WorldWideScience

Sample records for area subproject phase

  1. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  2. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  3. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  4. Underground Test Area Subproject Project Management Plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-03

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the manner in which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) will manage the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides the basic guidance for implementation and the organizational structure for meeting the UGTA objectives.

  5. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  6. External Peer Review Team Report Underground Testing Area Subproject for Frenchman Flat, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Marutzky

    2010-09-01

    for uncertainty in models of flow and transport in the Frenchman Flat except for a few deficiencies described in the report. Finally, the peer review team concludes that the UGTA subproject has explored a wide range of variations in assumptions, methods, and data, and should proceed to the next stage with an emphasis on monitoring studies. The corrective action strategy, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, states that the groundwater flow and transport models for each corrective action unit will consider, at a minimum, the following: • Alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models of the modeling domain. • Uncertainty in the radiological and hydrological source terms. • Alternative models of recharge. • Alternative boundary conditions and groundwater flows. • Multiple permissive sets of calibrated flow models. • Probabilistic simulations of transport using plausible sets of alternative framework and recharge models, and boundary and groundwater flows from calibrated flow models. • Ensembles of forecasts of contaminant boundaries. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of model outputs. The peer review team finds that these minimum requirements have been met. While the groundwater modeling and uncertainty analyses have been quite detailed, the peer review team has identified several modeling-related issues that should be addressed in the next phase of the corrective action activities: • Evaluating and using water-level gradients from the pilot wells at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in model calibration. • Re-evaluating the use of geochemical age-dating data to constrain model calibrations. • Developing water budgets for the alluvial and upper volcanic aquifer systems in Frenchman Flat. • Considering modeling approaches in which calculated groundwater flow directions near the water table are not predetermined by model boundary conditions and areas of recharge, all of which are very uncertain.

  7. External Peer Review Team Report Underground Testing Area Subproject for Frenchman Flat, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    models of flow and transport in the Frenchman Flat except for a few deficiencies described in the report. Finally, the peer review team concludes that the UGTA subproject has explored a wide range of variations in assumptions, methods, and data, and should proceed to the next stage with an emphasis on monitoring studies. The corrective action strategy, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, states that the groundwater flow and transport models for each corrective action unit will consider, at a minimum, the following: (1) Alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models of the modeling domain. (2) Uncertainty in the radiological and hydrological source terms. (3) Alternative models of recharge. (4) Alternative boundary conditions and groundwater flows. (5) Multiple permissive sets of calibrated flow models. (6) Probabilistic simulations of transport using plausible sets of alternative framework and recharge models, and boundary and groundwater flows from calibrated flow models. (7) Ensembles of forecasts of contaminant boundaries. (8) Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of model outputs. The peer review team finds that these minimum requirements have been met. While the groundwater modeling and uncertainty analyses have been quite detailed, the peer review team has identified several modeling-related issues that should be addressed in the next phase of the corrective action activities: (1) Evaluating and using water-level gradients from the pilot wells at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in model calibration. (2) Re-evaluating the use of geochemical age-dating data to constrain model calibrations. (3) Developing water budgets for the alluvial and upper volcanic aquifer systems in Frenchman Flat. (4) Considering modeling approaches in which calculated groundwater flow directions near the water table are not predetermined by model boundary conditions and areas of recharge, all of which are very uncertain. (5) Evaluating local

  8. External Peer Review Team Report Underground Testing Area Subproject for Frenchman Flat, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Marutzky

    2010-09-01

    for uncertainty in models of flow and transport in the Frenchman Flat except for a few deficiencies described in the report. Finally, the peer review team concludes that the UGTA subproject has explored a wide range of variations in assumptions, methods, and data, and should proceed to the next stage with an emphasis on monitoring studies. The corrective action strategy, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, states that the groundwater flow and transport models for each corrective action unit will consider, at a minimum, the following: • Alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models of the modeling domain. • Uncertainty in the radiological and hydrological source terms. • Alternative models of recharge. • Alternative boundary conditions and groundwater flows. • Multiple permissive sets of calibrated flow models. • Probabilistic simulations of transport using plausible sets of alternative framework and recharge models, and boundary and groundwater flows from calibrated flow models. • Ensembles of forecasts of contaminant boundaries. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of model outputs. The peer review team finds that these minimum requirements have been met. While the groundwater modeling and uncertainty analyses have been quite detailed, the peer review team has identified several modeling-related issues that should be addressed in the next phase of the corrective action activities: • Evaluating and using water-level gradients from the pilot wells at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in model calibration. • Re-evaluating the use of geochemical age-dating data to constrain model calibrations. • Developing water budgets for the alluvial and upper volcanic aquifer systems in Frenchman Flat. • Considering modeling approaches in which calculated groundwater flow directions near the water table are not predetermined by model boundary conditions and areas of recharge, all of which are very uncertain.

  9. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, Liquid effluent transfer systems, subproject W-506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for providing liquid effluent lines for routing waste from two Private Contractor (PC) facilities to existing storage, treatment, and disposal facilities in the 200-East Area

  10. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  11. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe

  12. A risk evaluation for the fuel retrieval sub-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, B.S.

    1996-10-11

    This study reviews the technical, schedule and budget baselines of the sub-project to assure all significant issues have been identified on the sub-project issues management list. The issue resolution dates are identified and resolution plans established. Those issues that could adversely impact procurement activities have been uniquely identified on the list and a risk assessment completed.

  13. Combining agile and waterfall methodologies in a single subproject Case: Property information service

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Tuovi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the study: Objective was to investigate if it is possible to combine agile practices with the waterfall model in a subproject of a large waterfall project and obtain better quality, i.e. less change requests in system testing phase. Academic background and methodology: Literature review of mixed methodologies, challenges of the agile projects and critical success factors of the different methodologies, a case study. Findings and conclusions: Using parts of an...

  14. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center, Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  15. Wooden Bridges - Phase 2, Subproject 2.3 Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    The report presents preliminary results on fatigue of wood subjected to tension perpendicular to the grain at a moisture content around 12% and 17%. The main result of the paper concerns the frequency dependency of the fatigue strength. At present it is concluded that fatigue in tension perpendic...... perpendicular to the grain can be time dependent as well as time independent depending on stress level and moisture content....

  16. SATURN. Studying Atmospheric Pollution in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moussiopoulos, N.; Hout, K. D. van den; Mestayer, P.;

    SATURN is a subproject under EUROTRAC-2. (EUROTRAC-2 is the EUREKA Project on the Transport and Chemical Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents in the Troposphere over Europe; Second Phase).......SATURN is a subproject under EUROTRAC-2. (EUROTRAC-2 is the EUREKA Project on the Transport and Chemical Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents in the Troposphere over Europe; Second Phase)....

  17. Utilizing Divers in Support of Spent Fuel Basin Closure Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of nuclear facilities in the world are aging and with this comes the fact that we have to either keep repairing them or decommission them. At the Department of Energy Idaho Site (DOEID) there are a number of facilities that are being decommissioned, but the facilities that pose the highest risk to the large aquifer that flows under the site are given highest priorities. Aging spent nuclear fuel pools at DOE-ID are among the facilities that pose the highest risk, therefore four pools were targeted for decommissioning in Fiscal Year 2004. To accomplish this task the Idaho Completion Project (ICP) of Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, put together an integrated Basin Closure Subproject team. The team was assigned a goal to look beyond traditional practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to find ways to get the basin closure work done safer and more efficiently. The Idaho Completion Project (ICP) was faced with a major challenge--cleaning and preparing aging spent nuclear fuel basins for closure by removing sludge and debris, as necessary, and removing water to eliminate a potential risk to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The project included cleaning and removing water from four basins. Two of the main challenges to a project like this is the risk of contamination from the basin walls and floors becoming airborne as the water is removed and keeping personnel exposures ALARA. ICP's baseline plan had workers standing at the edges of the basins and on rafts or bridge cranes and then using long-handled tools to manually scrub the walls of basin surfaces. This plan had significant risk of skin contamination events, workers falling into the water, or workers sustaining injuries from the awkward working position. Analysis of the safety and radiation dose risks presented by this approach drove the team to look for smarter ways to get the work done

  18. The Greenland analogue project, sub-project C 2008 field and data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site investigations for location of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel have been undertaken and/or are ongoing in Sweden and Finland. The repository will be designed so that radiotoxic material is kept separated from humankind and the environment for several hundred thousand of years. Within this time, frame glaciated period(s) are expected to occur and the effects of the glaciation cycles on a deep geological repository need to be evaluated during the siting process. In order to achieve a better understanding of the expected conditions during future glaciations in Northern Europe and Canada, a modern ice age analogue project (the Greenland Analogue Project, GAP), has been initiated. The Greenland ice sheet is considered an an analogue to future glaciations in Fennoskandia and Canada. The project consists of three discipline specific sub-projects (A, B and C). This document reports the data obtained, and the prelimininary interpretations made, in sub-project C from the bedrock mapping and hydrogeochemical sampling and monitoring in the Kangerlussuaq area (Soendre Stroeoemfjord), West Greenland in 2008. Gently sloping landscape in the Kangerlussuaq area is controlled by bedrock ridges with a prominent south-southwest to north-northeast trend. Ice marginal landforms such as moraine ridges and kame terraces are common as well as periglacial features such as patterned ground, hummocks, ice-wedges, erratics with honeycomb weathering and loss characteristics the soil surfaces. Shallow temperature profiles from soil drill holes (15 m) show that the mean annual ground temperatures (MAGT) close to the airport are around -2 deg C (van Tatenhoven and Olesen 1994). Based on these data, the permafrost is modelled to be 90-160 m thick. It is argued that the infrastructure (airport) may somewhat increase the temperatures, but the main uncertainty is due to the fact that the modelling didn't take into account the change in thermal properties when moving from soil

  19. Development and testing of large-area insulating and superconducting multilayer systems for H.F. applications. Sub-project: High-vacuum hollow cathode sputtering device for large-area high-Tc/insulator systems and their application in microelectronic devices and microwave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research is the deposition of large-area YBa2Cu3O7-x/insulator multilayer systems for microelectronic devices and microwave applications. The sputtering device with the linear hollow cathode and the substrate movement for the deposition of 3''-wafers are described. We've found out that our method is suitable for the deposition of such large area YBa2Cu3O7-x films. Due to in- or out-diffusion of oxygen within the target by using a great ratio of length to width of the linear hollow cathode, the discharge may take place not over the whole slot length. This results in a decreased homogenity of the large area deposition. For a carefully directed annealing procedure in order to decrease the oxygen content of the films from 7 to 6.4, we've done in-situ measurements of the resistivity. Persistent photoconductivity at films with an oxygen content nearby 6.4 was clearly observable. The excess conductivity yields an increase of the critical temperature of about 4K. The relaxation times, which are at room temperature in the order of hours can be reduced through heating. The contactless characterization of the films could be extended to the determination of the critical current density after calculating the magnetic field above the film. (orig.)

  20. Identify in a Canadian Urban Community. A Process Report of the Brunskill Subproject. Project Canada West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.; And Others

    The purpose of this subproject is to guide students to meet and interact with individuals from the many subcultures in a community (see ED 055 011). This progress report of the second year's activities includes information on the process of curriculum development, the materials developed, evaluation, roles of supporting agencies, behavioral…

  1. Final Scientific/Technical Report - DE-FG02-06ER64172 - Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center - Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    project indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. This research sought to examine biogeochemical processes likely to take place in the less conductive materials above and below the gravel during the in situ ethanol biostimulation experiment conducted at Area 2 during 2005-2006. The in situ experiment in turn examined the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this layer would induce formation of a redox barrier in the less conductive materials, resulting in decreased mass transfer of uranium out these materials and attendant declines in groundwater U(VI) concentration. Our research was directed toward the following three major objectives relevant to formation of this redox barrier: (1) elucidate the kinetics and mechanisms of reduction of solid-phase Fe(III) and U(VI) in Area 2 sediments; (2) evaluate the potential for long-term sustained U(IV) reductive immobilization in Area 2 sediments; (3) numerically simulate the suite of hydrobiogeochemical processes occurring in experimental systems so as to facilitate modeling of in situ U(IV) immobilization at the field-scale.

  2. Local Area Network Implementation: Moving toward Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Susan B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a LAN (local area network)-based automation project which has neared completion of the first phase of implementation at the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Changes in the library and its objectives with increased technological experience are examined. Diagrams of the current LAN configuration and…

  3. Subproject plan for demonstration of 3M technology for treatment of N Basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dissolved radionuclides removal demonstration is being conducted at the 105-N Basin as part of the 100-N Area Projects' policy of aggressively integrating innovative technologies to achieve more cost effective, faster, and/or safer deactivation operations. This subproject plan demonstrates new technology (marketed by the 3M trademark Company) that absorbs specific ions from water. The demonstration will take place at the spent fuel basin at the N Reactor facility. The 105-N Basin contains 1 million gal of water consisting of approximately 32 Ci of dissolved 90Sr at a concentration of 8.4 uCi/L and 7.3 Ci of dissolved 137Cs at a concentration of 1.92 uCi/L. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [Ecology et al. 1990]) Milestone M-16-01E-T2 requires the initiation of pretreatment and removal of all N Reactor fuel storage basin waters by September 30, 1996, pursuant to the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993). 105-N Basin dewatering is on the critical path for overall deactivation of N Reactor by March 1997. The 105-N Basin Deactivation Program Plan (BHI 1995) includes removing debris, hardware, algae and sediment from the basin, followed by pretreatment (filtration) and removal of the 1005-N Basin water. Final water removal is currently scheduled for September 30, 1996. The recommended method of the 105-N Basin water is the treatment of the water at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area. The demonstration of the 3M technology could be a feasible treatment alternative to the ETF if the ETF is not available to meet the project schedule or if additional pretreatment is needed to reduce the inventory of radioactive species to be handled at the ETF. Demonstration of this technology could be of value for other fuel basins at the Hanford Site and possibly other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and non- DOE nuclear power plants

  4. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Part II: Intensive Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1992-04-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northeast Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program, Measure 704 (d) (1) to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration habitat improvement project, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two sub-projects: general and intensive monitoring. Results of the intensive monitoring sub-project are reported here. Results from the general monitoring sub-project will be reported in a separate document. The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. Field work began in 1987 in upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). Methods include using weirs to trap adults, conducting ground and aerial redd counts, snorkeling to estimate parr populations, PIT-tagging juveniles to determine parr-tosmolt survival, trapping fall and spring downstream emigrants with scoop traps, and outplanting adults to determine juvenile carrying capacity. PIT tags also provide a wide range of other information such as migration timing, effects of flow and passage conditions on smolt survival, other factors affecting smolt survival, and growth.

  5. The future market for biogas from waste - Sub-Project 3; Framtida marknaden foer biogas fraan avfall - Delprojekt 3 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias; Eriksson, Ola; Hellstroem, Hanna; Nilsson, Karolina

    2013-09-01

    The overall aim of the project was to study the conditions, opportunities and constraints for the development of the market for biogas from waste in Sweden. Seven areas of importance to the development have been identified in previous projects. The areas are: market and competition, supply and demand for waste, environmental benefits of biogas utilization, technology development, economic value of biogas, political instruments and the handling of digestate. The ambition has been to create a fact and market report for these areas for stake holders such as operators, representatives of authorities and decision makers. The project is a sub-project of 'Perspectives on future waste treatment'. The goal achievement of the project is expected to be good. During the project, there has also been considerable interest in the results, which is already used by a number of operators, both within and outside the project. Thereby, the results have a good spread, even before the project is completed.

  6. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Charles Y.; Storti, George M.; Walter, Lee; Mathews, Scott

    1990-01-01

    This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks.

  7. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  8. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities

  9. Critical Low-Noise Technologies Being Developed for Engine Noise Reduction Systems Subproject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's previous Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program delivered the initial technologies for meeting a 10-year goal of a 10-dB reduction in total aircraft system noise. Technology Readiness Levels achieved for the engine-noise-reduction technologies ranged from 4 (rig scale) to 6 (engine demonstration). The current Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project is building on those AST accomplishments to achieve the additional noise reduction needed to meet the Aerospace Technology Enterprise's 10-year goal, again validated through a combination of laboratory rig and engine demonstration tests. In order to meet the Aerospace Technology Enterprise goal for future aircraft of a 50- reduction in the perceived noise level, reductions of 4 dB are needed in both fan and jet noise. The primary objectives of the Engine Noise Reduction Systems (ENRS) subproject are, therefore, to develop technologies to reduce both fan and jet noise by 4 dB, to demonstrate these technologies in engine tests, and to develop and experimentally validate Computational Aero Acoustics (CAA) computer codes that will improve our ability to predict engine noise.

