproject characterization report for the E-MAD Decontamination Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-01-01

    This document describes and reports the results of the work undertaken to determine the nature and extent of contamination of portions of the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility located in Area 25 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  14. Implementation of the interfacial area transport equation in trace for boiling two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Matthew S.

    Correctly predicting the interfacial area concentration (a i) is vital to the overall accuracy of the two-fluid model because ai describes the amount of surface area that exists between the two-phases, and is therefore directly related to interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer. The conventional method for specifying ai in the two-fluid model is through flow regime-based empirical correlations coupled with regime transition criteria. However, a more physically consistent approach to predicting ai is through the interfacial area transport equation (IATE), which can address the deficiencies of the flow regime-based approach. Some previous studies have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of IATE in developmental versions of the nuclear reactor systems analysis code, TRACE. However, a full TRACE version capable of predicting boiling two-phase flows with the IATE has not been established. Therefore, the current work develops a version of TRACE that is capable of predicting boiling two-phase flows using the IATE. The development is carried out in stages. First, a version of TRACE which employs the two-group IATE for adiabatic, vertical upward, air-water conditions is developed. An in-depth assessment on the existing experimental database is performed to select reliable experimental data for code assessment. Then, the implementation is assessed against the qualified air-water two-phase flow experimental data. Good agreement is observed between the experimental data for ai and the TRACE code with an average error of +/-9% for all conditions. Following the initial development, one-group IATE models for vertical downward and horizontal two-phase flows are implemented and assessed against qualified data. Finally, IATE models capable of predicting subcooled boiling two-phase flows are implemented. An assessment of the models shows that TRACE is capable of generating ai in subcooled boiling two-phase flows with the IATE and that heat transfer effects dominate

  15. Step-Free GaN Hexagons Grown by Selective-Area Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kasu, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN has been investigated using the optimized growth conditions for the layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth and GaN-template substrates with low dislocation density. The surface of a GaN hexagon with 16-µm diameter has a single wide terrace over almost the whole area (step-free surface), when there are no screw-type dislocations in the finite area. Step-free GaN hexagons grew in the two-dimensional nucleus growth mode and had approximately an eight times lower growth rate than that of a GaN film grown in the step-flow mode under the growth conditions used in this study.

  16. Numerical Treatment of Two-phase Flow in Porous Media Including Specific Interfacial Area

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a numerical treatment for the model of two-phase flow in porous media including specific interfacial area. For numerical discretization we use the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method based on the shifting-matrices method which can reduce the time-consuming operations. A new iterative implicit algorithm has been developed to solve the problem under consideration. All advection and advection-like terms that appear in saturation equation and interfacial area equation are treated using upwind schemes. Selected simulation results such as pc–Sw–awn surface, capillary pressure, saturation and specific interfacial area with various values of model parameters have been introduced. The simulation results show a good agreement with those in the literature using either pore network modeling or Darcy scale modeling.

  17. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  18. Guangxi Pingguo Aluminum Alumina 3rd Phase Project to Put Into Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In April,the handover ceremony was held for the first completed sub-project of the 3rd phase of 900,000-ton alumina project of China Alu- minum Guangxi Company (Pingguo Aluminum in short),standing for the commencement of

  19. Maxwell’s Equal Area Law and the Hawking-Page Phase Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Spallucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phases of a Schwarzschild black hole in the Anti-deSitter background geometry. Exploiting fluid/gravity duality, we construct the Maxwell equal area isotherm   in the temperature-entropy plane, in order to eliminate negative heat capacity BHs. The construction we present here is reminiscent of the isobar cut in the pressure-volume plane which eliminates unphysical part of the Van der Walls curves below the critical temperature. Our construction also modifies the Hawking-Page phase transition. Stable BHs are formed at the temperature , while pure radiation persists for . turns out to be below the standard Hawking-Page temperature and there are no unstable BHs as in the usual scenario. Also, we show that, in order to reproduce the correct BH entropy , one has to write a black hole equation of state, that is, , in terms of the geometrical volume .

  20. AQUACON-MedBas project subproject no. 6: acid rain analysis intercomparison 1/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosello, R.; Bianchi, M. [and others] [Instituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Verbania Pallanza (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the eighth intercomparison exercise since 1989 of a project which connects laboratories working in different areas. The results are presented here are those of the 1996 exercise. Artificial rainwater samples, with concentrations close to the values ordinarily measured in northern Italy, and a solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate stabilised with chloroform, were prepared in September 1995 by the Environmental Institute of the IRC Ispra, and the results elaborated jointly with the C.N.R. Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Pallanza. Homogeneity and stability tests were performed to check the reliability of the samples. Results showed that pH, alkalinity, calcium, sodium and potassium were the variables showing the highest degree of error. Most of the variables examined showed a prevalence of systematic over random errors. pH and alkalinity were among the most critical measurements and the results stress the need for strict measurement protocols to improve the comparability between the different laboratories. Some analytical techniques (e.g. the use of colour indicators in the case of alkalinity and turbidimetry for sulphate) proved to be quite inadequate for measuring low concentrations. The differences in the concentrations of anions and cations, and the comparison of measured and calculated conductivity, are an indication that some laboratories are not checking their results using the methods suggested in the previous exercises.

  1. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  2. Retrieval of Gap Fraction and Effective Plant Area Index from Phase-Shift Terrestrial Laser Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyare Pueschel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of canopy structure is crucial for modeling eco-physiological processes. Two commonly used metrics for characterizing canopy structure are the gap fraction and the effective Plant Area Index (PAIe. Both have been successfully retrieved with terrestrial laser scanning. However, a systematic assessment of the influence of the laser scan properties on the retrieval of these metrics is still lacking. This study investigated the effects of resolution, measurement speed, and noise compression on the retrieval of gap fraction and PAIe from phase-shift FARO Photon 120 laser scans. We demonstrate that FARO’s noise compression yields gap fractions and PAIe that deviate significantly from those based on scans without noise compression and strongly overestimate Leaf Area Index (LAI estimates based on litter trap measurements. Scan resolution and measurement speed were also shown to impact gap fraction and PAIe, but this depended on leaf development phase, stand structure, and LAI calculation method. Nevertheless, PAIe estimates based on various scan parameter combinations without noise compression proved to be quite stable.

  3. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with {sup 137}Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG).

  4. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  5. Synchronization in area-preserving maps: Effects of mixed phase space and coherent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Sasibhusan; Das, Swetamber; Gupte, Neelima

    2016-06-01

    The problem of synchronization of coupled Hamiltonian systems presents interesting features due to the mixed nature (regular and chaotic) of the phase space. We study these features by examining the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled area-preserving maps coupled by the Pecora-Caroll method. The master stability function approach is used to study the stability of the synchronous state and to identify the percentage of synchronizing initial conditions. The transient to synchronization shows intermittency with an associated power law. The mixed nature of the phase space of the studied map has notable effects on the synchronization times as is seen in the case of the standard map. Using finite-time Lyapunov exponent analysis, we show that the synchronization of the maps occurs in the neighborhood of invariant curves in the phase space. The phase differences of the coevolving trajectories show intermittency effects, due to the existence of stable periodic orbits contributing locally stable directions in the synchronizing neighborhoods. Furthermore, the value of the nonlinearity parameter, as well as the location of the initial conditions play an important role in the distribution of synchronization times. We examine drive response combinations which are chaotic-chaotic, chaotic-regular, regular-chaotic, and regular-regular. A range of scaling behavior is seen for these cases, including situations where the distributions show a power-law tail, indicating long synchronization times for at least some of the synchronizing trajectories. The introduction of coherent structures in the system changes the situation drastically. The distribution of synchronization times crosses over to exponential behavior, indicating shorter synchronization times, and the number of initial conditions which synchronize increases significantly, indicating an enhancement in the basin of synchronization. We discuss the implications of our results.

  6. Interfacial area transport for reduced-gravity two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Shilp

    An extensive experimental and theoretical study of two-phase flow behavior in reduced-gravity conditions has been performed as part of the current research and the results of the same are presented in this thesis. The research was undertaken to understand the behavior of two-phase flows in an environment where the gravity field is reduced as compared to that on earth. The goal of the study was to develop a model capable of predicting the flow behavior. An experimental program was developed and accomplished which simulated reduced-gravity conditions on earth by using two liquids of similar density, thereby decreasing the body force effect akin to actual reduced-gravity conditions. The justification and validation of this approach has been provided based on physical arguments as well as comparison of acquired data with that obtained aboard parabolic flights by previous researchers. The experimental program produced an extensive dataset of local and averaged two-phase flow parameters using state-of-the-art instrumentation. Such data were acquired for a wide range of flow conditions at different radial and axial locations in a 25 mm inner diameter test facility. The current dataset is, in the author's opinion, the most extensive and detailed dataset available for such conditions at present. Analysis of the data revealed important differences between two-phase flows in normal and reduced-gravity conditions. The data analysis also highlighted key interaction mechanisms between the fluid particles and physical phenomena occurring in two-phase flows under reduced-gravity conditions. The interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for reduced-gravity conditions has been developed by considering two groups of bubbles/drops and mechanistically modeling the interaction mechanisms. The developed model has been benchmarked against the acquired data and the predictions of the model compared favorably against the experimental data. This signifies the success achieved in modeling

  7. Role of Surface Area, Primary Particle Size, and Crystal Phase on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Dispersion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvachittanont Sirikalaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Characterizing nanoparticle dispersions and understanding the effect of parameters that alter dispersion properties are important for both environmental applications and toxicity investigations. The role of particle surface area, primary particle size, and crystal phase on TiO2 nanoparticle dispersion properties is reported. Hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, and isoelectric point (IEP of ten laboratory synthesized TiO2 samples, and one commercial Degussa TiO2 sample (P25 dispersed in different solutions were characterized. Solution ionic strength and pH affect titania dispersion properties. The effect of monovalent (NaCl and divalent (MgCl2 inert electrolytes on dispersion properties was quantified through their contribution to ionic strength. Increasing titania particle surface area resulted in a decrease in solution pH. At fixed pH, increasing the particle surface area enhanced the collision frequency between particles and led to a higher degree of agglomeration. In addition to the synthesis method, TiO2 isoelectric point was found to be dependent on particle size. As anatase TiO2 primary particle size increased from 6 nm to 104 nm, its IEP decreased from 6.0 to 3.8 that also results in changes in dispersion zeta potential and hydrodynamic size. In contrast to particle size, TiO2 nanoparticle IEP was found to be insensitive to particle crystal structure.

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report, DE-FG02-06ER64171, Integrated Nucleic Acid System for In-Field Monitoring of Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2009-07-08

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Integrated Nucleic Acid System for In-Field Monitoring of Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Darrell Chandler (originally at Argonne National Laboratory, now with Akonni Biosystems) was the overall PI/PD for the project. The overall project goals were to (1) apply a model iron-reducer and sulfate-reducer microarray and instrumentation systems to sediment and groundwater samples from the Scheibe et al. FRC Area 2 field site, UMTRA sediments, and other DOE contaminated sites; (2) continue development and expansion of a 16S rRNA/rDNA¬-targeted probe suite for microbial community dynamics as new sequences are obtained from DOE-relevant sites; and (3) address the fundamental molecular biology and analytical chemistry associated with the extraction, purification and analysis of functional genes and mRNA in environmental samples. Work on the UW subproject focused on conducting detailed batch and semicontinuous culture reactor experiments with uranium-contaminated FRC Area 2 sediment. The reactor experiments were designed to provide coherent geochemical and microbiological data in support of microarray analyses of microbial communities in Area 2 sediments undergoing biostimulation with ethanol. A total of four major experiments were conducted (one batch and three semicontinuous culture), three of which (the batch and two semicontinuous culture) provided samples for DNA microarray analysis. A variety of other molecular analyses (clone libraries, 16S PhyloChip, RT-PCR, and T-RFLP) were conducted on parallel samples from the various experiments in order to provide independent information on microbial community response to biostimulation.

  9. Maxwell's equal area law and the Hawking-Page phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Spallucci, Euro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the phases of a Schwarzschild black hole in the Anti deSitter background geometry. Exploiting fluid/gravity duality we construct the Maxwell equal area isotherm T=T* in the temperature-entropy plane, in order to eliminate negative heat capacity black hole configurations. The construction we present here is reminiscent of the isobar cut in the pressure-volume plane which eliminates un-physical part of the Van der Walls curves below the critical temperature. Our construction also modifies the Hawking-Page phase transition. Stable black holes are formed at the temperature T > T*, while pure radiation persists for T< T*. T* turns out to be below the standard Hawking-Page temperature and there are no unstable black holes as in the usual scenario. Also, we show that in order to reproduce the correct black hole entropy S=A/4, one has to write a black hole equation of state, i.e. P=P(V), in terms of the geometrical volume V=4\\pi r^3/3.

  10. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  11. Interfacial area and two-phase flow structure development measured by a double-sensor probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Waihung; Revankar, S.T.; Ishii, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Mamoru

    1992-06-01

    In this report, we studied the local phasic characters of dispersed flow regime both at the entrance and at the fully developed regions. Since the dispersed phase is distributed randomly in the medium and enclosed in relatively small interfaces, the phasic measurement becomes difficult to obtain. Local probe must be made with a miniaturized sensor in order to reduce the interface distortion. The double-sensor resistivity probe has been widely used in local void fraction and interface velocity measurements because the are small in comparison with the interfaces. It has been tested and proved to be an accurate local phasic measurement tool. In these experiments, a double-sensor probe was employed to measure the local void fraction and interface velocity in an air-water system. The test section was flow regime can be determined by visualization. Furthermore, local phasic measurements can be verified by photographic studies. We concentrated our study on the bubbly flow regime only. The local measurements were conducted at two axial locations, L/D = 8 and 60, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second measurement represents the fully developed flow region where the radial profile does not change as the flow moves along the axial direction. Four liquid flow rates were chosen in combination with four different gas injection rates. The superficial liquid velocities were j{sub t} = 1.0, 0.6,0.4, and 0.1 m/s and superficial gas velocities were j{sub g} = 0.0965, 0.0696, 0.0384, and 0.0192 m/s. These combinations put the two-phase flow well in the bubbly flow regime. In this sequence of phenomenological studies, the local void fraction, interface area concentration, sauter mean diameter, bubble velocity and bubble frequency were measured.

  12. Decentralized University Studies in Economics and English/The DUNE Project--An Evaluative Project Under Sub-Project III, an Alternative Form of Distribution for Higher Education. Educational Development 1976:3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahllof, Urban

    A teaching system practiced in the Swedish DUNE project, Subproject III, offered an alternative to the usual concentrated form of higher education. An attempt was made to solve the problem of educational distribution by cooperative efforts among municipal authorities, adult education associations, and two postsecondary establishments, the…

  13. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain. PMID:28266595

  14. [Chagas disease in chronic phase outside the endemic area. The diagnostic tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, L; Touafek, F; Elghouzzi, M H; Chérif, S; Mazier, D

    2009-12-01

    The diagnosis of Chagas disease during the chronic phase is based on serology. Outside South America the use of two methods is recommended by WHO. A third method must be available for inconclusive results but there is no gold standard. A pilot study of screening in 254 Bolivian people living in the Paris area (France) was made. Serological study was performed using IIF and three Elisa, Elisa Cruzi (BioMérieux Brésil), BioElisa Chagas (Bio-kit), and Chagatest Elisa recombinante v. 3.0 (Wiener Lab). 165 patients were negative, 69 positive and 20 inconclusive. PCR-based assays appear to have a better sensitivity than parasitological methods, but not more than 70% that do not justify their use for primary testing. There are no standardized and commercial assays. The primer pairs based on the nuclear sequence TCZ1-TCZ2 seems to be the more specific (no cross reaction with others Trypanosomatidae) and the most sensitive with the strains of the two lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi. PCR would have a role in inconclusive serological cases or in the evaluation of treatment failure.

  15. Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems - Sub-Project 4; Avfallsfoerbraenning inom Sveriges fjaerrvaermesystem - Delprojekt 4 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Holmstroem; David

    2012-07-01

    Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems is one of the five sub-projects within the project Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment. The goal of this project is to evaluate the economic potential for waste incineration in the Swedish district heating systems. With the current expansion of incineration, we may relatively soon reach an upper limit for what is demanded by the Swedish district heating systems. How much more waste incineration that is economically attractive to build is of great importance for the development of the Swedish waste system, not least for the alternatives to incineration as for example biogas production. With continued rising quantities of waste and stagnant demand for waste incineration from the district heating systems, today's surplus of treatment capacity may change the market picture for other waste treatment options. How much more waste incineration requested and how quickly the market reaches this level is studied in this project.

  16. Influence of phase connectivity on the relationship among capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and interfacial area in two-fluid-phase porous medium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.

    2016-09-01

    Multiphase flows in porous medium systems are typically modeled at the macroscale by applying the principles of continuum mechanics to develop models that describe the behavior of averaged quantities, such as fluid pressure and saturation. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating the capillary pressure to fluid saturation and, in some cases, other topological invariants such as interfacial area and the Euler characteristic (or average Gaussian curvature). The forms that are used in traditional models, which typically consider only the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation, are hysteretic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a nonhysteretic closure relation. Relying on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, we develop an approach to investigate equilibrium states for a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which includes disconnected nonwetting phase features. A set of simulations are performed within a random close pack of 1964 spheres to produce a total of 42 908 distinct equilibrium configurations. This information is evaluated using generalized additive models to quantitatively assess the degree to which functional relationships can explain the behavior of the equilibrium data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and nonhysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. To our knowledge, this work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parametrizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially nonhysteretic behavior provides

  17. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation & Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.

  18. Dark GPC: extended nodal beam areas from binary-only phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin;

    2016-01-01

    We show a simplified method of generating extended regions of destructive interference with near arbitrary shapes using the generalized phase contrast (GPC) method. For Gaussian input beams, GPC typically results in a 3×3× intensified user-defined input mask shape against a dark background. In th...

  19. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  20. Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research; project: hazardous materials in aquatic environments; subproject: biomarkers and risk assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, C.

    1996-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established in 1989 as the umbrella organization to coordinate environmental research at both universities. CBR projects funded by the DOE under the Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments grant are defining the following: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants through wetlands environments, (2) the actual and potential impact of contaminants on ecological systems and health, (3) the mechanisms and new technologies through which these impacts might be remediated, and (4) new programs aimed at educating and training environmental workers of the future. The subproject described in this report, `Biomarkers and Risk Assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LN`, is particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program aimed at solving problems related to hazard monitoring and clean-up prioritization at sites with aquatic pollution problems in the DOE complex.

  1. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  2. Measurement of interfacial areas with the chemical method for a system with alternating dispersed phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woezik, van B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area for a liquid–liquid system has been determined by the chemical reaction method. The saponification of butyl formate ester with 8 M sodium hydroxide has been used to this end. A correlation has been derived to describe the mole flux of ester through the interface and the kinetic

  3. Interfacial area, velocity and void fraction in two-phase slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojasoy, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Riznic, J.R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The internal flow structure of air-water plug/slug flow in a 50.3 mm dia transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a four-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 0.55 to 2.20 m/s and 0.27 to 2.20 m/s, respectively, and area-averaged void fractions ranged from about 10 to 70%. The local distributions of void fractions, interfacial area concentration and interface velocity were measured. Contributions from small spherical bubbles and large elongated slug bubbles toward the total void fraction and interfacial area concentration were differentiated. It was observed that the small bubble void contribution to the overall void fraction was small indicating that the large slug bubble void fraction was a dominant factor in determining the total void fraction. However, the small bubble interfacial area contribution was significant in the lower and upper portions of the pipe cross sections.

  4. Marine radioecology. Final reports from sub-projects within the Nordic nuclear safety research project EKO-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)] (ed.)

    2001-04-01

    This report contains a collection of eight papers describing research done in the NKS/EKO-1 project. It also contains a preface giving a summary of the results. The EKO-1 project as a whole has been described in the report NKS(97)FR4. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediments and water and the interaction between these two phaseS. Relatively less emphasis had been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project involved field, laboratory and model studies. The work and results helped to highlight the important role of sediments when assessing the consequences of real or possible releases of radionuclides to the marine environment (au)

  5. Experimental and analytical study of interfacial area transport phenomena in a vertical two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.

  6. Phase I Historic Resources Survey Lowndes Wildlife Management Area Lowndes County, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    represents a large stable village whose population practiced maize horticulture, supplemented their diet through seasonal gathering, and hunting with...by the emergence of shell-tempered ceramics, large ceremonial complexes, intensive use of agriculture (particularly maize and squash), and large...Wildlife Management Area 91 room. However, the front porch has collapsed and the metal roofing is peeling away, exposing the frame and interior to

  7. Electrospun anatase-phase TiO2 nanofibers with different morphological structures and specific surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangfei; Cai, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Xiaoxu; Lai, Chuilin; Xi, Min; Zhu, Zhengtao; Fong, Hao

    2013-05-15

    Electrospun anatase-phase TiO2 nanofibers with desired morphological structure and relatively high specific surface area are expected to outperform other nanostructures (e.g., powder and film) of TiO2 for various applications (particularly dye-sensitized solar cell and photo-catalysis). In this study, systematic investigations were carried out to prepare and characterize electrospun anatase-phase TiO2 nanofibers with different morphological structures (e.g., solid, hollow/tubular, and porous) and specific surface areas. The TiO2 nanofibers were generally prepared via electrospinning of precursor nanofibers followed by pyrolysis at 500°C. For making hollow/tubular TiO2 nanofibers, the technique of co-axial electrospinning was utilized; while for making porous TiO2 nanofibers, the etching treatment in NaOH aqueous solution was adopted. The results indicated that the hollow/tubular TiO2 nanofibers (with diameters of ~300-500 nm and wall-thickness in the range from tens of nanometers to ~200 nm) had the BET specific surface area of ~27.3 m(2)/g, which was approximately twice as that of the solid TiO2 nanofibers (~15.2 m(2)/g) with diameters of ~200-300 nm and lengths of at least tens of microns. Porous TiO2 nanofibers made from the precursor of Al2O3/TiO2 composite nanofibers had the BET specific surface area of ~106.5 m(2)/g, whereas porous TiO2 nanofibers made from the precursor of ZnO/TiO2 composite nanofibers had the highest BET specific surface area of ~148.6 m(2)/g.

  8. Rapid characterization of complex structural phase transitions using powder diffraction and an area detector

    OpenAIRE

    Pattison, Philip; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Cerny, Radovan; Koller, Edmond

    2000-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity and well collimated X-ray beam from a third-generation synchrotron source, combined with an area detector with online readout capabilities, allows high-quality powder patterns to be obtained with exposure times of only a few seconds. Powder measurements of a rare-earth manganate perovskite (Nd0.43Sr0.57MnO3) were performed in the temperature range 105–200 K, and the data were of sufficient quality to be able to extract, via Rietveld refinement, accurate values for ...

  9. Rapid characterization of complex structural phase transitions using powder diffraction and an area detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, P; Knudsen, K D; Cerny, R; Koller, E

    2000-07-01

    The use of a high-intensity and well collimated X-ray beam from a third-generation synchrotron source, combined with an area detector with online readout capabilities, allows high-quality powder patterns to be obtained with exposure times of only a few seconds. Powder measurements of a rare-earth manganate perovskite (Nd(0.43)Sr(0.57)MnO(3)) were performed in the temperature range 105-200 K, and the data were of sufficient quality to be able to extract, via Rietveld refinement, accurate values for the lattice constants and atomic parameters. The temperature dependence of the Mn-O-Mn bond angles and Mn-O distances obtained in this manner illustrate the well known correlation between the distortion of the MnO(6) octahedra and the onset of orbital ordering. The success of this study, for which only two hours of synchrotron beam time was required, indicates the enormous improvements in efficiency and throughput which area detectors are bringing to powder diffraction experiments.

  10. Influence of Geometry on a High Surface Area-Solid Phase Microextraction Sampler for Chemical Vapor Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-04

    Flow Microfiltration ." Journal of Membrane Science 102(1-3): 31-42. 62 Hook, G. L., C. Jackson Lepage, et al. (2004). "Dynamic solid phase...Xia 2001) In another experiment, 1cm x 1cm and 1cm x 2cm sheets of thin PDMS membrane , with surface areas ~20 and ~40 times greater than a 100 μm...PDMS coated SPME fiber. The membranes were attached to a thin, deactivated stainless steel rod, in a configuration similar to a flag on a flagpole

  11. Locality of Area Coverage on Digital Acoustic Communication in Air using Differential Phase Shift Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Keiichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally evaluate the locality of digital acoustic communication in air. Digital acoustic communication in air is suitable for a small cell system, because acoustic waves have a short propagation distance in air. In this study, optimal cell size is experimentally evaluated. Each base station (BS) transmits different commands. In our experiment, differential phase shift keying (DPSK), especially binary DPSK (DBPSK), is adopted as a modulation and demodulation scheme. The evaluated system consists of a personal computer (PC), a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a loud speaker (SP), a microphone (MIC), and transceiver software. All experiments are performed in an anechoic room. The cell size of the transmitter can be limited under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. If another transmitter works, cell size is limited by the effect of the interference from that transmitter. The cell size-to-distance ratio of transmitter A to transmitter B is 37.5%, if cell edge bit-error-rate (BER) is taken as 10-3.

  12. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  13. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  14. Imports of waste fuels for energy recovery in Sweden - Sub-Project 1; Import av avfall till energiutvinning i Sverige - Delprojekt 1 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlin, Jenny; Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    Swedish imports of waste fuels may increase to 1.5 million tonnes by 2015, when new waste-fuelled combined heat and power plants are in operation; and to 2.5 million tonnes by 2020, if all planned capacity is built. This is the case if national targets for increased material recycling and biological treatment are reached; which means that smaller amounts of mixed waste remains for incineration. When the import of the waste fuel into Sweden has increased, also need of knowledge has increased, as well as the concerns and fears. The aim of the project 'Imports of waste to energy recovery in Sweden', therefore, is to create an improved basis for decisions and communications concerning the import of waste fuel, as well as to study its conditions, opportunities and obstacles. The target group is interested operators, representatives of public authorities and decision-makers. Data includes analysis of future imported quantities, possible import markets, policy instruments and its effects, concerns and fears, economic aspects and effects on climate change while importing the waste fuel. The project is one of five sub-projects in 'Perspectives on the future waste treatment'. The project has been carried out through data collection, computer modelling, interviews as well as discussion and analysis in the working and reference groups. The goal is estimated to having been reached, the results are already used. From media, there is an interest of the results, and the project has already been referred to and presented at conferences. The results are thus already well-spread.