  10. Basic equations of interfacial area transport in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rigorous and consistent formulations of basic equations of interfacial area transport were derived using correlation functions of characteristic function of each phase and velocities of each phase. Turbulent transport term of interfacial area concentration was consistently derived and related to the difference between interfacial velocity and averaged velocity of each phase. Constitutive equations of turbulent transport terms of interfacial area concentration were proposed for bubbly flow. New transport model and constitutive equations were developed for churn flow. These models and constitutive equations are validated by experimental data of radial distributions of interfacial area concentration in bubbly and churn flow. (author)

  11. Evaluation of urban soils. Subproject 4: Bonding of heavy metals in technological soils - mapping of urban soils for the city of Rostock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the project a conceptional soil map for the urban area of Rostock was drawn up. The starting point was formed by the collection and analysis of available information. The following maps were digitised with the help of the geographical information system Arc/Info: Soil estimation, middle scaled map of agricultural sites, geology, maps of bogs and forest sites, map of the bog-depth sourrounding the river Warnow by Geinitz from 1887. To characterise the influence by man information about impermeable covered areas, actual land use, thrown up areas and disposal sites as well as war-destroyed sites were digitally used. Till the beginning of this project no information about impermeable covered areas and about the actual land use were available. That's why these two maps were created within the framework of the project on the base of topographical maps, aerial photographs and results of on-site-captures. Afterwards the thematic layers were overlapped. The general conceptional map for the urban area of Rostock was created out of the three separate conceptional maps about groundwater-influence, natural soil inventory and man-influence. Soil societies were assigned to the units of this general conceptional map. At the end 35 units were given for Rostock. Detailed mappings were taken on areas of the following kinds of use: Living areas, city centre, gardens, parks, graveyards, industrial and military sites. 26 main profiles were described and soil-physically and soil-chemically examined. The total contents of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd were determined for the horizons of the main profiles. The subproject of Rostock is also concerned with investigations on the heavy metals (hM) Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Ni in technological substrates (tS) from Kiel, Eckernfoerde, Halle and Rostock (11 main soil profiles). (orig./SR)

  12. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  13. Experimental demonstration of phase bistability in a broad area optical oscillator with injected signal

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Lorente, R; Rolán, E; Staliunas, K; de Valcárcel, G J; Silva, F

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that a broad area laser-like optical oscillator (a nondegenerate photorefractive oscillator) with structured injected signal displays two-phase patterns. The technique (G. J. de Valc\\'arcel and K. Staliunas, Phys. Rev. Lett. (105), 054101 (2010)) consists in spatially modulating the injection, so that its phase alternates periodically between two opposite values, i.e. differing by pi

  14. Area Based Approach for Three Phase Power Quality Assessment in Clarke Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an area-based approach for electric power quality analysis. Some specific reference signals have been defined and areas formed by the real power system data with the reference signal have been calculated wherefrom contributions of fundamental waveform and harmonic components have been assessed separately. Active power, reactive power and total harmonic distortion factors have been measured. Clarke transformation technique has been used for analysis in three-phase system, which has reduced the computational effort to a great extent. Distortion factors of individual phase of a three-phase system have also been assessed.

  15. Simulation of two-phase flows and numerical evaluation of interfacial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising bubbles are simulated numerically as one of the fundamental two-phase flow phenomena using the two-component two-phase lattice Boltzmann method, since sharp interfaces are obtained and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles are simulated easily. The variation of interfacial area is measured for one or two rising bubbles. It is found that the interfacial area decreases during the coalescence of two bubbles while it increases during the breakup of a bubble. The change in the interfacial area is shown to correspond to the change in the shape of the bubbles. (authors)

  16. Simulation of two-phase flows and numerical evaluation of interfacial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising bubbles are simulated numerically as one of the fundamental two-phase flow phenomena using the two-component two-phase lattice Boltzmann method, since sharp interfaces are obtained and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles are simulated easily. The variation of interfacial area is measured for one or two rising bubbles. It is found that the interfacial area decreases during the coalescence of two bubbles while it increases during the breakup of a bubble. The change in the interfacial area is shown to correspond to the change in the shape of the bubbles. (author)

  17. A note on Maxwell's equal area law for black hole phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Shan-Quan; Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liu, Wen-Biao [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    The state equation of the charged AdS black hole is reviewed in the T-r{sub +} plane. With a view on the the phase transition, the T-S, P-V, P-ν graphs are plotted and then the equal area law is used in the three cases to get the phase transition point (P, T). The analytical phase transition point relations for P-T of a charged AdS black hole has been obtained successfully. By comparing the three results, we find that the equal area law possibly cannot be used directly for the P-ν plane. According to the T-S, P-V results, we plot the P-T-Q graph and find that for a highly charged black hole a very low temperature condition is required for the phase transition. (orig.)

  18. A note on Maxwell’s equal area law for black hole phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Shan-Quan; Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liu, Wen-Biao, E-mail: wbliu@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-09

    The state equation of the charged AdS black hole is reviewed in the T–r{sub +} plane. With a view on the the phase transition, the T–S, P–V, P–ν graphs are plotted and then the equal area law is used in the three cases to get the phase transition point (P, T). The analytical phase transition point relations for P–T of a charged AdS black hole has been obtained successfully. By comparing the three results, we find that the equal area law possibly cannot be used directly for the P–ν plane. According to the T–S, P–V results, we plot the P–T–Q graph and find that for a highly charged black hole a very low temperature condition is required for the phase transition.

  19. A note on Maxwell’s equal area law for black hole phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state equation of the charged AdS black hole is reviewed in the T–r+ plane. With a view on the the phase transition, the T–S, P–V, P–ν graphs are plotted and then the equal area law is used in the three cases to get the phase transition point (P, T). The analytical phase transition point relations for P–T of a charged AdS black hole has been obtained successfully. By comparing the three results, we find that the equal area law possibly cannot be used directly for the P–ν plane. According to the T–S, P–V results, we plot the P–T–Q graph and find that for a highly charged black hole a very low temperature condition is required for the phase transition

  20. A note on Maxwell's equal area law for black hole phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state equation of the charged AdS black hole is reviewed in the T-r+ plane. With a view on the the phase transition, the T-S, P-V, P-ν graphs are plotted and then the equal area law is used in the three cases to get the phase transition point (P, T). The analytical phase transition point relations for P-T of a charged AdS black hole has been obtained successfully. By comparing the three results, we find that the equal area law possibly cannot be used directly for the P-ν plane. According to the T-S, P-V results, we plot the P-T-Q graph and find that for a highly charged black hole a very low temperature condition is required for the phase transition. (orig.)

  1. Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

    The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

  2. Primary collector wall local temperature fluctuations in the area of water-steam phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Simo, T. [Energovyzkum Ltd., Brno (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A limited number of temperature sensors could be installed at the primary collector surface in the area of water - steam phase boundary. The surface temperatures as well WWER 440 steam generator process data were measured and stored for a long time and off-line evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper. (orig.). 2 refs.

  3. In-phase output beam from broad-area diode array using Talbot cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei Zhao; Qiang Li; Weirong Guo; Bo Liu; Tiechuan Zuo

    2007-01-01

    The robust phase locking of a linear diode array consisting of 49 broad-area emitters was demonstrated.The single lobe in the far field with output power of 0.83 W was observed. The far-field divergence was reduced to 2.0 mrad. The spectral bandwidth was reduced from 1.7 to 0.13 nm.

  4. Attention decreases phase-amplitude coupling, enhancing stimulus discriminability in cortical area MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein eEsghaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Local field potentials (LFPs in cortex reflect synchronous fluctuations in the activity of local populations of neurons. The power of high frequency (>30 Hz oscillations in LFPs is locked to the phase of low frequency (<30 Hz oscillations, an effect known as phase-amplitude coupling (PAC. While PAC has been observed in a variety of cortical regions and animal models, its functional role particularly in primate visual cortex is largely unknown. Here we document PAC for LFPs recorded from extra-striate area MT of macaque monkeys, an area specialized for the processing of visual motion. We further show that directing spatial attention into the receptive field of MT neurons decreases the coupling between the low frequency phase and high frequency power of LFPs. This attentional suppression of PAC increases neuronal discriminability for attended visual stimuli. Therefore we hypothesize that visual cortex uses PAC to regulate inter-neuronal correlations and thereby enhances the coding of relevant stimuli.

  5. Modelling of interfacial area and turbulence in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Computational Two-Fluid Dynamics (CTFD) modelling is still under development. The single pressure two-fluid model is widely used as a model basis for the multidimensional simulation of typical two-phase flow phenomena, e.g. void and pressure wave propagation, phase transitions, sharp interface movements, thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium /1/. The conservation equations based on an averaging procedure are written for each phase allowing both phases to co-exist at any point in space. The local volumetric fraction alone, one of the solution variables of the two-fluid model, is not sufficient to describe the topology of the two phases and consequently the flow regime can not be determined by the two-fluid model. A determination of the flow situation requires additional knowledge of the interface. The concentration of the interfacial area is one of the key parameters that gives information of the flow pattern. It is also an important parameter for the modelling of interfacial friction forces and interfacial transfer terms. The modelling of a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration covering the whole two-phase flow range is outlined in this paper. In this transport equation the forces acting on the interface and mass transfer are modelled. Observed phenomena, e.g. bubble coalescence or disintegration, are not explicitly modelled, they are the result of the interacting forces on bubble interface. Thus the modelling is mainly based on first principles and is largely free from empiricism /2/. First validation calculations will be presented. For the modelling of turbulence in two-phase flows new transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation are proposed, where turbulent shear stress for two-phase flows will be modelled. Beyond this the new turbulence model differentiates between turbulent scales and the usual constants of the dissipation rate equation are modelled /2/. A first verification

  6. Interfacial area transport equation of gas-liquid two-phase flow across a horizontal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to improve accuracy of the two-phase flow simulation codes, since these codes are used for the performance estimation and the safety designs of the industrial products which two-phase flow occur inside. In the governing equations of the two-phase flow simulation model, interfacial area concentration is one of the most important parameters to improve the model. Some researcher developed a transport equation of the interfacial area concentration that include source and sink terms due to bubble coalescence and breakup. However, these equations use numerous parameters to obtain the source and sink terms. In this study, we have successfully expressed the source and sink term as functions of a single variable to simplify and enhance their usefulness. The coalescence of bubbles was expressed as a function of the local void fraction, and the breakup of bubbles was expressed as a function of the time averaged local liquid velocity. Using this model, we can simulate the local void fraction and interfacial area concentration. In order to validate the simulation model, we also carried out experiments to measure a time averaged local interfacial area concentration and a time averaged local void fraction in a vertical upward air-water two-phase flow across horizontal tube with a double sensor electrical conductivity probe. The test section comprised a 50mm × 50 mm square channel partially obstructed by a single horizontal tube inside. The superficial gas velocity and superficial liquid velocity ranged from 0.019 to 0.215 m/s and from 0.133 to 0.533 m/s, respectively. Measurements of the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration were performed at three axial locations of z = 110, 340, and 640 mm and transverse locations from r = 0 to 25 mm. The experimental data set were compared to the result of the numerical simulations. Good agreement is obtained between these results. (author)

  7. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers' Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided

  8. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  9. HARMONIC DISTORTION ASSESSMENT BY AREA BASED APPROACH AT SINGLE PHASING OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper presents harmonic distortion assessment by area based approach at single phasing of an induction motor. This has been achieved by assessing voltage and current signals using area based approach. Some specific reference signals have been defined, after which, real power system data are plotted with this reference signal and areas thus formed by the real power system data with the reference signal have been calculated wherefrom contributions of fundamental waveform and harmonic components in real and reactive powers have been assessed separately. Single phasing is done on induction machine and total harmonic distortion factors have then been calculated. Significant change is observed in harmonic distortion due to single phasing. ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan penilaian herotan harmonik menggunakan kaedah keluasan kawasan pada pemfasaan tunggal motor aruhan. Menggunakan kaedah keluasan kawasan, penilaian terhasil dengan memantau isyarat arus dan voltan. Sesetengah isyarat rujukan tertentu dikenal pasti, di mana, data sistem kuasa sebenar diplotkan berdasarkan isyarat rujukan ini. Kawasan kemudiannya dibentuk dengan adanya data sistem kuasa sebenar dengan menggunakan pengiraan isyarat rujukan. Pengiraan ini memberikan bentuk gelombang asas dan komponen harmonik sebenar di mana kuasa reaktif ditentukan secara berasingan. Pemfasaan tunggal ditentukan menggunakan mesin aruhan dan faktor jumlah herotan harmonik diambil kira .Perubahan yang ketara dikenal pasti dalam herotan harmonik yang disebabkan oleh pemfasaan tunggal.

  10. Cooling vests with phase change material packs: the effects of temperature gradient, mass and covering area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmer, Ingvar

    2010-05-01

    Phase change material (PCM) absorbs or releases latent heat when it changes phases, making thermal-regulated clothing possible. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between PCM cooling rate and temperature gradient, mass and covering area on a thermal manikin in a climatic chamber. Three melting temperatures (24, 28, 32 degrees C) of the PCMs, different mass, covering areas and two manikin temperatures (34 and 38 degrees C) were used. The results showed that the cooling rate of the PCM vests tested is positively correlated with the temperature gradient between the thermal manikin and the melting temperature of the PCMs. The required temperature gradient is suggested to be greater than 6 degrees C when PCM vests are used in hot climates. With the same temperature gradient, the cooling rate is mainly determined by the covering area. The duration of the cooling effect is dependent on PCM mass and the latent heat. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The study of factors affecting the cooling rate of personal cooling equipment incorporated with PCM helps to understand cooling mechanisms. The results suggest climatic conditions, the required temperature gradient, PCM mass and covering area should be taken into account when choosing personal PCM cooling equipment. PMID:20432090

  11. Numerical Treatment of Two-phase Flow in Porous Media Including Specific Interfacial Area

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, M.F.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a numerical treatment for the model of two-phase flow in porous media including specific interfacial area. For numerical discretization we use the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method based on the shifting-matrices method which can reduce the time-consuming operations. A new iterative implicit algorithm has been developed to solve the problem under consideration. All advection and advection-like terms that appear in saturation equation and interfacial area equation are treated using upwind schemes. Selected simulation results such as pc–Sw–awn surface, capillary pressure, saturation and specific interfacial area with various values of model parameters have been introduced. The simulation results show a good agreement with those in the literature using either pore network modeling or Darcy scale modeling.

  12. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  13. Step-Free GaN Hexagons Grown by Selective-Area Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kasu, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN has been investigated using the optimized growth conditions for the layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth and GaN-template substrates with low dislocation density. The surface of a GaN hexagon with 16-µm diameter has a single wide terrace over almost the whole area (step-free surface), when there are no screw-type dislocations in the finite area. Step-free GaN hexagons grew in the two-dimensional nucleus growth mode and had approximately an eight times lower growth rate than that of a GaN film grown in the step-flow mode under the growth conditions used in this study.

  14. Maxwell’s Equal Area Law and the Hawking-Page Phase Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Spallucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phases of a Schwarzschild black hole in the Anti-deSitter background geometry. Exploiting fluid/gravity duality, we construct the Maxwell equal area isotherm   in the temperature-entropy plane, in order to eliminate negative heat capacity BHs. The construction we present here is reminiscent of the isobar cut in the pressure-volume plane which eliminates unphysical part of the Van der Walls curves below the critical temperature. Our construction also modifies the Hawking-Page phase transition. Stable BHs are formed at the temperature , while pure radiation persists for . turns out to be below the standard Hawking-Page temperature and there are no unstable BHs as in the usual scenario. Also, we show that, in order to reproduce the correct BH entropy , one has to write a black hole equation of state, that is, , in terms of the geometrical volume .

  15. Monitoring Soil Moisture in a Coal Mining Area with Multi-Phase Landsat Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J. L.; Xian, T.; Yang, J.; Chen, L.; Yang, X. T.

    2016-06-01

    The coal development zone of Northern Shaanxi, China is one of the eight largest coal mines in the world, also the national energy and chemical bases. However, the coal mining leads to ground surface deformation and previous studies show that in collapse fissure zone soil water losses almost 50% compared with non-fissure zone. The main objective of this study is to develop a retrieval model that is reliable and sensitive to soil moisture in the whole coal mining zone of Northern Shaanxi based upon the soil sample parameters collected from in situ site investigation, spectral data gathered simultaneously and the images of Landsat7 ETM. The model uses different phases of Landsat data to retrieve soil moisture and analyze the patterns of spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture caused by ground deformation in the coal mining areas. The study indicated that band4 of Landsat7 ETM is the most sensitive band for soil moisture retrieval using the spectrum method. The quadratic model developed by remote sensing reflectance (Rrs4) (corresponding to the band4) is the best pattern with the correlation coefficient of 0.858 between the observed and the estimated soil moisture. Two-phase Landsat7 ETM data of 2002 and 2009 and one phase Landsat8 OLI data of 2015 for the study area were selected to retrieve soil moisture information. The result showed that the mean relative error was 35.16% and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 0.58%. The changes of the spatial distribution of inversed soil moisture revealed that the trend of soil moisture contents of the study area was in general being gradually reduced from 2002 to 2015. The study results can serve as the baseline for monitoring environmental impacts on soil moisture in the regions due to coal mining.

  16. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning subproject characterization report for the E-MAD Decontamination Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-31

    This document describes and reports the results of the work undertaken to determine the nature and extent of contamination of portions of the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility located in Area 25 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  18. Retrieval of Gap Fraction and Effective Plant Area Index from Phase-Shift Terrestrial Laser Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyare Pueschel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of canopy structure is crucial for modeling eco-physiological processes. Two commonly used metrics for characterizing canopy structure are the gap fraction and the effective Plant Area Index (PAIe. Both have been successfully retrieved with terrestrial laser scanning. However, a systematic assessment of the influence of the laser scan properties on the retrieval of these metrics is still lacking. This study investigated the effects of resolution, measurement speed, and noise compression on the retrieval of gap fraction and PAIe from phase-shift FARO Photon 120 laser scans. We demonstrate that FARO’s noise compression yields gap fractions and PAIe that deviate significantly from those based on scans without noise compression and strongly overestimate Leaf Area Index (LAI estimates based on litter trap measurements. Scan resolution and measurement speed were also shown to impact gap fraction and PAIe, but this depended on leaf development phase, stand structure, and LAI calculation method. Nevertheless, PAIe estimates based on various scan parameter combinations without noise compression proved to be quite stable.