  15. Area Efficient 3.3GHZ Phase Locked Loop with Four Multiple Output Using 45NM VLSI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Ujwala A. Belorkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper present area efficient layout designs for 3.3GigaHertz (GHz Phase Locked loop (PLL withfour multiple output. Effort has been taken to design Low Power Phase locked loop with multiple output,using VLSI technology. VLSI Technology includes process design, trends, chip fabrication, real circuitparameters, circuit design, electrical characteristics, configuration building blocks, switching circuitry,translation onto silicon, CAD and practical experience in layout design. The proposed PLL is designedusing 45 nm CMOS/VLSI technology with microwind 3.1. This software allows designing and simulatingan integrated circuit at physical description level. The main novelties related to the 45 nm technology arethe high-k gate oxide, metal gate and very low-k interconnect dielectric. The effective gate lengthrequired for 45 nm technology is 25nm. Low Power (0.211miliwatt phase locked loop with four multipleoutputs as PLL8x, PLL4x, PLL2x, & PLL1x of 3.3 GHz, 1.65 GHz, 0.825 GHz, and 0.412 GHzrespectively is obtained using 45 nm VLSI technology.

  16. Numerical Simulation of One- and Two-Phase Flows in Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Verma, Arun; Hardin, Jay C.; Banerjee, Debrup; Blankson, Isaiah M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Shvets, Alexander I.

    2003-01-01

    Four subprojects were conducted using analytical methods, numerical simulation and experimental tests: (A) Shock wave mitigation by spike-shaped blunt bodies with application for the purpose of drag, lift and longitudinal momentum optimization. The main result in this subproject is: application of a single needle against a supersonic flow provides higher benefits for blunt body drag reduction and heat transfer to the body than the application of multiple needles. (B) Solid particles, liquid and air jet injection through the front of a blunt body against a supersonic flow. In this case, the research conducted and analysis of multiple previous investigations in this area have shown essential benefits and preferable application of solid particle injection. (C) Comparison of different methods of fuel injection into supersonic duct flows. Preliminary numerical simulations and theoretical analysis show promising results for Telescope-shaped inlet applications in SCRAMJET; and (D) Development of an acoustic source location method for different applications including propulsion systems.

  17. Off-axis sparse aperture imaging using phase optimization techniques for application in wide-area imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Neifeld, Mark; Bhagavatula, Vijaya Kumar; Haberfelde, Thomas; Brady, David

    2009-10-01

    Sparse apertures find imaging applications in diverse fields such as astronomy and medicine. We are motivated by the design of a wide-area imaging system where sparse apertures can be used to construct novel and efficient optical designs. Specifically, we investigate the use of sparse apertures for off-axis imaging at infrared wavelengths while combating the effects of chromaticity to preserve resolution. In principle, several such sparse apertures can be interleaved within a common aperture to simultaneously image in multiple directions. This can ultimately lead to the design of wide-area imaging systems that require considerably less optical and electronic hardware. The resolution achievable using a sparse aperture is the same as that of a fully open aperture. In the case of off-axis imaging, however, the point spread function (PSF) introduces a blur due to chromaticity that degrades the resolution of the system. Of course, the blur can be eliminated by imaging at a single wavelength. However the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is poor, which ultimately degrades image quality. To improve SNR, it is necessary to widen the band of wavelengths, which of course degrades resolution due to chromaticity. Hence there is a fundamental trade between the SNR and the resolution as a function of bandwidth. We show that by using a combination of microprisms and phase optimized micropistons it is possible to reduce the chromatic blur over a band of wavelengths and improve the PSF considerably to restore the resolution of the image. The concepts are validated by means of simulations and verified with experimental data to demonstrate the advantages of phase optimized micropistons in off-axis sparse aperture imaging systems.

  18. Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sangyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kyoohyun; Son, Yonghak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-10-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusions. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements for 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and progressive alterations of stored RBCs. Our results show that stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within two weeks which was accompanied by significant decreases in cell deformability and cell surface area, and increases in sphericity. However, the stored RBCs with CPDA-1 maintained their morphology and deformability for up to 6 weeks.

  19. The role of a detailed aqueous phase source release model in the LANL area G performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.L.; Shuman, R.; Hollis, D.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary draft of the Performance Assessment for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) low-level radioactive waste disposal facility at Area G is currently being completed as required by Department of Energy orders. A detailed review of the inventory data base records and the existing models for source release led to the development of a new modeling capability to describe the liquid phase transport from the waste package volumes. Nuclide quantities are sorted down to four waste package release categories for modeling: rapid release, soil, concrete/sludge, and corrosion. Geochemistry for the waste packages was evaluated in terms of the equilibrium coefficients, Kds, and elemental solubility limits, Csl, interpolated from the literature. Percolation calculations for the base case closure cover show a highly skewed distribution with an average of 4 mm/yr percolation from the disposal unit bottom. The waste release model is based on a compartment representation of the package efflux, and depends on package size, percolation rate or Darcy flux, retardation coefficient, and moisture content.

  20. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  1. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  2. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  3. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  4. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise.

  5. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Bian, Zhengfu; Liu, Zhenguo; Zhang, Qiuzhao

    2015-07-06

    Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise.

  6. The debate on the dependence of apparent contact angles on drop contact area or three-phase contact line: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, H. Yildirim

    2014-12-01

    A sessile drop is an isolated drop which has been deposited on a solid substrate where the wetted area is limited by the three-phase contact line and characterized by contact angle, contact radius and drop height. Although, wetting has been studied using contact angles of drops on solids for more than 200 years, the question remains unanswered: Is wetting of a rough and chemically heterogeneous surface controlled by the interactions within the solid/liquid contact area beneath the droplet or only at the three-phase contact line? After the publications of Pease in 1945, Extrand in 1997, 2003 and Gao and McCarthy in 2007 and 2009, it was proposed that advancing, receding contact angles, and contact angle hysteresis of rough and chemically heterogeneous surfaces are determined by interactions of the liquid and the solid at the three-phase contact line alone and the interfacial area within the contact perimeter is irrelevant. As a consequence of this statement, the well-known Wenzel (1934) and Cassie (1945) equations which were derived using the contact area approach are proposed to be invalid and should be abandoned. A hot debate started in the field of surface science after 2007, between the three-phase contact line and interfacial contact area approach defenders. This paper presents a review of the published articles on contact angles and summarizes the views of the both sides. After presenting a brief history of the contact angles and their measurement methods, we discussed the basic contact angle theory and applications of contact angles on the characterization of flat, rough and micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The weak and strong sides of both three-phase contact line and contact area approaches were discussed in detail and some practical conclusions were drawn.

  7. Disparity estimation and occlusion detection in aerial scenes based on the relationship between phase-based and area-based stereo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xu(徐奕); Jun Zhou(周军); Yuanhua Zhou(周源华)

    2003-01-01

    In this letter, it is shown that there exists relationship between phase-based and area-based stereo inspite of their different motivations. A new cost function is defined based on this clue and an improvedcost-minimization framework is presented. It is suitable for disparity estimation and occlusion detectionin aerial scenes.

  8. C4b-binding protein is present in affected areas of myocardial infarction during the acute inflammatory phase and covers a larger area than C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leendert A Trouw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During myocardial infarction reduced blood flow in the heart muscle results in cell death. These dying/dead cells have been reported to bind several plasma proteins such as IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP. In the present study we investigated whether fluid-phase complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP would also bind to the infarcted heart tissue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Initial studies using immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays for several cardiovascular disorders indicated that C4BP can be found in heart tissue in several cardiac diseases but that it is most abundantly found in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This condition was studied in more detail by analyzing the time window and extent of C4BP positivity. The binding of C4BP correlates to the same locations as C3b, a marker known to correlate to the patterns of IgM and CRP staining. Based on criteria that describe the time after infarction we were able to pinpoint that C4BP binding is a relatively early marker of tissue damage in myocardial infarction with a peak of binding between 12 hours and 5 days subsequent to AMI, the phase in which infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes in the heart is the most extensive. CONCLUSIONS: C4BP, an important fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation binds to jeopardized cardiomyocytes early after AMI and co-localizes to other well known markers such as C3b.

  9. Modeling of Multi Phase Flow in Porous Media: Operator Splitting, Front Tracking, Interfacial Area and Network Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaug, Hans Fredrik

    2001-07-01

    In reservoir problems we consider some or all of the following phases: Oil, gas, water and solid. The solid phase is normally assumed to be immobile and non-deforming, but in general this does not need to be the case. By multi phase flow we will mean the flow of oil, gas and water. The phases are categorized according to their different physical quantities. A hydrocarbon phase, may consist of different hydrocarbon components, e.g., the oil phase can contain several oil and gas types. In this work the components are neglected and only the phases are considered. A porous medium is any solid phase, e.g. sand stone, that is permeable. The flow in a porous medium takes place through connected pores in the rock. Regions on a larger scale that contain oil or gas are called reservoirs. The typical size of a reservoir is kilometers in each direction while the pore scale size is millimeters or less. Solving the Navier-Stokes equation at the pore scale to obtain the transport on a larger scale is not numerically feasible because of the huge difference in scales. Therefore, some averaging is necessary to go from the pore scale (micro scale) to the reservoir scale (macro scale). In this process the Navier-Stokes equations are replaced by macro scale equations that are solved for macro scale variables. The papers presented herein cover several topics in multi phase flow in porous media, and they address some central problems both on the micro scale as well as on the macro scale. In addition, operator splitting techniques have been developed for convection dominated non-linear transport equations.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fisseha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC coupled to ion chromatography (IC in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase were observed with more than 50% of the total nitrate in the gas phase during August and more than 80% of nitrate in the aerosol phase during March exceeding the concentration of sulfate by a factor of 2. Aerosol sulfate, on the other hand, did not show significant variability with season. However, in the gas phase, the SO2 concentration was 6.5 times higher in winter than in summer. Nitrous acid (HONO also showed a diurnal variation in both the gas and aerosol phase with the lowest concentration (0.2–0.6 µg/m3 in the afternoon. The primary pollutants, NO, CO and SO2 mixing ratios were often at their highest between 04:00–10:00 local time due to the build up of fresh vehicle emission under a nocturnal inversion.

  11. Aortic valve stenotic area calculation from phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance: the importance of short echo time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Brett R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can potentially quantify aortic valve area (AVA in aortic stenosis (AS using a single-slice phase contrast (PC acquisition at valve level: AVA = aortic flow/aortic velocity-time integral (VTI. However, CMR has been shown to underestimate aortic flow in turbulent high velocity jets, due to intra-voxel dephasing. This study investigated the effect of decreasing intra-voxel dephasing by reducing the echo time (TE on AVA estimates in patients with AS. Method 15 patients with moderate or severe AS, were studied with three different TEs (2.8 ms/2.0 ms/1.5 ms, in the main pulmonary artery (MPA, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT and 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm above the aortic valve (AoV. PC estimates of stroke volume (SV were compared with CMR left ventricular SV measurements and PC peak velocity, VTI and AVA were compared with Doppler echocardiography. CMR estimates of AVA obtained by direct planimetry from cine acquisitions were also compared with the echoAVA. Results With a TE of 2.8 ms, the mean PC SV was similar to the ventricular SV at the MPA, LVOT and AoV0 cm (by Bland-Altman analysis bias ± 1.96 SD, 1.3 ± 20.2 mL/-6.8 ± 21.9 mL/6.5 ± 50.7 mL respectively, but was significantly lower at AoV1 and AoV2.5 (-29.3 ± 31.2 mL/-21.1 ± 35.7 mL. PC peak velocity and VTI underestimated Doppler echo estimates by approximately 10% with only moderate agreement. Shortening the TE from 2.8 to 1.5 msec improved the agreement between ventricular SV and PC SV at AoV0 cm (6.5 ± 50.7 mL vs 1.5 ± 37.9 mL respectively but did not satisfactorily improve the PC SV estimate at AoV1 cm and AoV2.5 cm. Agreement of CMR AVA with echoAVA was improved at TE 1.5 ms (0.00 ± 0.39 cm2 versus TE 2.8 (0.11 ± 0.81 cm2. The CMR method which agreed best with echoAVA was direct planimetry (-0.03 cm2 ± 0.24 cm2. Conclusion Agreement of CMR AVA at the aortic valve level with echo AVA improves with a reduced TE of 1.5 ms

  12. Position-controlled III-V compound semiconductor nanowire solar cells by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takashi; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate position-controlled III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) by using selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and their application to solar cells. Efficiency of 4.23% is achieved for InP core-shell NW solar cells. We form a 'flexible NW array' without a substrate, which has the advantage of saving natural resources over conventional thin film photovoltaic devices. Four junction NW solar cells with over 50% efficiency are proposed and discussed.

  13. Phase transitions in diglyceride monolayers studied by computer simulations, pressure-area isotherms and x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Toxværd, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    1,2-sn-diglyceride monolayers exhibit unique and complex phase transitions as a function of surface pressure. The dynamical response of the layer on expanding the film has been investigated by computer simulations, (π-A) isotherms and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. Good agreement is found b...

  14. Privacy-preserving point-inclusion protocol for an arbitrary area based on phase-encoded quantum private query

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2017-01-01

    The point-inclusion problem is an important secure multi-party computation that it involves two parties, where one has a private point and the other has a private area, and they want to determine whether the point is inside the area without revealing their respective private information. All previously proposed point-inclusion protocols are only suitable for a specific area, such as circle, rectangle and convex polygon. In this paper, we present a novel privacy-preserving point-inclusion quantum protocol for an arbitrary area, which is surrounded by any plane geometric figure. Compared to the classical related protocols, our protocol has the advantages of the higher security and the lower communication complexity.

  15. Natural Radium Detection and Inventory Flux of Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater at Kapar Coastal Area Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N.; Ariffin, N. A. N.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Distribution of 226Ra and 228Ra radioactive in marine have been studied at Kapar coastal area that closed to Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah (SJSSAS) power station. The concentration level of 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in seawater include total suspended solids (TSSrw) and dissolved phases from September 2006 to February 2008. The measurement technique used for 226Ra and 228Ra was using cation exchange column and counted using Liquid Scintillator Ciunter (LSC). The radioactivities of 226Rasw and 228Rasw in the dissolved phase of seawater ranged from 1.29 ± 0.52 mBq/L - 3.69 ± 1.29 mBq/L and 2.12 ± 0.71 mbq/L - 17.07 ± 6.03 mBq/L respectively. The measurement of radioactivities of radium isotopes in the particulate phase of seawater ranged from 15.62 ± 1.99 Bq/kg - 241.76 ± 100.23 Bq/kg (226Ratsw) and 7.19 ± 3.21 Bq/kg - 879.66 ± 365.74 Bq/kg (228Ratsw). Radium isotopes inventory in this study showed that suspended solid have higher inventory value than seawater and sediment. Study also found that suspended solid play an important role for flux contribution at seawater. Based on the finding, the radioactivity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra is higher in particulate phase than in dissolved phase.

  16. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  17. Librarian - phase 2. Subproject: the application of reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in biological systems. Final report; Librarian - Phase 2. Teilprojekt: Anwendung des Verfahrens der Reflektometrischen Schichtdickenmessung zur Signaldetektion in biologischen Testsystemen und Festphasensynthesen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birk, G.; Hadamovsky, S.

    2000-07-01

    Label free methods that do not require fluorescence markers or radioactive isotopes are of interest for high throughput screening applications. Thus, a new assay type for the RIfS technology was developed. These phosphorylation assay experiments were tested for reproducibility and were validated, initially using a single channel machine. The use of surface active materials to reduce or eliminate non specific binding is recommended. The non specific binding of the individual reagents was an important factor for their integration in the RIfS method. The immobilisation of binding reagents was tested using various methods. Since the various combinations are essentially limitless, they could not be explored to their full extent within the confines of this project. The application of the assay into microtitre plate format was not fully completed within the time frame allotted, however, has since been completed by one of the project participants as part of a further cooperation. Theoretically, this method is also suited to the robotics and sample throughput integral to a HTS system A comprehensive evaluation of RIfS technology regarding its entry into high throughput screening, however can only be made with reservation, due to the limited experience with its use in 96 and 384 microtitre plates. (orig.)

  18. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, P.M.

    2000-06-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted.

  19. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey, The Landings at Nellis Housing Area, Parcel H, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    10,000 gallon unleaded gasoline tank. The site is up gradient from the subject parcel. • No ASTs are directly adjacent to the subject parcel...The remainder of this page is left blank intentionally.] 6.2 Table 6.1 Residential Units Sewer, Water, Gas Electricity...responsibility of the Air Force. Gas - There is no gas infrastructure in the Parcel. Misc- The area is enclosed with 1,288 ft of CMU wall, 7 feet high

  20. 广州地铁5号线分段接管的特点与实施%Features and Implementation of Sub-project Takeover on Guangzhou Metro Line 5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2011-01-01

    广州地铁5号线工程首次采用分段接管的方式进行各项设备的联调和运营演练.对分段接管中的问题进行分析,并提出改进意见.从线路安全、施工安全、行车安全、供电安全、设备安全、人员安全等方面阐述了分段接管中的安全管理.从行车调度的角度谈如何确保安全,以圆满完成调试和演练任务.%Guangzhou metro Line 5 for the first time conducted the integrated system test and operation training for the sub-projects to reconcile the exercise. Through analyzing the problems about personal involvement and experience, this paper discusses the takeover problems from the perspective of line safety, power safety, personnel safety and traffic scheduling,proposes on how to ensure the successful completion of the task of debugging and training.

  1. 曲轴R区域超声相控阵检测方法研究%Research on ultrasonic phased array testing method in crankshaft R-area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆铭慧; 邓勇; 刘勋丰

    2016-01-01

    针对曲轴结构复杂的特性,开展超声相控阵技术在某型曲轴R区域检测中的应用研究。首先,建立曲轴R部位的声束覆盖模型,研究超声相控声束对曲轴R部位的覆盖及反射特点;然后,用超声相控阵方法对曲轴R区域进行检测实验,采用弧面楔块,改善声耦合效果;用VB编写的辅助检测软件,对回波信号进行定位和分析。实验对象为带人工缺陷的三拐曲轴,利用相控阵多角度声束扫查功能对其进行检测,将相控阵系统得到的回波信号数据输入辅助软件对缺陷进行定位,其定位绝对误差<2 mm,并且缺陷位置显示直观,有利于判别。实验研究结果表明:利用超声相控阵成像技术和辅助检测软件相结合的手段有助于曲轴R区域缺陷的快速检测和准确评价。%According to the complicated characteristics of the crankshaft structure,research on the application of ultrasonic phased array technology in the R-area of a certain type of crankshaft was carried out. Firstly, R-area beam coverage model of the crankshaft was established and the crankshaft R-area coverage and reflection characteristics of ultrasonic phased array beam were studied on. Secondly, ultrasonic phased array method was applied to test the crankshaft R-area and cambered wedge was adopted to improve the surface acoustic coupling effect. Auxiliary testing software designed by VB was used for the positioning and analysis of echo signal. The experiment subject is a three-throw crankshaft with artificial defects, which was tested with the multi-angle acoustic beam of ultrasonic phased array. The echo signal data obtained from ultrasonic phased array system was input to auxiliary testing software to locate defect and the absolute error of positioning was less than 2 mm. The location of defects is visual and it is conducive to distinguishment. The research results showed that combining ultrasonic phased array imaging technology and auxiliary

  2. First results of a large-area cryogenic gaseous photomultiplier coupled to a dual-phase liquid xenon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Arazi, L; Erdal, E; Israelashvili, I; Rappaport, M L; Shchemelinin, S; Vartsky, D; Santos, J M F dos; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent advances in the development of cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers (GPM), for possible use in dark matter and other rare-event searches using noble-liquid targets. We present results from a 10 cm diameter GPM coupled to a dual-phase liquid xenon (LXe) TPC, demonstrating - for the first time - the feasibility of recording both primary ("S1") and secondary ("S2") scintillation signals. The detector comprised a triple Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) structure with cesium iodide photocathode on the first element; it was shown to operate stably at 180 K with gains above 10^5, providing high single-photon detection efficiency even in the presence of large alpha particle-induced S2 signals comprising thousands of photoelectrons. S1 scintillation signals were recorded with a time resolution of 1.2 ns (RMS). The energy resolution ({\\sigma}/E) for S2 electroluminescence of 5.5 MeV alpha particles was ~9%, which is comparable to that obtained in the XENON100 TPC with PMTs. The results are discusse...

  3. On the use of area-averaged void fraction and local bubble chord length entropies as two-phase flow regime indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Leonor; Julia, J.E. [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion Campus de Riu Sec, Castellon (Spain); Paranjape, Sidharth; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [Purdue University, Nuclear Engineering Department, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2010-11-15

    In this work, the use of the area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies is introduced as flow regime indicators in two-phase flow systems. The entropy provides quantitative information about the disorder in the area-averaged void fraction or bubble chord length distributions. The CPDF (cumulative probability distribution function) of void fractions and bubble chord lengths obtained by means of impedance meters and conductivity probes are used to calculate both entropies. Entropy values for 242 flow conditions in upward two-phase flows in 25.4 and 50.8-mm pipes have been calculated. The measured conditions cover ranges from 0.13 to 5 m/s in the superficial liquid velocity j{sub f} and ranges from 0.01 to 25 m/s in the superficial gas velocity j{sub g}. The physical meaning of both entropies has been interpreted using the visual flow regime map information. The area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies capability as flow regime indicators have been checked with other statistical parameters and also with different input signals durations. The area-averaged void fraction and the bubble chord length entropies provide better or at least similar results than those obtained with other indicators that include more than one parameter. The entropy is capable to reduce the relevant information of the flow regimes in only one significant and useful parameter. In addition, the entropy computation time is shorter than the majority of the other indicators. The use of one parameter as input also represents faster predictions. (orig.)

  4. Load frequency stabilization by coordinated control of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifters and superconducting magnetic energy storage for three types of interconnected two-area power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, automatic generation control with interconnected two-area multi-unit all-hydro power system and two more test systems as all-thermal and thermal-hydro mixed haves been investigated. The transfer function of hydro turbine having non-minimum phase characteristics makes it different from the steam turbine. Upon application of small load perturbation to such all-hydro system, the frequency is severely disturbed and the system eventually becomes unstable. To stabilize the system for such load disturbance, comparative transient performance of two cases as (a) Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) installed in series with the tie-line in coordination with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and (b) SMES located at each terminal of both areas are analyzed. It is observed that the case (b) i.e. SMES located at each terminal of both areas suppresses the frequency oscillations more effectively in integral controller assisted AGC of two-area multi-unit all-hydro system and the other two systems as well. In addition, the effectiveness of proposed frequency stabilizers is guaranteed by analyzing the transient responses of the system with different system parameters, various load patterns and in the event of temporary and permanent tie-line outage. Gains of the integral controller in AGC loop and parameters of TCPS and SMES are optimized with the help of a relatively novel particle swarm optimization, developed by the authors, called as craziness-based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO). The optimizing performance has been compared to that of real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) to establish its superiority. (author)

  5. Evidence of a planetary influence on solar activity: Phase coherence of the variation in sunspot area with the tidal effect of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Edmonds, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of quasiperiodicities in solar activity in the intermediate period range. However, no accepted explanation for the episodic occurrence of quasiperiodicities has emerged. This paper examines the possibility that the periodicities are associated with a Mercury Sun interaction of base period 88 days. To test this idea we band pass filter the 140 year long daily sunspot area data to obtain the 88 day period and 176 day sub harmonic period components of the data and compare the time variation of the components with the time variation of the orbital radius of Mercury, or more specifically with the time variation of the tidal effect of Mercury. We were able to show that, when successive episodes of the occurrence of the 88 day period component were discrete and not overlapping in time, the time variation of this component of sunspot area was either exactly in-phase or exactly in anti-phase with the time variation of tidal effect. A similar result was obtained for the 176 day period c...

  6. Application of Rms amplitude anomaly mapping in inferring controls on fluid saturation and fault-bound reservoir compartments in the C4 member (lower Misoa formation), phase III area, bloque I area, lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, William A.; Hamilton, Douglas S.; Zeng, Hongliu; Holtz, Mark H.; Light, Malcolm; Yeh, Joseph S. [University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Carvajal, Gladys de; Pinto, Jonny; Garibaldi, Luis; Azpiritxaga, Izaskun [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Exploracion y Produccion

    1999-07-01

    Three-dimensional seismic data are increasingly being used in reservoir characterization studies as an aid in detecting and delineating structural and lithologic features as well as changes in fluid distribution that may not be resolvable with log data at wide well spacings. Amplitude maps, in addition to displaying distribution of lithology, can also be effective in inferring subtle faults associated with changes in reservoir fluid content. In a 12-month reservoir characterization study of tide-dominated deltaic and shelf reservoirs of the Lower Eocene Misoa Formation in a 4-m{sup 2} (10.4-km{sup 2}) rectangular are (Phase III Area) in the Bloque I Area, 3-D seismic data were used in conjunction with logs from approximately 50 wells to detect delineate faults and to infer interwell sand-body distribution. The goal of this reservoir analysis analysis was construct an improved geological model of oil-and gas-productive reservoirs in the Lower Eocene to better understand controls on reservoir compartmentalization and to identify areas of unswept hydrocarbons. This paper provides examples from the C4 Member and demonstrates how 3-D seismic data were used to infer the presence of faults not previously detected in earlier studies of these reservoirs with conventional log data and to illustrate their control on fluid distribution. (author)

  7. Dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS): An Instantaneous Measure of Local fMRI Connectivity Within Spatially Clustered Brain Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvarnia, Amir; Pedersen, Mangor; Walz, Jennifer M; Vaughan, David N; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic functional brain connectivity analysis is a fast expanding field in computational neuroscience research with the promise of elucidating brain network interactions. Sliding temporal window based approaches are commonly used in order to explore dynamic behavior of brain networks in task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, the low effective temporal resolution of sliding window methods fail to capture the full dynamics of brain activity at each time point. These also require subjective decisions regarding window size and window overlap. In this study, we introduce dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS), a novel analysis approach that measures mean local instantaneous phase coherence within adjacent fMRI voxels. We evaluate the DRePS framework on simulated data showing that the proposed measure is able to estimate synchrony at higher temporal resolution than sliding windows of local connectivity. We applied DRePS analysis to task-free fMRI data of 20 control subjects, revealing ultra-slow dynamics of local connectivity in different brain areas. Spatial clustering based on the DRePS feature time series reveals biologically congruent local phase synchrony networks (LPSNs). Taken together, our results demonstrate three main findings. Firstly, DRePS has increased temporal sensitivity compared to sliding window correlation analysis in capturing locally synchronous events. Secondly, DRePS of task-free fMRI reveals ultra-slow fluctuations of ∼0.002-0.02 Hz. Lastly, LPSNs provide plausible spatial information about time-varying brain local phase synchrony. With the DRePS method, we introduce a framework for interrogating brain local connectivity, which can potentially provide biomarkers of human brain function in health and disease. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1970-1985, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  9. Measurement of Tritium in Gas Phase Soil Moisture and Helium-3 in Soil Gas at the Hanford Townsite and 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KB Olsen; GW Patton; R Poreda; PE Dresel; JC Evans

    2000-07-05

    In 1999, soil gas samples for helium-3 measurements were collected at two locations on the Hanford Site. Eight soil gas sampling points ranging in depth from 1.5 to 9.8 m (4.9 to 32 ft) below ground surface (bgs) in two clusters were installed adjacent to well 699-41-1, south of the Hanford Townsite. Fifteen soil gas sampling points, ranging in depth from 2.1 to 3.2 m (7 to 10.4 ft) bgs, were installed to the north and east of the 100 KE Reactor. Gas phase soil moisture samples were collected using silica gel traps from all eight sampling locations adjacent to well 699-41-1 and eight locations at the 100 K Area. No detectable tritium (<240 pCi/L) was found in the soil moisture samples from either the Hanford Townsite or 100 K Area sampling points. This suggests that tritiated moisture from groundwater is not migrating upward to the sampling points and there are no large vadose zone sources of tritium at either location. Helium-3 analyses of the soil gas samples showed significant enrichments relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations with a depth dependence consistent with a groundwater source from decay of tritium. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) at the Hanford Townsite ranged from 1.012 at 1.5 m (5 ft) bgs to 2.157 at 9.8 m (32 ft) bgs. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios at the 100 K Area ranged from 0.972 to 1.131. Based on results from the 100 K Area, the authors believe that a major tritium plume does not lie within that study area. The data also suggest there may be a tritium groundwater plume or a source of helium-3 to the southeast of the study area. They recommend that the study be continued by placing additional soil gas sampling points along the perimeter road to the west and to the south of the initial study area.

  10. Measurement of Tritium in Gas Phase Soil Moisture and Helium-3 in Soil Gas at the Hanford Townsite and 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Khris B.; Patton, Gregory W.; Poreda, R.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.

    2000-07-05

    In 1999, eight soil gas sampling points ranging in depth from 4.9 ft to 32 ft below ground surface (bgs) in two clusters were installed adjacent to well 699-41-1, south of the Hanford Townsite. Fifteen soil gas sampling points, ranging in depth from 7.0 ft to 10.4 ft bgs, were installed to the north and east of the 100-K East Reactor facility. Gas phase soil moisture samples were collected using silica gel traps from all eight sampling locations adjacent to well 699-41-1 and eight locations at the 100-K Area. Soil gas samples for helium-3 measurements were collected at all sampling points. No detectable tritium (<240 pCi/L) was found in the soil moisture samples from either the Hanford Townsite or 100-K Area sampling points. This behavior suggests that tritiated moisture from groundwater is not migrating upward to the sampling points and there are no large vadose zone sources of tritium at either location. Helium-3 analyses of the soil gas samples showed significant enrichments relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations with a depth dependence consistent with a groundwater source from decay of tritium. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) at the Hanford Townsite ranged from 1.012 at 5 feet below ground surface (bgs) to 2.157 at 32 feet bgs. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios at the 100-K area ranged from 0.972 to 1.131. Based on results from the 100-K area, we believe that a major tritium plume does not lie within that study area. The data also suggest there may be a tritium groundwater plume or a source of helium-3 to the southeast of the study area. We recommend that the study be continued by the placement of additional soil gas sampling points along the perimeter road to the west and to the south of the initial study area.

  11. Environmentally-safe process control and state diagnostic in chemical plants by neuronal network. Subproject 2. Final report; Umweltgerechte Prozessfuehrung und Zustandserkennung in Chemieanlagen mit neuronalen Netzen. Teilvorhaben 2: Konzipierung und Erprobung des Zustandserkennungsverfahrens. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessel, G.; Heidrich, J.; Hilpert, R.; Roth, M. [Degussa AG (Germany); Kryk, H.; Schmitt, W.; Seiler, T.; Weiss, F.P.

    2002-12-01

    In the frame of the sub-project, an on-line monitoring system for strongly exothermic reactions was developed to support the operational personnel in the optimal and environmentally compatible process control of complex or safety-difficult reactions in semibatch-mode in stirred tank reactors (batch reactor). The Monitoring System (MoSys) based on dimensionless mass and heat balances with adaptive functions has first to be trained using process data from normal and undesired courses of batches carried out in a miniplant under conditions of the industrial process. The adaptation of balance models to the target plant is done by two-layer perceptron networks. To ensure a complete scale-up, MoSys should be adapted and validated using process data of at least one normal batch course in the chemical plant. MoSys was designed for both a homogeneous exothermic esterification reaction and a heterogeneous exothermic hydrogenation process. Experimental tests were carried out in a pilot plant (esterification) and in an industrial plant (hydrogenation). For industrial testing, MoSys was integrated into a Batch-Information-Management System (BIMS) which was also developed and implemented in the Process Control System (PCS) of a multi-purpose reactor installation in the fine chemical factory at Radebeul (Degussa Inc.). As a result, the MoSys outputs can simultaneously be visualised with important process signals on the terminals of PCS. For example, the progress of hydrogenation, the predictive end of reaction and the concentration profiles of the educt, intermediate and product are displayed on the terminals of operator stations. Furthermore, when undesired operating states occur, the operational personnel is early alarmed and recommendation are given for countermeasures that are allowed to be only done by the operator. The efficiency of BIMS/MoSys could be proven during two industrial hydrogenation campaigns. (orig.)

  12. In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2007-11-02

    Although the biogeochemical processes underlying in situ bioremediation technologies are increasingly well understood, field-scale heterogeneity (both physical and biogeochemical) remains a major obstacle to successful field-scale implementation. In particular, slow release of contamination from low-permeability regions (primarily by diffusive/dispersive mass transfer) can hinder the effectiveness of remediation. The research described in this report was conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface”, which was funded through the Field Research element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Timothy Scheibe (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Scott Brooks (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The overall goal of the project was to evaluate strategies that target bioremediation at interfaces between high- and low-permeability regions of an aquifer in order to minimize the rate of contaminant transfer into high-permeability/high fluid flow zones. The research was conducted at the Area 2 site of the Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. Hydrological tracer studies indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. We sought to test the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into

  13. HyMaP: A hybrid magnitude-phase approach to unsupervised segmentation of tumor areas in breast cancer histology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segmentation of areas containing tumor cells in standard H&E histopathology images of breast (and several other tissues is a key task for computer-assisted assessment and grading of histopathology slides. Good segmentation of tumor regions is also vital for automated scoring of immunohistochemical stained slides to restrict the scoring or analysis to areas containing tumor cells only and avoid potentially misleading results from analysis of stromal regions. Furthermore, detection of mitotic cells is critical for calculating key measures such as mitotic index; a key criteria for grading several types of cancers including breast cancer. We show that tumor segmentation can allow detection and quantification of mitotic cells from the standard H&E slides with a high degree of accuracy without need for special stains, in turn making the whole process more cost-effective. Method: Based on the tissue morphology, breast histology image contents can be divided into four regions: Tumor, Hypocellular Stroma (HypoCS, Hypercellular Stroma (HyperCS, and tissue fat (Background. Background is removed during the preprocessing stage on the basis of color thresholding, while HypoCS and HyperCS regions are segmented by calculating features using magnitude and phase spectra in the frequency domain, respectively, and performing unsupervised segmentation on these features. Results: All images in the database were hand segmented by two expert pathologists. The algorithms considered here are evaluated on three pixel-wise accuracy measures: precision, recall, and F1-Score. The segmentation results obtained by combining HypoCS and HyperCS yield high F1-Score of 0.86 and 0.89 with re-spect to the ground truth. Conclusions: In this paper, we show that segmentation of breast histopathology image into hypocellular stroma and hypercellular stroma can be achieved using magnitude and phase spectra in the frequency domain. The segmentation leads to demarcation of tumor

  14. First operation and drift field performance of a large area double phase LAr Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber with an immersed Greinacher high-voltage multiplier

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Degunda, U; Epprecht, L; Gendotti, A; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Nguyen, K; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Viant, T

    2012-01-01

    We have operated a liquid-argon large-electron-multiplier time-projection chamber (LAr LEM-TPC) with a large active area of 76 $\\times$ 40 cm$^2$ and a drift length of 60 cm. This setup represents the largest chamber ever achieved with this novel detector concept. The chamber is equipped with an immersed built-in cryogenic Greinacher multi-stage high-voltage (HV) multiplier, which, when subjected to an external AC HV of $\\sim$1 kV$_{\\mathrm{pp}}$, statically charges up to a voltage a factor of $\\sim$30 higher inside the LAr vessel, creating a uniform drift field of $\\sim$0.5 kV/cm over the full drift length. This large LAr LEM-TPC was brought into successful operation in the double-phase (liquid-vapor) operation mode and tested during a period of $\\sim$1 month, recording impressive three-dimensional images of very high-quality from cosmic particles traversing or interacting in the sensitive volume. The double phase readout and HV systems achieved stable operation in cryogenic conditions demonstrating their go...

  15. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-03-03

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS.

  16. Simulating the production and dispersion of environmental pollutants in aerosol phase in an urban area of great historical and cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Tringali, Giuseppe; Calastrini, Francesca; Gualtieri, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Mathematical models were developed to simulate the production and dispersion of aerosol phase atmospheric pollutants which are the main cause of the deterioration of monuments of great historical and cultural value. This work focuses on Particulate Matter (PM) considered the primary cause of monument darkening. Road traffic is the greatest contributor to PM in urban areas. Specific emission and dispersion models were used to study typical urban configurations. The area selected for this study was the city of Florence, a suitable test bench considering the magnitude of architectural heritage together with the remarkable effect of the PM pollution from road traffic. The COPERT model, to calculate emissions, and the street canyon model coupled with the CALINE model, to simulate pollutant dispersion, were used. The PM concentrations estimated by the models were compared to actual PM concentration measurements, as well as related to the trend of some meteorological variables. The results obtained may be defined as very encouraging even the models correlated poorly: the estimated concentration trends as daily averages moderately reproduce the same trends of the measured values.

  17. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naude, Yvette, E-mail: yvette.naude@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Rohwer, Egmont R., E-mail: egmont.rohwer@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a novel denuder for the determination of DDT in contaminated indoor air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single step concentration of vapour phase on PDMS, particulate phase on filter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-free green technique, sample extraction not required. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of airborne p,p Prime -DDD/p,p Prime -DDT and of o,p Prime -DDT/p,p Prime -DDT are unusual. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecticidal efficacy of technical DDT may be compromised. - Abstract: The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa. The strict Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) allows spraying on the inside of traditional dwellings with DDT. In rural villages contaminated dust presents an additional pathway for exposure to DDT. We present a new method for the determination of DDT in indoor air where separate vapour and particulate samples are collected in a single step with a denuder configuration of a multi-channel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) trap combined with a micro quartz fibre filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap section of the denuder concentrates vapour phase insecticide whereas particle associated insecticide is transferred downstream where it is collected on a micro-fibre filter followed by a second multi-channel PDMS trap to capture the blow-off from the filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap and filter combination are designed to fit a commercial thermal desorber for direct introduction of samples into a GC-MS. The technique is solvent-free. Analyte extraction and sample clean-up is not required. Two fractions, vapour phase and particulate phase p,p Prime -DDT, o,p Prime -DDT; p,p Prime -DDD, o,p Prime -DDD; p,p Prime -DDE and o,p Prime -DDE in 4 L contaminated indoor air, were each quantitatively analysed by GC-MS using

  18. Effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of Sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. The study was conducted in the farm of the University of Messina (Italy). Light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from May to November; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag being changed every 2h; for 30 days, at different heights from 18:00 to 6:00. A total of five species (i.e., Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Sergentomyia minuta), three of which are proven vectors of Leishmania infantum, were captured. The most abundant species was P. perniciosus (73.3%) followed by S. minuta (23.3%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in August and September with a peak of collection recorded in the evening (i.e., from 20:01 to 22.00). The number of phlebotomine sand flies collected at 50cm above the ground was significantly higher (P=0.041) than that captured at 150cm. Results of this study shed light on the ecology of main phlebotomine species in the Mediterranean area, and on the influence of some factors, such as time and height of traps, on the light trap capture efficiency.

  19. Determining the effect of solid and liquid vectors on the gaseous interfacial area and oxygen transfer rates in two-phase partitioning bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano, Guillermo [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios, Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rocha-Rios, Jose [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica (IPH), Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez, Maria; Villaverde, Santiago [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Revah, Sergio [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, c/o IPH, UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Munoz, Raul, E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Thalasso, Frederic [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios, Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    The effect of liquid and solid transfer vectors (silicone oil and Desmopan, respectively) on the gaseous interfacial area (a{sub g}) was evaluated in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using fresh mineral salt medium and the cultivation broth of a toluene degradation culture (Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E cultures continuously cultivated with and without silicone oil at low toluene loading rates). Higher values of a{sub g} were recorded in the presence of both silicone oil and Desmopan compared to the values obtained in the absence of a vector, regardless of the aqueous medium tested (1.6 and 3 times higher, respectively, using fresh mineral salt medium). These improvements in a{sub g} were well correlated to the oxygen mass transfer enhancements supported by the vectors (1.3 and 2.5 for liquid and solid vectors, respectively, using fresh medium). In this context, oxygen transfer rates of 2.5 g O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.3 g O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1} were recorded in the presence of Desmopan and silicone oil, respectively, which are in agreement with previously reported values in literature. These results suggest that mass transfer enhancements in TPPBs might correspond to an increase in a{sub g} rather than to the establishment of a high-performance gas/vector/water transfer pathway.

  20. Phase II Documentation Overview of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject to assess and evaluate radiologic groundwater contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. These activities are overseen by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended March 2010). For Frenchman Flat, the UGTA Subproject addresses media contaminated by the underground nuclear tests, which is limited to geologic formations within the saturated zone or 100 meters (m) or less above the water table. Transport in groundwater is judged to be the primary mechanism of migration for the subsurface contamination away from the Frenchman Flat underground nuclear tests. The intent of the UGTA Subproject is to assess the risk to the public from the groundwater contamination produced as a result of nuclear testing. The primary method used to assess this risk is the development of models of flow and contaminant transport to forecast the extent of potentially contaminated groundwater for the next 1,000 years, establish restrictions to groundwater usage, and implement a monitoring program to verify protectiveness. For the UGTA Subproject, contaminated groundwater is that which exceeds the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (CFR, 2009) the State of Nevada’s groundwater quality standard to protect human health and the environment. Contaminant forecasts are expected to be uncertain, and groundwater monitoring will be used in combination with land-use control to build confidence in model results and reduce risk to the public. Modeling forecasts of contaminant transport will provide the basis for negotiating a compliance boundary for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This compliance boundary represents a regulatory-based distinction between groundwater contaminated or not contaminated by underground testing. Transport modeling simulations

  1. Fabrication of Axial and Radial Heterostructures for Semiconductor Nanowires by Using Selective-Area Metal-Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hiruma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of GaAs- and InP-based III-V semiconductor nanowires with axial/radial heterostructures by using selective-area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is reviewed. Nanowires, with a diameter of 50–300 nm and with a length of up to 10 μm, have been grown along the 〈111〉B or 〈111〉A crystallographic orientation from lithography-defined SiO2 mask openings on a group III-V semiconductor substrate surface. An InGaAs quantum well (QW in GaAs/InGaAs nanowires and a GaAs QW in GaAs/AlGaAs or GaAs/GaAsP nanowires have been fabricated for the axial heterostructures to investigate photoluminescence spectra from QWs with various thicknesses. Transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements have been used to analyze the crystal structure and the atomic composition profile for the nanowires. GaAs/AlGaAs, InP/InAs/InP, and GaAs/GaAsP core-shell structures have been found to be effective for the radial heterostructures to increase photoluminescence intensity and have enabled laser emissions from a single GaAs/GaAsP nanowire waveguide. The results have indicated that the core-shell structure is indispensable for surface passivation and practical use of nanowire optoelectronics devices.

  2. Radon-safe new buildings, documentation and technology development. Appendix; Radonsikring i nybyggeri, documentation og teknologiudvikling. Bilag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddam Overgaard, L.; Bruun Petersen, J.; Neerup Jeppesen, M.

    2011-07-01

    The project is carried out as three separate subprojects, with subproject 1 as the principal project. Subproject 1 deals with field tests of radon penetration of different floor design (1A) and the effect of passive sub slab ventilation (1B). Subproject 2 deals with laboratory tests of material and design permeability, and subproject 3 deals with mapping of the radon potential and variation of a defined area. The appendix volume presents the detailed data for the results achieved in the project. (ln)

  3. Printable Nano-Field Effect Transistors Combined with Carbon Nanotube Based Printable Interconnect Wires for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  4. A Printable Silicon Nano-Field Effect Transistor with High Operating Frequency for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  5. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  6. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about -7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status.

  7. Phase-matched waveguide four-wave mixing scaled to higher peak powers with large-core-area hollow photonic-crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorov, S O; Serebryannikov, E E; Fedotov, A B; Miles, R B; Zheltikov, A M

    2005-05-01

    Hollow photonic-crystal fibers with large core diameters are shown to allow waveguide nonlinear-optical interactions to be scaled to higher pulse peak powers. Phase-matched four-wave mixing is predicted theoretically and demonstrated experimentally for millijoule nanosecond pulses propagating in a hollow photonic-crystal fiber with a core diameter of about 50 microm , suggesting the way to substantially enhance the efficiency of nonlinear-optical spectral transformations and wave mixing of high-power laser pulses in the gas phase.

  8. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  9. High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    Transparent electrodes based on PEDOT were prepared using a variety of techniques suitable for large area applications from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDT) and Fe(111)tosylate. High conductivities were obtained (similar to 20 Omega(-1)) with moderate transmission in the UVvisible range 350-600 nm...

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  11. Electrode properties of Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} on yttria-stabilized zirconia. 1: Three-phase boundary area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuveln, F.H. van; Berkel, F.P.F. van [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Bouwmeester, H.J.M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Dept of Chemical Technology

    1997-01-01

    The interface microstructure of the state-of-the-art cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells, Sr{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}MnO{sub 3} (SLM), was investigated with respect to its electrochemical performance. The interface microstructure was characterized by grain size and coverage of SLM on the electrolyte surface. Variation of the grain size was obtained by using three different sintering temperatures, whereas variation of the coverage was obtained by using two powders with a different morphology. This resulted in a set of six cathode/electrolyte samples with different combinations of grain size and SLM coverage at the interface. The cathode overpotential, as a measure for the electrochemical performance, could not be related to the length of the three-phase boundary. Based on the constriction resistance occurring in the electrolyte a model was developed which provides an estimate for the width of the active three-phase boundary zone. This zone is most likely to extend outside the cathode particle across the zirconia surface. The width calculated in this way was found to vary in the range of 0.03 to 0.07 {micro}m for the different electrode microstructures. It is argued that the actual values may be smaller by one or two orders of magnitude.

  12. Expression of p53 Target Genes in the Early Phase of Long-Term Potentiation in the Rat Hippocampal CA1 Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O. Pustylnyak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression plays an important role in the mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP, which is a widely accepted experimental model of synaptic plasticity. We have studied the expression of at least 50 genes that are transcriptionally regulated by p53, as well as other genes that are related to p53-dependent processes, in the early phase of LTP. Within 30 min after Schaffer collaterals (SC tetanization, increases in the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, which are upregulated by p53, and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2, which are downregulated by p53, were observed. The inhibition of Mdm2 by nutlin-3 increased the basal p53 protein level and rescued its tetanization-induced depletion, which suggested the involvement of Mdm2 in the control over p53 during LTP. Furthermore, nutlin-3 caused an increase in the basal expression of Bax and a decrease in the basal expression of Bcl2, whereas tetanization-induced changes in their expression were occluded. These results support the hypothesis that p53 may be involved in transcriptional regulation during the early phase of LTP. We hope that the presented data may aid in the understanding of the contribution of p53 and related genes in the processes that are associated with synaptic plasticity.

  13. Wastewater Management Alternatives for the Cleveland - Akron, Three Rivers Watershed Area. Technical Appendix - Phase II. System Design and Estimate of Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-02-01

    certain instances in heavily urbanized areas. Deep Tunnel - Figure 32 represents the total capital cost for deep tunnel construction in shale . The...Practiced at South Tahoe", (WPRD 52-01-67), August, 1971. 4. Burgess § Niple, Ltd., "Project Cost Study" for Northeast Ohio Water Development Plan...21. Burgess & Niple, Ltd., "Design Criteria for Northeast and Southwest Ohio Water Development Plans", Ohio Department of Natural Resources

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Power and Fiber Optic Lines to Facilities in the Yukon Training Area, Alaska-Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    feather moss. Closed canopy black spruce forest tends to return to its original composition after fire (Viereck et al., 1992). In the absence of fire...facility, the vegetation becomes a more open growth of mixed spruce and hardwoods, with it eventually getting to an alpine tundra vegetative community...area. Non migratory birds include ravens, jays, chickadees, songbirds, woodpeckers, grouse, and ptarmigan. Raptors include bald and golden eagles, hawks

  15. Measurement of the Phase Diagram of the SiO2-CaCl2 System and Liquid Area Study of the SiO2-CaO-CaCl2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-06-01

    To optimize the process of boron removal from molten silicon, the slag refining treatment using the CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 slag system has been proven to be effective. However, the phase relations of the SiO2-CaCl2 and CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 systems have not been reported yet. Thus, in this study, the phase diagram of the SiO2-CaCl2 system was determined by using thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Moreover, the liquid area of the CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 ternary system at 1723 K (1450 °C) was also measured by using TG-DTA and morphological observations.

  16. Development of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid-fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid-fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc-Sw-awn relationship can be computed.

  17. Excellent areas. Learning from energy efficient newly built houses. Halfway the knowledge and learning phase; Excellente gebieden. Leerschool voor energiezuinige nieuwbouw. Halverwege het kennis- en leertraject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The so-called Excellent Areas concern 19 innovative newly built houses projects in the residential and utility sector. Houses and office buildings are constructed with at least an energy performance coefficient (EPC), 25% stricter than as described in the Dutch Building Code. This project is aimed at preparing for the Spring Agreement in which it is agreed to tighten the EPC in 2015 and to reach the nearly zero-energy ambition for 2020. Municipalities, project developers and other parties in the energy-efficient building business thus gain experience with innovative construction methods and techniques. And in particular in the search for innovation in the construction process and new forms of cooperation and financing. The knowledge and experiences are supported, shared and disseminated in the knowledge and learning process of Excellent Areas [Dutch] De Excellente Gebieden zijn 19 innovatieve nieuwbouwprojecten in de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. Hier worden woningen en kantoren gebouwd met tenminste een 25% scherpere energieprestatiecoefficient (EPC) dan het Bouwbesluit voorschrijft. Dit ter voorbereiding op de in het Lente-akkoord afgesproken aanscherping van de EPC in 2015 en de bijna energieneutrale ambitie voor 2020. Gemeenten, projectontwikkelaars en andere partijen die energiezuinig bouwen, doen uitgebreide praktijkervaring op met innovatieve bouwmethoden en technieken. En vooral ook met het zoeken naar innovatie in het bouwproces en nieuwe vormen van samenwerking en financiering. Deze kennis en ervaring wordt ondersteund, gedeeld en verspreid in het kennis- en leertraject Excellente Gebieden.

  18. Electrode properties of Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} on yttria-stabilized zirconia. Part 1. Three-phase boundary area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Heuveln, F.H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Van Berkel, F.P.F.

    1996-04-01

    The interface microstructure of the state-of-the-art cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC`s), Sr{sub x}La{sub 1-x}MnO{sub 3} (SLM), was investigated with respect to its electrochemical performance. The interface microstructure was characterised by the grain size and the coverage of SLM on the electrolyte surface. Variation of the grain size was obtained by using three different sintering temperatures whereas variation of the coverage was obtained by using two powders with a different morphology. This resulted in a set of six cathode/electrolyte samples with different combinations of grain size and SLM coverage at the interface. The cathode overpotential, as a measure for the electrochemical performance, could not be related to the length of the three-phase boundary (tpb). Based on the constriction resistance occurring in the electrolyte a model was developed which provides an estimate for the width of the active tpb zone. This zone is most likely to extend outside the cathode particle across the zirconia surface. The width calculated in this way was found to vary in the range of 0.03-0.07{mu}m for the different electrode micro structures. It is argued that the actual values may be smaller by an order of magnitude. 14 figs., 5 tabs., 12 refs.

  19. Phases and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  20. Application of Solar Power-Ventilation Integrated Phase Change Wall in North Jiangsu Coastal Areas%太阳能通风结合相变墙在苏北沿海的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 蒋锦奕; 张雨清; 刘茜

    2016-01-01

    Combining the climate features in North Jiangsu coastal areas with the computational analysis on some meteorological parameters of outdoor temperature and solar radiation in local region of Yancheng representing North Jiangsu coastal areas, some phase-change materials with proper phase-transition temperature and latent heat are selected for empirical and analytical investigation on the regulating effect of the solar chimney and phase change heat storage wall on the indoor thermal environment and peak clipping and transition about the load. The experimental results show that, compared with the indoor temperature of the normal cabin, phase change cabin indoor temperature stays in a relatively comfortable range during April in Yancheng. The indoor temperature is improved, and the indoor comfort is enhanced, reducing and transforming indoor air conditioner load and energy conservation.%结合苏北沿海地区的气候特点,通过对苏北沿海代表性城市盐城地区的室外温度、太阳光线强度等外部环境展开分析,选择相变温度以及潜热较为合理的相变材料展开实验,从而了解太阳能烟囱以及相变蓄热墙在改变室内热环境和针对负荷所表现出的削峰移峰2个方面影响作用。实验结果显示,在盐城同样的室外温度环境下,采用相变墙的房间具有明显的隔热保温作用,有效提升了室内环境的舒适度。充分说明,相变房温度条件得到了改善,房间给人更高的舒适感,降低了空调负荷,达到了节约能源的目的。

  1. The engineering design evolution of IFMIF: From CDR to EDA phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Mario, E-mail: mario.perez@ifmif.org

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Brief description of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), its background and scope its Engineering Design and Validation Activities (EVEDA) phase. • Description and justification of the main design evolutions from previous phases; and in particular from the baseline described in the “Comprehensive Design Report” (CDR). - Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Design and Engineering Validation Activities (EVEDA) phase, started in 2007 under the framework of the Broader Approach (BA) Agreement between Japanese Government and EURATOM. The mandate assigned was to develop an integrated engineering design of IFMIF together with accompanying sub-projects to validate the major technological challenges that included the construction of either full scale prototypes or cleverly devised scaled down facilities, which are essential to reliably face the construction of IFMIF on schedule and cost. The Engineering Design Activities were accomplished on-schedule with the release of its “Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDR)” in June 2013 compliant with our mandate. This paper highlights the design improvements implemented from the previous Conceptual Design Phase.