  19. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with {sup 137}Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG).

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of van der Waals Phase Transition with Maxwellian Area Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GangHE; KaihuaZhao

    1996-01-01

    In this paper phase transition of van der Waals gas is simulated by the Boltzmann Lattice method.Thermodynamics and Maxwellian area rule have been taken into account.With the primary Lattic Boltzmann(LB) method one can study the behavior of the ideal gas,i.e.,the equation of state is given by p=ρε[1,2,3,],By adding a potential termmore sophisticated cases can be studied.If the potential introduced leads to van de Waals equation of state,simulations show the separation of the fluid into domains with different mass densities,as reproted by Qian,Y.H.and Orszag[4].Unfortunately without further modification of their model the two densities coming out in the simulation strongly depend on the average density given initially.Table 1 shows several simulations done by us according to the model of qian and Orszag with grid D2Q9.Fixing the parameter T,we start from density spatial homogeneous equilibrium vlocity distribution with several different initial densities.We find that below the critical temperature Tc the homogeneous state is usnstable,domains with two different densities ρ1 and ρ2 appear,but their values for different global average are not identical .Further studies show that in each case the pressures p of the two phases are equal but the chemical potentials not,and therefore the Maxwellian Area rule does not hold.This result is understandable,co-existence of two phases in equilibrium is a thermodynamic effect,while temperature in the simulation described above is taken as a parameter given to each site prerequisitely.What is more,as the noise is effaced form the LB method.the system could stay in the super-cooled or super-heated metastable state forever,Modifications of the model are needed for better results.

  1. Synchronization in area-preserving maps: Effects of mixed phase space and coherent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Sasibhusan; Das, Swetamber; Gupte, Neelima

    2016-06-01

    The problem of synchronization of coupled Hamiltonian systems presents interesting features due to the mixed nature (regular and chaotic) of the phase space. We study these features by examining the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled area-preserving maps coupled by the Pecora-Caroll method. The master stability function approach is used to study the stability of the synchronous state and to identify the percentage of synchronizing initial conditions. The transient to synchronization shows intermittency with an associated power law. The mixed nature of the phase space of the studied map has notable effects on the synchronization times as is seen in the case of the standard map. Using finite-time Lyapunov exponent analysis, we show that the synchronization of the maps occurs in the neighborhood of invariant curves in the phase space. The phase differences of the coevolving trajectories show intermittency effects, due to the existence of stable periodic orbits contributing locally stable directions in the synchronizing neighborhoods. Furthermore, the value of the nonlinearity parameter, as well as the location of the initial conditions play an important role in the distribution of synchronization times. We examine drive response combinations which are chaotic-chaotic, chaotic-regular, regular-chaotic, and regular-regular. A range of scaling behavior is seen for these cases, including situations where the distributions show a power-law tail, indicating long synchronization times for at least some of the synchronizing trajectories. The introduction of coherent structures in the system changes the situation drastically. The distribution of synchronization times crosses over to exponential behavior, indicating shorter synchronization times, and the number of initial conditions which synchronize increases significantly, indicating an enhancement in the basin of synchronization. We discuss the implications of our results.

  2. Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double sensor probe and hotfilm anemometry methods were developed for measuring local flow characteristics in bubbly flow. The formulation for the interfacial area concentration measurement was obtained by improving the formulation derived by Kataoka and Ishii. The assumptions used in the derivation of the equation were verified experimentally. The interfacial area concentration measured by the double sensor probe agreed well with one by the photographic method. The filter to validate the hotfilm anemometry for measuring the liquid velocity and turbulent intensity in bubbly flow was developed based on removing the signal due to the passing bubbles. The local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter, liquid velocity, and turbulent intensity of vertical upward air-water flow in a round tube with an inner diameter of 50.8 mm were measured by using these methods. A total of 54 data sets were acquired consisting of three superficial gas flow rates, 0.015-0.076 m s-1, and three superficial liquid flow rates, 0.600, 1.00, and 1.30 m s-1. The measurements were performed at the three locations: L/D=2, 32, and 62. This data is expected to be used for the development of reliable constitutive relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in two-phase flow. (orig.)

  3. Turbulence transport model and transport equations of interfacial area concentration in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and rigorous modeling of basic transport equation of interfacial area concentration was carried out. Based on the local instant formulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow, basic transport equation of interfacial area concentration was rigorously formulated. In the basic transport equations, the averaged interfacial velocity was shown to be correlation functions of fluctuation of velocity and local instant void fraction and their derivatives which reflect the transport of interfacial area concentration due to interaction between interfacial area and turbulence of each phase. Basic conservation equations of spatial correlation functions of characteristic function and velocity of each phase were also derived based on the conservation equations momentum and its fluctuation of each phase. (author)

  4. Safety analysis report for the cold vacuum drying facility, phase 1, supporting civil/structural construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cold Vacuum Drying Facility is a subproject of the overall Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. This Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report incorporates the CVD systems design and will update the SAR per DOE Order 5480.23 for manual and other Hanford infrastructure changes

  5. Guangxi Pingguo Aluminum Alumina 3rd Phase Project to Put Into Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In April,the handover ceremony was held for the first completed sub-project of the 3rd phase of 900,000-ton alumina project of China Alu- minum Guangxi Company (Pingguo Aluminum in short),standing for the commencement of

  6. Modeling of turbulent transport term of interfacial area concentration in gas–liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Transport equation of interfacial area concentration is derived. ► Conservation equation of interfacial velocity is derived. ► Turbulent transport terms of interfacial area concentration were modeled. - Abstract: A modeling of basic transport equation and constitutive equations of turbulent transport terms of interfacial area concentration was carried out. Based on the local instant formulation, interfacial area concentration was formulated in term of spatial correlation functions of characteristic function (local instant volume fraction) and its directional derivative of each phase. In the basic transport equations, interfacial area concentration is transported by time averaged interfacial velocity. In the previous models, interfacial velocity is roughly approximated by velocity of each phase. In the present model, interfacial velocity is formulated in term of spatial correlation functions of characteristic function and velocity of each phase and their directional derivatives. In this formulation, the time averaged interfacial velocity was shown to be correlation functions of fluctuation of velocity and local instant void fraction and their derivatives which reflect the transport of interfacial area concentration due to interaction between interfacial area and turbulence of each phase. Basic conservation equations of spatial correlation functions of characteristic function and velocity of each phase were also derived based on the conservation equations momentum and its fluctuation of each phase. For practical purpose, further modeling of this turbulent transport terms of interfacial area concentration was carried out. As a result, constitutive equations of turbulent diffusion and lateral migration of interfacial area concentration were obtained which can be applied to various flow regime of two-phase flow.

  7. Maxwell's equal area law and the Hawking-Page phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Spallucci, Euro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the phases of a Schwarzschild black hole in the Anti deSitter background geometry. Exploiting fluid/gravity duality we construct the Maxwell equal area isotherm T=T* in the temperature-entropy plane, in order to eliminate negative heat capacity black hole configurations. The construction we present here is reminiscent of the isobar cut in the pressure-volume plane which eliminates un-physical part of the Van der Walls curves below the critical temperature. Our construction also modifies the Hawking-Page phase transition. Stable black holes are formed at the temperature T > T*, while pure radiation persists for T< T*. T* turns out to be below the standard Hawking-Page temperature and there are no unstable black holes as in the usual scenario. Also, we show that in order to reproduce the correct black hole entropy S=A/4, one has to write a black hole equation of state, i.e. P=P(V), in terms of the geometrical volume V=4\\pi r^3/3.

  8. The effect of leaf area reduction on corn plants during the reproduction phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rodrigues de Toledo Alvim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in leaf area in corn plants during reproduction changes physiological metabolism and consequently the accumulation of dry matter in grains. The aim of this work was to study changes in agronomic characteristics caused by defoliation in corn during the reproduction phase. The experiment was carried out in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, in the agricultural year 2007/2008. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, consisting of seven treatments: control without defoliation, removal of two apical leaves, removal of four apical leaves, removal of all leaves above spike, removal of four intermediate leaves, removal of all leaves below spike, and removal of all plant leaves, with five repetitions. The genotype used for the evaluations was hybrid NB 7376. Defoliation was carried out when plants were at the growth stage R2. The variables assessed were: yield, density of spikes and corncobs, root resistance and stem integrity. When all leaves above the spike were removed, grain yield was reduced by 20%. Corncob density, stem integrity and root resistance to uprooting were also affected. Spike density was only affected when all plant leaves were removed. The leaf area remaining physiologically active above the spike was found to be most efficient in terms of grain yield.

  9. Phase contrast imaging reveals low lung volumes and surface areas in the developing marsupial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J Simpson

    Full Text Available Marsupials are born with immature lungs when compared to eutherian mammals and rely, to various extents, on cutaneous gas exchange in order to meet metabolic requirements. Indeed, the fat-tailed dunnart is born with lungs in the canalicular stage of development and relies almost entirely on the skin for gas exchange at birth; consequently undergoing the majority of lung development in air. Plane radiographs and computed tomography data sets were acquired using phase contrast imaging with a synchrotron radiation source for two marsupial species, the fat-tailed dunnart and the larger tammar wallaby, during the first weeks of postnatal life. Phase contrast imaging revealed that only two lung sacs contain air after the first hour of life in the fat-tailed dunnart. While the lung of the tammar wallaby was comparatively more developed, both species demonstrated massive increases in air sac number and architectural complexity during the postnatal period. In addition, both the tammar wallaby and fat-tailed dunnart had lower lung volumes and parenchymal surface areas than were expected from morphometrically determined allometric equations relating these variables to body mass during the neonatal period. However, lung volume is predicted to scale with mass as expected after the neonatal marsupial reaches a body mass of ∼1 g and no longer relies on the skin for gas exchange. Decreased lung volume in the marsupial neonate further supports the maxim that cutaneous gas exchange occurs in the marsupial neonate because the respiratory apparatus is not yet capable of meeting the gas exchange requirements of the newborn.

  10. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report, DE-FG02-06ER64171, Integrated Nucleic Acid System for In-Field Monitoring of Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2009-07-08

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Integrated Nucleic Acid System for In-Field Monitoring of Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Darrell Chandler (originally at Argonne National Laboratory, now with Akonni Biosystems) was the overall PI/PD for the project. The overall project goals were to (1) apply a model iron-reducer and sulfate-reducer microarray and instrumentation systems to sediment and groundwater samples from the Scheibe et al. FRC Area 2 field site, UMTRA sediments, and other DOE contaminated sites; (2) continue development and expansion of a 16S rRNA/rDNA¬-targeted probe suite for microbial community dynamics as new sequences are obtained from DOE-relevant sites; and (3) address the fundamental molecular biology and analytical chemistry associated with the extraction, purification and analysis of functional genes and mRNA in environmental samples. Work on the UW subproject focused on conducting detailed batch and semicontinuous culture reactor experiments with uranium-contaminated FRC Area 2 sediment. The reactor experiments were designed to provide coherent geochemical and microbiological data in support of microarray analyses of microbial communities in Area 2 sediments undergoing biostimulation with ethanol. A total of four major experiments were conducted (one batch and three semicontinuous culture), three of which (the batch and two semicontinuous culture) provided samples for DNA microarray analysis. A variety of other molecular analyses (clone libraries, 16S PhyloChip, RT-PCR, and T-RFLP) were conducted on parallel samples from the various experiments in order to provide independent information on microbial community response to biostimulation.

  12. Micromodel study of two-phase flow under transient conditions : Quantifying effects of specific interfacial area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadimitriou, N. K.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Joekar-Niasar, V.; Kleingeld, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent computational studies of two-phase flow suggest that the role of fluid-fluid interfaces should be explicitly included in the capillarity equation as well as equations of motion of phases. The aim of this study has been to perform experiments where transient movement of interfaces can be monit

  13. Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems - Sub-Project 4; Avfallsfoerbraenning inom Sveriges fjaerrvaermesystem - Delprojekt 4 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Holmstroem; David

    2012-07-01

    Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems is one of the five sub-projects within the project Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment. The goal of this project is to evaluate the economic potential for waste incineration in the Swedish district heating systems. With the current expansion of incineration, we may relatively soon reach an upper limit for what is demanded by the Swedish district heating systems. How much more waste incineration that is economically attractive to build is of great importance for the development of the Swedish waste system, not least for the alternatives to incineration as for example biogas production. With continued rising quantities of waste and stagnant demand for waste incineration from the district heating systems, today's surplus of treatment capacity may change the market picture for other waste treatment options. How much more waste incineration requested and how quickly the market reaches this level is studied in this project.

  14. Area in phase space as determiner of transition probability: Bohr-Sommerfeld bands, Wigner ripples, and Fresnel zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an oscillator subjected to a sudden change in equilibrium position or in effective spring constant, or both-to a squeeze in the language of quantum optics. We analyze the probability of transition from a given initial state to a final state, in its dependence on final-state quantum number. We make use of five sources of insight: Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization via bands in phase space, area of overlap between before-squeeze band and after-squeeze band, interference in phase space, Wigner function as quantum update of B-S band and near-zone Fresnel diffraction as mockup Wigner function

  15. Influence of phase connectivity on the relationship among capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and interfacial area in two-fluid-phase porous medium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.

    2016-09-01

    Multiphase flows in porous medium systems are typically modeled at the macroscale by applying the principles of continuum mechanics to develop models that describe the behavior of averaged quantities, such as fluid pressure and saturation. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating the capillary pressure to fluid saturation and, in some cases, other topological invariants such as interfacial area and the Euler characteristic (or average Gaussian curvature). The forms that are used in traditional models, which typically consider only the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation, are hysteretic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a nonhysteretic closure relation. Relying on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, we develop an approach to investigate equilibrium states for a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which includes disconnected nonwetting phase features. A set of simulations are performed within a random close pack of 1964 spheres to produce a total of 42 908 distinct equilibrium configurations. This information is evaluated using generalized additive models to quantitatively assess the degree to which functional relationships can explain the behavior of the equilibrium data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and nonhysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. To our knowledge, this work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parametrizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially nonhysteretic behavior provides

  16. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation & Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.

  17. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly

  18. Mobile Video Game Quality Assurance In a Startup Company During a Closed Beta Test Phase : Case Grey Area

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltio, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance in mobile video games development has a crucial role. It improves the product in all frontiers and serves as one of the final steps before introducing the product to an audience. A working quality assurance will offer benefits to both customer and developer company. Startup companies have a unique approach to quality assurance and Grey Area with its product development approach is among so called lean startup companies. When a startup company enters a closed beta test phase,...

  19. Interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozar, Basar

    Analysis of accident scenarios in nuclear reactors are done by using codes such as TRACE and RELAP5. Large oscillations in the core void fraction are observed in calculations of advanced passive light water reactors (ALWRs), especially during the low pressure long-term cooling phase. These oscillations are attributed to be numerical in nature and served to limit the accuracy as well as the credibility of the calculations. One of the root causes of these unphysical oscillations is determined to be flow regime transitions caused by the usage of static flow regime maps. The interfacial area transport equation was proposed earlier in order to address these issues. Previous research successfully developed the foundation of the interfacial area transport equation and the experimental techniques needed for the measurement of interfacial area, bubble diameters and velocities. In the past, an extensive database has been then generated for adiabatic air-water conditions in vertical upward and downward bubbly-churn turbulent flows in pipes. Using this database, mechanistic models for the creation (bubble breakup) and destruction (bubble coalescence) of interfacial area have been developed for the bubblyslug flow regime transition. However, none of these studies investigated the effect of phase change. To address this need, a heated annular test section was designed and constructed. The design relied on a three level scaling approach: geometric scaling; hydrodynamic scaling; thermal scaling. The test section consisted of a heated and unheated section in order to study the sub-cooled boiling and bulk condensation/flashing and evaporation phenomena, respectively. Steam-water two-phase flow tests were conducted under sub-cooled boiling conditions in the heated section and with sub-cooled/super-heated bulk liquid in the unheated section. The modeling of interfacial area transport equation with phase change effects was introduced and discussed. Constitutive relations, which took

  20. Measurement of interfacial areas with the chemical method for a system with alternating dispersed phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woezik, van B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area for a liquid–liquid system has been determined by the chemical reaction method. The saponification of butyl formate ester with 8 M sodium hydroxide has been used to this end. A correlation has been derived to describe the mole flux of ester through the interface and the kinetic

  1. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  2. Interfacial area, velocity and void fraction in two-phase slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojasoy, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Riznic, J.R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The internal flow structure of air-water plug/slug flow in a 50.3 mm dia transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a four-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 0.55 to 2.20 m/s and 0.27 to 2.20 m/s, respectively, and area-averaged void fractions ranged from about 10 to 70%. The local distributions of void fractions, interfacial area concentration and interface velocity were measured. Contributions from small spherical bubbles and large elongated slug bubbles toward the total void fraction and interfacial area concentration were differentiated. It was observed that the small bubble void contribution to the overall void fraction was small indicating that the large slug bubble void fraction was a dominant factor in determining the total void fraction. However, the small bubble interfacial area contribution was significant in the lower and upper portions of the pipe cross sections.