  2. The Integral Phase Contrast Modulation Transfer Function in Consideration of the Light Source Area%包含光源面积的整体相位衬度调制传递函数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武杰; 陈家璧; 张学龙

    2012-01-01

    在部分相干光学理论的基础上,建立了一个整体相位衬度调制传递函数理论模型,模型中包含了光源焦点面积大小对X线相衬成像系统相位调制的影响,并通过数值模拟和数据计算,提出了X线相衬成像系统对光源焦点面积的选择原则,和焦点面积确定条件下的成像参数优化方法,结果表明,这种包含X线光源面积因素的相位衬度调制传递函数模型,更能反映整个系统的光学成像性能,更能有利于成像参数的优化设计.%Based on the optical partially coherent theory, a new integral phase contrast modulation transfer function theoretical model is established in consideration of the X-ray source area parameter. Through the simulation and calculation, a comprehensive analysis of the spatial coherence of micro-focus X-ray phase contrast imaging system is displayed. A new source size selection method and parameter optimization method are put forward under the actual experimental condition. The results show that the model containing X-ray source area factor can reflect the entire performance of optical imaging system better, and avail to the imaging parameters optimization design.

  3. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ``shall`` is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  4. Rear Area Security In The Field Army Service Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    his ma.jor subordinate Commanders, the arm support brigade commander. Rear are? ecurity doctrine requires the area coriander to coordin- ate unit...field army service area. Response The army support brigade coriander conducts phase I rear area security operations within the limits of current

  5. Review of Available Data for Validation of Nuresim Two-Phase CFD Software Applied to CHF Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bestion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NURESIM Project of the 6th European Framework Program initiated the development of a new-generation common European Standard Software Platform for nuclear reactor simulation. The thermal-hydraulic subproject aims at improving the understanding and the predictive capabilities of the simulation tools for key two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic processes such as the critical heat flux (CHF. As part of a multi-scale analysis of reactor thermal-hydraulics, a two-phase CFD tool is developed to allow zooming on local processes. Current industrial methods for CHF mainly use the sub-channel analysis and empirical CHF correlations based on large scale experiments having the real geometry of a reactor assembly. Two-phase CFD is used here for understanding some boiling flow processes, for helping new fuel assembly design, and for developing better CHF predictions in both PWR and BWR. This paper presents a review of experimental data which can be used for validation of the two-phase CFD application to CHF investigations. The phenomenology of DNB and Dry-Out are detailed identifying all basic flow processes which require a specific modeling in CFD tool. The resulting modeling program of work is given and the current state-of-the-art of the modeling within the NURESIM project is presented.

  6. Discussion on Dust Explosion Protection Partition of Coal Silo Area in Huanghua Port Phase-3 Project%关于黄骅港三期工程储煤筒仓防爆分区划分的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璠; 魏美芳

    2016-01-01

    Huanghua Port phase-3 project is the first domestic project that stores a mass of coal by using silos. So far there is no available standard for the dust explosion protection partition of coal silos. An introduction has been given to the program of using silos to store coal. By comparing the natures of coal and grain, it is found that those two substances are similar. Therefore coal silo area can be partitioned according to dust-explosion-protection partition standard of grain silos.%黄骅港三期工程是国内首个在港口大规模使用筒仓储煤的工程,储煤筒仓的防爆分区划分无现成规范可循。文中介绍了筒仓储煤方案,通过对比煤炭与粮食的性质,认为该两种物质存在一定相似性。提出储煤筒仓的防爆分区可参照有明确规范规定的粮食筒仓进行划分。

  7. Solid phase transformations II

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  8. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  9. Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  10. Three-phase shots and monopolar reclose in the core network of 400 kV of the Area de Control Occidental of CFE and Its normal probability of occurrence; Disparos trifasicos y de recierre monopolar en la red troncal de 400 kV del area de control occidental, CFE, y su probabilidad normal de ocurrencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez Perez, Camilo; Garcia Conejo, Dante Aristoteles [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: camilo.narvaez@cfe.gob.mx; camilo.narvaez@univa.mx; Ramirez Peredo, Patricia [Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: patyrape@hotmail.com; Blanco Gomez, Cesar Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The growing power demand of users, who make loads of power systems, causes the components of such systems operating near its operating limits. And the transmission line, being the most common component in these, requires a thorough analysis in regard to the probability of three-phase shots and monopolars reclosing, considering thunderstorms, the demand system time, the flows circulating in lines, maintenance on other lines and other imponderantes. This research analyzes the normal probability of occurrence of shots in the 400 kV core network of the Area de Control Occidental, CFE and its impact on studies conducted prior to the maintenance. We intend to use the methodology in the Comision Federal de Electricidad and results can be validated with data from previous years, based on a pseudo shots forecast in a given period. [Spanish] La creciente demanda de energia electrica de los usuarios que componen las cargas de los sistemas electricos de potencia, provoca que los componentes de dichos sistemas funcionen cerca de sus limites operativos. Y la linea de transmision, al ser el componente mas comun en estos, requiere de un analisis minucioso en lo que respecta a la probabilidad de disparos trifasicos y recierres monopolares, considerando tormentas electricas, la demanda horaria del sistema, los flujos que circulan en las lineas, los mantenimientos en las demas lineas y demas imponderantes. En esta investigacion se analiza la probabilidad normal de ocurrencia de disparos en la red troncal de 400 kV del Area de Control Occidental y su impacto en los estudios que se realizan previos a los mantenimientos. Se pretende utilizar la metodologia en la Comision Federal de Electricidad, y los resultados pueden ser validados con datos de los anos anteriores, ya que se hace un pseudo pronostico de disparos en un periodo dado.

  11. 鄂尔多斯盆地富县—正宁地区延长组油气成藏期次%Classification of hydrocarbon accumulation phases of the Yanchang Formation in the Fuxian-Zhengning area, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇; 任战利; 史政; 赵筱燕; 于强; 吴晓青

    2011-01-01

    鄂尔多斯盆地富县—正宁地区延长组砂岩储层主要成岩作用有压实作用、胶结作用、溶蚀作用和裂隙作用,成岩自生矿物以绿泥石、自生石英和方解石为主.根据油气包裹体寄主成岩矿物的形成时间序列,识别出两期油气包裹体:第1期油气包裹体主要分布在石英、长石粒内愈合的、未切穿次生加大边的微裂隙及石英次生加大边内侧;第2期油气包裹体分布在晚期微裂隙和晚期亮晶方解石胶结物中.油气包裹体均一温度分布呈双峰型:早期峰值温度为110~120℃;晚期峰值温度为140~150℃.对油气包裹体均一温度、盐度、密度分析表明,研究区延长组油气为“一期两幕”成藏,且具有“边致密,边成藏”的特点.结合研究区延长组热演化史及储层伊利石K-Ar同位素定年结果研究表明,研究区主要油气成藏期为早白垩世(距今95~120Ma).%The main diagenesis of the Yanchang Formation sandstone reservoirs in the Fuxian-Zhengning area, Ordos Basin, includes compaction, cementation, corrosion and fracturation, and diagenetic authigenic minerals in these reservoirs are dominated by chlorite, authigenetic quartz and calcite. Two phases of hydrocarbon inclusions have been identified according to the time sequence of the formation of host diagenetic minerals, the earlier one composed of mostly brine inclusions that contain gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons either occurs along healed microfractures wrapped up by secondary growth edges of quartz or feldspar, or is trapped at the bottom of secondary growth edges of quartz or feldspar, while the later one mostly consisting of gas-liquid or liquid hydrocarbon inclusions occurs along the late-formed microfractures or in sparry calcite cements. Homogenization temperatures measured from brine inclusions associated with hydrocarbon ones show a bimodal distribution in the ranges with 110~120'C and 140~150'C as peak temperatures

  12. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  13. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the ultr

  14. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  15. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  16. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  17. Mechanistic study on interfacial area concentration profile of vertical two-phase flow in large circular pipe%竖直大圆管内两相流界面分布机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 孙立成; 幸奠川; 刘靖宇; 田道贵

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of interface distribution in air-water two-phase bubbly flow in a vertical pipe was experimentally investigated by using the measurement method of optical fiber probes. The inner diameter of the circular pipe was 100 mm,and superficial gas and liquid velocities ranged from 0 to 0. 1 m o s-1 and from 0 to 1. 0 m o s-1 ,respectively. Local distributions of the interfacial area concentration (IAC) ,void fraction and bubble diameter were obtained. By analyzing the forces on a bubble,it was found that lift force and turbulent dispersion force determined the radial motion of bubbles,and the former dominated the radial profile of IAC. When the bubble diameter exceeded the critical size of 5. 7 mm,the distribution of IAC would change from wall peak to core peak resulting from the lift force pointing to the pipe center due to lift force coefficient changing from positive to negative.%采用光纤探针测量方法对垂直上升管中空气-水两相泡状流界面分布特性进行了研究.实验选用的圆管直径为100 mm,气相、液相表观速度的范围分别为0~0.1 m·s-1和0~1.0m·s-1.获得了界面面积浓度(IAC)、截面含气率、气泡直径等分布规律.通过气泡的受力分析,发现升力和湍流扩散力的综合作用导致了气泡的径向运动,而且升力对径向IAC分布的影响占主导地位;当气泡直径超过临界尺寸(5.7 mm)后,升力系数变为负值,使得升力指向管中心,进而导致了IAC分布由壁峰型向核峰型分布的转变.

  18. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  19. Hartz, Jöns, Lübke, Schmölcke, Carnap-Bornheim, Heinrich, Klooss, Lüth, Wolters 2014 - Prehistoric Settlements in the south-western Baltic Sea area and Development of the Regional Stone Age Economy. Final report of the SINCOS-II-subproject 4.

    OpenAIRE

    Sönke Hartz; Hauke Jöns; Harald Lübke; Ulrich Schmölcke; Claus von Carnap-bornheim; Dirk Heinrich; Stefanie Klooss; Steffen Wolters

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the SINCOS research group and the SINCOS II project bundle concerning the changes of the socio-economic system of the communities and societies living on the shore of the southwestern Baltic rim from the mid-Holocene Mesolithic and Neolithic period to the Early Medieval Age. The main focus is laid on the stage of the Littorina Transgression from 6000 to 2000 cal. BC, when the people living in the maritime zone between the Oder estuary and the Oldenburg Rift...

  20. Now entering phase two...

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Building on the success of their feasibility phase, the CLIC test facility, CTF3, has just launched into a five-year project development phase. This will involve detailed performance optimisation studies, marking the project’s transition from pure research and development to prototyping and construction.   CLIC accelerator modules under construction at CERN. “With the feasibility phase now complete, we have established that CLIC can be built,” says Roberto Corsini, CLIC Collaboration spokesperson. “Now we want to be sure that it can provide the luminosity and energy performance needed. We will be looking at the engineering, performance and cost of a real CLIC machine also seeing if we can reduce it.” CTF3’s second phase will focus on selected performance-related research areas for further investigation. The largest of these involves the construction and testing of several authentic CLIC accelerator modules that are currently being ...

  1. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  2. Design of Fire Auto-alarm and Control System of the Container Tower for the Second-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area%上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力清

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统的设计及体会。%It briefly introduces design and understandings of the fire auto-alarm and control system of the Container Tower for the 2nd-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area.

  3. Marine biodiversity of the coastal area of the Berau region, East Kalimantan, Indonesia : progress report East Kalimantan program, pilot phase (October 2003) : preliminary results of a field survey performed by an Indonesian-Dutch biodiversity research team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal waters of East Kalimantan are part of the western boundary of the Indo-West Pacific centre of maximum marine biodiversity. During the pilot phase of the East Kalimantan Program (EKP) this has been tested by various specialists who used model taxa to test this hypothesis. Emphasis has bee

  4. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  5. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV

    1992-01-01

    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  6. Impact of Using a High Surface Area Solid Phase Micro Extraction Device and Fast Gas Chromatography Heating Rates in the Sampling and Analysis of Trace Level Chemical Warfare Agents and CWA-Like Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    rest of the inner diameter of the column is filled with inert carrier gas (the mobile phase), often helium or hydrogen . Chemical compounds are...Sample of Liquid CWA-Degradation Product The VX degradation compound, 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl)ethyl sulfide (2-DES) was diluted in methylene chloride...demonstrated separation of CWA mixture components ranging in molecular weight from m/z 140 (sarin) to 466 (T2 toxin ) with a field-portable GC/MS system

  7. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  8. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  9. TWRS privatization phase 1 master site plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. This master site plan presently describes all pertinent aspects of the site and identifies all planned provisions for site development, utilities and other site services. It is a baseline document which will be revised as privatization proceeds through design, construction and start-up.

  10. Phase Vocoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Flanagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vocoder technique is described in which speech signals are represented by their short-time phase and amplitude spectra. A complete transmission system utilizing this approach is simulated on a digital computer. The encoding method leads to an economy in transmission bandwidth and to a means for time compression and expansion of speech signals.

  11. Programme of air surveillance Air and Health 9 towns. Surveillance of effects on health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  12. TWRS privatization phase I site development engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. One sub-project is to develop the selected site for the privatization facilities. This study addresses the pertinent issues related to the development of the site and specific parcels to be assigned to each of two private contractors. It also summarizes other studies that address provisions for utilities and other site services.

  13. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  14. A phase III trial of efficacy of the FML-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of Brazil (São Gonçalo do Amaranto, RN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, V O; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Correia Pontes, N N; de Souza, E P; Luz, K G; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2000-12-08

    Protection against canine kala-azar was investigated in naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area, vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmania donovani. A total of 97% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and 100% showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 7 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls (ANOVA, P<0.0001). After 2 years, 92% (chi(2)=6.996; P<0.0025) protection was achieved: only 8% of vaccinees showed mild signs of kala-azar with no deaths while 33% of controls developed clinical or fatal disease. The FML-vaccine induced a significant, long-lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field.

  15. Development, calibration, and predictive results of a simulator for subsurface pathway fate and transport of aqueous- and gaseous-phase contaminants in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, S.O.; Sondrup, A.J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents the development, calibration, and predictive results of a simulation study of fate and transport of waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) (which is hereafter referred to as the SDA simulation study). This report builds on incorporates a previous report that dealt only with the calibration of a flow model for simulation of water movement beneath the SDA (Magnuson and Sondrup 1996). The primary purpose of the SDA simulation study was to perform fate and transport calculations to support the IRA. A secondary purpose of the SDA simulation study was to be able to use the model to evaluate possible remediation strategies and their effects on flow and transport in the OU 7-13/14 feasibility study.

  16. Cause Analysis on the Phase Transition of the Tectonic Facies of the Metamorphic Rock Series in the Wutai Mountain-Heng Mountain Areas%五台山—恒山地区变质岩系构造相相变成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭景林; 米广尧; 范林森

    2011-01-01

    Areas in the Wutai mountain-Heng mountain are considered to be one of the most popular places for the tectonic facies researches owing to the various structural characters at different crust levels. In the present study, the structural characteristics of the Early Precambrian were analyzed. On the basis of the different geological characters of fold, fracture, pudding of the rock and syntectonic crystallization, some references were provided for analyzing the tectonic facies and the structural phase transition in the areas. Combined with the information of the geological characteristics, petrology, deformation,and metamorphic characteristics,and isotope chronology of the geological unit,the preliminary studies were conducted on the tectonic environment of the the Early Precambrian in the areas, and discussions were made on the crustal evolution andthe cause of the tectonic facies phase transition. The phenomena occurring commonly in the Metamorphic rock areas was explained reasonably,that is, the alienation between the same rocks and the convergence between the different rocks,or the same thing with different phases and the same phase with different faces. All of these provided the new research thinking and the working methods for the metamorphic rock areas.The high-grade regions of the Hornblende granulite phase in the Heng mountain areas represent the mid-lower crust's transitional zone and detachment zone. Their and it's typical structural styles, material composition, metamorphism and the effects of the deep melting have important significance on the researches of the mid-lower crust's rheological behavior, crustal differentiation and the cracking events for early continent.%五台山—恒山地区出露有不同层次的地壳,是研究构造相最理想的地区之一.作者对该区早前寒武纪构造特征进行了分析.根据不同层次的褶皱、断裂、布丁化岩石及同构造分泌结晶脉的宏观地质特征和与其相关的微组构特

  17. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region eastern area of Inner Mongolia the revitalization of old industrial bases in environmental protection the next phase of preliminary work thinking%内蒙古自治区蒙东地区老工业基地振兴战略环境保护下一阶段初步工作思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现华; 刘文静

    2013-01-01

    Through summing up the the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region eastern area of Inner Mongolia old industrial base revitali -zing the strategic planning for ten years (2003~2012 years) results and experience gained since the eastern area of Inner Mongolia , the re-vitalization of old industrial bases in environmental protection the next phase of preliminary work thinking this paper solve outstanding envi -ronmental problems from the environmental protection system , policy ideas , and optimize the economic development , to promote sound and rapid development of the eastern area of Inner Mongolia , promote the overall revitalization of northeast area has important significance .%通过认真总结内蒙古自治区蒙东地区老工业基地实施振兴战略规划十周年(2003~2012年)以来取得的成效和经验,本文从环境保护机制体制、政策思路、解决突出环境问题及优化经济发展方面提出蒙东地区老工业基地振兴战略环境保护下一阶段初步工作思路,对推进蒙东地区又好又快发展、促进东北地区全面振兴具有重要意义。

  18. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Drellack, Sigmund [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  19. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  20. Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  1. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  2. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  3. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  4. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...

  5. Automatic phase control in solar power satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1978-01-01

    Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase control configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.

  6. Mixed phases during the phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Quest for a new form of matter inside compact stars compels us to examine the thermodynamical properties of the phase transitions. We closely consider the first-order phase transitions and the phase equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs conditions, taking the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as an example. Characteristic features of the mixed phase are figured out by solving the coupled equations for mean-fields and densities of constituent particles self-consistently within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The mixed phase is inhomogeneous matter composed of two phases in equilibrium; it takes a crystalline structure with a unit of various geometrical shapes, inside of which one phase with a characteristic shape, called "pasta", is embedded in another phase by some volume fraction. This framework enables us to properly take into account the Coulomb interaction and the interface energy, and thereby sometimes we see the mechanical instability of the geometric structures of the mixed phase...

  7. Numerical methods for phase retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Osherovich, Eliyahu

    2012-01-01

    In this work we consider the problem of reconstruction of a signal from the magnitude of its Fourier transform, also known as phase retrieval. The problem arises in many areas of astronomy, crystallography, optics, and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). Our main goal is to develop an efficient reconstruction method based on continuous optimization techniques. Unlike current reconstruction methods, which are based on alternating projections, our approach leads to a much faster and more robust method. However, all previous attempts to employ continuous optimization methods, such as Newton-type algorithms, to the phase retrieval problem failed. In this work we provide an explanation for this failure, and based on this explanation we devise a sufficient condition that allows development of new reconstruction methods---approximately known Fourier phase. We demonstrate that a rough (up to $\\pi/2$ radians) Fourier phase estimate practically guarantees successful reconstruction by any reasonable method. We also pres...

  8. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  9. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  10. 利用sPn震相对宁夏地区近年有感地震震源深度重定位%Using sPn Phase to Relocate Focal Depths of Felt Earthquakes of Recent Years in Ningxia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕俊强; 李青梅; 赵卫东; 蔡新华; 陈春梅

    2016-01-01

    宁夏十五数字地震观测台网自投入使用以来,积累了大量的地震数字波形.利用宁夏台网中震中距在 1 000 km范围内不同台站记录的 9次M≥3.0 地震的 sPn 与 Pn 震相进行分析、计算这些地震的震源深度.研究表明,利用 sPn与Pn震相的到时差计算地壳内近震深度的方法简捷、准确.%Focal depth,the vertical distance from an earthquake source to the ground (the epicen-ter),is one of the basic earthquake parameters and is one of the most difficult of the seismic pa-rameters to accurately determine.The accurate determination of the focal depth involves a series of important problems including a correct understanding of the earthquake preparation process, the earthquake mechanism,its geological structure,and the stress field.Since the fifteen stations of the Ningxia digital seismic observation network were officially established in 2009,a large vol-ume of digital seismic waveform data has accumulated,and much research work has been possi-ble.On the basis of previous studies,using the lag of the sPn and Pn phases,in this study,we calculated the focal depth of nine earthquakes with M≥3.0,which occurred in the area surround-ing Ningxia in recent years.The results of the sPn method are mainly dependent on the velocity model selection and precision of the seismic phase.We selected the approved and widely used Ningxia local velocity model.The Pn and sPn phases and reading accuracy are particularly impor-tant,because the initial amplitude of this type of wave phase is generally weak.As such,if there is an arrival time difference of 0.5~1 s,it may result in a calculation error of 1.5~3 km in the fo-cal depth.With the availability of multiple records of the sPn phase,using the averages of each calculation depth,it is possible reduce the error caused by the reading.Research shows that it is a relatively simple matter to accurately calculate the near-earthquake depth within the crust using the lag of the s

  11. Holographic Phase Transition Probed by Nonlocal Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the two-point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes that the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first-order phase transition, and a second-order phase transition successively before it reaches a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find that the equal area law for the first-order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second-order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.

  12. Phases of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-04-09

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  13. Nonlinear phased array imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.

    2016-04-01

    A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.

  14. EGEE enters second phase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    This month has seen the launch of the second two-year phase of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE-II), with a transition meeting for the partners held at CERN on 12-13 April. Co-funded by the European Commission and coordinated by CERN, the EGEE project is providing an international Grid computing infrastructure - now numbering some 200 sites and 20 000 CPUs in 39 countries - to support the scientific community worldwide. 'We are all very happy about the smooth start of the second phase of EGEE,' said Project Director Bob Jones. 'The project builds on the successes of its first two years and we are now focussing on the stability of the deployed infrastructure. Growing beyond our pilot application areas of HEP and biomedicine, we now see increasing use by researchers from other fields. Recently we've added finance and fusion to the list of disciplines we support, and we are always looking for new users.' More information on EGEE can be found at www.eu-egee.org.

  15. TWRS Privatization Phase 1 Master Site Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARAZIN, R.J.

    1999-08-16

    This document provides a reference for the development of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase I site (former Grout Disposal Compound) and the upgrades and extension to the site of the 200 East Area inter- and intra-area roads and various utilities.

  16. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  17. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  18. Phase Statistics of Soliton

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2003-01-01

    The characteristic function of soliton phase jitter is found analytically when the soliton is perturbed by amplifier noise. In additional to that from amplitude jitter, the nonlinear phase noise due to frequency and timing jitter is also analyzed. Because the nonlinear phase noise is not Gaussian distributed, the overall phase jitter is also non-Gaussian. For a fixed mean nonlinear phase shift, the contribution of nonlinear phase noise from frequency and timing jitter decreases with distance ...

  19. A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.

  20. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  1. Interface area transport of monodispersed spherical particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-05

    We present an interface area transport model required in tracking of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between dispersed and background materials. The basic transport equation has been rigorously derived from the volume fraction evolution equation. Interface area changes due to mass transport and local compression/expansion are included. The model is then simplified for the case in which the dispersed phase is composed of spheres of locally uniform size. A procedure for calculating advective flux with interface reconstruction has been suggested.

  2. Monodomain Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Layers for Phase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oton, E.; Netter, E.; Nakano, T.; D.-Katayama, Y.; Inoue, F.

    2017-03-01

    Liquid crystal “Blue Phases” (BP) have evolved, in the last years, from a scientific curiosity to emerging materials for new photonic and display applications. They possess attractive features over standard nematic liquid crystals, like submillisecond switching times and polarization- independent optical response. However, BPs still present a number of technical issues that prevent their use in practical applications: their phases are only found in limited temperature ranges, thus requiring stabilization of the layers; stabilized BP layers are inhomogeneous and not uniformly oriented, which worsen the optical performance of the devices. It would be essential for practical uses to obtain perfectly aligned and oriented monodomain BP layers, where the alignment and orientation of the cubic lattice are organized in a single 3D structure. In this work we have obtained virtually perfect monodomain BP layers and used them in devices for polarization independent phase modulation. We demonstrate that, under applied voltage, well aligned and oriented layers generate smoother and higher values of the phase shift than inhomogeneous layers, while preserving polarization independency. All BP devices were successfully stabilized in BPI phase, maintaining the layer monodomain homogeneity at room temperature, covering the entire area of the devices with a unique BP phase.

  3. Monodomain Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Layers for Phase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oton, E.; Netter, E.; Nakano, T.; D.-Katayama, Y.; Inoue, F.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid crystal “Blue Phases” (BP) have evolved, in the last years, from a scientific curiosity to emerging materials for new photonic and display applications. They possess attractive features over standard nematic liquid crystals, like submillisecond switching times and polarization- independent optical response. However, BPs still present a number of technical issues that prevent their use in practical applications: their phases are only found in limited temperature ranges, thus requiring stabilization of the layers; stabilized BP layers are inhomogeneous and not uniformly oriented, which worsen the optical performance of the devices. It would be essential for practical uses to obtain perfectly aligned and oriented monodomain BP layers, where the alignment and orientation of the cubic lattice are organized in a single 3D structure. In this work we have obtained virtually perfect monodomain BP layers and used them in devices for polarization independent phase modulation. We demonstrate that, under applied voltage, well aligned and oriented layers generate smoother and higher values of the phase shift than inhomogeneous layers, while preserving polarization independency. All BP devices were successfully stabilized in BPI phase, maintaining the layer monodomain homogeneity at room temperature, covering the entire area of the devices with a unique BP phase. PMID:28281691

  4. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  5. Aplicação da técnica de Estrutura Analítica de projeto para o sub-projeto do Catálogo de Sites da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde: Enfermagem Aplicación de la técnica de Estructura Analítica de proyecto para el subproyecto de lo Catalogo de Sitios de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud: Enfermería Application of the technique of Analytical Structure of project for the sub-project of Websites Catalog of the Virtual Health Library: Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura, de forma didática, explicar os benefícios de uso de uma técnica de gerenciamento de projetos, chamada de Estrutura Analítica do Projeto - uma ferramenta gráfica para identificar os resultados principais a serem desenvolvidos por um projeto. Os exemplos são reais, aplicados a um sub-projeto da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde em Enfermagem (BVS-Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento de Catálogo de Sites. Destacam-se os benefícios de visualização gráfica para um maior entendimento entre profissionais de diferentes áreas.Este artículo presenta, de una forma didáctica, algunas explicaciones sobre los beneficios de lo uso de la técnica de gestión de proyectos, llamada de Estructura Analítica del Proyecto una herramienta grafica para la identificación de los principales resultados que han de ser desarrollados en un proyecto. Los ejemplos son reales, aplicados a un subproyecto de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud Enfermería (BVS-Enfermagem para el desarrollo del catalogo de sitios. Son destacados los beneficios de visualización grafica para un mejor entendimiento entre profesionales de diferentes áreas.This work search of didactic form to explain the benefits of use of one technique of management project, called Work Breakdown Structure: a graphical tool to identify the main results to be developed for a project. The real examples are applied to a sub-project of the Virtual Library in Health in Nursing (BVSEnfermagem to development of the Sites Catalogs. It is distinguished the benefits of graphical visualization for a major agreement between professionals of different expertise

  6. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  7. LeaseAreas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  8. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  9. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  10. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  11. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 § 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  12. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  13. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  14. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  15. Liquid-ordered phases induced by cholesterol: a compendium of binary phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Derek

    2010-03-01

    Mixtures of phospholipids with cholesterol are able to form liquid-ordered phases that are characterised by short-range orientational order and long-range translational disorder. These L(o)-phases are distinct from the liquid-disordered, fluid L(alpha)-phases and the solid-ordered, gel L(beta)-phases that are assumed by the phospholipids alone. The liquid-ordered phase can produce spatially separated in-plane fluid domains, which, in the form of lipid rafts, are thought to act as platforms for signalling and membrane sorting in cells. The areas of domain formation are defined by the regions of phase coexistence in the phase diagrams for the binary mixtures of lipid with cholesterol. In this paper, the available binary phase diagrams of lipid-cholesterol mixtures are all collected together. It is found that there is not complete agreement between different determinations of the phase diagrams for the same binary mixture. This can be attributed to the indirect methods largely used to establish the phase boundaries. Intercomparison of the various data sets allows critical assessment of which phase boundaries are rigorously established from direct evidence for phase coexistence.