  3. Interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus at elevated pressures during sub-cooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated experimentally and theoretically for elevated pressures (a maximum of 1 MPa) during sub-cooled boiling. The modeling of interfacial area transport equation with phase change terms was introduced and discussed along with experimental results. The interfacial area transport equation considered the effects of bubble interaction mechanisms such as bubble breakup and coalescence, as well as, effects of phase change mechanisms such as wall nucleation and condensation for sub-cooled boiling. The benchmark focused on the sensitivity analysis of the constitutive relations that describe the phase change mechanisms. (author)

  4. Experimental and analytical study of interfacial area transport phenomena in a vertical two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.

  5. Rare earth elements-rich phase and enriching mechanism in sediments from CC area, the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared to North American shale composition (NASC), REE contents of sediments from the CC area in the Pacific Ocean are obviously high except that cerium has equal content to that of NASC. Three-valence rare earth elements were completely enriched in phosphate-phase and cerium in iron-phase. Rare earth elements in the sediments were originally derived from seawater. During lithigenic and minerogenic processes of metalliferous nodules, three-valence rare earth elements in sediments mobilized and incorporated into sediments as authigenous biogenic-apatite, while cerium had change from Ce3+ to Ce4+ and directly precipitated from seawater and entered metalliferous nodules and caused Ceanomalies in REE pattern in sediments.

  6. An area-saving dual-path loop filter for low-voltage integrated phase-locked loops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jie; Yang Haigang; Yang Liwu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an area-saving dual-path loop filter (LPF) for low-voltage integrated phase-locked loops (PLLs). With this LPF, output current of the lowpass-path charge-pump (CP) is B times (B>1) as great as that of the integration-path CP. By adding voltages across these two paths, the zero-capacitance is magnified B times equivalently. As a result, the chip size is greatly reduced. Based on this LPF, a 1.2 V 3.5 GHz-band PLL is fabricated in SMIC 0.18 μm RFCMOS technology. Its zero-capacitance is only 1/30 of that in conventional second-order LPFs. Measured data show that, at a frequency of 3.20 GHz, phase noise is -120.2 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, reference spur is -72 dBc, and power is 24 mW.

  7. Interfacial area transport of vertical upward air-water two-phase flow in an annulus channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jjjeong@kaeri.re.kr; Ozar, B.; Dixit, A. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Julia, J.E. [Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I. Castellon (Spain); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    An experimental study on the interfacial area transport (IAT) of vertical, upward, air-water two-phase flows in an annulus channel has been conducted. The inner and outer diameters of the annular channel were 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. Nineteen inlet flow conditions were selected, which cover bubbly, cap-slug, and churn-turbulent flows. The local flow parameters, such as void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and bubble interface velocity, were measured at nine radial positions for the three axial locations (z/D{sub H} = 52, 149 and 230). The radial and axial evolutions of local flow structure were interpreted in terms of bubble coalescence and breakup. The measured data can be used for the development of the bubble coalescence/breakup models for the IAT model and some closure models for computational fluid dynamics.

  8. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2's role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments

  9. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  10. Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pumo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from a stochastic differential equation describing the soil water balance, where the unknown quantity, the soil moisture, depends both on spaces and time. Most of the solutions existing in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the same problem by subtracting generalities from it.

    The steady-state hypothesis, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, recharging water into the soil. This moisture stored at the beginning of the growing season (known as soil moisture initial condition has a great importance, especially for deep-rooted vegetation, by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during the first period of the same season.

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model here proposed is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climates and soils in steady-state conditions; consequently it can be used to compute both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile in non-steady conditions.

    Here the differences between the steady-analytical and the non-steady numerical probability density functions are analyzed, showing how the proposed numerical model is able to capture the effects of winter recharge on the soil moisture. The dynamic

  11. Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pumo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from the soil water balance, a stochastic differential equation where the unknown quantity is the function of the soil moisture, depending both on spaces and time. Most of existing solutions in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the problem by subtracting generalities from it.

    The steady-state hypothesis, used in many ecohydrological works, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, thus recharging the soil moisture. This initial condition, especially for deep rooted vegetation, has a great importance by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during its first period.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climate and soil conditions in steady state conditions.

    The proposed model gives both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile. From the former it is possible to extract the probability density function of soil-moisture during the whole growing season, while the latter allows the estimation of the vegetation response to the water stress. Here the differences between the analytical and the numerical probability density functions are presented, showing how the numerical

  12. Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research; project: hazardous materials in aquatic environments; subproject: biomarkers and risk assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established in 1989 as the umbrella organization to coordinate environmental research at both universities. CBR projects funded by the DOE under the Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments grant are defining the following: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants through wetlands environments, (2) the actual and potential impact of contaminants on ecological systems and health, (3) the mechanisms and new technologies through which these impacts might be remediated, and (4) new programs aimed at educating and training environmental workers of the future. The subproject described in this report, 'Biomarkers and Risk Assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LN', is particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program aimed at solving problems related to hazard monitoring and clean-up prioritization at sites with aquatic pollution problems in the DOE complex

  13. Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research; project: hazardous materials in aquatic environments; subproject: biomarkers and risk assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, C.

    1996-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established in 1989 as the umbrella organization to coordinate environmental research at both universities. CBR projects funded by the DOE under the Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments grant are defining the following: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants through wetlands environments, (2) the actual and potential impact of contaminants on ecological systems and health, (3) the mechanisms and new technologies through which these impacts might be remediated, and (4) new programs aimed at educating and training environmental workers of the future. The subproject described in this report, `Biomarkers and Risk Assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LN`, is particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program aimed at solving problems related to hazard monitoring and clean-up prioritization at sites with aquatic pollution problems in the DOE complex.

  14. Fabrication of large area X-ray diffraction grating for X-ray phase imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray lithography, which uses highly directional synchrotron radiation, is one of the technologies that can be used for fabricating micrometer-sized structures. In X-ray lithography, the accuracy of the fabricated structure depends largely on the accuracy of the X-ray mask. Since X-ray radiation is highly directional, a micro-fabrication technology that produces un-tapered and high aspect ratio highly absorbent structures on a low absorbent membrane is required. Conventionally, a resin material is used as the support membrane for large area X-ray masks. However, resin membranes have the disadvantage that they can sag after several cycles of X-ray exposure due to the heat generated by the X-rays. Therefore, we proposed and used thin carbon wafers for the membrane material because carbon has an extremely small thermal expansion coefficient. We fabricated new carbon membrane X-ray masks, and these results of X-ray lithography demonstrate the superior performance.

  15. Area Efficient 3.3GHZ Phase Locked Loop with Four Multiple Output Using 45NM VLSI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Ujwala A. Belorkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper present area efficient layout designs for 3.3GigaHertz (GHz Phase Locked loop (PLL withfour multiple output. Effort has been taken to design Low Power Phase locked loop with multiple output,using VLSI technology. VLSI Technology includes process design, trends, chip fabrication, real circuitparameters, circuit design, electrical characteristics, configuration building blocks, switching circuitry,translation onto silicon, CAD and practical experience in layout design. The proposed PLL is designedusing 45 nm CMOS/VLSI technology with microwind 3.1. This software allows designing and simulatingan integrated circuit at physical description level. The main novelties related to the 45 nm technology arethe high-k gate oxide, metal gate and very low-k interconnect dielectric. The effective gate lengthrequired for 45 nm technology is 25nm. Low Power (0.211miliwatt phase locked loop with four multipleoutputs as PLL8x, PLL4x, PLL2x, & PLL1x of 3.3 GHz, 1.65 GHz, 0.825 GHz, and 0.412 GHzrespectively is obtained using 45 nm VLSI technology.

  16. Marine radioecology. Final reports from sub-projects within the Nordic nuclear safety research project EKO-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)] (ed.)

    2001-04-01

    This report contains a collection of eight papers describing research done in the NKS/EKO-1 project. It also contains a preface giving a summary of the results. The EKO-1 project as a whole has been described in the report NKS(97)FR4. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediments and water and the interaction between these two phaseS. Relatively less emphasis had been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project involved field, laboratory and model studies. The work and results helped to highlight the important role of sediments when assessing the consequences of real or possible releases of radionuclides to the marine environment (au)

  17. Marine radioecology. Final reports from sub-projects within the Nordic nuclear safety research project EKO-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a collection of eight papers describing research done in the NKS/EKO-1 project. It also contains a preface giving a summary of the results. The EKO-1 project as a whole has been described in the report NKS(97)FR4. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediments and water and the interaction between these two phaseS. Relatively less emphasis had been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project involved field, laboratory and model studies. The work and results helped to highlight the important role of sediments when assessing the consequences of real or possible releases of radionuclides to the marine environment (au)

  18. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  19. Imports of waste fuels for energy recovery in Sweden - Sub-Project 1; Import av avfall till energiutvinning i Sverige - Delprojekt 1 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlin, Jenny; Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    Swedish imports of waste fuels may increase to 1.5 million tonnes by 2015, when new waste-fuelled combined heat and power plants are in operation; and to 2.5 million tonnes by 2020, if all planned capacity is built. This is the case if national targets for increased material recycling and biological treatment are reached; which means that smaller amounts of mixed waste remains for incineration. When the import of the waste fuel into Sweden has increased, also need of knowledge has increased, as well as the concerns and fears. The aim of the project 'Imports of waste to energy recovery in Sweden', therefore, is to create an improved basis for decisions and communications concerning the import of waste fuel, as well as to study its conditions, opportunities and obstacles. The target group is interested operators, representatives of public authorities and decision-makers. Data includes analysis of future imported quantities, possible import markets, policy instruments and its effects, concerns and fears, economic aspects and effects on climate change while importing the waste fuel. The project is one of five sub-projects in 'Perspectives on the future waste treatment'. The project has been carried out through data collection, computer modelling, interviews as well as discussion and analysis in the working and reference groups. The goal is estimated to having been reached, the results are already used. From media, there is an interest of the results, and the project has already been referred to and presented at conferences. The results are thus already well-spread.

  20. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  1. Numerical Simulation of One- and Two-Phase Flows in Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Verma, Arun; Hardin, Jay C.; Banerjee, Debrup; Blankson, Isaiah M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Shvets, Alexander I.

    2003-01-01

    Four subprojects were conducted using analytical methods, numerical simulation and experimental tests: (A) Shock wave mitigation by spike-shaped blunt bodies with application for the purpose of drag, lift and longitudinal momentum optimization. The main result in this subproject is: application of a single needle against a supersonic flow provides higher benefits for blunt body drag reduction and heat transfer to the body than the application of multiple needles. (B) Solid particles, liquid and air jet injection through the front of a blunt body against a supersonic flow. In this case, the research conducted and analysis of multiple previous investigations in this area have shown essential benefits and preferable application of solid particle injection. (C) Comparison of different methods of fuel injection into supersonic duct flows. Preliminary numerical simulations and theoretical analysis show promising results for Telescope-shaped inlet applications in SCRAMJET; and (D) Development of an acoustic source location method for different applications including propulsion systems.

  2. The role of a detailed aqueous phase source release model in the LANL area G performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.L.; Shuman, R.; Hollis, D.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary draft of the Performance Assessment for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) low-level radioactive waste disposal facility at Area G is currently being completed as required by Department of Energy orders. A detailed review of the inventory data base records and the existing models for source release led to the development of a new modeling capability to describe the liquid phase transport from the waste package volumes. Nuclide quantities are sorted down to four waste package release categories for modeling: rapid release, soil, concrete/sludge, and corrosion. Geochemistry for the waste packages was evaluated in terms of the equilibrium coefficients, Kds, and elemental solubility limits, Csl, interpolated from the literature. Percolation calculations for the base case closure cover show a highly skewed distribution with an average of 4 mm/yr percolation from the disposal unit bottom. The waste release model is based on a compartment representation of the package efflux, and depends on package size, percolation rate or Darcy flux, retardation coefficient, and moisture content.

  3. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  4. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  5. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  6. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  7. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise.

  8. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Bian, Zhengfu; Liu, Zhenguo; Zhang, Qiuzhao

    2015-07-06

    Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise.

  9. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Bian, Zhengfu; Liu, Zhenguo; Zhang, Qiuzhao

    2015-01-01

    Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise. PMID:26153776

  10. Gas-phase ammonia and PM2.5 ammonium in a busy traffic area of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxin; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Jianhua; Zhou, Rui; Shi, Chanzhen; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and fine particle PM2.5 ammonium (pNH4(+)) (collectively, NHx) were monitored between July 2013 and August 2014 in a busy traffic area of Nanjing, China. Results showed that PM2.5 concentration was 66.7 μg m(-3), and NH3 concentration was 6.66 μg m(-3). In the PM2.5, the concentration of pNH4(+) was 3.04 μg m(-3), SO4(2-) (pSO4(2-)) was 10.16 μg m(-3), and NO3(-) (pNO3(-)) was 1.60 μg m(-3). The significant correlation curves from the tests of PM2.5 revealed that molar ratio of pNH4(+) and pSO4(2-) was approximately 2, which could be (NH4)2SO4. Particulate NH4(+) primarily associated with pSO4(2-), which accounted for 4.54% of total PM2.5 mass. The PM2.5 observed acidic and the NH3 in the atmosphere neutralized acidic species, mainly in a sulfate form. The traffic intensity in the region was partially related to the formation of PM2.5 and NH3, suggesting that traffic pollution may be an important source of PM2.5. The reaction between NHx and acidic species was assumed to the secondary PM2.5. The neutralization and photochemical property of NHx were discussed. PMID:26386853

  11. Disparity estimation and occlusion detection in aerial scenes based on the relationship between phase-based and area-based stereo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xu(徐奕); Jun Zhou(周军); Yuanhua Zhou(周源华)

    2003-01-01

    In this letter, it is shown that there exists relationship between phase-based and area-based stereo inspite of their different motivations. A new cost function is defined based on this clue and an improvedcost-minimization framework is presented. It is suitable for disparity estimation and occlusion detectionin aerial scenes.

  12. C4b-binding protein is present in affected areas of myocardial infarction during the acute inflammatory phase and covers a larger area than C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leendert A Trouw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During myocardial infarction reduced blood flow in the heart muscle results in cell death. These dying/dead cells have been reported to bind several plasma proteins such as IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP. In the present study we investigated whether fluid-phase complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP would also bind to the infarcted heart tissue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Initial studies using immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays for several cardiovascular disorders indicated that C4BP can be found in heart tissue in several cardiac diseases but that it is most abundantly found in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This condition was studied in more detail by analyzing the time window and extent of C4BP positivity. The binding of C4BP correlates to the same locations as C3b, a marker known to correlate to the patterns of IgM and CRP staining. Based on criteria that describe the time after infarction we were able to pinpoint that C4BP binding is a relatively early marker of tissue damage in myocardial infarction with a peak of binding between 12 hours and 5 days subsequent to AMI, the phase in which infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes in the heart is the most extensive. CONCLUSIONS: C4BP, an important fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation binds to jeopardized cardiomyocytes early after AMI and co-localizes to other well known markers such as C3b.

  13. Modeling of Multi Phase Flow in Porous Media: Operator Splitting, Front Tracking, Interfacial Area and Network Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaug, Hans Fredrik

    2001-07-01

    In reservoir problems we consider some or all of the following phases: Oil, gas, water and solid. The solid phase is normally assumed to be immobile and non-deforming, but in general this does not need to be the case. By multi phase flow we will mean the flow of oil, gas and water. The phases are categorized according to their different physical quantities. A hydrocarbon phase, may consist of different hydrocarbon components, e.g., the oil phase can contain several oil and gas types. In this work the components are neglected and only the phases are considered. A porous medium is any solid phase, e.g. sand stone, that is permeable. The flow in a porous medium takes place through connected pores in the rock. Regions on a larger scale that contain oil or gas are called reservoirs. The typical size of a reservoir is kilometers in each direction while the pore scale size is millimeters or less. Solving the Navier-Stokes equation at the pore scale to obtain the transport on a larger scale is not numerically feasible because of the huge difference in scales. Therefore, some averaging is necessary to go from the pore scale (micro scale) to the reservoir scale (macro scale). In this process the Navier-Stokes equations are replaced by macro scale equations that are solved for macro scale variables. The papers presented herein cover several topics in multi phase flow in porous media, and they address some central problems both on the micro scale as well as on the macro scale. In addition, operator splitting techniques have been developed for convection dominated non-linear transport equations.

  14. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fisseha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC coupled to ion chromatography (IC in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase were observed with more than 50% of the total nitrate in the gas phase during August and more than 80% of nitrate in the aerosol phase during March exceeding the concentration of sulfate by a factor of 2. Aerosol sulfate, on the other hand, did not show significant variability with season. However, in the gas phase, the SO2 concentration was 6.5 times higher in winter than in summer. Nitrous acid (HONO also showed a diurnal variation in both the gas and aerosol phase with the lowest concentration (0.2–0.6 µg/m3 in the afternoon. The primary pollutants, NO, CO and SO2 mixing ratios were often at their highest between 04:00–10:00 local time due to the build up of fresh vehicle emission under a nocturnal inversion.

  15. Investigation of the Radon exhalation potential in the PACA region. Phase II: case of high potential exhalation areas in Medium Champsaur (05) and South Esterel (83). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the results of the first phase of the study and the objectives of the second phase, the authors present the methodology: uranium and thorium analysis on rock, radon-222 activity measurement in soil gases, and gamma radiation measurement. They discuss the influence of rock uranium content on radon exhalation (natural contextual and physical phenomena governing radon transport, radon properties, uranium geochemistry). They report the results obtained in the two considered areas (meteorological conditions, radon 222 content in soils, uranium and thorium contents in geological formations, influence of geological formation type and distribution on radon activity)

  16. Aortic valve stenotic area calculation from phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance: the importance of short echo time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Brett R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can potentially quantify aortic valve area (AVA in aortic stenosis (AS using a single-slice phase contrast (PC acquisition at valve level: AVA = aortic flow/aortic velocity-time integral (VTI. However, CMR has been shown to underestimate aortic flow in turbulent high velocity jets, due to intra-voxel dephasing. This study investigated the effect of decreasing intra-voxel dephasing by reducing the echo time (TE on AVA estimates in patients with AS. Method 15 patients with moderate or severe AS, were studied with three different TEs (2.8 ms/2.0 ms/1.5 ms, in the main pulmonary artery (MPA, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT and 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm above the aortic valve (AoV. PC estimates of stroke volume (SV were compared with CMR left ventricular SV measurements and PC peak velocity, VTI and AVA were compared with Doppler echocardiography. CMR estimates of AVA obtained by direct planimetry from cine acquisitions were also compared with the echoAVA. Results With a TE of 2.8 ms, the mean PC SV was similar to the ventricular SV at the MPA, LVOT and AoV0 cm (by Bland-Altman analysis bias ± 1.96 SD, 1.3 ± 20.2 mL/-6.8 ± 21.9 mL/6.5 ± 50.7 mL respectively, but was significantly lower at AoV1 and AoV2.5 (-29.3 ± 31.2 mL/-21.1 ± 35.7 mL. PC peak velocity and VTI underestimated Doppler echo estimates by approximately 10% with only moderate agreement. Shortening the TE from 2.8 to 1.5 msec improved the agreement between ventricular SV and PC SV at AoV0 cm (6.5 ± 50.7 mL vs 1.5 ± 37.9 mL respectively but did not satisfactorily improve the PC SV estimate at AoV1 cm and AoV2.5 cm. Agreement of CMR AVA with echoAVA was improved at TE 1.5 ms (0.00 ± 0.39 cm2 versus TE 2.8 (0.11 ± 0.81 cm2. The CMR method which agreed best with echoAVA was direct planimetry (-0.03 cm2 ± 0.24 cm2. Conclusion Agreement of CMR AVA at the aortic valve level with echo AVA improves with a reduced TE of 1.5 ms

  17. Phase transitions in diglyceride monolayers studied by computer simulations, pressure-area isotherms and x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Toxværd, S.; Larsen, N.B.;

    1994-01-01

    1,2-sn-diglyceride monolayers exhibit unique and complex phase transitions as a function of surface pressure. The dynamical response of the layer on expanding the film has been investigated by computer simulations, (π-A) isotherms and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. Good agreement is found b...

  18. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality

  19. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, high speed point/area photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a high speed point/area photometer for the space telescope are summarized. The scientific objectives, photometer requirements, and design concepts are presented.

  20. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of water- resources data-collection networks in the northern and coastal areas of Monterey County, California. This evaluation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District to evaluate precipitation, surface water, and ground water monitoring networks. This report describes existing monitoring networks in the study areas and areas where possible additional data-collection is needed. During this study, 106 precipitation-quantity gages were identified, of which 84 were active; however, no precipitation-quality gages were identified in the study areas. The precipitaion-quantity gages were concentrated in the Monterey Peninsula and the northern part of the county. If the number of gages in these areas were reduced, coverage would still be adequate to meet most objectives; however, additional gages could improve coverage in the Tularcitos Creek basin and in the coastal areas south of Carmel to the county boundary. If collection of precipitation data were expanded to include monitoring precipitation quality, this expanded monitoring also could include monitoring precipitation for acid rain and pesticides. Eleven continuous streamflow-gaging stations were identified during this study, of which seven were active. To meet the objectives of the streamflow networks outlined in this report, the seven active stations would need to be continued, four stations would need to be reactivated, and an additional six streamflow-gaging stations would need to be added. Eleven stations that routinely were sampled for chemical constituents were identified in the study areas. Surface water in the lower Big Sur River basin was sampled annually for total coli- form and fecal coliform bacteria, and the Big Sur River was sampled monthly at 16 stations for these bacteria. Routine sampling for chemical constituents also was done in the Big Sur River basin. The Monterey County Flood

  1. Natural Radium Detection and Inventory Flux of Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater at Kapar Coastal Area Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N.; Ariffin, N. A. N.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Distribution of 226Ra and 228Ra radioactive in marine have been studied at Kapar coastal area that closed to Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah (SJSSAS) power station. The concentration level of 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in seawater include total suspended solids (TSSrw) and dissolved phases from September 2006 to February 2008. The measurement technique used for 226Ra and 228Ra was using cation exchange column and counted using Liquid Scintillator Ciunter (LSC). The radioactivities of 226Rasw and 228Rasw in the dissolved phase of seawater ranged from 1.29 ± 0.52 mBq/L - 3.69 ± 1.29 mBq/L and 2.12 ± 0.71 mbq/L - 17.07 ± 6.03 mBq/L respectively. The measurement of radioactivities of radium isotopes in the particulate phase of seawater ranged from 15.62 ± 1.99 Bq/kg - 241.76 ± 100.23 Bq/kg (226Ratsw) and 7.19 ± 3.21 Bq/kg - 879.66 ± 365.74 Bq/kg (228Ratsw). Radium isotopes inventory in this study showed that suspended solid have higher inventory value than seawater and sediment. Study also found that suspended solid play an important role for flux contribution at seawater. Based on the finding, the radioactivity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra is higher in particulate phase than in dissolved phase.

  2. An Analytical-Numerical Model for Two-Phase Slug Flow through a Sudden Area Change in Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehdizadeh Momen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two new analytical models have been developed to calculate two-phase slug flow pressure drop in microchannels through a sudden contraction. Even though many studies have been reported on two-phase flow in microchannels, considerable discrepancies still exist, mainly due to the difficulties in experimental setup and measurements. Numerical simulations were performed to support the new analytical models and to explore in more detail the physics of the flow in microchannels with a sudden contraction. Both analytical and numerical results were compared to the available experimental data and other empirical correlations. Results show that models, which were developed based on the slug and semi-slug assumptions, agree well with experiments in microchannels. Moreover, in contrast to the previous empirical correlations which were tuned for a specific geometry, the new analytical models are capable of taking geometrical parameters as well as flow conditions into account.

  3. Characterization and use of high surface area activated carbons prepared from cane pith for liquid-phase adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous adsorbents with controllable surface areas were chemically activated with KOH at 780 deg. C from char that had been carbonized from cane pith at 450 deg. C. The pore properties including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and mean pore diameter of these activated carbons were characterized and derived using the t-plot method based on N2 adsorption isotherms. The activated cane pith carbons, with KOH/char ratios of 2-6, exhibited BET surface areas ranging from 912 to 2299 m2 g-1. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the surface morphology of honeycombed holes on all activated cane pith carbons was significantly influenced by the KOH/char ratio. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms of acid blue 74, methylene blue, basic brown 1, p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-cresol, and phenol from water at 30 deg. C on the activated carbons were studied. The adsorption kinetics were suitably described by a simplified kinetic model, the Elovich equation. All adsorption equilibrium isotherms were in agreement with the Langmuir equation, and were used to compare the covered area (S c/S p) of the activated carbons at different KOH/char ratios. The high-surface-area activated carbons were proven to be promising adsorbents for pollution control and for other applications

  4. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  5. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted

  6. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, P.M.

    2000-06-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted.

  7. Hyper-accumulation of 123I-iodoamphetamine in the infarcted area during subacute phase of ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High uptake of N-isopropyl-123I-iodoamphetamine (123-IMP) in the infarcted area on delayed images remains to be elucidated. The present study was thus performed to investigate the mechanism and temporal profile of this phenomenon and to elucidate the tracer kinetics in the pathological tissue. In a total of 22 patients with embolism (E, n=14) or thrombosis (T, n=8) during the acute stage of cerebral infarction, cerebral blood flow was determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123I-IMP. SPECT images were obtained at 15 minutes (early images) and 4 hours (delayed images) after iv injection of 111 MBq of 123-IMP. During the subacute period (Days 8 to 28), IMP uptake in the infarcted area was significantly higher on delayed images in the E group (79%), as compared with the T group (10%). Uptake patterns of IMP in the two groups differed, in that IMP uptake was seen over the whole infarcted area (diffuse pattern) in the E group and was confined to the marginal area (peripheral pattern) in the T group. Abnormal uptake of IMP was not seen in acute (before Day 8) or chronic (after Day 40) periods, regardless of either E or T group. These findings were not related to recanalization or hemorrhagic infarction. In conclusion, IMP taken up by the infarcted area on delayed images may reflect pathophysiological differences between the two types of cerebral infarction. Delayed SPECT images may provide not only statistic but also dynamic information, i.e. viability of amphetamine receptors and alterations of pharmacokinetics of IMP in the damaged brain tissue. (N.K.)

  8. Hyper-accumulation of sup 123 I-iodoamphetamine in the infarcted area during subacute phase of ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ikuo (Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    High uptake of N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}-IMP) in the infarcted area on delayed images remains to be elucidated. The present study was thus performed to investigate the mechanism and temporal profile of this phenomenon and to elucidate the tracer kinetics in the pathological tissue. In a total of 22 patients with embolism (E, n=14) or thrombosis (T, n=8) during the acute stage of cerebral infarction, cerebral blood flow was determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using {sup 123}I-IMP. SPECT images were obtained at 15 minutes (early images) and 4 hours (delayed images) after iv injection of 111 MBq of {sup 123}-IMP. During the subacute period (Days 8 to 28), IMP uptake in the infarcted area was significantly higher on delayed images in the E group (79%), as compared with the T group (10%). Uptake patterns of IMP in the two groups differed, in that IMP uptake was seen over the whole infarcted area (diffuse pattern) in the E group and was confined to the marginal area (peripheral pattern) in the T group. Abnormal uptake of IMP was not seen in acute (before Day 8) or chronic (after Day 40) periods, regardless of either E or T group. These findings were not related to recanalization or hemorrhagic infarction. In conclusion, IMP taken up by the infarcted area on delayed images may reflect pathophysiological differences between the two types of cerebral infarction. Delayed SPECT images may provide not only statistic but also dynamic information, i.e. viability of amphetamine receptors and alterations of pharmacokinetics of IMP in the damaged brain tissue. (N.K.).

  9. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident. - Highlights: • Behavior of cesium in the waste incineration residues was investigated. • Bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of stable cesium salts and RDF. • Microscopic and microanalytical techniques were applied. • Cesium distribution and phases were identified in bottom ash products. • Cesium is entrapped in silicate glass, minerals and metal-sulfide phases of bottom ash

  10. On the inclusion of the interfacial area between phases in the physical and mathematical description of subsurface multiphase flow. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Improved capabilities for modeling multiphase flow in the subsurface requires that several aspects of the system which impact the flow and transport processes be more properly accounted for. A distinguishing feature of multiphase flow in comparison to single phase flow is the existence of interfaces between fluids. At the microscopic (pore) scale, these interfaces are known to influence system behavior by supporting non-zero stresses such that the pressures in adjacent phases are not equal. In problems of interphase transport at the macroscopic (core) scale, knowledge of the total amount of interfacial area in the system provides a clue to the effectiveness of the communication between phases. Although interfacial processes are central to multiphase flow physics, their treatment in traditional porous-media theories has been implicit rather than explicit; and no attempts have been made to systematically account for the evolution of the interfacial area in dynamic systems or to include the dependence of constitutive functions, such as capillary pressure, on the interfacial area. This project implements a three-pronged approach to assessing the importance of various features of multiphase flow to its description. The research contributes to the improved understanding and precise physical description of multiphase subsurface flow by combining: (1) theoretical derivation of equations, (2) lattice Boltzmann modeling of hydrodynamics to identify characteristics and parameters, and (3) solution of the field-scale equations using a discrete numerical method to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the complete theory. This approach includes both fundamental scientific inquiry and a path for inclusion of the scientific results obtained in a technical tool that will improve assessment capabilities for multiphase flow situations that have arisen due to the introduction of organic materials in the natural environment. This report summarizes work after 1.5 years of a 3

  11. Analysis of interface formation mechanism in GaN double-polarity selective-area growth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, Kenta; Osumi, Noriyuki; Fujita, Yohei; Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki

    2016-05-01

    The fabrication of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) crystals by selective-area growth on the two asymmetrically polar surfaces of GaN is examined. We attempted the fabrication of GaN-QPM crystals by one-time growth using a carbon mask. For GaN double-polarity selective-area growth (DP-SAG), we investigated the effect of varied nitriding times of the Al2O3 templates patterned with the carbon mask. We optimized the nitriding conditions for the DP-SAG process, and evaluated the substrate fabricated by the optimized DP-SAG process. In addition, we examined the interface formation mechanism of DP-GaN fabricated by GaN DP-SAG process. We determined that it is possible to fabricate DP-GaN with a sharp interface by optimizing the growth conditions.

  12. First results of a large-area cryogenic gaseous photomultiplier coupled to a dual-phase liquid xenon TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss recent advances in the development of cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers (GPM), for possible use in dark matter and other rare-event searches using noble-liquid targets. We present results from a 10 cm diameter GPM coupled to a dual-phase liquid xenon (LXe) TPC, demonstrating—for the first time—the feasibility of recording both primary (''S1'') and secondary (''S2'') scintillation signals. The detector comprised a triple Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) structure with cesium iodide photocathode on the first element; it was shown to operate stably at 180 K with gains above 105, providing high single-photon detection efficiency even in the presence of large α particle-induced S2 signals comprising thousands of photoelectrons. S1 scintillation signals were recorded with a time resolution of 1.2 ns (RMS). The energy resolution (σ/E) for S2 electroluminescence of 5.5 MeV α particles was ∼ 9%, which is comparable to that obtained in the XENON100 TPC with PMTs. The results are discussed within the context of potential GPM deployment in future multi-ton noble-liquid detectors

  13. On the use of area-averaged void fraction and local bubble chord length entropies as two-phase flow regime indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Leonor; Julia, J.E. [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion Campus de Riu Sec, Castellon (Spain); Paranjape, Sidharth; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [Purdue University, Nuclear Engineering Department, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2010-11-15

    In this work, the use of the area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies is introduced as flow regime indicators in two-phase flow systems. The entropy provides quantitative information about the disorder in the area-averaged void fraction or bubble chord length distributions. The CPDF (cumulative probability distribution function) of void fractions and bubble chord lengths obtained by means of impedance meters and conductivity probes are used to calculate both entropies. Entropy values for 242 flow conditions in upward two-phase flows in 25.4 and 50.8-mm pipes have been calculated. The measured conditions cover ranges from 0.13 to 5 m/s in the superficial liquid velocity j{sub f} and ranges from 0.01 to 25 m/s in the superficial gas velocity j{sub g}. The physical meaning of both entropies has been interpreted using the visual flow regime map information. The area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies capability as flow regime indicators have been checked with other statistical parameters and also with different input signals durations. The area-averaged void fraction and the bubble chord length entropies provide better or at least similar results than those obtained with other indicators that include more than one parameter. The entropy is capable to reduce the relevant information of the flow regimes in only one significant and useful parameter. In addition, the entropy computation time is shorter than the majority of the other indicators. The use of one parameter as input also represents faster predictions. (orig.)

  14. Load frequency stabilization by coordinated control of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifters and superconducting magnetic energy storage for three types of interconnected two-area power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, automatic generation control with interconnected two-area multi-unit all-hydro power system and two more test systems as all-thermal and thermal-hydro mixed haves been investigated. The transfer function of hydro turbine having non-minimum phase characteristics makes it different from the steam turbine. Upon application of small load perturbation to such all-hydro system, the frequency is severely disturbed and the system eventually becomes unstable. To stabilize the system for such load disturbance, comparative transient performance of two cases as (a) Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) installed in series with the tie-line in coordination with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and (b) SMES located at each terminal of both areas are analyzed. It is observed that the case (b) i.e. SMES located at each terminal of both areas suppresses the frequency oscillations more effectively in integral controller assisted AGC of two-area multi-unit all-hydro system and the other two systems as well. In addition, the effectiveness of proposed frequency stabilizers is guaranteed by analyzing the transient responses of the system with different system parameters, various load patterns and in the event of temporary and permanent tie-line outage. Gains of the integral controller in AGC loop and parameters of TCPS and SMES are optimized with the help of a relatively novel particle swarm optimization, developed by the authors, called as craziness-based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO). The optimizing performance has been compared to that of real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) to establish its superiority. (author)

  15. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  16. Evidence of a planetary influence on solar activity: Phase coherence of the variation in sunspot area with the tidal effect of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Edmonds, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of quasiperiodicities in solar activity in the intermediate period range. However, no accepted explanation for the episodic occurrence of quasiperiodicities has emerged. This paper examines the possibility that the periodicities are associated with a Mercury Sun interaction of base period 88 days. To test this idea we band pass filter the 140 year long daily sunspot area data to obtain the 88 day period and 176 day sub harmonic period components of the data and compare the time variation of the components with the time variation of the orbital radius of Mercury, or more specifically with the time variation of the tidal effect of Mercury. We were able to show that, when successive episodes of the occurrence of the 88 day period component were discrete and not overlapping in time, the time variation of this component of sunspot area was either exactly in-phase or exactly in anti-phase with the time variation of tidal effect. A similar result was obtained for the 176 day period c...