  16. Propagating phase interface with intermediate interfacial phase: Phase field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-05-01

    An advanced three-phase phase field approach (PFA) is suggested for a nonequilibrium phase interface that contains an intermediate phase, in particular, a solid-solid interface with a nanometer-sized intermediate melt (IM). A thermodynamic potential in the polar order parameters is developed that satisfies all thermodynamic equilibrium and stability conditions. The special form of the gradient energy allowed us to include the interaction of two solid-melt interfaces via an intermediate melt and obtain a well-posed problem and mesh-independent solutions. It is proved that for stationary 1D solutions to two Ginzburg-Landau equations for three phases, the local energy at each point is equal to the gradient energy. Simulations are performed for β ↔δ phase transformations (PTs) via IM in an HMX energetic material. The obtained energy IM width dependence is described by generalized force-balance models for short- and long-range interaction forces between interfaces but not far from the melting temperature. A force-balance model is developed that describes phase field results even 100 K below the melting temperature. The effects of the ratios of width and energies of solid-solid and solid-melt interfaces, temperature, and the parameter characterizing interaction of two solid-melt interfaces, on the structure, width, energy of the IM and interface velocity are determined by finite element method. Depending on parameters, the IM may appear by continuous or discontinuous barrierless disordering or via critical nucleus due to thermal fluctuations. The IM may appear during heating and persist during cooling at temperatures well below than it follows from sharp-interface approach. On the other hand, for some parameters when IM is expected, it does not form, producing an IM-free gap. The developed PFA represents a quite general three-phase model and can be extended to other physical phenomena, such as martensitic PTs, surface-induced premelting and PTs, premelting

  17. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  18. Modern windships. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Knud E. Hansen A/S (KEH) has, partly funded by the Energy Research Programme, (EFP-95) investigated in the possibilities of using windships for transportation of cargo on long routes, i.e. across the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. The task was to peruse experiences from projects made during the past 30 years and then, based on new materials and design principle to make proposals to modern wind driven ships to transportation of cargo - especially bulk carriers. KEH has thus prepared a suggestion for a 50,000 DWT wind driven bulk carrier on these terms. The bulk carrier in question is a modern rig inspired by the classical lugger and junk sail with a total sail area of abt. 10,000 m{sup 2}. The hull of the ship has been developed in order to limit wave resistance and drifting. Project Windship has, in contrast to earlier tests and projects, designed a bulk carrier based on a complete evaluation of ecology, safety, economy and reasonable transportation speed. The research project shows that international sea transportation, with wind as the primary source of energy, does not seem to run up against any obstacles as regards safety. The economical analyses show that windship transportation, with today`s oil prices, will be about 10% higher compared to the diesel driven transportation. In the light of the positive results of the research project the steering committee recommends that phase II of project `Modern Windships` is carried out. (EG)

  19. Fast-growing trees. Sub-project: Applicability of aspen and testing of aspen hybrids for biomass production in short-rotation plantations. Final report; Schnellwachsende Baumarten. Teilvorhaben: Eignung der Baumart Aspe und Pruefung von Aspenhybriden fuer die Biomasseerzeugung in Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, H.J.; Liesebach, M.; Wuehlisch, G. von; Mulsow, H.; Korsch, M.; Duehring, C.; Rose, A.; Mecke, R.

    1997-06-01

    The suitability of aspen for short-rotation plantations on former agricultural surfaces was investigated according to the following criteria: Growth rate of young trees - biomass production - regeneration after harvesting - competitive strength - resistance to biotic and abiotic damage. The investigations were to find out the extent of variation between the selected varieties and the effects of site conditions. The results were to provide information on selection criteria for aspen in short-rotation plantations. For this purpose, 17 aspen varieties (offspring from crossing and tissue culture cloning) were planted in 4 sites with a total area of about 6.7 ha. Two willow clones and offspring of a Japanese beech were investigated as well. Annual reasurements are to provide information on growth as a function of site conditions, plant neighbourhoods and rotation time. The investigations were supplemented by the result obtained in earlier experimental aspen stands. Information on birds and invertebrate fauna on a short-rotation plantation is to be obtained as well. [Deutsch] Ziel der Versuche ist die Pruefung der Eignung der Aspe fuer die Produktionsform Kurzumtrieb auf zuvor landwirtschaftlich genutzten Flaechen. Geprueft wurden folgende Merkmale: - Jugendwachstum, - Biomasseproduktion, - Regeneration nach einer Beerntung, - Konkurrenzvertraeglichkeit, - Resistenz gegen biotische und abiotische Schaedigungen. Hierbei sollte festgestellt werden, wie gross die Variation zwischen den selektierten Sorten in relevanten Merkmalen ist und wie stark diese durch den Standort beeinflusst werden. Die Ergebnisse sollten Hinweise fuer Selektionskriterien fuer die in der Kurzumtriebswirtschaft einzusetzenden Aspen geben. Dazu wurden 17 Aspennachkommenschaften aus Kreuzungen und Klone aus Gewebekultur geprueft, die an 4 Standorten auf insgesamt rund 6,7 ha angebaut wurden. Weiterhin wurden 2 Weidenklone und Nachkommenschaften einer japanischen Birkenart hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung im

  20. Stiffness of lipid monolayers with phase coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Benjamín; Mangiarotti, Agustín; Wilke, Natalia

    2013-08-27

    The surface dilational modulus--or compressibility modulus--has been previously studied for monolayers composed of pure materials, where a jump in this modulus was related with the onset of percolation as a result of the establishment of a connected structure at the molecular level. In this work, we focused on monolayers composed of two components of low lateral miscibility. Our aim was to investigate the compressibility of mixed monolayers at pressures and compositions in the two-phase region of the phase diagram, in order to analyze the effect of the mechanical properties of each phase on the stiffness of the composite. In nine different systems with distinct molecular dipoles and charges, the stiffness of each phase and the texture at the plane of the monolayer were studied. In this way, we were able to analyze the general compressibility of two-phase lipid monolayers, regardless of the properties of their constituent parts. The results are discussed in the light of the following two hypotheses: first, the stiffness of the composite could be dominated by the stiffness of each phase as a weighted sum according to the percentage of each phase area, regardless of the distribution of the phases in the plane of the monolayer. Alternatively, the stiffness of the composite could be dominated by the mechanical properties of the continuous phase. Our results were better explained by this latter proposal, as in all the analyzed mixtures it was found that the mechanical properties of the percolating phase were the determining factors. The value of the compression modulus was closer to the value of the connected phase than to that of the dispersed phase, indicating that the bidimensional composites displayed mechanical properties that were related to the properties of each phases in a rather complex manner.

  1. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  2. Engineering holographic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-10-01

    By introducing interacting scalar fields, we tried to engineer physically motivated holographic phase diagrams which may be interesting in the context of various known condensed matter systems. We introduce an additional scalar field in the bulk which provides a tunable parameter in the boundary theory. By exploiting the way the tuning parameter changes the effective masses of the bulk interacting scalar fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered for the boundary order parameters dual to those scalar fields. We give a few examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries which are strikingly similar to the known quantum phases at low temperature such as the superconducting phases. However, the important difference is that all the phases we have discussed are characterized by neutral order parameters. At the end, we discuss if there exists any emerging scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the dome in this phase diagram.

  3. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  4. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  5. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  6. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  7. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  8. Gas-Phase Covalent And Non-Covalent Ion/ion Chemistry Of Biological Macromolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Stutzman, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion/ion chemistry involves the interaction of oppositely charged ions inside of the mass spectrometer. During this gas-phase chemistry, particle transfer (i.e., proton and electron) or synthesis can occur at rapid reaction rates. Particle transfer represents a mature area of ion/ion chemistry, while selective covalent modification represents a fairly new area of gas-phase chemistry. Gas-phase covalent chemistry is based on traditional solution phase organic chemistry. The work de...

  9. Metastable phases and "metastable" phase diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Brazhkin, V. V.

    2006-01-01

    The work discusses specifics of phase transitions for metastable states of substances. The objects of condensed media physics are primarily equilibrium states of substances with metastable phases viewed as an exception, while the overwhelming majority of organic substances investigated in chemistry are metastable. It turns out that at normal pressure many of simple molecular compounds based on light elements (these include: most hydrocarbons; nitrogen oxides, hydrates, and carbides; carbon ox...

  10. Phase jitter in a differential phase experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, B. S.; Connolly, D. J.; Austin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Austin (1971) had concluded that, because of the 'phase jitter,' the differential phase experiment is useful over a more limited height range than the differential absorption experiment. Several observations are presented to show that this conclusion is premature. It is pointed out that the logical basis of the differential absorption experiment also requires that the O- and X-mode echoes, at a given time, come from the same irregularities. Austin's calculations are believed to contain a systematic error above 80 km.

  11. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  12. Chaotic eigenfunctions in phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Nonnenmacher, S

    1997-01-01

    We study individual eigenstates of quantized area-preserving maps on the 2-torus which are classically chaotic. In order to analyze their semiclassical behavior, we use the Bargmann-Husimi representations for quantum states, as well as their stellar parametrization, which encodes states through a minimal set of points in phase space (the constellation of zeros of the Husimi density). We rigorously prove that a semiclassical uniform distribution of Husimi densities on the torus entails a similar equidistribution for the corresponding constellations. We deduce from this property a universal behavior for the phase patterns of chaotic Bargmann eigenfunctions, which reminds of the WKB approximation for eigenstates of integrable systems (though in a weaker sense). In order to obtain more precise information on ``chaotic eigenconstellations", we then model their properties by ensembles of random states, generalizing former results on the 2-sphere to the torus geometry. This approach yields statistical predictions fo...

  13. Differential Phase Detector for Precise Phase Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Olexa, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a differential phase detector circuit, whose phase-to-voltage characteristic has an extremum when its two input signals are exactly in phase. In this condition all its digital signals are of 50 % duty cycle so that the circuit characteristic does not have a dead zone. This feature allows a precise indication of the zero-phase condition, which is independent of the detector power supply and the offset of its ADC readout. Such a detector is used for a phase alignment of two reference clock signals with frequency about 11 kHz in front-ends processing signals from beam position monitors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector output voltage is digitized with a 24-bit ADC at the rate of the reference signals. The resulting samples are processed in the front-end FPGA and transmitted to the control system using an Ethernet data stream. After a detailed description of the differential phase detector its performance is demonstrated with laboratory measurements. The results show tha...

  14. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  15. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub-project 2 - Ex-serviced 2.25Cr1M0 weld metal and cross weld repairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Feilitzen, Carl von

    2007-12-15

    Weld repair has been carried out in an ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe by using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables. Application of current welding procedure and consumables results in an over matched weld repair. This is verified by both creep tests and the creep simulations at even lower stresses than tested. Creep specimens have been extracted from ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM) and weld metal (WM), from virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 WM, from virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM, and from virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. In addition, cross weld specimens including weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and parent metal have been taken from the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld joint, and from three weld repairs. In total, there are nine test series. The sequence of creep lifetime at 540 deg C at given stresses is; virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal > virgin 15 Mo 3 weld metal approx virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 weld metal approx ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal >> ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal > ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld approx 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld repair approx 13 CrMo 4 4 cross weld repair approx and 15 Mo 3 cross weld repair. All the series show good creep ductility. The ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal shows a creep lifetime about one order of magnitude shorter than that for both the virgin parent metal and the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal, independent of stresses. Differences in creep lifetime among the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld and other cross weld repairs are negligible, simply because rupture always occurred in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal, approximately 10 mm from HAZ, for all the cross welds. Necking is frequently observed in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal at the opposite side of the fracture. Creep damage to a large and a small extend is found adjacent to the fracture and at the necking area, respectively. Other parts of the weld joint like weld metal and HAZ are damage-free, independent of stress, weld metal and

  16. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  17. Available area isotherm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, JC; Wesselingh, JA

    2004-01-01

    A new isotherm is presented for adsorption of proteins, the available area isotherm. This isotherm has a steric basis, unlike the (steric) mass action model. The shape of the available area isotherm is determined only by geometric exclusion. With the new isotherm, experimental results can be fitted

  18. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur

  19. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur

  20. TWRS privatization phase I - raw and potable water service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase 1, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This study evaluates and recommends the systems to supply raw, fire suppression, and sanitary (potable) water services to the boundary of the area to be assigned to each private contractor.

  1. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  2. Geometric phases in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shapere, Alfred D

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years, considerable interest has been focused on the phase that waves accumulate when the equations governing the waves vary slowly. The recent flurry of activity was set off by a paper by Michael Berry, where it was found that the adiabatic evolution of energy eigenfunctions in quantum mechanics contains a phase of geometric origin (now known as 'Berry's phase') in addition to the usual dynamical phase derived from Schrödinger's equation. This observation, though basically elementary, seems to be quite profound. Phases with similar mathematical origins have been identified

  3. Gibbs measures and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Georgii, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    From a review of the first edition: ""This book […] covers in depth a broad range of topics in the mathematical theory of phase transition in statistical mechanics. […] It is in fact one of the author's stated aims that this comprehensive monograph should serve both as an introductory text and as a reference for the expert."" (F. Papangelou, Zentralblatt MATH) The second edition has been extended by a new section on large deviations and some comments on the more recent developments in the area.

  4. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  5. Two-phase flow research. Phase 1: Two-phase nozzle research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, S. J.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental performance of converging-diverging nozzles operating on air-water mixtures is presented for a wide range of parameters. Thrust measurements characterized the performance and photographic documentation was used to visually observe the off-design regimes. Thirty-six nozzle configurations were tested to determine the effects of convergence angle, area ratio, and nozzle length. In addition, the pressure ratio and mass flowrate ratio were varied to experimentally map off-design performance. The test results indicate the effects of wall friction and infer temperature and velocity differences between phases and the effect on nozzle performance. The slip ratio between the phases, gas velocity to liquid velocity, is shown to be below about 4 or 5.

  6. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, and can even enable a Reverse Phase Contrast mode where intensity patterns are converted into a phase modulation....

  7. Topological phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, J M

    2010-01-01

    Quantum eigenstates undergoing cyclic changes acquire a phase factor of geometric origin. This phase, known as the Berry phase, or the geometric phase, has found applications in a wide range of disciplines throughout physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, optics, and classical dynamics. In this article, the basic theory of the geometric phase is presented along with a number of representative applications. The article begins with an account of the geometric phase for cyclic adiabatic evolutions. An elementary derivation is given along with a worked example for two-state systems. The implications of time-reversal are explained, as is the fundamental connection between the geometric phase and energy level degeneracies. We also discuss methods of experimental observation. A brief account is given of geometric magnetism; this is a Lorenz-like force of geometric origin which appears in the dynamics of slow systems coupled to fast ones. A number of theoretical developments of the...

  8. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  9. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  10. Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions and global phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bitan; Juricic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength $n$. We show that any local interaction has a \\emph{negative} scaling dimension $-2/n$. Consequently all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At one loop level, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is $\

  11. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  12. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  13. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  14. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  15. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  16. Driftless Area NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  18. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  19. Iterative Reconstruction for Differential Phase Contrast Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehler, T.; Brendel, B.; Roessl, E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to combine two areas of active research in tomographic x-ray imaging. The first one is the use of iterative reconstruction techniques. The second one is differential phase contrast imaging (DPCI). Method: We derive an SPS type maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructi

  20. Phase transformations, stability, and materials interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Cost, J.R.; Shewmon, P.

    1977-07-01

    The proceedings of the Materials Sciences Workshop on Phase Transformations, Stability, and Materials Interactions are divided into sections according to the following topics: (I) workshop scope and priorities; (II) study group reports--ERDA mission needs; (III) study group reports--technical area research priorities. (SDF)

  1. Speleogenesis in Dinaric karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2015-04-01

    Gračac ( type locality Bađek ) , Bruvno ; - Kimmeridgian - and karstification of Oxfordian and older Kimmeridgian limestones , Rovinj ) ; - Tithonian - Berriasian - karstification Kimmeridgian - lower Tithonian limestone , Dinara ( Bravčev Dolac ) ; apt -upper - lower Albian - karstification (western Istria); - Cenomanian - karstification older Cenomanian limestone , Dugi otok (Luka) ; - Cenomanian - Santonian - karstification Cenomanian limestone , west of Karlovac ; - Upper Cretaceous - Eocene - karstification of Rudistic limestone range Cenomanian - Coniacian , the whole area Karst Dinarides in contact with foraminipheral limestones ; - Cretaceous rudistic and Eocene limestones in contact with Promina breccias in Ravni kotari, Dalmatinska Zagora; - part of all surface areas from Oligocene to today. In all these Karstification processes all three types genetic phase (initial , main and late phase or fossil karst features . They are easily distinguishable in relatively younger sediments , and only sporadically indicated in the Permian sediments. Chance of a more detailed study of paleokarstic phase karst come to the realization that their intensities through geological history of this area were not identical , ie , altered, depending on the speed of descent or uplift of individual parts, the time in which they were exposed to the processes of karstification and tectonic and hydrogeological and paleohydrogeological conditions. The most intense examples of karstification are recorded in the Cretaceous and from the Eocene to Paleocene areas in Croatian parts of Dinaric karst. The deepest cave explored till the end og 2014. year in Dinaric Karst is Cave System of Lukina jama (depth -1431 meters; length - 3741 meters)) and the longest cave in Dinaric karts area is Cave system of Kita Gacesina (length - 27802 meters, depth - 737 meters). Both of caves are in Croatian part of Dinaric karst area in Velebit mountain.

  2. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  3. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  4. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  5. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.

    1997-05-02

    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.

  6. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  7. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  8. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  9. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed with the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the similar Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce the conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  10. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    will be demonstrated as a remediation alternative for hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Compliance -- The use of plasma arc pyrolysis to destroy ships...development will use an airborne radar test to collect amplitude and phase information on clutter backgrounds representative of those expected for a SBR ...the validity of SBR models and simulations. Upcoming studies of non-conventional radar processing against diverse clutter environments, and automatic

  11. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  12. AQUACON-MedBas project subproject no. 6: acid rain analysis intercomparison 1/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosello, R.; Bianchi, M. [and others] [Instituto Italian di Idrobiologia, Verbania Pallenza (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Artificial rainwater samples, with concentration close to the values ordinarily measured in northern Italy, and sodium hydrogen carbonate stabilized with chloroform, were prepared in September 1995 by the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, and the results elaborated jointly with the CNR Istiuto Italian di Idrobiologia, Pallanza. Homogeneity and stability tests were performed to check the reliability of the samples. Results showed the prevalence of systematic over random errors for most of the chemical variables examined; systematic errors were even more marked in the case of alkalinity measurements. pH and alkalinity were among the most critical measurements and the results stress the need for strict measurement protocols to improve the comparability between the different laboratories. Some analytical techniques, such as the use of colour indicators in the case of alkalinity and turbidimetry for sulphate, proved to be unite inadequate for measuring low concentrations. A comparison of the exercises performed in 1991 to 1995 shows a slight improvement in the results; the improvement is more evident if only those laboratories which have participated regularly in the intercomparisons are considered.

  13. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  14. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  16. UPVG phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG`s efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG`s Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative.

  17. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  18. OLED area illumination source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  19. Evaluation of yeast vitality during the stationary phase of very high gravity ethanol fermentation based on area under the curve of sugar secondary fermentation%基于二次发酵糖代谢曲线下面积法对高浓度酒精发酵后期酵母发酵活力的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文强; 伍时华; 赵东玲; 张健; 黄翠姬

    2015-01-01

    Vitality of fermentation yeast is one of the key factors of very high gravity ethanol fermentation and it is essential to accurately and quantitatively determine the vitality of fermentation yeast.In this study,the same amount of yeast cell was harvested by centrifuging cultures at 36,42,48,54 and 60 h during the primary ethanol fermentation and transferred into fresh fermentation medium for secondary fermentation,respectively.By the software graphpad prism 5,the curve of sugar metabolism was plotted during the secondary fermentation and the area under the curve (AUC) of sugar metabolism was calculated.And then the AUC was evaluated quantitatively as a measure of yeast vitality (the faster sugar consumption-the less AUC indicating that yeast vitality is stronger;vice versa).The results indicated that the ability of sugar metabolism of yeast cell from culture at 36,42,48,54 and 60 h during the primary fermentation gradually decreased and the AUC was 5 051,5 437,5 912,6 757 and 7 489,respectively,indicating that the vitality of yeast cell from the stationary phase of primary fermeantion gradually decreased as the time went on.By secondary fermentation parameter analysis,the results also showed that yeast vitality could be evaluated quantitatively based on the AUC,namely,the less AUC,the stronger yeast vitality,vice versa.%在主发酵过程的36、42、48、54与60 h取样离心,得到酵母细胞并等量地接入新鲜发酵培养基中进行二次发酵.测定酵母在二次发酵过程中糖代谢曲线并用Graphpad Prism 5软件计算糖代谢曲线下面积(AUC)来定量地表示酵母的发酵活力大小(糖消耗越快,糖代谢曲线下面积值越小,说明酵母的发酵活力越强).结果表明,主发酵36、42、48、54与60 h酵母糖代谢能力逐渐下降,二次发酵AUC值分别是5 051、5 437、5 912、6 757与7 489,说明随着时间的推移主发酵后期酵母细胞的发酵活力逐渐下降;二次发酵参数分析也表明,AUC能够定

  20. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    with a simple one-to-one mapping between resolution elements of a spatial phase modulator and resolution elements of the generated intensity pattern is provided. According to the invention a method is provided for synthesizing an intensity pattern with low loss of electromagnetic energy, comprising spatial...... modulation of electromagnetic radiation with a spatial phase mask for modulation of the phase of the incident eletromagnetic radiation by phasor values of individual resolution elements of the spatial phase mask, each phasor value being determined in such a way that the values of the Fourier transformed......The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...

  1. Quantum Enhanced Phase Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Liat; Poem, Eilon; Silberberg, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    The retrieval of phases from intensity measurements is a key process in many fields in science, from optical microscopy to x-ray crystallography. Here we study phase retrieval of a one-dimensional multi-phase object that is illuminated by quantum states of light. We generalize the iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to photon correlation measurements on the output plane, rather than the standard intensity measurements. We report a numerical comparison of classical and quantum phase retrieval of a small one-dimensional object of discrete phases from its far-field diffraction. While the classical algorithm was ambiguous and often converged to wrong solutions, quantum light produced a unique reconstruction with smaller errors and faster convergence. We attribute these improvements to a larger Hilbert space that constrains the algorithm.

  2. Phase diagram of colloid-rod system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. K.; Xiao, Xuhui

    2010-01-01

    The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed.

  3. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  4. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  5. Area Handbook for Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Allison Butler

    This publication is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Areas Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political and military institutions and practices of various countries. The present handbook…

  6. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  7. Areas of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, John

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the recommendations made by the Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum (the Rose Report in 2009) that the curriculum should be organised into areas of learning. The implications for teachers are considered. By drawing upon past experience some major weaknesses and strengths implicit in the approach are identified and…

  8. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  9. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  10. Quantum Phase Liquids-Fermionic Superfluid without Phase Coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ya-Jie; Zhou, Jiang; Kou, Su-Peng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the two dimensional generalized attractive Hubbard model in a bipartite lattice, and and a "quantum phase liquid" phase, in which the fermions are paired but don't have phase coherence at zero temperature, in analogy to quantum spin liquid phase. Then, two types of topological quantum phase liquids with a small external magnetic field-Z2 quantum phase liquids and chiral quantum phase liquids-are discussed.

  11. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  12. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  13. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  14. Energy conservation potentials of up to 35% and more; Einsparpotenziale von 35 % und mehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimberg, Thorsten; Knetsch, Joerg; Martin, Lars; Wagner, Steffen [Rittal GmbH und Co. KG, Herborn (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The automobile industry sets standards in many areas such as in the topic energy efficiency. Thus, the innovation alliance 'Green Carbody Technologies' aims to realizes a car body manufacturing with 50% lower energy consumption. One of the subprojects within the research project concerned itself with an energy efficient air conditioning of switch control boxes. The company Rittal GmbH and Co. KG (Herborn, Federal Republic of Germany) is involved in this subproject. First results of this subproject are described now.

  15. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  16. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    resource of the river. Also, strips of riparian vegetation along the riverbank provide good areas for naturalists and birdwatching . Recreational resources...policies #1 and #2 when improvements are made costing at least 50 percent of the estimated current market value of the structure before improvements. o1 S 0...height and depth of flooding is provided in Table 1. Although depreciation values have been used in our analysis, market values also had to be considered

  17. Belize Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-20

    is greater than Costa Rica and Janica, similar to El Salvador and Mexico, but less than Guatemtala and Paraguay. In 1981, one-fourth to one-half of...as well as increased poaching by foreign fishing boats. Poachery is difficult to control but with the addition of two patrol boats and two aircrafts...resettlement program. The U. N. effort is directed by Regina Coballer, whose office is located in Costa Rica . There are at least three resettlement areas in

  18. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  19. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  20. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  1. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  2. Dual Phase Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Shurtleff, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A calculation based on flat spacetime symmetries shows how there can be two quantum phases. For one, extreme phase change determines a conventional classical trajectory and four-momentum, i.e. mass times four-velocity. The other phase occurs in an effective particle state, with the effective energy and momentum being the rate of change of the phase with respect to time and distance. A cosmic ray proton moves along a classical trajectory, but exists in an effective particle state with an effective energy that depends on the local gravitational potential. Assumptions are made so that a cosmic ray proton in an ultra-high energy state detected near the Earth was in a much less energetic state in interstellar space. A 300 EeV proton incident on the Earth was a 2 PeV proton in interstellar space. The model predicts such protons are in states with even more energy near the Sun than when near the Earth.