  17. The effect of bubble-induced turbulence and the bubble size on the interfacial area transport in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, two common modeling concepts taking into account of the influence of bubbles on the turbulence of liquid phase were implemented in the EAGLE code and assessed against Hibiki's experiment data. The EAGLE (Elaborated Analysis of Gas-Liquid Evolution) code has been developed at KAERI based on the two-fluid model for a multi-dimensional analysis of two-phase flow with the implementations of non-drag force, standard k-ε turbulence model, and the interfacial area transport equation. In order to investigate the bubble size effect on two-phase flow evolution and to provide a data set for developing the physical models to describe the bubble-induced turbulence effect and also for validating the EAGLE code, a series of local parameter measurements as well as visualization tests were conducted in air-water vertical-upward flow condition in which the initial bubble size is controlled by a specially designed bubble generator. The numerical and experimental results are compared, analyzed and discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Application of Rms amplitude anomaly mapping in inferring controls on fluid saturation and fault-bound reservoir compartments in the C4 member (lower Misoa formation), phase III area, bloque I area, lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, William A.; Hamilton, Douglas S.; Zeng, Hongliu; Holtz, Mark H.; Light, Malcolm; Yeh, Joseph S. [University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Carvajal, Gladys de; Pinto, Jonny; Garibaldi, Luis; Azpiritxaga, Izaskun [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Exploracion y Produccion

    1999-07-01

    Three-dimensional seismic data are increasingly being used in reservoir characterization studies as an aid in detecting and delineating structural and lithologic features as well as changes in fluid distribution that may not be resolvable with log data at wide well spacings. Amplitude maps, in addition to displaying distribution of lithology, can also be effective in inferring subtle faults associated with changes in reservoir fluid content. In a 12-month reservoir characterization study of tide-dominated deltaic and shelf reservoirs of the Lower Eocene Misoa Formation in a 4-m{sup 2} (10.4-km{sup 2}) rectangular are (Phase III Area) in the Bloque I Area, 3-D seismic data were used in conjunction with logs from approximately 50 wells to detect delineate faults and to infer interwell sand-body distribution. The goal of this reservoir analysis analysis was construct an improved geological model of oil-and gas-productive reservoirs in the Lower Eocene to better understand controls on reservoir compartmentalization and to identify areas of unswept hydrocarbons. This paper provides examples from the C4 Member and demonstrates how 3-D seismic data were used to infer the presence of faults not previously detected in earlier studies of these reservoirs with conventional log data and to illustrate their control on fluid distribution. (author)

  19. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological

  20. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  1. The Odra project 'Interdisciplinary German-Polish studies about the behavior of pollutants in the Odra-system'. Subproject 2: Trace analysis of organic pollutants in the Odra-system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, W.; Franke, S.; Heinzel, N.; Meyer, C.; Specht, M.

    2001-07-01

    Non target screening results of IOP-Subproject 2: 'Trace Analysis of Organic Pollutants in the Odra-System' elucidate the requirement of monitoring a large number of synthetic organic compounds which were identified in the Odra-system with the objective to establish a basis for the systematic control of their emissions. The Odra-system's water and sediment pollution can be characterized by the following results: Sediments are frequently polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and in rare cases only by additional 'classic' environmental pollutants, chlorinated hydrocarbons, as PCB, DDT-group compounds, and HCH. A number of anthropogenic marker compounds, as phenylalkanes, alkylphenols, alkylphenolethoxylates, and faecal steroides are present, that can be useful for the identification of (municipal and rural) emission sources. 'Modern' pesticides, mainly a small number of herbicides as well as pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the Odra water. Additionally present are industrial chemicals and waste products, introduced by direct emissions into the Odra-system. Within the chemical groups of benzothiazoles, thio- and dithiocarbamates, sulfones and sulfonic acid amides, a variety of organic compounds was identified for the first time in the aquatic environment. The ecotoxicological impact of these substances is not known. Mutagenic or cancerogenic compounds, like chloroalkyl- and arylphosphates, and chloropropyl ethers originate from distinct sources as well. (orig.)

  2. CFD simulation of adiabatic two-phase flow in the cap bubble regime using the two-group interfacial area transport equations (IATE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudharwadkar, D.; Lopez de Bertodano, M., E-mail: dprabhud@purdue.edu, E-mail: bertodan@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Buchanan, J., E-mail: Jack.Buchanan@unnpp.gov [Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corp., Bettis Laboratory, West Mifflin, Pennsylvania (United States); Guilbert, P., E-mail: paul.guilbert@ansys.com [ANSYS UK Ltd., Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    A multidimensional three-field two-fluid model with the two-group IATE is implemented for the bubbly-cap bubble regime. The mechanisms of the two-group IATE bubble interactions that have been proposed and validated in the past for one dimension are extended to a multi-dimensional model. The CFD simulations were validated using the data of Sun et al. where the phase distribution, interfacial area concentration and velocity distribution in the cross-section for the two bubble groups were measured using the four-sensor conductivity probe at four axial locations. The results demonstrate the applicability of the two-group IATE model in three dimensions. (author)

  3. HyMaP: A hybrid magnitude-phase approach to unsupervised segmentation of tumor areas in breast cancer histology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segmentation of areas containing tumor cells in standard H&E histopathology images of breast (and several other tissues is a key task for computer-assisted assessment and grading of histopathology slides. Good segmentation of tumor regions is also vital for automated scoring of immunohistochemical stained slides to restrict the scoring or analysis to areas containing tumor cells only and avoid potentially misleading results from analysis of stromal regions. Furthermore, detection of mitotic cells is critical for calculating key measures such as mitotic index; a key criteria for grading several types of cancers including breast cancer. We show that tumor segmentation can allow detection and quantification of mitotic cells from the standard H&E slides with a high degree of accuracy without need for special stains, in turn making the whole process more cost-effective. Method: Based on the tissue morphology, breast histology image contents can be divided into four regions: Tumor, Hypocellular Stroma (HypoCS, Hypercellular Stroma (HyperCS, and tissue fat (Background. Background is removed during the preprocessing stage on the basis of color thresholding, while HypoCS and HyperCS regions are segmented by calculating features using magnitude and phase spectra in the frequency domain, respectively, and performing unsupervised segmentation on these features. Results: All images in the database were hand segmented by two expert pathologists. The algorithms considered here are evaluated on three pixel-wise accuracy measures: precision, recall, and F1-Score. The segmentation results obtained by combining HypoCS and HyperCS yield high F1-Score of 0.86 and 0.89 with re-spect to the ground truth. Conclusions: In this paper, we show that segmentation of breast histopathology image into hypocellular stroma and hypercellular stroma can be achieved using magnitude and phase spectra in the frequency domain. The segmentation leads to demarcation of tumor

  4. First operation and drift field performance of a large area double phase LAr Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber with an immersed Greinacher high-voltage multiplier

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Degunda, U; Epprecht, L; Gendotti, A; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Nguyen, K; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Viant, T

    2012-01-01

    We have operated a liquid-argon large-electron-multiplier time-projection chamber (LAr LEM-TPC) with a large active area of 76 $\\times$ 40 cm$^2$ and a drift length of 60 cm. This setup represents the largest chamber ever achieved with this novel detector concept. The chamber is equipped with an immersed built-in cryogenic Greinacher multi-stage high-voltage (HV) multiplier, which, when subjected to an external AC HV of $\\sim$1 kV$_{\\mathrm{pp}}$, statically charges up to a voltage a factor of $\\sim$30 higher inside the LAr vessel, creating a uniform drift field of $\\sim$0.5 kV/cm over the full drift length. This large LAr LEM-TPC was brought into successful operation in the double-phase (liquid-vapor) operation mode and tested during a period of $\\sim$1 month, recording impressive three-dimensional images of very high-quality from cosmic particles traversing or interacting in the sensitive volume. The double phase readout and HV systems achieved stable operation in cryogenic conditions demonstrating their go...

  5. First operation and drift field performance of a large area double phase LAr Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber with an immersed Greinacher high-voltage multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badertscher, A.; Curioni, A.; Degunda, U.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Knecht, L.; Lussi, D.; Marchionni, A.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Viant, T.

    2012-08-01

    We have operated a liquid-argon large-electron-multiplier time-projection chamber (LAr LEM-TPC) with a large active area of 76 × 40 cm2 and a drift length of 60 cm. This setup represents the largest chamber ever achieved with this novel detector concept. The chamber is equipped with an immersed built-in cryogenic Greinacher multi-stage high-voltage (HV) multiplier, which, when subjected to an external AC HV of ~ 1 kVpp, statically charges up to a voltage a factor of ~ 30 higher inside the LAr vessel, creating a uniform drift field of ~ 0.5 kV/cm over the full drift length. This large LAr LEM-TPC was brought into successful operation in the double-phase (liquid-vapor) operation mode and tested during a period of ~ 1 month, recording impressive three-dimensional images of very high-quality from cosmic particles traversing or interacting in the sensitive volume. The double phase readout and HV systems achieved stable operation in cryogenic conditions demonstrating their good characteristics, which particularly suit applications for next-generation giant-scale LAr-TPCs.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in gas and particle phases and source determination in atmospheric samples from a semiurban area of Dourados, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ré, Nilva; Kataoka, Vanessa Mayumi Fukuy; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz; de Souza, João Batista Gomes

    2015-07-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure that employs a PDMS/DVB fiber was developed for the analysis of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected in polyurethane foam (PUF) by gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry. The method exhibited good linearity (R (2) > 0.99) and repeatability (4.9-25 %) as well as an impressive detection limit that ranged from 1.1 to 3.3 ng. Twenty-two air samples were collected by high-volume samplers from January to November 2007 in a semiurban area of Dourados (Brazil) and were analyzed for their content of total suspended particulates and PAHs. The PAHs were extracted from the PUF samples using the developed procedure (HS-SPME), and PAHs adsorbed on particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane/methanol (4:1 [v/v]) in an ultrasonic bath. The values of the total daily concentrations of 16 PAHs determined in the samples ranged from 0.375 to 8.407 ng m(-3). In addition, diagnostic ratios were calculated, showing that the PAHs in the atmosphere at the sampling site originated predominantly from vehicle emissions and the combustion of grass and wood. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed as well, the results of which indicated (1) the same sources of PAH identified by the diagnostic ratios and (2) that the sampling days could be categorized into three groups depending on the atmospheric conditions. GC retention indices were also used to identify PAHs, biphenyl (phenylbenzene), and heterocyclic organic compounds (benzofurans) in some of the samples. PMID:25851064

  7. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naude, Yvette, E-mail: yvette.naude@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Rohwer, Egmont R., E-mail: egmont.rohwer@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a novel denuder for the determination of DDT in contaminated indoor air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single step concentration of vapour phase on PDMS, particulate phase on filter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-free green technique, sample extraction not required. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of airborne p,p Prime -DDD/p,p Prime -DDT and of o,p Prime -DDT/p,p Prime -DDT are unusual. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecticidal efficacy of technical DDT may be compromised. - Abstract: The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa. The strict Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) allows spraying on the inside of traditional dwellings with DDT. In rural villages contaminated dust presents an additional pathway for exposure to DDT. We present a new method for the determination of DDT in indoor air where separate vapour and particulate samples are collected in a single step with a denuder configuration of a multi-channel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) trap combined with a micro quartz fibre filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap section of the denuder concentrates vapour phase insecticide whereas particle associated insecticide is transferred downstream where it is collected on a micro-fibre filter followed by a second multi-channel PDMS trap to capture the blow-off from the filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap and filter combination are designed to fit a commercial thermal desorber for direct introduction of samples into a GC-MS. The technique is solvent-free. Analyte extraction and sample clean-up is not required. Two fractions, vapour phase and particulate phase p,p Prime -DDT, o,p Prime -DDT; p,p Prime -DDD, o,p Prime -DDD; p,p Prime -DDE and o,p Prime -DDE in 4 L contaminated indoor air, were each quantitatively analysed by GC-MS using

  8. Environmentally-safe process control and state diagnostic in chemical plants by neuronal network. Subproject 2. Final report; Umweltgerechte Prozessfuehrung und Zustandserkennung in Chemieanlagen mit neuronalen Netzen. Teilvorhaben 2: Konzipierung und Erprobung des Zustandserkennungsverfahrens. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessel, G.; Heidrich, J.; Hilpert, R.; Roth, M. [Degussa AG (Germany); Kryk, H.; Schmitt, W.; Seiler, T.; Weiss, F.P.

    2002-12-01

    In the frame of the sub-project, an on-line monitoring system for strongly exothermic reactions was developed to support the operational personnel in the optimal and environmentally compatible process control of complex or safety-difficult reactions in semibatch-mode in stirred tank reactors (batch reactor). The Monitoring System (MoSys) based on dimensionless mass and heat balances with adaptive functions has first to be trained using process data from normal and undesired courses of batches carried out in a miniplant under conditions of the industrial process. The adaptation of balance models to the target plant is done by two-layer perceptron networks. To ensure a complete scale-up, MoSys should be adapted and validated using process data of at least one normal batch course in the chemical plant. MoSys was designed for both a homogeneous exothermic esterification reaction and a heterogeneous exothermic hydrogenation process. Experimental tests were carried out in a pilot plant (esterification) and in an industrial plant (hydrogenation). For industrial testing, MoSys was integrated into a Batch-Information-Management System (BIMS) which was also developed and implemented in the Process Control System (PCS) of a multi-purpose reactor installation in the fine chemical factory at Radebeul (Degussa Inc.). As a result, the MoSys outputs can simultaneously be visualised with important process signals on the terminals of PCS. For example, the progress of hydrogenation, the predictive end of reaction and the concentration profiles of the educt, intermediate and product are displayed on the terminals of operator stations. Furthermore, when undesired operating states occur, the operational personnel is early alarmed and recommendation are given for countermeasures that are allowed to be only done by the operator. The efficiency of BIMS/MoSys could be proven during two industrial hydrogenation campaigns. (orig.)

  9. In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface - Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the biogeochemical processes underlying in situ bioremediation technologies are increasingly well understood, field-scale heterogeneity (both physical and biogeochemical) remains a major obstacle to successful field-scale implementation. In particular, slow release of contamination from low-permeability regions (primarily by diffusive/dispersive mass transfer) can hinder the effectiveness of remediation. The research described in this report was conducted in conjunction with a project entitled ''In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface'', which was funded through the Field Research element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Timothy Scheibe (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Scott Brooks (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The overall goal of the project was to evaluate strategies that target bioremediation at interfaces between high- and low-permeability regions of an aquifer in order to minimize the rate of contaminant transfer into high-permeability/high fluid flow zones. The research was conducted at the Area 2 site of the Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. Hydrological tracer studies indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. We sought to test the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this

  10. In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2007-11-02

    Although the biogeochemical processes underlying in situ bioremediation technologies are increasingly well understood, field-scale heterogeneity (both physical and biogeochemical) remains a major obstacle to successful field-scale implementation. In particular, slow release of contamination from low-permeability regions (primarily by diffusive/dispersive mass transfer) can hinder the effectiveness of remediation. The research described in this report was conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface”, which was funded through the Field Research element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Timothy Scheibe (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Scott Brooks (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The overall goal of the project was to evaluate strategies that target bioremediation at interfaces between high- and low-permeability regions of an aquifer in order to minimize the rate of contaminant transfer into high-permeability/high fluid flow zones. The research was conducted at the Area 2 site of the Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. Hydrological tracer studies indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. We sought to test the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into

  11. Effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of Sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. The study was conducted in the farm of the University of Messina (Italy). Light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from May to November; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag being changed every 2h; for 30 days, at different heights from 18:00 to 6:00. A total of five species (i.e., Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Sergentomyia minuta), three of which are proven vectors of Leishmania infantum, were captured. The most abundant species was P. perniciosus (73.3%) followed by S. minuta (23.3%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in August and September with a peak of collection recorded in the evening (i.e., from 20:01 to 22.00). The number of phlebotomine sand flies collected at 50cm above the ground was significantly higher (P=0.041) than that captured at 150cm. Results of this study shed light on the ecology of main phlebotomine species in the Mediterranean area, and on the influence of some factors, such as time and height of traps, on the light trap capture efficiency.

  12. Results of Phase I groundwater quality assessment for single-shell tank waste management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Phase I, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater quality assessment for the Richland Field Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-RL), in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) S-SX has impacted groundwater quality. The WMA is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and consists of the 241-S and 241-SX tank farms and ancillary waste systems. The unit is regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations (40 CFR 265, Subpart F) and was placed in assessment groundwater monitoring (40 CFR 265.93 [d]) in August 1996 because of elevated specific conductance and technetium-99, a non-RCRA co-contaminant, in downgradient monitoring wells. Major findings of the assessment are summarized below: (1) Distribution patterns for radionuclides and RCRA/dangerous waste constituents indicate WMA S-SX has contributed to groundwater contamination observed in downgradient monitoring wells. (2) Drinking water standards for nitrate and technetium-99 are currently exceeded in one RCRA-compliant well (299-W22-46) located at the southeastern comer of the SX tank farm. (3) Technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium concentrations in downgradient well 299-W22-46 (the well with the highest current concentrations) appear to be declining after reaching maximum concentrations in May 1997. (4) Cesium-137 and strontium-90, major constituents of concern in single-shell tank waste, were not detected in any of the RCRA-compliant wells in the WMA network, including the well with the highest current technetium-99 concentrations (299-W22-46). (5) Low but detectable strontium-90 and cesium-137 were found in one old well (2-W23-7), located inside and between the S and SX tank farms

  13. Micro X-ray diffraction using X-ray area detector and identifying multiple phases in Zr2TiAl alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The birth of X-ray diffraction technique and its evolution has catalyzed the development of solid state science and further our understanding of material properties. The first single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern recorded was of Copper Sulphate Hydrate on a photographic film by Laue, and his co-workers Friedrich and Knipping, in 1912, for which he was awarded the Nobel prize. The actual diffraction pattern obtained was pretty awful with vague smudges instead of sharp diffraction spots (1). Development of X-ray detection technology has been playing an important role in advancing the development of new X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques. For instance, developments in electronics in the 1960's to 80's enabled advent of point detectors (eg. Nal scintillation detector) and line detectors (e.g gas filled single wire detector). These led to faster and more sensitive detection of X-rays leading to good XRD patterns. However, important information about microstructural details, defects, etc that are manifest well in the two dimensional map of the reciprocal space could be obtained reliably using area detectors (e.g X-ray films) (2). In the 1990's new developments in 2D X-ray area detectors such as Charge coupled devices (CCD), Imaging Plate Systems (IPS) and Multiwire proportional counters (MPC) led to replacement of the slower and low sensitive X-ray films with extremely sensitive 2D detection technology. This presentation will discuss these 2D detection techniques and their underlying mechanism. Recently the structure of multiple phases in Zr2TiAl alloy system could be identified using micro-XRD and 2D detection technique. Result of this study will be presented. (author)

  14. Determining the effect of solid and liquid vectors on the gaseous interfacial area and oxygen transfer rates in two-phase partitioning bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of liquid and solid transfer vectors (silicone oil and Desmopan, respectively) on the gaseous interfacial area (ag) was evaluated in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using fresh mineral salt medium and the cultivation broth of a toluene degradation culture (Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E cultures continuously cultivated with and without silicone oil at low toluene loading rates). Higher values of ag were recorded in the presence of both silicone oil and Desmopan compared to the values obtained in the absence of a vector, regardless of the aqueous medium tested (1.6 and 3 times higher, respectively, using fresh mineral salt medium). These improvements in ag were well correlated to the oxygen mass transfer enhancements supported by the vectors (1.3 and 2.5 for liquid and solid vectors, respectively, using fresh medium). In this context, oxygen transfer rates of 2.5 g O2 L-1 h-1 and 1.3 g O2 L-1 h-1 were recorded in the presence of Desmopan and silicone oil, respectively, which are in agreement with previously reported values in literature. These results suggest that mass transfer enhancements in TPPBs might correspond to an increase in ag rather than to the establishment of a high-performance gas/vector/water transfer pathway.

  15. Determining the effect of solid and liquid vectors on the gaseous interfacial area and oxygen transfer rates in two-phase partitioning bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano, Guillermo [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios, Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rocha-Rios, Jose [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica (IPH), Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez, Maria; Villaverde, Santiago [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Revah, Sergio [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, c/o IPH, UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Munoz, Raul, E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Departmento de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologia del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena, s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Thalasso, Frederic [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios, Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    The effect of liquid and solid transfer vectors (silicone oil and Desmopan, respectively) on the gaseous interfacial area (a{sub g}) was evaluated in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using fresh mineral salt medium and the cultivation broth of a toluene degradation culture (Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E cultures continuously cultivated with and without silicone oil at low toluene loading rates). Higher values of a{sub g} were recorded in the presence of both silicone oil and Desmopan compared to the values obtained in the absence of a vector, regardless of the aqueous medium tested (1.6 and 3 times higher, respectively, using fresh mineral salt medium). These improvements in a{sub g} were well correlated to the oxygen mass transfer enhancements supported by the vectors (1.3 and 2.5 for liquid and solid vectors, respectively, using fresh medium). In this context, oxygen transfer rates of 2.5 g O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.3 g O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1} were recorded in the presence of Desmopan and silicone oil, respectively, which are in agreement with previously reported values in literature. These results suggest that mass transfer enhancements in TPPBs might correspond to an increase in a{sub g} rather than to the establishment of a high-performance gas/vector/water transfer pathway.

  16. Phase II Documentation Overview of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject to assess and evaluate radiologic groundwater contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. These activities are overseen by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended March 2010). For Frenchman Flat, the UGTA Subproject addresses media contaminated by the underground nuclear tests, which is limited to geologic formations within the saturated zone or 100 meters (m) or less above the water table. Transport in groundwater is judged to be the primary mechanism of migration for the subsurface contamination away from the Frenchman Flat underground nuclear tests. The intent of the UGTA Subproject is to assess the risk to the public from the groundwater contamination produced as a result of nuclear testing. The primary method used to assess this risk is the development of models of flow and contaminant transport to forecast the extent of potentially contaminated groundwater for the next 1,000 years, establish restrictions to groundwater usage, and implement a monitoring program to verify protectiveness. For the UGTA Subproject, contaminated groundwater is that which exceeds the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (CFR, 2009) the State of Nevada’s groundwater quality standard to protect human health and the environment. Contaminant forecasts are expected to be uncertain, and groundwater monitoring will be used in combination with land-use control to build confidence in model results and reduce risk to the public. Modeling forecasts of contaminant transport will provide the basis for negotiating a compliance boundary for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This compliance boundary represents a regulatory-based distinction between groundwater contaminated or not contaminated by underground testing. Transport modeling simulations

  17. A Printable Silicon Nano-Field Effect Transistor with High Operating Frequency for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  18. Printable Nano-Field Effect Transistors Combined with Carbon Nanotube Based Printable Interconnect Wires for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  19. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about -7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status.

  20. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  1. Assessment of subsidence in karst terranes at selected areas in East Tennessee and comparison with a candidate site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work in the respective areas included assessment of conditions related to sinkhole development. Information collected and assessed involved geology, hydrogeology, land use, lineaments and linear trends, identification of karst features and zones, and inventory of historical sinkhole development and type. Karstification of the candidate, Rhea County, and Morristown study areas, in comparison to other karst areas in Tennessee, can be classified informally as youthful, submature, and mature, respectively. Historical sinkhole development in the more karstified areas is attributed to the greater degree of structural deformation by faulting and fracturing, subsequent solutioning of bedrock, thinness of residuum, and degree of development by man. Sinkhole triggering mechanisms identified are progressive solution of bedrock, water-level fluctuations, piping, and loading. 68 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  2. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  3. High-conductivity large-area semi-transparent electrodes for polymer photovoltaics by silk screen printing and vapour-phase deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    Transparent electrodes based on PEDOT were prepared using a variety of techniques suitable for large area applications from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDT) and Fe(111)tosylate. High conductivities were obtained (similar to 20 Omega(-1)) with moderate transmission in the UVvisible range 350-600 nm....... We subsequently demonstrate the application of PEDOT electrodes to flexible polyethyleneterphthalate plastic substrates (PET) prepared by this procedure for polymer photovoltaic devices with active areas of 4.2cm(2) using a 1:4 w/w mixture of MEHPPV and PCBM. We obtain typical efficiencies of 0...

  4. Radon-safe new buildings, documentation and technology development. Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is carried out as three separate subprojects, with subproject 1 as the principal project. Subproject 1 deals with field tests of radon penetration of different floor design (1A) and the effect of passive sub slab ventilation (1B). Subproject 2 deals with laboratory tests of material and design permeability, and subproject 3 deals with mapping of the radon potential and variation of a defined area. The appendix volume presents the detailed data for the results achieved in the project. (ln)

  5. Radon-safe new buildings, documentation and technology development. Appendix; Radonsikring i nybyggeri, documentation og teknologiudvikling. Bilag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddam Overgaard, L.; Bruun Petersen, J.; Neerup Jeppesen, M.

    2011-07-01

    The project is carried out as three separate subprojects, with subproject 1 as the principal project. Subproject 1 deals with field tests of radon penetration of different floor design (1A) and the effect of passive sub slab ventilation (1B). Subproject 2 deals with laboratory tests of material and design permeability, and subproject 3 deals with mapping of the radon potential and variation of a defined area. The appendix volume presents the detailed data for the results achieved in the project. (ln)

  6. Expression of p53 Target Genes in the Early Phase of Long-Term Potentiation in the Rat Hippocampal CA1 Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.; Lisachev, Pavel D.; Shtark, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression plays an important role in the mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP), which is a widely accepted experimental model of synaptic plasticity. We have studied the expression of at least 50 genes that are transcriptionally regulated by p53, as well as other genes that are related to p53-dependent processes, in the early phase of LTP. Within 30 min after Schaffer collaterals (SC) tetanization, increases in the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, which are upregulated by p53, and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2, which are downregulated by p53, were observed. The inhibition of Mdm2 by nutlin-3 increased the basal p53 protein level and rescued its tetanization-induced depletion, which suggested the involvement of Mdm2 in the control over p53 during LTP. Furthermore, nutlin-3 caused an increase in the basal expression of Bax and a decrease in the basal expression of Bcl2, whereas tetanization-induced changes in their expression were occluded. These results support the hypothesis that p53 may be involved in transcriptional regulation during the early phase of LTP. We hope that the presented data may aid in the understanding of the contribution of p53 and related genes in the processes that are associated with synaptic plasticity. PMID:25767724

  7. Expression of p53 Target Genes in the Early Phase of Long-Term Potentiation in the Rat Hippocampal CA1 Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O. Pustylnyak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression plays an important role in the mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP, which is a widely accepted experimental model of synaptic plasticity. We have studied the expression of at least 50 genes that are transcriptionally regulated by p53, as well as other genes that are related to p53-dependent processes, in the early phase of LTP. Within 30 min after Schaffer collaterals (SC tetanization, increases in the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, which are upregulated by p53, and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2, which are downregulated by p53, were observed. The inhibition of Mdm2 by nutlin-3 increased the basal p53 protein level and rescued its tetanization-induced depletion, which suggested the involvement of Mdm2 in the control over p53 during LTP. Furthermore, nutlin-3 caused an increase in the basal expression of Bax and a decrease in the basal expression of Bcl2, whereas tetanization-induced changes in their expression were occluded. These results support the hypothesis that p53 may be involved in transcriptional regulation during the early phase of LTP. We hope that the presented data may aid in the understanding of the contribution of p53 and related genes in the processes that are associated with synaptic plasticity.

  8. Solid-phase microextraction in the analysis of virgin olive oil volatile fraction: characterization of virgin olive oils from two distinct geographical areas of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Pizzale, Lorena; Conte, Lanfranco S; Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2003-10-22

    SPME was employed to characterize the volatile profile of virgin olive oils produced in two geographical areas of northern Italy: the region of the Gulf of Trieste and the area near Lake Garda. There are as yet no data on the headspace composition of virgin olive oils from these regions, characterized by particular conditions of growth for Olea europaea. Using the SPME technique coupled to GC-MS and GC-FID, the volatile components of 42 industrially produced virgin olive oil samples were identified and the principal compounds quantitatively analyzed. Significant differences in the proportion of volatile constituents from oils of different varieties and geographical origins were detected. The results suggest that besides the genetic factor, environmental conditions influence the volatile formation.

  9. Development of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid-fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid-fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc-Sw-awn relationship can be computed.

  10. Age, gender and normalization covariates for spinal cord gray matter and total cross-sectional areas at cervical and thoracic levels: A 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Papinutto

    Full Text Available The source of inter-subject variability and the influence of age and gender on morphometric characteristics of the spinal cord, such as the total cross-sectional area (TCA, the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM areas, currently remain under investigation. Understanding the effect of covariates such as age, gender, brain volumes, and skull- and vertebra-derived metrics on cervical and thoracic spinal cord TCA and GM areas in healthy subjects would be fundamental for exploring compartment specific changes in neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T we investigated 32 healthy subjects using a 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequence and we measured TCA, GM and WM areas at 4 cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord. We assessed age and gender relationships of cord measures and explored associations between cord measures and a brain volumes and b skull- and vertebra-derived metrics. Age and gender had a significant effect on TCA, WM and GM areas (with women and elderly having smaller values than men and younger people respectively, but not on the GM area/TCA ratio. The total intracranial volume and C3 vertebra dimensions showed the highest correlations with cord measures. When used in multi-regression models, they reduced cord areas group variability by approximately a third. Age and gender influences on cord measures and normalization strategies here presented might be of use in the study of compartment specific changes in various neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord.

  11. Excellent areas. Learning from energy efficient newly built houses. Halfway the knowledge and learning phase; Excellente gebieden. Leerschool voor energiezuinige nieuwbouw. Halverwege het kennis- en leertraject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The so-called Excellent Areas concern 19 innovative newly built houses projects in the residential and utility sector. Houses and office buildings are constructed with at least an energy performance coefficient (EPC), 25% stricter than as described in the Dutch Building Code. This project is aimed at preparing for the Spring Agreement in which it is agreed to tighten the EPC in 2015 and to reach the nearly zero-energy ambition for 2020. Municipalities, project developers and other parties in the energy-efficient building business thus gain experience with innovative construction methods and techniques. And in particular in the search for innovation in the construction process and new forms of cooperation and financing. The knowledge and experiences are supported, shared and disseminated in the knowledge and learning process of Excellent Areas [Dutch] De Excellente Gebieden zijn 19 innovatieve nieuwbouwprojecten in de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. Hier worden woningen en kantoren gebouwd met tenminste een 25% scherpere energieprestatiecoefficient (EPC) dan het Bouwbesluit voorschrijft. Dit ter voorbereiding op de in het Lente-akkoord afgesproken aanscherping van de EPC in 2015 en de bijna energieneutrale ambitie voor 2020. Gemeenten, projectontwikkelaars en andere partijen die energiezuinig bouwen, doen uitgebreide praktijkervaring op met innovatieve bouwmethoden en technieken. En vooral ook met het zoeken naar innovatie in het bouwproces en nieuwe vormen van samenwerking en financiering. Deze kennis en ervaring wordt ondersteund, gedeeld en verspreid in het kennis- en leertraject Excellente Gebieden.

  12. The Application and Research Progress of Solid Phase Extraction in Environmental Monitoring Area%固相萃取技术在环境监测领域中的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲

    2013-01-01

    Solid phase extraction is a fast developing sample pre-treatment technology for separation and concentration of trace components.The disadvantages of the traditional separation-concentration methods are overcome by SPE technology.More and more attention has been given to SPE.SPE has been applied widely in environment area,chemical and petrochemical field,food and agriculture,semiconductor,clinical and pharmaceutical field,geological area,nuclear,etc.SPE has been applied successfully in the field of separation and concentration of environmental sample because of its unique advantages.In this paper,the basic principle of SPE,the solid phase extraction setup and the operating steps of SPE were introduced.The application of SPE in environmental analysis was introduced in detail.%固相革取(Solid Phase Extraction,SPE)技术是一个发展较快的试样预处理技术,主要用于样品中痕量物质的分离和富集.固相革取技术克服了传统分离富集方法的一些缺点,得到了越来越多的关注,被广泛应用于环境、化学、石油化工、食品、农业、半导体、临床和制药、地质、核科学等领域.固相革取技术由于其自身的优点,已经被成功应用于环境样品的样品前处理过程中.介绍了固相萃取的基本原理,固相萃取的装置,固相革取的操作步骤,着重介绍了固相萃取在环境分析当中的应用.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  14. A six-phase model to simulate the contamination by non-conservative radionuclides of sediments, soils and plants in a marsh area. Application to the Odiel Marsh in southwest Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model to simulate the dispersion of non-conservative radionuclides in an estuarine system that surrounds a marsh area has been developed. The model includes six phases: water, two types of suspended particles (natural particles in the estuary and contaminated particles released from the source of contamination), bottom sediments, soils and plants (Spartina densiflora). Radionuclides in water and suspended matter are transported along the river by advection and diffusion processes, ionic exchanges between water and the solid phases and deposition of suspended particles on bottom sediments also occur. Radionuclides are incorporated in soils in the marsh during the time that they are covered by water. Finally, they are transferred from the soil to the plants. All these processes are represented by a set of partial differential equations. A spatial and temporal discretization is carried out and a finite differences scheme is adopted to solve them. The model must run over long time scales (years) if model results are to be compared with experimental measurements in the estuary and marsh. Thus, residual water circulation is used to solve the advective-diffusive terms in the equations. Ionic exchanges are described by kinetic transfer coefficients and the transfer of radionuclides from soils to plants by concentration ratios, CR. The model is applied to the Odiel marsh. The Odiel river forms an estuarine system (which surrounds a large marsh area) in which a phosphate fertilizer-processing complex releases its waste. The model yields good results in predicting 238U, 210Po and 232Th concentrations in bottom sediments, soils and plants collected from the river and marsh. A predictive study, concerning the process of cleaning of the marsh, has also been carried out. (Author)

  15. Phase retrieval and norm retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmanpour, Saeid; Cahill, Jameson; Casazza, Peter G.; Jasper, John; Woodland, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    Phase retrieval has become a very active area of research. We will classify when phase retrieval by Parseval frames passes to the Naimark complement and when phase retrieval by projections passes to the orthogonal complements. We introduce a new concept we call norm retrieval and show that this is what is necessary for passing phase retrieval to complements. This leads to a detailed study of norm retrieval and its relationship to phase retrieval. One fundamental result: a frame $\\{\\varphi_i\\}...