  3. Unparticle phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles proposed by Georgi carry CP conserving phases in their propagators. We demonstrate that these peculiar phases have an important impact on CP violation. Without including the strong QCD phases, we study the unparticle phase effects on the direct CP asymmetries in the exclusive decays of $\\bar B_d\\to \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $B\\to \\pi K$, in which the flavor changing neutral currents are forbidden at tree level but induced by one-loop diagrams. Interesting and consistent results comparing to the data are obtained. In addition, we find that unparticles will significantly enhance the differential branching ratio of $b\\to s \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ at the small invariant mass of $\\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$. The forward-backward asymmetries for $b\\to s \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ due to unparticles are also explored.

  4. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  5. Two phase sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The development of estimators of population parameters based on two-phase sampling schemes has seen a dramatic increase in the past decade. Various authors have developed estimators of population using either one or two auxiliary variables. The present volume is a comprehensive collection of estimators available in single and two phase sampling. The book covers estimators which utilize information on single, two and multiple auxiliary variables of both quantitative and qualitative nature. Th...

  6. The SAT phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 李未

    1999-01-01

    Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r(ratio of clauses to variables) increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符

  7. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  8. Savannah River Plant construction [100 Area History]: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This report discusses five Reactor (100) Areas constructed at SRP. They were designated as 100-C, K, L, P and R. A minimum distance of two miles separated any two of the areas which were laid out in the form of a semi-circle, Each area contained approximately 40 permanent buildings and facilities for a total of 200 buildings for all of the 100 Areas. Construction was started on the R Area first and this was the first area to be completed and accepted by Operations. Construction of the other areas was started and completed in the following sequence: P, L, K and C. The difference in the design and construction of the various facilities in these areas is noted under the individual building discussion on the following pages of this section of the Construction History and also in the du Pont Engineering and Design History. In the series of manufacturing operations the separation of fissionable materials produced in the 100 Areas is accomplished by chemical and physical means in the 200 Areas These are the 200-F and 200-H Areas which have duplicate facilities in the process phase. However, a central laboratory, area shops, laundry, metallurgical and storage magazine buildings were constructed in the 200-F Area only and serve both areas. These activities are also presented in this report.

  9. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  10. Polymers in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.C.; Brites, M.J.; Alexandre, J.H. [National Lab. for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which are the core of latent heat thermal energy storage systems are currently an area of investigation of increasing interest. Several substances differing in physical and chemical characteristics as well as in thermal behavior have been studied as PCMS{sup 1-3}. In order to meet the requisites of particular systems, auxiliary materials are often used with specific functions. This bibliographic survey shows that polymeric materials have been proposed either as the PCM itself in solid-liquid or solid-solid transitions or to perform auxiliary functions of shape stabilisation and microencapsulation for solid-liquid PCMs. The PCMs have an operating temperature ranging from around 0 C (for the system water/polyacrilamid) to around 127 C (for crosslinked HDPE). (orig.)

  11. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.J. (Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  12. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplan

  13. Holographic phase transition probed by non-local observables

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed by the two point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes, the black hole undergos a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition successively before it reaches to a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find the equal area law for the first order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.

  14. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianming

    2016-08-22

    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  15. A novel 2-phase reliability improvement of digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Maryam; Mahani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays several methods based on modular redundancy are proposed to increase the reliability of digital circuits. Redundant fault tolerant techniques increase the consumed power and area overhead. So in this paper a two phase fault tolerant design is proposed to get the balance between reliability and area overhead. In the first phase, reliability optimization of digital circuits which utilizes the architecture with higher reliability as an objective function is considered. Then the automatic insertion of selective non-uniform redundancy is applied to improve the reliability of obtained circuit as second phase. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are compared with triple modular redundancy.

  16. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  17. Hartsville data and analysis book: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, C.R.; Siegrist, C.

    1978-09-01

    A preconstruction data base is recorded for the impact area surrounding the Hartsville nuclear construction project. The objective is to document baseline information for socioeconomic characteristics that may be either temporarily or permanently altered by the project. The analysis suggests that the five counties surrounding the site make up a primary impact area, but some impacts may occur outside the area. The work force for the construction phase of the project is segregated into four components: (1) former residents of the site county, (2) former residents of other counties in the impact area, (3) in-movers to the site county, and (4) in-movers to other counties in the impact area. A theoretical model is developed to illustrate the contribution of each component to the spatial pattern of economic benefits and social costs in the impact area. A shift-share analysis of agricultural characteristics in the impact area shows that employment and farm numbers in the area have declined at a slightly faster rate than in the nation but at a slower rate than in the South. A population and construction project threshold analysis suggests that, given the project size and population base at Hartsville, significant social and economic constraints may be encountered in the public and private economic infrastructure. These include amenities such as housing, school space, medical and police protection.

  18. Zeolites and Usage Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Gülen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are formed via several reactions from the minerals that consist of aluminium and silica. Zeolites, which have a growing significance in recent days are one of important industrial raw materials. As well as being used as a catalyst, theirability to do ion exchange and adsorption make them even more valuable. Zeolites are used in several industries such as energy, agriculture and animal husbandry, mining and metallurgy, construction, detergent, paper, etc. In this study, the definiton, formation and usage areas of zeolites are explained.

  19. Dementia in Taiwan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanhan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Taiwan has an increasing aging population like other developed areas. The aging population will lead to an increased prevalence of dementia. Methods:This article will reflect the status of dementia in Taiwan, including updated epidemiology, diagnosis, subtypes, and optimal treatment of dementia. Results:The article also describes and interprets the Taiwan Dementia Policy to establish a clear, large view of the current state of management of dementia in Taiwan and future policy implementation. Conclusion:A comprehensive policy to dementia, from the basic researches to clinical care and treatment, is necessary to the increased aged population in Taiwan.

  20. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  1. Cholera in Azov area

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Domashenko; T. A. Belomerya; N. V. Martynova; G. N. Daragan; Demkovich, O.O.; U. V. Malakhova; G. I. Zemlyanskaya; Popova, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child) and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children), which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the water...

  2. Optical Phase Imaging Using Synthetic Aperture Illumination and Phase Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    We perform quantitative phase imaging using phase retrieval to implement synthetic aperture imaging. Compared to digital holography, the developed technique is simpler, less expensive, and more stable.

  3. RESEARCH PROGRESS ON EFFECT OF GAS/LIQUID/SOLID THREE PHASE BOUNDARY AREA ON CATHODIC PROCESSES%气/液/固三相线界面区对阴极电化学过程影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟伟; 王佳; 芦永红

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research progress in the field of effect of gas/liquid/solid three phase boundaries on the cathodic processes occurred in porous electrode of fuel cell, gas sensor and multi-phase corrosion. The discussion was made on the feasibility of improving performance of cathodic proces-ses by controlling the length of three phase boundaries, and the suggestion was also proposed on possibility to apply the methods of controlling the length of three phase boundary for the studies of measuring,data-analyzing, modeling and assessing the gas/liquid/metal multiphase corrosion processes.%综述了燃料电池多孔电极,气敏传感器以及多相腐蚀等不同领域在气/液/固三相线界面区特征对阴极过程的影响这一共性问题的各自研究特色与进展,分析了运用三相线界面区长度控制技术加速或减慢阴极反应速度的可行性,提出了借鉴和引进相关领域利用气/液/固三相线界面区特征来控制阴极反应的研究成果,从而发展气/液/金属复杂腐蚀体系测试方法、数据解析、模型化和行为预测等研究工作的新思路.

  4. Combustion 2000: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-11-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This Phase, Phase 2, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase 3. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase 3 program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase 2 Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4,and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  5. Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.

  6. Lewis-acid and redox-active zeolite catalysts for the activation of methane and lower hydrocarbons in the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. Subproject: structural characterization and kinetic modelling. Final report; Lewis-acide und redox-aktive Zeolith-Katalysatoren fuer die Aktivierung von Methan und Fluessiggas-Kohlenwasserstoffen in der SCR von NO{sub x}. Teilprojekt: Strukturelle Katalysatorcharakterisierung und Modellierung der Reaktionskinetik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenert, W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Technische Chemie; Sowade, T.; Schmidt, C.; Stroeder, U. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Zeolites (in particular ZSM-5) modified by indium and additionally promoted by ceria have been studied as catalysts for selective reduction of NO by methane. The structural properties of the catalysts have been investigated by XRD, FTIR, EXAFS, electron microscopy and XPS. The ceria promotor may be added to In-ZSM-5 by precipitation onto the external zeolite surface or by physically admixing a high surface-area powder. The preparation of the basic In-ZSM-5 system has a large influence on the properties of the catalyst. Preparation by aqueous exchange leads in most cases to a coexistence of a small amount of intra-zeolite indium species and extra-zeolite indium phases. Only at low pH, exclusively intra-zeolite indium is formed to a low extent (<10% exchange degree). Intrazeolite indium can be also obtained by dry preparations using InCl{sub 3} (solid-state ion exchange, sublimation, transport reaction). The In species formed carry Cl ligands, the stability of which depends on the indium content: after washing and calcination steps, Cl ligands could no longer be detected only in samples with low In content. Reductive solid-state ion exchange is a further method to prepare intra-zeolite In species. In mixtures containing excess indium, oligometric intra-zeolite In species are formed via this route. Intra-zeolite Cl-free In species exhibit significant SCR activity while Cl-containing In-species activate methane with low SCR selectivity. In ceria-promoted systems, the ceria provides full NO{sub 2} supply by catalysing the NO oxidation. With sufficient NO{sub 2} supply, the even Cl-containing In sites provide high SCR activities. Since the relevance of acidic sites was established e.g. by poisoning experiments, the reaction mechanism can by visualised by proceeding via methane activation over In sites, reaction of activated methane with NO{sub 2} to a volatile intermediate (e.g. nitromethane), which is then decomposed over the acidic sites. The reaction kinetics of the

  7. Polymorphic phase transition in Superhydrous Phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Müller, M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Orman, J. Van; Wirth, R.

    2005-09-01

    We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200°C (LT) and 1400°C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180°C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group ( Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group ( Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.

  8. Polymorphic Phase Transition in Superhydrous Phase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch-Muller,M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Van Orman, J.; Wirth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200 C (LT) and 1400 C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180 C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group (Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group (Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.

  9. The Phases of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, E V

    1996-01-01

    In the recent years we have learned that light quarks play a crucial role in QCD-like theories, transforming it to many different phases. We review what is known about them, both from lattice and non-lattice approaches. A particularly simple mechanism of the QCD chiral restoration phase transition is discussed first: it suggests that it is a transition from randomly placed tunneling events (instantons) at low T to strongly localized tunneling-anti-tunneling pairs at high T. Many features of the transition found on the lattice can be explained in this simple picture. Very relevant for RHIC, this approach predicts a strong non-perturbative interaction between quarks $above$ the phase transition. It also predicts that QGP-like phase sets in at $zero$ temperature, provided few more light quark flavors are added to QCD. Finally, we also discuss possible experimental signatures of the QCD phase transition. One issue is CERN dilepton data, possibly related with ``dropping'' masses of $\\rho, A_1$ mesons. Another is d...

  10. Progress in ferrite phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. R., Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Advances in the technology of reciprocal ferrite phase shifters are outlined. Nonlatching rotary-field phase shifters have been produced with enhanced phase accuracy and modest control power. A significant quantity of dual-mode latching units has been built at 35 GHz, with good results. Both types of phase shifter can be adapted to perform other functions in addition to phase shifting. Examples of phase shifters that perform duplexing and polarization switching functions are given.

  11. Equalization Technique for Balancing the Modulation Ratio Characteristics of the Single-Phase-to-Three-Phase Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadeshwaran Velu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-phase system has numerous advantages over the single-phase system in terms of instantaneous power, stability, and cost. Three-phase systems are not available in every location particularly in remote rural areas, hill stations, low voltage distribution homes, and so forth. Having a system that is capable of converting directly the readily available single-phase system to three phases will have greater usability in various applications. The routine techniques adopted in the direct ac-ac single-phase-to-three-phase converters do not yield the best desired outputs because of their complexity in the segregation process and bidirectional nature of the input signal. Other initiatives use ac-dc-ac converters which are huge and costly due to dc link energy storage devices. Further, none of these systems provide a convincing result in producing the standard three-phase output voltages that are 120° away from each other. This paper proposes an effective direct ac-ac single-phase-to-three-phase conversion technique based on space vector pulse width modulation based matrix converter system that produces a convincing three-phase output signals from a single-phase source with balanced modulation index characteristics. The details of the scientific programming adopted on the proposed technique were presented.

  12. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  13. Phase locking of vortex cores in two coupled magnetic nanopillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan Zhu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase locking dynamics of the coupled vortex cores in two identical magnetic spin valves induced by spin-polarized current are studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results show that the available current range of phase locking can be expanded significantly by the use of constrained polarizer, and the vortices undergo large orbit motions outside the polarization areas. The effects of polarization areas and dipolar interaction on the phase locking dynamics are studied systematically. Phase locking parameters extracted from simulations are discussed by theoreticians. The dynamics of vortices influenced by spin valve geometry and vortex chirality are discussed at last. This work provides deeper insights into the dynamics of phase locking and the results are important for the design of spin-torque nano-oscillators.

  14. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Patrick; Guevara Vasquez, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  15. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  16. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  17. Retinal Drug Delivery System, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Intraocular injection can place the drug directly into the vitreous cavity but is not recommended...drugs for treatment of other ocular diseases such as retinal tumors, diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration and cytomegalovirus...with the changes in mobile phase as indicated in each section. Data was collected for 10 min and the peak area was analyzed using the standard

  18. Computed Tomography of Transverse Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, A. [Fermilab; Johnstone, C. [Fermilab; Johnstone, J. [Fermilab

    2016-09-19

    Two computed tomography techniques are explored to reconstruct beam transverse phase space using both simulated beam and multi-wire profile data in the Fermilab Muon Test Area ("MTA") beamline. Both Filtered Back-Projection ("FBP") and Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique ("SART") algorithms [2] are considered and compared. Errors and artifacts are compared as a function of each algorithm’s free parameters, and it is shown through simulation and MTA beamline profiles that SART is advantageous for reconstructions with limited profile data.

  19. Fluctuations and the QCD Phase Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss how the study of various fluctuation observables may be used to explore the phase diagram of the strong interaction. We will briefly summarize the present study of experimental and theoretical research in this area. We will then discuss various corrections and issues which need to be understood and applied for a meaningful comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical predictions. This contribution is dedicated to Andrzej Bialas on the occasion of his $80^{\\mathrm{th}}$ birthday.

  20. Analysis and simulation of phase transformation kinetics of zeolite A from amorphous phases

    CERN Document Server

    Marui, Y; Uchida, H; Takiyama, H

    2003-01-01

    Experiments on transformation rates of zeolite A from amorphous phases at different feed rates to alter the particle size of the amorphous phases were carried out to analyze the kinetics of the transformation, and were analyzed by performing simulation of the transformation. A clear dependence of the induction time for nucleation of zeolite A crystals on the surface area of the amorphous phase was recognized, indicating that the nucleation of zeolite A was heterogeneous and the nucleation rate was almost proportional to the size of the amorphous particles. From the simulation, the mechanism of the transformation was found to be heterogeneous nucleation of zeolite A crystals on the surface of amorphous particles followed by solution mediated phase transformation, and the transformation kinetics were well reproduced at different feed rates. (author)

  1. Phase coexistence in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulminelli, F

    2003-05-01

    In this work the general theory of first order phase transitions in finite systems is discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamic description for small, short-lived systems de-exciting in the vacuum as nuclear samples coming from heavy ion collisions. After a short review of the general theory of phase transitions in the framework of information theory; we will present the different possible extensions to the field of finite systems. The concept of negative heat capacity, developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems, will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. A careful study of the thermodynamic limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. In the second part of the paper we will apply the theoretical ideas developed in the first part to the possible observation of a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The applicability of equilibrium concepts in a dynamical collisional process without boundary conditions will first be critically discussed. The observation of abnormally large partial energy fluctuations in carefully selected samples of collisions detected with the MULTICS-Miniball array will then be reported as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity in the nuclear equation of state. (author)

  2. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiropoulo, P

    1982-01-01

    Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.

  4. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  5. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F R N C; Marchesini, S; Padmore, H A; Parkinson, D Y; Pien, J; Schirotzek, A; Yang, C; 10.1117/12.861946

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  6. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  7. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  8. Entropy of phase measurement quantum phase via quadrature measurement

    CERN Document Server

    My, R; My, Robert; Uni, Palacky

    1995-01-01

    The content of phase information of an arbitrary phase--sensitive measurement is evaluated using the maximum likelihood estimation. The phase distribution is characterized by the relative entropy--a nonlinear functional of input quantum state. As an explicit example the multiple measurement of quadrature operator is interpreted as quantum phase detection achieving the ultimate resolution predicted by the Fisher information.

  9. Biometeorological phases influence on stroke morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Milojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine influence of biometeorological phases on strokeincidence according to age and gender of patients, place of residence, days in a week, months in a year, type of stroke, additional diagnosis. Methodology Comparative analysis of the data on stroke patients (according to age, months, days, place of residence, age, sex, stroke type, additional diagnosis and number of hospitalization days obtained by examining the records of discharge and admission of patients in the Department of Neurology of Kragujevac and everyday biometeorological phases obtained from the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia (RHMS of Serbia, for the following years: 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Kragujevac.Results 4,700 patients diagnosed with stroke were hospitalized in the observed period. The highest number of strokes was noted in 2003 (1,030, the lowest in 2008 (851. The highest number of strokes was in March (444 and the lowest in February (351.The most frequent days were Mondays (805, and the least frequent Sundays (495. Three fifths of patients were from urban areas and the rest of them were from rural areas. Out of this number 2,382 (50.7% were males and 2.318 (49.3% were females, of which 1.847 (77.6% males and 1,894 (81.7% females were over 70 years old. The average number of hospitalization days was 12.29 days, and most patients were in hospital for less than 10 days (2101 patients. 4,130 (87.9% patients were diagnosed with thromboembolism, 422 (9.0% with intracerebral hemorrhage and 148 (3.2% with subarachnoid hemorrhage. As an additional diagnosis 1,946 (41.4% patients had hypertension, 867(18.6% had heart insufficiency and 15.40% had diabetes. Most strokes with significant correlation were in biometheorological phases 9 and 4 (1,227 and 1,010 strokes and the least were in phase 10 (29. As a daily average, the highest number of strokes was in phase 8 (2.76/ day, the lowest in phase 2 (2.33/day. Conclusion Biometeorological phases have a

  10. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC SHOCKS AFFECTING EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS-CORNELIU MARINAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explain the causes of economic shocks that are manifested in the euro area countries and to examine the possibilities of their adjustment in the context of a common monetary policy. The member countries of the European Monetary Union can not use its own exchange rate or monetary policy to neutralize the economic shocks. Therefore, they must find new ways to adjust the shocks such increase labor market flexibility and promoting reforms in the areas with significant structural rigidities. Common monetary policy also generates asymmetric shocks, as long as Member States are in different phases of the business cycle. In this study I have demonstrated that the ECB's monetary policy has favored Germany and has disadvantaged the countries confronted in present with problems of debt financing.

  11. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  12. Photoinduced phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, K

    2004-01-01

    A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.

  13. SSIP Phase I Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Lucas, Anne; Taylor, Cornelia; Kelley, Grace; Kasprzak, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This roadmap provides a description of the activities involved in the development of the State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) (SPP/APR Indicators C11 and B17) due to the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) on April 1, 2015. The roadmap is intended to support states with completing Phase I of the SSIP process. This document provides…

  14. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  15. ALMIP Phase I Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Aaron; de Rosnay, Patricia; Beljaars, Anton;

      This report describes the experimental setup and results of the Phase 1 (i.e. the Regional Scale) of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) Land surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP). It is part of the AMMA-EU (European Union) and API  (Action Programmée Interorganisme: A...

  16. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...

  17. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  18. Phase separation micro molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the development of a new microfabrication method, Phase Separation Micro Molding (PSμM). While microfabrication is still best known from semiconductor industry, where it is used to integrate electrical components on a chip, the scope has immensely expan

  19. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of 1,2,3-oxadithiolan 2-oxide and thiiran 1-oxide have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry (f.v.t.–f.i.m.s.) technique in the temperature range from 1 043 to 1 404 K. The reactions are rationalized in terms...

  20. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono...

  1. Gas-Phase Thermolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge; Schaumann, Ernst

    1980-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolytic decomposition of three silylated thionocarboxylic acid derivatives (2b), (3), and (8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range from 783 to 1 404 K in order to elucidate its possib...

  2. Phase Computations and Phase Models for Discrete Molecular Oscillators.

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Alper; Şuvak, Önder

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Phase computations and phase models for discrete molecular oscillators Onder Suvak* and Alper Demir Abstract Background: Biochemical oscillators perform crucial functions in cells, e.g., they set up circadian clocks. The dynamical behavior of oscillators is best described and analyzed in terms of the scalar quantity, phase. A rigorous and useful definition for phase is based on the so-called isochrons of oscillators. Phase computation techniques for ...

  3. Estimation of the water volume to be managed in the infrastructure of phase II of the artificial recharge plant in the El Carracillo region, Segovia (western area); Determinacion de los volumenes de agua a gestionar en las infraestructuras de la fase II del proyecto de recarga artificial del acuifero cuaternario de la comarca de El Carracillo, Segovia (sector occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Antequera, C.; Martinez Gamo, R.; Martinez Rubio, J.

    2014-10-01

    The first hydrogeological investigation for the definition of the Carracillo aquifer (Segovia) was carried out in order to plan the best possible artificial recharge works provided for within the framework of the Royal Decree- Law 9/1998 El Carracillo Aquifer Recharge. Intake and Pipeline Work, Infiltration and Irrigation Adequacy (Segovia) These studies revealed the existence of two regions hydro geologically favourable for water storage from flows derived from the river Cega: the first known as the paleo-landform site located within the irrigation area, and the second area called the storage area located in the eastern sector of the district. In order to exactly estimate the minimum and maximum volume of water that has to be managed in the paleo-landform site over a period of five years, the Tragsa Group has carried out, at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, some of the hydrogeological work, which included the exhaustive follow up of the piezometric behaviour of the aquifer and the detailed analysis of each of the external actions that have a direct influence upon it, such as the useful rain, the artificial recharge, the extraction by pumping, and the overland flow, amongst others. (Author)

  4. Phase Transitions of Simple Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This monograph develops a unified microscopic basis for phases and phase changes of bulk matter and small systems in terms of classical physics. The origins of such phase changes are derived from simple but physically relevant models of how transitions between rigid crystalline, glassy and fluid states occur, how phase equilibria arise, and how bulk properties evolve from those of small systems.

  5. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  6. Global protected area impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use 'matching' (or 'apples to apples') for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

  7. Phase diagram for a nano-yttria-stabilized zirconia system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadikiya, Mohammad; Sabarou, Hooman; Chen, Ming;

    2016-01-01

    Due to the attractive properties of nanoparticles because of their effective surface area, they have been studied widely. Nano-yttria-stabilized zirconia (n-YSZ) is a ceramic which has been scrutinized extensively in past years. Because of the different stability behavior of n-YSZ in comparison...... with bulk YSZ, a new phase diagram is needed for the n-YSZ system in order to identify stable phases under various conditions. In this study, a phase diagram for the n-YSZ system was provided to determine phase stability ranges at room temperature with respect to particle size and composition....... By applying the CALPHAD approach, a 3-D phase diagram for the n-YSZ system was established in which the stability range of each individual phase can be predicted based on the particle size, composition, and temperature....

  8. Mathematical Analysis of Queue with Phase Service: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of phase service queueing models. A large number of models have been developed in the area of queueing theory incorporating the concept of phase service. These phase service queueing models have been investigated for resolving the congestion problems of many day-to-day as well as industrial scenarios. In this survey paper, an attempt has been made to review the work done by the prominent researchers on the phase service queues and their applications in several realistic queueing situations. The methodology used by several researchers for solving various phase service queueing models has also been described. We have classified the related literature based on modeling and methodological concepts. The main objective of present paper is to provide relevant information to the system analysts, managers, and industry people who are interested in using queueing theory to model congestion problems wherein the phase type services are prevalent.

  9. Phase estimation in optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today. The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre

  10. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  11. Development of interfacial area transport equation - modeling and experimental benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A dynamic treatment of interfacial area concentration has been studied over the last decade by employing the interfacial area transport equation. When coupled with the two-fluid model, the interfacial area transport equation replaces the flow regime dependent correlations for interfacial area concentration and eliminates potential artificial bifurcation or numerical oscillations stemming from these static correlations. An extensive database has been established to evaluate the model under various two-phase flow conditions. These include adiabatic and heated conditions, vertical and horizontal flow orientations, round, rectangular, annulus and 8×8 rod bundle channel geometries, and normal-gravity and simulated reduced-gravity conditions. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in the development of the interfacial area transport equation, available experimental databases and 1D and 3D benchmarking work of the interfacial area transport equation. (author)

  12. Phase-only optical encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, P.C.; Glückstad, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have implemented a phase-only optical encryption and decryption system with a readout based on the generalized phase-contrast method. The experimental system has been implemented with Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators to generate binary phase-encrypted masks and a decrypting key. A phase......-contrast filter is used to display the phase information. (C) 2000 Optical Society of America....

  13. Phase noise reduction by self-phase locking in semiconductor lasers using phase conjugate feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lykke; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the behavior of the frequency/phase noise of semiconductor lasers with external phase conjugate feedback is presented. It is shown that the frequency noise is drastically reduced even for lasers with butt-coupled phase conjugate mirrors. In this laser system, the phase...

  14. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  15. SKIPAL, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    based on the Model-View-Controller ( MVC ) design pattern . New events created in SKIWeb activate a database trigger that captures the id numbers of the...Phase 2, SKIPAL incorporated the Spring Web MVC framework to facilitate future integration efforts with SKIWeb. Spring Web MVC is a web framework...Nonparametric Analysis of Fingerprint Data on Large Data Sets,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2574-2584, Sep. 2007. 4. Davis, J. and Goadrich

  16. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, T., E-mail: timfrol@berkeley.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mishin, Y., E-mail: ymishin@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MSN 3F3, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality.

  17. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, T; Mishin, Y

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality.

  18. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  19. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  20. Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  1. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  2. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  3. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also...... the simplest approach. The Service Area approach is based on searches in road networks and represents the actual feeder routes and is thereby a more detailed approach. The Service Area approach can be refined by adding additional resistance to certain points in the road network, e.g. stairways. Differences...... between the Circular Buffer approach and the Service Area approach are illustrated and a comparison between the sizes of the catchment areas is made. The strength of the Service Area approach and the impact on the catchment area when adding additional time resistance to crossing of stairways...

  4. VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...

  5. Electroweak phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments on the four dimensional (4d) lattice studies of the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are summarized. The phase diagram is given in the continuum limit. The finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses m/sub H/<66.5+or-1.4 GeV. Above this endpoint only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full 4d result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. The Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the standard model (SM) would be 72.1+or-1. 4 GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential in the SU(2)-Higgs model enables a precise comparison between lattice simulations and perturbative results. The most popular extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) is also studied on 4d lattices. (17 refs).

  6. Compactification on phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelady, Benjamin; Wheeler, James

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge for string theory is to understand the dimensional reduction required for comparison with the standard model. We propose reducing the dimension of the compactification by interpreting some of the extra dimensions as the energy-momentum portion of a phase-space. Such models naturally arise as generalized quotients of the conformal group called biconformal spaces. By combining the standard Kaluza-Klein approach with such a conformal gauge theory, we may start from the conformal group of an n-dimensional Euclidean space to form a 2n-dimensional quotient manifold with symplectic structure. A pair of involutions leads naturally to two n-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds. For n = 5, this leaves only two extra dimensions, with a countable family of possible compactifications and an SO(5) Yang-Mills field on the fibers. Starting with n=6 leads to 4-dimensional compactification of the phase space. In the latter case, if the two dimensions each from spacetime and momentum space are compactified onto spheres, then there is an SU(2)xSU(2) (left-right symmetric electroweak) field between phase and configuration space and an SO(6) field on the fibers. Such a theory, with minor additional symmetry breaking, could contain all parts of the standard model.

  7. Two-Phase Technology at NASA/Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Since the baseline International Space Station (ISS) External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) was changed from a two-phase mechanically pumped system to a single phase cascade system in the fall of 1993, two-phase EATCS research has continued at a low level at JSC. One of-the lessons of the ISS EATCS selection was that two-phase thermal control systems must have significantly lower power than comparable single phase systems to overcome their larger radiator area, larger line and fluid mass, and perceived higher technical risk. Therefore, research at JSC has concentrated on low power mechanically pumped two-phase EATCSs. In the presentation, the results of a study investigating the trade of single and two-phase mechanically pumped EATCSs for space vehicles will be summarized. The low power two-phase mechanically pumped EATCS system under development at JSC will be described in detail and the current design status of the subscale test unit will be reviewed. Also, performance predictions for a full size EATCS will be presented. In addition to the discussion of two-phase mechanically pumped EATCS development at JSC, two-phase technologies under development for biological water processing will be discussed. These biological water processor technologies are being prepared for a 2001 flight experiment and subsequent usage on the TransHab module on the International Space Station.

  8. Local interfacial area concentration measurement in bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S. T.

    1990-10-01

    The interfacial area concentration is one of the most important parameters in a thermal-hydraulic analysis of two-phase flow systems based on the two-fluid model. A theoretical foundation of the measurement method for the time averaged local interfacial area using a double sensor probe is presented. Based on this theory, the double sensor resistivity probe was employed for the measurement of local properties of two-phase flow such as the interfacial velocity, local interfacial area concentration and void fraction in vertical air-water bubbly flow. Experimental data are presented on the radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, bubble chord length and interfacial area concentration at various gas flow rates. In addition to these, some statistical information on turbulent motions of bubbles are presented. Each of the double sensors are checked against the global void measurement using a differential pressure. The result is very satisfactory. Furthermore, the area averaged void fraction, and the interfacial area concentration obtained from the double sensor probe measurement compared very well with the photographic measurements. The results show that the double sensor probe method is accurate and reliable for the local measurements of interfacial area and void fraction in bubbly two-phase flow. Results of the measurement of interfacial area concentration with the double sensor probe in forced flow loop are presented for bubbly flow at different liquid flow rates. The data indicate that the radial profiles of the interfacial area concentration show similar dependence on the liquid and gas flow rate like radial profiles of void fraction in the bubbly flow regime.

  9. Mapping the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, K

    1999-01-01

    The QCD vacuum in which we live, which has the familiar hadrons as its excitations, is but one phase of QCD, and far from the simplest one at that. One way to better understand this phase and the nonperturbative dynamics of QCD more generally is to study other phases and the transitions between phases. We are engaged in a voyage of exploration, mapping the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon number chemical potential mu . Because of asymptotic freedom, the high temperature and high baryon density phases of QCD are more simply and more appropriately described in terms of quarks and gluons as degrees of freedom, rather than hadrons. The chiral symmetry breaking condensate which characterizes the vacuum phase melts away. At high densities, quarks form Cooper pairs and new condensates develop. The formation of such superconducting phases requires only weak attractive interactions; these phases may nevertheless break chiral symmetry and have excitations which are indistinguishable from thos...

  10. The Visual What For Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    An area in the left fusiform gyrus labelled the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) is claimed to be especially, or even selectively, responsive to words. We explored how stimulus type and task demands affect activity in this area by conducting a PET experiment where words and pictures were presented...

  11. Rapid extraction of the phase shift of the cold-atom interferometer via phase demodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程冰; 王兆英; 许翱鹏; 王启宇; 林强

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the phase of the cold-atom interferometer is extracted from the atomic interference fringe, which can be obtained by scanning the chirp rate of the Raman lasers at a given interrogation time T . If mapping the phase shift for each T with a series of measurements, the extraction time is limited by the protocol of each T measurement, and therefore increases dramatically when doing fine mapping with a small step of T . Here we present a new method for rapid extraction of the phase shift via phase demodulation. By using this method, the systematic shifts can be mapped though the whole interference area. This method enables quick diagnostics of the potential cause of the phase shift in specific time. We demonstrate experimentally that this method is effective for the evaluation of the systematic errors of the cold atomic gravimeter. The systematic phase error induced by the quadratic Zeeman effect in the free-falling region is extracted by this method. The measured results correspond well with the theoretic prediction and also agree with the results obtained by the fringe fitting method for each T .

  12. Design of a Phase Detector for the Phase Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Phase probe system is an important part of the cyclotron beam diagnostic systems. Inside the cyclotron, the beam has to be in phase with RF. Because of the mechanical deformation and instability of

  13. New thermodynamics for evaluating the surface-phase enrichment in the lower surface tension component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Soledade C S; Reis, João Carlos R

    2014-09-15

    Regarding the surface phase of liquid mixtures as a thermodynamic phase, ideal surface phases are designed so that at fixed bulk-phase composition, real and ideal surface phases have the same chemical composition and identical limiting slopes for the dependence of surface tension on mole fraction. Standard chemical potentials are introduced for surface phase components, and quasi-exact expressions are worked out to compute ideal surface tensions and surface-phase compositions of real liquid mixtures. Guidelines for choosing molecular models to estimate the molar surface area of pure constituents are given. Ideal and excess surface tensions are calculated by using literature data for aqueous ethanol solutions at 298 K. These results show treatment based on Butler's equations grossly overestimate predicted surface tensions, thus leading to lower ethanol content in the surface phase. These inaccuracies are ascribed to the use of molar surface areas in model equations that are too small.

  14. "Phase diagrams of Lecithin-based microemulsions containing Sodium Salicylate "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Aboofazeli R

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial phase diagrams were constructed at 25°C to investigate the phase behaviour of systems composed of soybean lecithin, water, sodium salicylate, alcohol and isopropyl myristate. The lecithins used were the commercially available soy bean lecithins, namely E200 and E170 (phosphatidyl choline purities greater than 95% and 68-72% respectively. The cosurfactants employed were n-propanol, 2-propanol and n-butanol and these were used at lecithin/alcohol weight ratios (Km of 1:1 and 1.5:1. At a given Km, the aqueous phase consisted of a 2% w/w sodium salicylate solution. Phase diagrams showed the area of existence of a stable isotropic region along the surfactant/oil axis (i.e., reverse microemulsion area. The extension of the microemulsion domain was influenced by the purity of surfactant, the lecithin/alcohol weight ratios and the kind of the alcohol.

  15. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  16. Phase relationships in the area of the beta aluminate of the system K{sub 2}O-MgO-AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Phasenbeziehungen im Bereich der Beta-Aluminate des Systems K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P. de

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work was to be able to make statements about the thermodynamic stability of K-{beta}``-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the pseudo-binary system K{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and in the pseudo-ternary system K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the adjacent phases of KAlO{sub 2} {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and K-{beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Aussagen ueber die thermodynamische Stabilitaet von K-{beta}``-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} im pseudobinaeren System K{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} und im pseudoternaeren System K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relativ zu den benachbarten Phasen KAlO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} und K-{beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} machen zu koennen. (orig./MM)

  17. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  18. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  19. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ...... and the development from temporary shelters to stone-built architecture in the area is discussed....

  20. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  1. Investigation of ultrasonic phased array inspection of a planar crack using finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Mardani Kharat, Mostafa; Sodagar,Sina; Rashed, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The characteristics of the ultrasonic field radiated by a linear phased array transducer and the echo information of the inspected area are the main basis of designing a phased array inspection system. In this paper, a theoretical investigation is accomplished on the ultrasonic wave diffraction using the ultrasonic phased array method for evaluation of the planar cracks. For this purpose, the ultrasonic wave field resulting from a phased array transducer and its intera...

  2. Phase-locked loops. [in analog and digital circuits communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt to systematically outline the work done in the area of phase-locked loops which are now used in modern communication system design is presented. The analog phase-locked loops are well documented in several books but discrete, analog-digital, and digital phase-locked loop work is scattered. Apart from discussing the various analysis, design, and application aspects of phase-locked loops, a number of references are given in the bibliography.

  3. Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2012-01-01

    Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

  4. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  5. Incommensurate phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currat, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-11-01

    We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.

  6. Collective neurodynamics: Phase diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Li, Wenyuan; Schwartz, Robert N.; Hudson, Andrew E.; Meier, Karlheinz; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we conceptualize the phase diagram of collective short-term bio-chemo-electric component of neurodynamics (S-ND) on the parameter space of externally, e.g., pharmacologically, controllable single-neuron parameters such as the resting potential and/or firing threshold, repolarization time, etc. This concept may become a useful tool for the systematization of knowledge in anesthesiology and provide a fruitful venue for future studies of the high-level S-ND functionalities such as short-te...

  7. Quantum phase magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosten, O.; Krishnakumar, R.; Engelsen, N. J.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum metrology exploits entangled states of particles to improve sensing precision beyond the limit achievable with uncorrelated particles. All previous methods required detection noise levels below this standard quantum limit to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by these states. We experimentally demonstrate a widely applicable method for entanglement-enhanced measurements without low-noise detection. The method involves an intermediate quantum phase magnification step that eases implementation complexity. We used it to perform squeezed-state metrology 8 decibels below the standard quantum limit with a detection system that has a noise floor 10 decibels above the standard quantum limit.

  8. Solid phases of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Leza, María G; Bachiller, Carmen M

    2002-10-01

    In this report we describe the preparation and characterization of four polymorphic forms of tenoxicam; they are, three 1:1 stoichiometric solvates with acetonitrile, dioxane, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and an amorphous phase obtained by recrystallization in various solvents. Polymorph IV and solvates with dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide are reported for the first time in this paper. In addition, three solvates were crystallized in acetone, ethyl acetate, and isopropyl alcohol. These solid forms were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, optical microscopy, and elemental analysis. Solid-state properties, intrinsic dissolution rate, and dissolution kinetics from formulated tablets are also provided.

  9. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  10. Unbiased (reference-free) phase field imaging for general optical fields including phase discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Berz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A new numerically and experimentally tested measurement method for the local electrical light field including its phase is presented. The method is based on Self Referencing Interferograms (SRI) such as shearing interferograms. The complex electric field is the solution vector of a linear equation with the pixel resolved interference term E_2* E_1 as a parameter. Linearization of the non linear equations is achieved by using preknowledge in the intensity as obtained by a conventional image detetctor. The resulting linear equations are not based on any approximation, iterative perturbation expansion etc. but are exact. The method is non iterative and stable against noise for arbitrarily chosen test fields. Allowed fields can exhibit highly fluctuating amplitudes/phases on the pixel scale, areas of vanishing amplitude and Pi phase jumps. The spatial resolution is of pixel size. No reference beam and no diaphragms are used. The new method can be implemented as a fast, one shot per frame video system. An outlook ...

  11. Phase retrieval using nonlinear diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hung; Barsi, Christopher; Williams, Matthew O; Kutz, J Nathan; Fleischer, Jason W

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to phase retrieval in a nonlinear system. Using a tunable photorefractive crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the noninterferometric technique by reconstructing an unknown phase object from optical intensity measurements taken at different nonlinear strengths.

  12. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  13. On the degenerate phase boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Y; Kuang, Z; Ma, Yongge; Liang, Canbin; Kuang, Zhiquan

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the phase boundary between degenerate and non-degenerate regions in Ashtekar's gravity has been studied by Bengtsson and Jacobson who conjectured that the "phase boundary" should always be null. In this paper, we reformulate the reparametrization procedure in the mapping language and distinguish a phase boundary from its image. It is shown that the image has to be null, while the nullness of the phase boundary requries more suitable criterion.

  14. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system......) customers with very convincing results. © International Journal of Industrial Engineering....

  15. Phase down of amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Rabab’ah, Mohammad A.; Bustani, Mohammad A.; Khraisat, Ameen S.; Sawair, Faleh A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the knowledge of Jordanian dentists toward phase down of dental amalgam as recommended by the Minamata Convention, and their training and competency in placing posterior composites. Methods This study was conducted through structured questionnaire interviews with randomly selected cohort of dentists in Jordan between March 2015 and June 2015. Out of 230 dentists who were invited, 196 (85.2%) agreed to participate. Dentists were asked if they know about the Minamata Convention. They were also asked about their training in placement of posterior composite. Results Out of the 196 interviewed, only 13.8% know about Minamata Convention and 17% had an undergraduate training in favor of placing composites in posterior teeth. Approximately 50% of those dentists were not trained in using rubber dam when placing posterior composites, while only 38.3% had training in sectional matrix placement. Undergraduate training did not influence (p=0.00) the dentists’ decision to remove old amalgam based on patient’s demands. Only 28.1% were of the opinion of discontinuing the use of amalgam due to its alleged health and environmental hazards. There was no general agreement on the type of composite, liner, and bonding strategy when placing posterior composites. Conclusion Dentists are not well informed on the Minamata Convention and the phase down of amalgam. Training in posterior composite placement should be given more room in undergraduate curriculum and continuous dental education. PMID:27874155

  16. Phase behavior of hard particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijneveldt, J.S. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1995-01-01

    The phase behavior of hard particles and mixtures thereof is reviewed. Special attention is given to a lattice model consisting of hard hexagons and points on a triangular lattice. This model appears to have two disordered phases and an ordered phase.

  17. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  18. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  19. Optimum annular focusing by a phase plate

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional light focusing, i. e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into an annular field with topological charge of arbitrary integer order q. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the focal field with the maximum possible peak intensity. In particular, we discuss and implement experimentally the optimum annular focusing of a Gaussian beam. The attributes of optimum annular focal fields, namely the high peak intensity, intensity gradient and narrow annular section, are advantageous for different applications of such structured fields.

  20. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  1. Geometric phase and Pancharatnam phase induced by light wave polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Lages, J; Vigoureux, J -M

    2013-01-01

    We use the quantum kinematic approach to revisit geometric phases associated with polarizing processes of a monochromatic light wave. We give the expressions of geometric phases for any, unitary or non-unitary, cyclic or non-cyclic transformations of the light wave state. Contrarily to the usually considered case of absorbing polarizers, we found that a light wave passing through a polarizer may acquire in general a non zero geometric phase. This geometric phase exists despite the fact that initial and final polarization states are in phase according to the Pancharatnam criterion and can not be measured using interferometric superposition. Consequently, there is a difference between the Pancharatnam phase and the complete geometric phase acquired by a light wave passing through a polarizer. We illustrate our work with the particular example of total reflection based polarizers.

  2. A modified phase-coding method for absolute phase retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Fringe projection technique is one of the most robust tools for three dimensional (3D) shape measurement. Various fringe projection methods have been proposed for addressing different issues in profilometry and phase-coding is one such technique employed to determine fringe orders for absolute phase retrieval. However this method is prone to fringe order error, while dealing with high-frequency fringes. This paper studies phase error introduced by system non-linearity in phase-coding and provides a mathematical model to obtain the maximum number of achievable codewords in a given scheme. In addition, a modified phase-coding method is also proposed for phase error compensation. Experimental study validates the theoretical analysis on the maximum number of achievable codewords and the performance of the modified phase-coding method is also illustrated.

  3. Hydrodynamic characterization in areas under influence in the petroleum industry; Caracterizacao hidrodinamica em areas sob influencia na industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniel Alexsander Silva dos; Silva, Andre Giskard Aquino da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: danielsandersilva@hotmail.com; Vital, Helenice [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silveira, Iracema Miranda da [Museu Camara Cascudo, Natal, RN (Brazil); Chaves, Marcelo dos Santos; Lima, Zuleide Maria Carvalho [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica

    2003-07-01

    For elaboration of contingency plans it is necessary to execute the mapping of sensitive areas to oil spill, as well as to create suitable forecast models for oil pollution movements. These models should start from a consistent database, so that it can encompass the several phases of the environmental monitoring. In both cases hydrodynamic data are essential. The analysis of hydrodynamic parameters is also an important phase for the knowledge of the Holocene evolution of the study area, as well as for execution of a suitable development policy to be applied on the area. The activities developed in this research involve collection of data 'in situ' at the Galinhos-Guamare and Diogo Lopes lagoons, as well as data manipulation referring to the littoral drift collected monthly along the North coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte by members of the Grupo de Geologia e Geofisica Marinha e Melhoramento Ambiental (GGEMMA) from UFRN.

  4. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  5. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  6. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  7. FOUR NOTCH ROADLESS AREA, TEXAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B.B.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Four Notch Roadless Area, Texas, was conducted. The area has a probable resource potential for oil and gas. There is, however, little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources or other energy resources. Acquisition of seismic data and detailed comparisons with logs from wells from the vicinity of the Four Notch Roadless Area is necessary to better determine if the subsurface stratigraphy and structures are favorable for the accumulation of oil or gas.

  8. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  9. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  10. Calculation Research of Fitting Area for L-Absorption Edge Densimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; You; ZHENG; Wei-ming; LIU; Gui-jiao

    2012-01-01

    <正>After the phases of principle prototype, research prototype, utility equipment, the development of L-absorption edge densimeter has basically been completed. The fitting areas have important influence on the measurement precision.

  11. Áreas prioritárias na Amazônia para conservação dos recursos genéticos de espécies florestais nativas: fase preliminar Priority areas for genetic resources conservation of native Forest Species: preliminary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Conte Leite

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O CENARGEN/EMBRAPA está realizando a prospecção das áreas prioritárias para a conservação in situ dos recursos genéticos de espécies com importância sócio-econômica para cada bioma existente no Brasil, buscando a conservação da variabilidade genética das mesmas. Para a prospecção da floresta tropical úmida amazônica, inicialmente foram feitos levantamentos de herbários nacionais bem como de literatura, para tentar definir os padrões de distribuição geográfica de algumas espécies prioritárias da região. A ocorrência das mesmas foi correlacionada com solos, clima, vegetação e com a existência de unidades de conservação na Amazônia, no intuito de se propor as áreas mais adequadas para a implantação de reservas genéticas (conservação in situ e de bancos de germoplasma (conservação ex situ à campo. As espécies relatadas no presente trabalho são Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (pau-rosa, Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. (castanha-do-Pará, Carapa quianensis Aubl. (andiroba, Cedrela fissilis Veil, e C. odorata L. (cedros, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e C. multijuga Hayne (copaibas, Cordia goeldiana Huber (freijó, Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Dom (pará-pará, Simaruba amara Aubl. e Virola sebifera Aubl. e V. surinamensis Warb. (ucuúbas e Voucapoua americana Aubl. e V. pallidor Ducke (acapús. Trabalhos posteriores com as mesmas incluirão a corroboração à campo dos dados obtidos nos herbários e na literatura, bem como estudos a nível de população dentro das áreas selecionadas.CENARGEN/EMBRAPA is investigating priority areas for in situ conservation of genetic resources of socially and economically important species. Herbaria and the literature were consulted to determine the distribution patterns of some tropical rain forest species. Known species distribution were correlated with soils, climate, vegetation types and the existence of conservation units, in order to propose the establishment of genetic reserves for

  12. Molecular Modeling of Solid Fluid Phase Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Monson

    2007-12-20

    This report gives a summary of the achievements under DOE contract No. DOE/ER/14150 during the period September 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007. This project was concerned with the molecular modeling of solid-fluid equilibrium. The focus was on understanding how solid-fluid and solid-solid phase behavior are related to molecular structure, and the research program made a seminal contribution in this area. The project led to 34 journal articles, including a comprehensive review article published in Advances in Chemical Physics. The DOE funding supported the work of 5 Ph.D. students, 2 M.S. students and 5 postdoctoral researchers.

  13. Phase qubits fabricated with trilayer junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M; Bialczak, R C; Lenander, M; Lucero, E; Mariantoni, Matteo; Neeley, M; O' Connell, A D; Sank, D; Wang, H; Wenner, J; Yamamoto, T; Yin, Y; Cleland, A N; Martinis, J, E-mail: martin.weides@nist.gov, E-mail: martinis@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We have developed a novel Josephson junction geometry with minimal volume of lossy isolation dielectric, suitable for higher quality trilayer junctions implemented in qubits. The junctions are based on in situ deposited trilayers with thermal tunnel oxide, have micron-sized areas and a low subgap current. In qubit spectroscopy only a few avoided level crossings are observed, and the measured relaxation time of T{sub 1{approx}}400 ns is in good agreement with the usual phase qubit decay time, indicating low loss due to the additional isolation dielectric.

  14. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  15. Dirac phase leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Steve

    2007-01-01

    I present here a concise summary of the preprint arXiv:0707.3024, written in collaboration with A. Anisimov and P. Di Bari. There we discuss leptogenesis when {\\em CP} violation stems exlusively from the Dirac phase in the PMNS mixing matrix. Under this assumption it turns out that the situation is very constrained when a hierarchical heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum is considered: the allowed regions are small and the final asymmetry depends on the initial conditions. On the other hand, for a quasi-degenerate spectrum of RH neutrinos, the {\\em CP} asymmetry can be enhanced and the situation becomes much more favorable, with no dependence on the initial conditions. Interestingly, in the extreme case of resonant leptogenesis, in order to match the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, we obtain a lower bound on \\sin \\q_{13} which depends on the lightest active neutrino mass m_1.

  16. Phase vocoder and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Liuni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For a broad range of sound transformations, quality is measured according to the common expectation about the result: if a male’s voice has to be changed in a female’s one, there exists a common reference for the perceptive evaluation of the result; the same holds if an instrumental sound has to be made longer, or shorter. Following the argument in Röbel, “Between Physics and Perception: Signal Models for High Level Audio Processing”, a fundamental requirement for these transformation algorithms is their need of signal models that are strongly linked to perceptually relevant physical properties of the sound source. This paper is a short survey about the phase vocoder technique, together with its extensions and improvements relying on appropriate sound models, which have led to high level audio processing algorithms.

  17. Coherent imaging without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...

  18. Algorithmic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Metastable phases, phase transformations, and phase diagrams in physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V.

    2006-07-01

    Concepts of a 'phase' and a 'phase transition' are discussed for stable and metastable states of matter. While condensed matter physics primarily considers equilibrium states and treats metastable phases as exceptions, organic chemistry overwhelmingly deals with metastable states. It is emphasized that many simple light-element compounds — including most hydrocarbons; nitrogen oxides, hydrides, and carbides; carbon monoxide CO; alcohols and glycerin — are also metastable at normal pressure in the sense that they do not correspond to a minimum Gibbs free energy for a given chemical composition. At moderate temperatures and pressures, the phase transformations for these metastable phases are reversible with the fulfilment of all laws of equilibrium thermodynamics over the entire range of experimentally accessible times. At sufficiently high pressures (> 1-10 GPa), most of the metastable molecular phases irreversibly transform to lower-energy polymer phases, stable or metastable. These transitions do not correspond to the equality of the Gibbs free energy for the involved phases before and after the transition and so they are not first-order in the 'classical' sense. At normal pressure, the resulting polymer phases can exist at temperatures above the melting point of the original metastable molecular phase, as the examples of polyethylene and polymerized CO dramatically illustrate. As pressure is increased further to 20-50 GPa, the PV contribution to Gibbs free energy gives rise to stable high-density atomic phases. Many of the intermediate-energy polymer phases can likely be synthesized by methods of 'classical' chemistry at normal pressure.

  20. VFT PHASE VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT IN THREE-PHASE ENCLOSED GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建华; 岳子丁; 李洋

    2002-01-01

    The measuring of VFT phase voltage in three-phase enclosed GIS is more complex and difficult than in single-phase ones. There are 3 capacitive sensors in the measuring system, the outputs of which are with a linear relation to the three phase voltages. This linear relation is presented with a factorial matrix. Because each capacitive sensor is coupled with the electric field of three phases (A, B, and C), the electric coupling coefficients are introduced. In order to determine the matrix of electric coupling coefficients, the numerical calculation method can be used. From the discussion on two types of three-phase enclosed GIS bus, i.e. standard arrangement and biased arrangement, the dominant electric coupling coefficients are named, which can be simply and approximately calculated by an analytic expression. Finally, as an example, the waveforms of VFT phase voltage generated on a three-phase enclosed GIS bus model are displayed. When a capacitive sensor is located at the 'shortest point' of phase A (or B, or C), the VFT phase voltage VA (or VB, or VC) can almost be measured by that capacitive sensor alone.

  1. Phase aberration effects in elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, T; Bilgen, M; Ophir, J

    2001-06-01

    In sonography, phase aberration plays a role in the corruption of sonograms. Phase aberration does not have a significant impact on elastography, if statistically similar phase errors are present in both the pre- and postcompression signals. However, if the phase errors are present in only one of the pre- or postcompression signal pairs, the precision of the strain estimation process will be reduced. In some cases, increased phase errors may occur only in the postcompression signal due to changes in the tissue structure with the applied compression. Phase-aberration effects increase with applied strain and may be viewed as an image quality derating factor, much like frequency-dependent attenuation or undesired lateral tissue motion. In this paper, we present a theoretical and simulation study of the effects of phase aberration on the elastographic strain-estimation process, using the strain filter approach.

  2. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Mercedes E; Duvert, Gilles; Duchene, Gaspard; Thiebaut, Eric; Young, John; Absil, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Phillipe; Beckert, Thomas; Hoenig, Sebastian; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Testi, Leonardo; Tatuli, Eric; Borkowski, Virginie; de Becker, Michael; Surdej, Jean; Aringer, Bernard; Hron, Joseph; Lebzelter, Thomas; Chiavassa, Andrea; Corradi, Romano; Harries, Tim

    2008-01-01

    One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce images. Such techniques allow only to achieve modest dynamic ranges. However, with high contrast objects, for faint targets or when structure detail is needed, phase referencing techniques as used in radio interferometry, should theoretically achieve higher dynamic ranges for the same number of telescopes. Our approach is not to provide evidence either for or against the hypothesis that phase referenced imaging gives better dynamic range than closure phase imaging. Instead we wish to explore the potential of this techniq...

  3. Maxwell's equal area law for black holes with a nonlinear source

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huai-Fan; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhao, Ren

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the phase transition of black hole in power Maxwell invariant by means of Maxwell's equal area law. First, we review and study the analogy of nonlinear charged black hole solutions with the Van der Waals gas-liquid system in the extended phase space, and obtain isothermal $P$-$v$ diagram. Then, using the Maxwell's equal area law we study the phase transition of AdS black hole with different temperatures. Finally, we extend the method to the black hole in the canonical (grand canonical) ensemble in which charge (potential) is fixed at infinity. Interestingly, we find the phase transition occurs in the both ensembles. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems.

  4. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, Robert W.; North, Duane M.; Biver, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas c...

  5. Animal Telemetry Network Data Assembly Center: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    been successfully achieved. OBJECTIVES There are several key areas of focus the next phase of ATN DAC development. These include: 1...per month to map some aspect of the TOPP data set in relationship to power usage, marine protected areas , human usage, or other activities. Having the...reef shark Block 2013 7 7 Juvenile white shark Jorgensen 2004-2011 32 32 manta ray Block 2004-2014 15 15 oceanic whitetip shark Block 2004, 2006 6

  6. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  7. Equivalent-circuit modeling of a MEMS phase detector for phase-locked loop applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juzheng; Liao, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an equivalent-circuit model of a MEMS phase detector and deals with its application in phase-locked loops (PLLs). Due to the dc voltage output of the MEMS phase detector, the low-pass filter which is essential in a conventional PLL can be omitted. Thus, the layout area can be miniaturized and the consumed power can be saved. The signal transmission inside the phase detector is realized in circuit model by waveguide modules while the electric-thermal-electric conversion is illustrated in circuit term based on analogies between thermal and electrical variables. Losses are taken into consideration in the modeling. Measurement verifications for the phase detector model are conducted at different input powers 11, 14 and 17 dBm at 10 GHz. The maximum discrepancies between the simulated and measured results are 0.14, 0.42 and 1.13 mV, respectively. A new structure of PLL is constructed by connecting the presented model directly to a VCO module in the simulation platform. It allows to model the transient behaviors of the PLL at both locked and out of lock conditions. The VCO output frequency is revealed to be synchronized with the reference frequency within the hold range. All the modeling and simulation are performed in Advanced Design System (ADS) software.

  8. Equal Area Laws and Latent Heat for d-Dimensional RN-AdS Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equal area laws of d-dimensional RN-AdS black hole. We choose two kinds of phase diagrams, P-V and T-S. We employ the equal area laws to find an isobar which is the real two-phase coexistence line. Our calculation is much simpler to derive the critical value of the thermodynamic quantities. According to the thermodynamic quantities, we also study the latent heat of the black hole.

  9. Traffic management system: Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    This report, conducted by Louis Berger International, Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. This report identifies the primary and secondary air traffic networks inside and outside Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area where particular safety and traffic problems exist. The Consortium Louis Berger International, Inc.-IBI Group-UBATEC provides recommendations divided into two groups: one based on engineering aspects for each identified deficiency in the selected routes; and a second group that is based on the results of the evaluation of needs. This is Volume 3, Phase 2 Final Report, and it consists of the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Existing Conditions and Deficiencies; (3) Recommendations; and (4) Appendix: Definition of the Primary Network of the Metropolitan Area.

  10. Diaper Area Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic signs of infectious diseases may occur as primary infection of skin, accompanying of skin to systemic infections and noninfectious skin eruption of systemic infectious disease. In this review, skin infections of diaper area and diaper area manifestations of infections causing generalized skin lesions will be discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 31-9

  11. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  14. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  15. Nonlinear Phase Control and Anomalous Phase Matching in Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute a particularly attractive set of materials. By means of modern nanolithographic fabrication techniques, flat, ultrathin optical elements may be constructed. However, in spite of their strong optical nonlinearities, plasmonic metasurfaces have so far been investigated mostly in the linear regime. Here we introduce full nonlinear phase control over plasmonic elements in metasurfaces. We show that for nonlinear interactions in a phase-gradient nonlinear metasurface a new anomalous nonlinear phase matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analog of the generalized Snell law demonstrated for linear metasurfaces. This phase matching condition is very different from the other known phase matching schemes. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities provides a foundation for the design of flat nonlinear optical elements based on metasurfaces. Our demonstrated flat nonlinear elements (i.e. lenses) act...

  16. Stability of rain forest margin areas in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia (Storma)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keßler, P.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The German Research Council (DFG) supports an extensive interdisciplinary research programme to be implemented in the area of the Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. The first phase of the programme is scheduled for 3 years (July 2000-June 2003). Up to four successive phases of 3 years’ dura

  17. Laterally periodic resonator for large-area gain lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2003-03-24

    Laterally periodic resonators, which can be constructed by use of transversely periodic phase- or amplitude-modulating elements in a cavity, are proposed for stabilization and generation of transversely coherent output from large-area gain. Lasers with periodic resonators have the combined features of conventional cavities and laser arrays. Significant low-order transverse modes and mode discrimination of a sample resonator with intracavity periodic phase elements are investigated numerically by the iteration method. Wave-propagation calculations are carried out by use of a fast Fourier transform, and a modified Prony method is used to evaluate wave functions and losses of transverse modes. Results of numerical calculations are consistent with expectations.

  18. ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DATA WAREHOUSE STAGING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Wessimy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance can turn a successful data warehousing project into a failure. Consequently, several attempts have been made by various researchers to deal with the problem of scheduling the ExtractTransform-Load (ETL process. In this paper we therefore present several approaches in the context of enhancing the data warehousing Extract, Transform and loading stages. We focus on enhancing the performance of extract and transform phases by proposing two algorithms that reduce the time needed in each phase through employing the hidden semantic information in the data. Using the semantic information, a large volume of useless data can be pruned in early design stage. We also focus on the problem of scheduling the execution of the ETL activities, with the goal of minimizing ETL execution time. We explore and invest in this area by choosing three scheduling techniques for ETL. Finally, we experimentally show their behavior in terms of execution time in the sales domain to understand the impact of implementing any of them and choosing the one leading to maximum performance enhancement.

  19. Enhancement Techniques for Data Warehouse Staging Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Wessimy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance can turn a successful data warehousing project into a failure. Consequently, severalattempts have been made by various researchers to deal with the problem of scheduling the Extract-Transform-Load (ETL process. In this paper we therefore present several approaches in the context of enhancing the data warehousing Extract, Transform and loading stages. We focus on enhancing theperformance of extract and transform phases by proposing two algorithms that reduce the time needed in each phase through employing the hidden semantic information in the data. Using the semantic information, a large volume of useless data can bepruned in early design stage. We also focus on theproblem of scheduling the execution of the ETL activities, with the goal of minimizing ETL execution time.We explore and invest in this area by choosing three scheduling techniques for ETL. Finally, weexperimentally show their behavior in terms of execution time in the sales domain to understand the impact of implementing any of them and choosing the one leading to maximum performance enhancement.

  20. Ambiguity resolution in SAR interferometry by use of three phase centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.; Wahl, D.E.; Thompson, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    In a typical interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) system employed for terrain elevation mapping, terrain height is estimated from phase difference data obtained from two phase centers separated spatially in the cross-track direction. In this paper we show how the judicious design of a three phase center IFSAR renders phase unwrapping, i.e., the process of estimating true continuous phases from principal values of phase (wrapped modulo 2{pi}), a much simpler process than that inherent in traditional algorithms. With three phase centers, one IFSAR baseline can be chosen to be relatively small (two of the phase centers close together) so that all of the scene`s terrain relief causes less than one cycle of phase difference. This allows computation of a coarse height map without use of any form of phase unwrapping. The cycle number ambiguities in the phase data derived from the other baseline, chosen to be relatively large (two of the phase centers far apart), can then be resolved by reference to the heights computed from the small baseline data. This basic concept of combining phase data from one small and one large baseline to accomplish phase unwrapping has been previously employed in other interferometric problems, e.g., laser interferometry and direction-of-arrival determination from multiple element arrays, The new algorithm is shown to possess a certain form of immunity to corrupted interferometric phase data that is not inherent in traditional two-dimensional path-following phase unwrappers. This is because path-following algorithms must estimate, either implicity or explicity, those portions of the IFSAR fringe data where discontinuities in phase occur. Such discontinuties typically arise from noisy phase measurements derived from low radar return areas of the SAR imagery, e.g., shadows, or from areas of steep terrain slope.

  1. About Phase: Synthetic Aperture Radar and the Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    apply certain ideas from phase retrieval to resolve phase errors in SAR . Specifically, we use bistatic techniques to measure relative phases, and then we...imaging a scene of interest (left) using bistatic SAR techniques at three different times. As in Example 5.5, at the first time instant the aircraft are...Synthetic aperture radar ( SAR ) uses relative motion to produce fine resolution images from microwave frequencies and is a useful tool for regular

  2. Quantum Phase Transitions and Dimerized Phases in Frustrated Spin Ladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Rui; LIU Guang-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phase diagram of a frustrated spin ladder model by applying the bosonization technique and the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm. Effect of the intra-chain next-nearestneighbor (NNN) super-exchange interaction is investigated in detail and the order parameters are calculated to detect the emergence of the dimerized phases. We find that the intra-chain NNN interaction plays a key role in inducing dimerized phases.

  3. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  4. Palaeozoic tectonic and sedimentary evolution and hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Bornholm area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejbaek, O.V.; Stouge, S.; Damtoft Poulsen, K.

    1994-12-31

    The present distribution of Palaeozoic sediments in the Bornholm area is a consequence of several different tectonic regimes during the Phanerozoic eon. The three main evolutionary phases are: A Caledonian to Variscian phase (with 3 sub-phases) encompassing the Lower Palaeozoic sediments. The sediments are assumed originally to have showed a gradual thickness increase towards the Caledonian Deformation Front located to the south. A syn-rift phase characterized by sedimentation in graben areas and expanding basins commencing in the Rotliegendes and continuing through the Triassic, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous. This phase was probably initiated by a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian tensional dominated right-lateral wrench fault system within the Sorgenfrei-Tornquest zone. A Post-rift development phase dominated by Late Cretaceous carbonate sedimentation. During Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary times the Bornholm area was strongly affected by inversion tectonism caused by compressional strike-slip movements. This resulted in reverse faulting and uplift and erosion of former basinal areas. The hydrocarbon potential of the area is based on the maturation of organic matter in the Ordovician Upper Alum Shale. Maturity was mainly achieved during the Silurian to Late Palaeozoic time. The Upper Alum Shale is expected to be overmature in the main part of the study area and mature in the Hanoe Bay Basin. This reflects the assumed primary uniform thickness of the Lower Palaeozoic, with a general thinning towards the northeast. (AB) (4 maps, 81 refs.)

  5. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  6. INTERFACIAL AREA TRANSPORT AND REGIME TRANSITION IN COMBINATORIAL CHANNELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seugjin Kim

    2011-01-28

    . This study investigates the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows and flow configurations in two-phase flow. The study shows that the elbows make a significant effect on the transport characteristics of two-phase flow, which includes the changes in interfacial structures, bubble interaction mechanisms and flow regime transition. The effect of the elbows is characterized for global and local two-phase flow parameters. The global two-phase flow parameters include two-phase pressure, interfacial structures and flow regime transition. In order to characterize the frictional pressure drop and minor loss across the vertical elbows, pressure measurements are obtained across the test section over a wide range of flow conditions in both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. A two-phase pressure drop correlation analogous to Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is proposed to predict the minor loss across the elbows. A high speed camera is employed to perform extensive flow visualization studies across the elbows in vertical upward, horizontal and vertical downward sections and modified flow regime maps are proposed. It is found that modified flow regime maps immediately downstream of the vertical upward elbow deviate significantly from the conventional flow regime map. A qualitative assessment of the counter-current flow limitation characteristics specific to the current experimental facility is performed. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters such as: void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency. The local measurements are obtained for six different flow conditions at ten measurement locations along axial direction of the test section. Both the vertical-upward and vertical-downward elbows have a significant impact on bubble distribution, resulting in, a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the tube cross-section and migration of bubbles towards the inside of the

  7. Laser-diagnostic and plasma-technological fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption of DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: 2D light scattering and fluorescence techniques for analysis of charge stratification and combustion characteristics of DI internal combustion engines. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: 2D-Streulicht- und Fluoreszenztechniken zur Analyse von Ladungsschichtung und Durchbrennverhalten bei der Benzindirekteinspritzung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipertz, A.; Egermann, J.; Ipp, W.; Wagner, V.

    2001-03-01

    The application of direct injection combustion concepts, which are based on inhomogeneous charge distribution, depend on the technical controllability of the charge over an entire range of speed and load. Especially the mixture condition at the ignition is important for the efficiency and the pollutant formation of the subsequent combustion process. In the frame of this research work laser based measurement techniques should be used and improved to investigate the interacting chain of injection, mixture formation, stratification and inflammation. Beside the already established Mie-scattering technique for the imagination of the liquid fuel distribution, the laser induced fluorescence was able to visualize the fuel vapor phase inside the engine. With this technique it was possible to show the interrelationship between worse engine running behavior and the qualitative fuel/air distribution (LIF-signal). In the frame of this project a two dimensional quantification of the relative air/fuel-ratio inside a fired transparent engine by LIF allows an improved judgement of the mixture formation process and a precise imagination of the stratification. The obtained information's are of importance to comprehend the combustion process and the causal connection of the pollutant formation. Only a few modifications had to be done at the experimental setup, compared to qualitative measurements. For a wide-spread acceptance of this concept the adoption of the model for using a multi-component fuel is required and will be one focal point of future research in this field of application. The Raman-technique became an important tool for the characterization of the mixture formation process during this project and has been used for a simultaneous verification of the LIF-results. This technique probably will be used only for research activities in the future because of its complex setup. (orig.) [German] Die Einsatzfaehigkeit direkteinspritzender ottomotorischer Brennverfahren, die

  8. Jet flow pattern and its effects on mass transfer area and gas phase pressure drop in a water-sparged aerocyclone%水力喷射空气旋流器中射流流型及其对传质面积和气相压降的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程治良; 全学军; 晏云鹏; 代黎

    2014-01-01

    Water-sparged aerocyclone (WSA) is high efficiency gas-liquid mass transfer equipment, which takes the advantage of coupling effect of gas cyclone and liquid jet fields. In order to investigate the mechanism of jet-cyclone system of WSA and improve its mass transfer performance, jet flow pattern and its transformation was investigated by direct observation. Effective gas-liquid interfacial area per unit volume (a) of the WSA was also determined by chemical reaction method with CO2-NaOH solution system. The results show that jet flow pattern is mainly affected by jet velocity and air inlet velocity. There exists five jet flow patterns in the WSA, i.e., steady state jet, deformed spiral jet, broken spiral jet, atomized spiral jet and total atomized spiral jet at jet velocity less than 4.42 m·s-1. At the jet velocity higher than 6.19 m·s-1 there exists only three jet flow patterns, i.e. deformed spiral jet, broken spiral jet and atomized spiral jet. The value of a is related to jet flow pattern, higher in atomized spiral jet than in other jets, and increases with liquid jet velocity because of the intense gas-liquid interaction in the WSA.%为了进一步提高水力喷射空气旋流器(WSA)的传质效率以及认识射旋流体系的气液传质机理,对 WSA中的射流流型进行了系统的观察研究,绘制出了不同进口气速下射流流型图。以CO2-NaOH化学吸收体系测定了相应射流流型下的有效比相界面积 a。结果表明,在低射流流速(≤4.42 m·s-1)下,液相射流随着进口气速增大,主要存在稳态射流、变形旋线射流、破碎旋线射流、雾化旋线射流、贴壁雾化旋线射流5种流型;在高射流流速(≥6.19 m·s-1)下,射流主要出现稳态射流、破碎旋线射流以及雾化旋线射流3种流型。a值与流型有关,雾化旋线射流下的a值大于其他流型下的对应值。低流速下的贴壁雾化,不利于气液两相充分接触,对应a值

  9. New CO{sub 2} neutral city area with integrated district heating system of the future in Hoeje Taastrup - Phase 1: Preparation of demonstration. Final report; Denmark; Ny CO{sub 2}-neutral bydel med fremtidens integrerede fjernvarmesystem i Hoeje Taastrup - Fase 1: Forberedelse af demonstration. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaarup Olsen, P.; Hummelshoej, R.M. (Cowi A/S (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    three options are interesting. The 'return heat the solution' has less CO{sub 2} displacement potential, but will require a minimal investment cost compared to a regular connection to the HTF/VEKS district heating network. With the assumptions used, the solution with heat-powered pumps and a central solar heating plant provides t a considerably lower CO{sub 2} displacement price than a solution with central ground and solar heating. It is therefore recommended to further analyse the solution with a heat driven heat pump. To make the energy supply of the district CO{sub 2} neutral in the short term, it will be necessary to install wind turbines with a total capacity of approx. 6 MW, which for that particular area at this time would be the most cost-effective solution, i.e. will have the lowest CO{sub 2} displacement price. (LN)

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations on shock wave induced phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.

    2001-06-01

    Shock wave loading of a material can cause variety of phase transitions, like polymorphism, amorphization, metallization and molecular dissociations. As the shocked state lasts only for a very short duration (about a few microseconds or less), in-situ microscopic measurements are very difficult. Although such studies are beginning to be possible, most of the shock-induced phase transitions are detected using macroscopic measurements. The microscopic nature of the transition is then inferred from comparison with static pressure data or interpreted by theoretical methods. For irreversible phase transitions, microscopic measurements on recovered samples, together with orientation relations determined from selected area electron diffraction and examination of the morphology of growth of the new phase can provide insight into mechanism of phase transitions. On theoretical side, the current ab initio band structure techniques based on density functional formalism provide capability for accurate computation of the small energy differences (a few mRy or smaller) between different plausible structures. Total energy calculation along the path of a phase transition can furnish estimates of activation barrier, which has implications for understanding kinetics of phase transitions. Molecular dynamics calculations, where the new structure evolves naturally, are becoming increasingly popular especially for understanding crystal to amorphous phase transitions. Illustrations from work at our laboratory will be presented.

  11. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  12. Visão de profissionais e estudantes da área de saúde sobre a interface saúde e meio ambiente View of health area professionals on the interface between health and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviamar Camponogara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a visão de profissionais e estudantes da área da saúde sobre a interface saúde e meio ambiente. Estudo de abordagem qualitativa, descritivo, desenvolvidos com diferentes atores sociais que integram o processo de formação profissional e laboral da área da saúde em um município do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com questões norteadoras sobre o objeto de estudo, feita com trabalhadores hospitalares, enfermeiros, docentes, acadêmicos da área da saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde. Cada subprojeto foi analisado individualmente, com base no referencial sobre análise de conteúdo. Os resultados evidenciam que os sujeitos possuem visões dicotômicas sobre meio ambiente e reconhecem os efeitos prejudiciais da atual crise ambiental, alegando que o ser humano é o principal causador. Os sujeitos do estudo entendem que há estreita interface entre saúde e meio ambiente, sendo as populações menos privilegiadas economicamente as mais afetadas pelos danos ambientais. Conclui-se que o aprofundamento do debate sobre o tema no processo de formação e prática profissional em saúde é fundamental no sentido de se buscar a efetiva responsabilidade socioambiental por parte dos atores sociais atuantes no setor.This article presents the view health area professionals and students have concerning the interface between health and the environment. It is a qualitative, descriptive study undertaken with different social players that are part of the vocational training process in the health care area in a municipality in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected through a semistructured interview comprising gui-ding questions on the study subject and carried out among hospital workers, nurses, health care professors and students, and community health agents. Each subproject was analyzed individually based on the content analysis framework. The results show that the

  13. Optimal Phase Oscillatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, Rosangela

    2013-03-01

    Important topics as preventive detection of epidemics, collective self-organization, information flow and systemic robustness in clusters are typical examples of processes that can be studied in the context of the theory of complex networks. It is an emerging theory in a field, which has recently attracted much interest, involving the synchronization of dynamical systems associated to nodes, or vertices, of the network. Studies have shown that synchronization in oscillatory networks depends not only on the individual dynamics of each element, but also on the combination of the topology of the connections as well as on the properties of the interactions of these elements. Moreover, the response of the network to small damages, caused at strategic points, can enhance the global performance of the whole network. In this presentation we explore an optimal phase oscillatory network altered by an additional term in the coupling function. The application to associative-memory network shows improvement on the correct information retrieval as well as increase of the storage capacity. The inclusion of some small deviations on the nodes, when solutions are attracted to a false state, results in additional enhancement of the performance of the associative-memory network. Supported by FAPESP - Sao Paulo Research Foundation, grant number 2012/12555-4

  14. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  15. On the quantum phase problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-MartInez, J M; Moya-Cessa, H [INAOE, Coordinacion de Optica, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-03-01

    Based on the phase operator introduced by Turski we present a formalism for phase that passes Barnett-Pegg's acid test giving the correct phase variance for a number state. We show that this formalism is in fact the radially integrated Q-function formalism that is used to obtain phase properties. It is also shown that depending on the commutation relation used for phase and number, the phase fluctuations for a coherent state obtained from the integrated Q-function tend to the 1/2{rho}{sup 2} limit while for the Pegg-Barnett formalism they tend to 1/(4{rho}{sup 2}+3/{pi}{sup 2}) just like the fluctuations from the integrated Wigner function, where {rho} is the amplitude of the coherent state00.

  16. Learning phase transitions by confusion

    CERN Document Server

    van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Huber, Sebastian D

    2016-01-01

    Classifying phases of matter is a central problem in physics. For quantum mechanical systems, this task can be daunting owing to the exponentially large Hilbert space. Thanks to the available computing power and access to ever larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine learning techniques. Here, we propose to use a neural network based approach to find phase transitions depending on the performance of the neural network after training it with deliberately incorrectly labelled data. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to a generic tool to identify unexplored phase transitions.

  17. The arresting phase determines the total healing time of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ping

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Radiation is an important cause of delayed wound healing, and there still exist many questions regarding the patterns and mechanisms of wound healing. This study investigated the characteristics of wound healing after varying doses of local radiation and explored possible causes of the delay in healing caused by radiation. Methods: A full-thickness dorsal longitudinal skin tissue, 2 cm in diameter, was excised after local irradiation on one side of the back of swine, and the other side was wounded as a control. The size of the wound area was re-corded every two days after injury. Pathological changes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, immunohisto-chemistry and apoptosis levels (TUNEL assay were mea-sured at different time points after wounding. Results: The course of wound healing can be divided into four phases, namely: the arresting phase, the healing priming phase, the fast healing phase, and the healed phase. Although the total wound healing time was closely corre-lated to the dose of irradiation (R 2 = 0.9758, it was more dependent on the length of the arresting phase (R 2 =0.9903 because once the arresting phase ended, the wound healed at a similar speed regardless of radiation doses. Pathologi-cal analysis showed that compared with the control side there were more necrotic tissues, slower epithelial crawling, as well as fewer blood vessels and cellular components in the irradiated side at the arresting phase, while other phases revealed no significant difference concerning these measurements. Immunohistochemistry showed that the ir-radiated wounds had significantly less PCNA-positive and more TUNEL-positive labeling of cells in the arresting phase than in other phases. Moreover, the changes were posi-tively related to the radiation doses, but there was no obvi-ous difference in cell proliferation or apoptosis among the healing priming phase, fast healing phase or healed phase, whether on the control side

  18. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  19. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  20. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  1. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Gary A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-09

    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  2. Branch Point Mitigation of Thermal Blooming Phase Compensation Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    areas of the aberrated wavefronts where there are sharp discontinuities in the phase. Such is the case when branch points and branch cuts are in the...1965. [72] Michael C. Roggemann and Byron M. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 1996. [73] David A. Nahrstedt

  3. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of isotr

  4. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  5. Phase structures in fuzzy geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R; Gupta, K S; Martin, X

    2012-01-01

    We study phase structures of quantum field theories in fuzzy geometries. Several examples of fuzzy geometries as well as QFT's on such geometries are considered. They are fuzzy spheres and beyond as well as noncommutative deformations of BTZ blackholes. Analysis is done analytically and through simulations. Several features like novel stripe phases as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking avoiding Colemen, Mermin, Wagner theorem are brought out. Also we establish that these phases are stable due to topological obstructions.

  6. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system......¬eling in configuration projects. Each of the five phases is sup¬ported by a set of tools. The main idea of the pro¬cedure is utili¬zation of a so-called Product Family Master Plan, which is a formal description of the product assortment and its variation. The procedure has been tested at one of Baan's cus¬tomers...

  7. Magnetic resonance of phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also

  8. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phases of Clinical Trials Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Targeted Therapy Hormone Therapy Stem Cell Transplant Precision ...

  9. Phase transitions in operational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.

  10. Phase retrieval with prior information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, R; Lane, R G

    1998-09-01

    An algorithm for phase retrieval with Bayesian statistics is discussed. It is shown how the statistics of Kolmogorov turbulence can be used to compute the likelihood for a particular phase screen. This likelihood is then added to that of the observed data to produce a functional that is maximized directly by use of conjugate gradient maximization. It is shown that although this can significantly improve the quality of the phase estimate,the issue is complicated by local maxima introduced by the possibility of phase wrapping. The causes of the local maxima are analyzed, and a method that increases the likelihood of convergence to the global maximum is presented.

  11. Suisun Marsh Primary Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Suisun Marsh or the 'Marsh' means tidal marsh, water-covered areas, diked-off wetlands, seasonal marshes, lowland grasslands, upland grasslands, and cultivated...

  12. Microarthropods inventory in Cranendonck area

    OpenAIRE

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Dimmers, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    April 2006, microarthropod fauna inventory on former agricultural grasslands on sandy soil in Cranendonck area (and two reference sites) using a split-tube sampler. Subject of interest is organic matter

  13. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  14. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  15. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-08

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  16. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  17. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  18. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  19. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  20. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...