  16. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ``shall`` is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  17. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ''shall'' is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project

  18. Solid phase transformations II

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  19. Mechanism analysis of fault-phase vibration reduction for tunnel blasting initiated by electronic detonators in city area%城区隧道电子雷管起爆错相减震机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振农; 孟祥栋; 王国欣

    2012-01-01

    Reducing vibration is a key problem for tunnel blasting in city area. Here, a time-frequency analysis was performed to analyze general features of tunnel blasting vibration. The results showed that the blasting seismic wave is formed with multiple-series blast waves superposition; the initiation network is often divided into several sections at millisecond delay blasting due to limiting of the detonator number, and the superposition manners of blast wave show a lack of control, so the waveform always has several peak vibration velocities. The vibration mitigation effect was studied with engineering tests during initiation with electronic detonators. If the reasonable technical measures were adopted, the blasting vibration peak velocities decreased significantly. Moreover, the mechanism of fault-phase vibration reduction was proposed and discussed by means of high precision of delay initiation of electronic detonators and by using the thought of blasting vibration reduction induced by waveform interference for a reference. The engineering application of tunnel blasting in urban area showed that the blasting design with fault-phase vibration reduction has an ideal effect on vibration reduction.%降低爆破振动是城市隧道爆破的关键技术问题,采用时-频分析方法对隧道爆破振动的一般特征进行了分析,结果表明:爆破地震波是多列爆炸波叠加的结果,采用毫秒延期电雷管起爆时,由于雷管段数的限制,起爆网络经常被分成几个时段,对爆炸波的叠加方式缺乏控制,往往出现若干个振速峰值.通过工程试验,研究了采用电子雷管起爆时的减震效果,结果显示采用电子雷管起爆时,如果技术措施合理,能使爆破振动速度峰值显著降低.根据电子雷管起爆延时精度高的特点,并借鉴干扰减震的思想,提出并讨论了错相减震机理.实际城市隧道爆破工程应用反映了错相减震爆破设计达到了理想的减震效果.

  20. Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  1. AG Turbo, Turbotech 2. Subproject 1.422: Endwall effects in a multistage low pressure turbine rig. Final report; AG Turbo, Turbotech 2. Teilvorhaben 1.422: Seitenwandeffekte im mehrstufigen Niederdruck-Turbinenrig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymann, S.

    2001-07-01

    Reducing the secondary losses in the bladed annulus of compressors and turbines is one approach to enhance the efficiency of turbo components of modern gas turbines. The aim of this project is to analyse the influence of endwall contouring and 3D airfoil design in the endwall region on the generation of secondary flows in a multistage low pressure turbine. Therefore experimental studies were carried out in a three stage cold flow test rig. First in a reference blading the flow fields in the axial gapes between the rows were conducted with pneumatic probes and with a 3D-L2F system (DLR Koeln) and with 3D hot wire probes (RWTH Aachen) by the project partners. Pressure distributions on several stram line positions and endwall pressure measuring points are employed to assess the vane flow. In a second phase the inlet guide vanes and the blades of the first rotor were replaced with a blading with endwall contouring and modified airfoilds in the endwall region, which was designed by the project partner MTU. The investigations were carried out in the same manner as before. In comparison to the results of the reference blading the secondary losses in the plane downstream the optimised inlet guide van could be reduced about 20% in the outer region. A reduction in the secondary flow phenomen, the passage vortex, can be traced back to reduced cross channel pressure gradients at the endwall. The secondary losses in the tip region could be moved closer to the casing. After the following rows downstream the optimised first turbine stage there was no positive influence on the development of secondary flows detectable. A data base was generated to validate and to improve current numerical methods. The physical understanding of secondary flows in multistage turbines was deepened. (orig.) [German] Ein Ansatz zur weiteren Steigerung des Wirkungsgrades in den Turbokomponenten moderner Gasturbinen ist die Reduzierung der durch Sekundaerstroemungen verursachten Verluste im beschaufelten

  2. Review of Available Data for Validation of Nuresim Two-Phase CFD Software Applied to CHF Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bestion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NURESIM Project of the 6th European Framework Program initiated the development of a new-generation common European Standard Software Platform for nuclear reactor simulation. The thermal-hydraulic subproject aims at improving the understanding and the predictive capabilities of the simulation tools for key two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic processes such as the critical heat flux (CHF. As part of a multi-scale analysis of reactor thermal-hydraulics, a two-phase CFD tool is developed to allow zooming on local processes. Current industrial methods for CHF mainly use the sub-channel analysis and empirical CHF correlations based on large scale experiments having the real geometry of a reactor assembly. Two-phase CFD is used here for understanding some boiling flow processes, for helping new fuel assembly design, and for developing better CHF predictions in both PWR and BWR. This paper presents a review of experimental data which can be used for validation of the two-phase CFD application to CHF investigations. The phenomenology of DNB and Dry-Out are detailed identifying all basic flow processes which require a specific modeling in CFD tool. The resulting modeling program of work is given and the current state-of-the-art of the modeling within the NURESIM project is presented.

  3. Three-phase shots and monopolar reclose in the core network of 400 kV of the Area de Control Occidental of CFE and Its normal probability of occurrence; Disparos trifasicos y de recierre monopolar en la red troncal de 400 kV del area de control occidental, CFE, y su probabilidad normal de ocurrencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez Perez, Camilo; Garcia Conejo, Dante Aristoteles [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: camilo.narvaez@cfe.gob.mx; camilo.narvaez@univa.mx; Ramirez Peredo, Patricia [Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: patyrape@hotmail.com; Blanco Gomez, Cesar Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The growing power demand of users, who make loads of power systems, causes the components of such systems operating near its operating limits. And the transmission line, being the most common component in these, requires a thorough analysis in regard to the probability of three-phase shots and monopolars reclosing, considering thunderstorms, the demand system time, the flows circulating in lines, maintenance on other lines and other imponderantes. This research analyzes the normal probability of occurrence of shots in the 400 kV core network of the Area de Control Occidental, CFE and its impact on studies conducted prior to the maintenance. We intend to use the methodology in the Comision Federal de Electricidad and results can be validated with data from previous years, based on a pseudo shots forecast in a given period. [Spanish] La creciente demanda de energia electrica de los usuarios que componen las cargas de los sistemas electricos de potencia, provoca que los componentes de dichos sistemas funcionen cerca de sus limites operativos. Y la linea de transmision, al ser el componente mas comun en estos, requiere de un analisis minucioso en lo que respecta a la probabilidad de disparos trifasicos y recierres monopolares, considerando tormentas electricas, la demanda horaria del sistema, los flujos que circulan en las lineas, los mantenimientos en las demas lineas y demas imponderantes. En esta investigacion se analiza la probabilidad normal de ocurrencia de disparos en la red troncal de 400 kV del Area de Control Occidental y su impacto en los estudios que se realizan previos a los mantenimientos. Se pretende utilizar la metodologia en la Comision Federal de Electricidad, y los resultados pueden ser validados con datos de los anos anteriores, ya que se hace un pseudo pronostico de disparos en un periodo dado.

  4. 鄂尔多斯盆地富县—正宁地区延长组油气成藏期次%Classification of hydrocarbon accumulation phases of the Yanchang Formation in the Fuxian-Zhengning area, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇; 任战利; 史政; 赵筱燕; 于强; 吴晓青

    2011-01-01

    鄂尔多斯盆地富县—正宁地区延长组砂岩储层主要成岩作用有压实作用、胶结作用、溶蚀作用和裂隙作用,成岩自生矿物以绿泥石、自生石英和方解石为主.根据油气包裹体寄主成岩矿物的形成时间序列,识别出两期油气包裹体:第1期油气包裹体主要分布在石英、长石粒内愈合的、未切穿次生加大边的微裂隙及石英次生加大边内侧;第2期油气包裹体分布在晚期微裂隙和晚期亮晶方解石胶结物中.油气包裹体均一温度分布呈双峰型:早期峰值温度为110~120℃;晚期峰值温度为140~150℃.对油气包裹体均一温度、盐度、密度分析表明,研究区延长组油气为“一期两幕”成藏,且具有“边致密,边成藏”的特点.结合研究区延长组热演化史及储层伊利石K-Ar同位素定年结果研究表明,研究区主要油气成藏期为早白垩世(距今95~120Ma).%The main diagenesis of the Yanchang Formation sandstone reservoirs in the Fuxian-Zhengning area, Ordos Basin, includes compaction, cementation, corrosion and fracturation, and diagenetic authigenic minerals in these reservoirs are dominated by chlorite, authigenetic quartz and calcite. Two phases of hydrocarbon inclusions have been identified according to the time sequence of the formation of host diagenetic minerals, the earlier one composed of mostly brine inclusions that contain gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons either occurs along healed microfractures wrapped up by secondary growth edges of quartz or feldspar, or is trapped at the bottom of secondary growth edges of quartz or feldspar, while the later one mostly consisting of gas-liquid or liquid hydrocarbon inclusions occurs along the late-formed microfractures or in sparry calcite cements. Homogenization temperatures measured from brine inclusions associated with hydrocarbon ones show a bimodal distribution in the ranges with 110~120'C and 140~150'C as peak temperatures

  5. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the ultr

  6. Mechanistic study on interfacial area concentration profile of vertical two-phase flow in large circular pipe%竖直大圆管内两相流界面分布机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 孙立成; 幸奠川; 刘靖宇; 田道贵

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of interface distribution in air-water two-phase bubbly flow in a vertical pipe was experimentally investigated by using the measurement method of optical fiber probes. The inner diameter of the circular pipe was 100 mm,and superficial gas and liquid velocities ranged from 0 to 0. 1 m o s-1 and from 0 to 1. 0 m o s-1 ,respectively. Local distributions of the interfacial area concentration (IAC) ,void fraction and bubble diameter were obtained. By analyzing the forces on a bubble,it was found that lift force and turbulent dispersion force determined the radial motion of bubbles,and the former dominated the radial profile of IAC. When the bubble diameter exceeded the critical size of 5. 7 mm,the distribution of IAC would change from wall peak to core peak resulting from the lift force pointing to the pipe center due to lift force coefficient changing from positive to negative.%采用光纤探针测量方法对垂直上升管中空气-水两相泡状流界面分布特性进行了研究.实验选用的圆管直径为100 mm,气相、液相表观速度的范围分别为0~0.1 m·s-1和0~1.0m·s-1.获得了界面面积浓度(IAC)、截面含气率、气泡直径等分布规律.通过气泡的受力分析,发现升力和湍流扩散力的综合作用导致了气泡的径向运动,而且升力对径向IAC分布的影响占主导地位;当气泡直径超过临界尺寸(5.7 mm)后,升力系数变为负值,使得升力指向管中心,进而导致了IAC分布由壁峰型向核峰型分布的转变.

  7. Influence of phase 1 of Diaoliang reclamation project on the ecosystem of adjacent sea area%舟山钓梁围垦一期工程对附近海域生态系统影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏; 倪勇强; 孙毛明; 毛珊珊; 张广之; 汝少国

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and intertidal animals were carried out and analyzed in different time to assess the influence of phase 1 of Diaoliang reclamation project on the ecosystem of adjacent sea area. The results showed that the adjacent sea water was at a high degree of eutrophication with severely-beyond-standard inorganic nitrogen and active phosphate. The total abundance of phytoplankton in the reclaimed areas significantly decreased in 2007 and then increased in 2011,and the Pielou's evenness index had the opposite trend. After reclamation,the biomass of zooplankton significantly decreased,although the proportion of planktonic larvae in the total zooplankton species increased. The abundance,biomass and diversity index of zoobenthos were significantly reduced,with the increase of the proportion of polychaetes in total zoobenthos species richness. The abundance,biodiversity index and Pielou's evenness index of intertidal animals decreased. The change of water quality was related to the change of community structures of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos. The content of the water suspended matter was an important factorfor plankton community structure. The reclamation changed the community structure of zoobenthos.%为评价舟山钓梁围垦一期工程对附近海域生态系统的影响,对工程海域水质、浮游植物、浮游动物、底栖动物和潮间带动物在不同时间的调查数据进行了综合分析。结果表明,工程海域海水处于高度富营养化水平,无机氮和活性磷酸盐严重超标。围海区内浮游植物细胞丰度在2007年降到最低,2011年8月较2007年8月显著增加,均匀度指数呈现相反的变化趋势。围海工程结束后浮游动物生物量显著降低,浮游幼体在种类数中所占比例增加;大型底栖动物栖息密度、生物量、多样性指数均显著降低,多毛类种数所占比例增

  8. Now entering phase two...

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Building on the success of their feasibility phase, the CLIC test facility, CTF3, has just launched into a five-year project development phase. This will involve detailed performance optimisation studies, marking the project’s transition from pure research and development to prototyping and construction.   CLIC accelerator modules under construction at CERN. “With the feasibility phase now complete, we have established that CLIC can be built,” says Roberto Corsini, CLIC Collaboration spokesperson. “Now we want to be sure that it can provide the luminosity and energy performance needed. We will be looking at the engineering, performance and cost of a real CLIC machine also seeing if we can reduce it.” CTF3’s second phase will focus on selected performance-related research areas for further investigation. The largest of these involves the construction and testing of several authentic CLIC accelerator modules that are currently being ...

  9. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  10. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Floraine; Degond, Pierre; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. ...

  11. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  12. ROER4D Sub-project 1 - India OER review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanarajan, Gajaraj; Arinto, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The ROER4D project endeavours to cover at least three regions in the Global South, namely, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and South East Asia. However, background information on OER projects, policies and research and information on infrastructural, legal, socio-cultural and/or economic factors that might influence the adoption of OER in post-secondary education in these regions is incomplete despite the work of current projects. The project will provide background information o...

  13. Learning Approaches - Final Report Sub-Project 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Rodríguez Illera, José Luis; Escofet, Anna

    2007-01-01

    for the virtual learning laboratories and Resources for the virtual learning laboratories. Deliverable 4.3. & 4.4. (one report) focus on the capacitation programme developed for the Latin American partners. Moreover, it includes a description of the pilot courses developed of the Latin American partners....... Deliverable 4.5 presents the training courses provided to the Latin American partners....

  14. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  15. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  16. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  17. Venus Phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents a science activity designed to introduce students to the geocentric and heliocentric models of the universe. Helps students discover why phase changes on Venus knocked Earth out of the center of the universe. (DKM)

  18. Brilliant high-power diode lasers based on broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, V.; Koesters, A.; Koenig, H.; Strauss, U.

    2008-02-01

    Within the German national research project "Briolas" Osram Semiconductors and Laserline GmbH cooperated in the subproject "Brilasi" which focused mainly on Brilliant Laser Diodes for Industrial Applications. The project was finished in December 2007 and lasted more than three years. Laserline and Osram are investigating the performance of broad area diode lasers with a bar width from 1.0 to 10.0 mm in high brilliance diode laser beam sources. Within the program different fibre coupled laser sources are built up: 1. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a Beam Parameter Product (BBP) of 40 mmxmrad built from diode laser bars with 10 mm bar width. 2. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a BBP of 20 mmxmrad built from Mini-Bars with a bar width of 3.0 mm and 8 emitters. These Different solutions are characterized regarding the electro optical performance. The laser output characteristics are determined for the diode laser device as well as the complete beam source. Lifetime tests are conducted to determine the long term stability of the prototypes and the different chip material.

  19. Marine biodiversity of the coastal area of the Berau region, East Kalimantan, Indonesia : progress report East Kalimantan program, pilot phase (October 2003) : preliminary results of a field survey performed by an Indonesian-Dutch biodiversity research team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal waters of East Kalimantan are part of the western boundary of the Indo-West Pacific centre of maximum marine biodiversity. During the pilot phase of the East Kalimantan Program (EKP) this has been tested by various specialists who used model taxa to test this hypothesis. Emphasis has bee

  20. Design of Fire Auto-alarm and Control System of the Container Tower for the Second-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area%上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力清

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统的设计及体会。%It briefly introduces design and understandings of the fire auto-alarm and control system of the Container Tower for the 2nd-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area.

  1. Area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation is normally subject to legal controls which specify limits, and restriction, of doses that both occupational workers and members of the public are exposed to. The dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and adopted by many countries are specified in terms of body dose equivalents, sometimes referred to as limiting quantities. However these quantities are not measurable since they are defined as average doses in organs and tissues of the human body. Thus for the same physical radiation field the dose delivered to an individual will not have a fixed value but will depend upon each individual's sex, age and physical construction as well as upon their orientation in the field. Ionizing radiation, also, cannot be detected by a person's physical senses of sight, smell, hearing and touch. Thus to control the levels of radiation to which individuals are exposed, special operational quantities are used and quantitative measurements have to be made using personal dosemeters or area monitoring equipment. This report describes the operational quantities that are being increasingly used worldwide for area monitoring. It provides information on the international standards that are available on the performance requirements for monitoring equipment designed to measure these operational quantities. It also reviews the recent international standards that have been published on the calibration and type testing of area monitors and gives an example of legislative requirements on area monitoring equipment. (author)

  2. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  3. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  4. Element area analysis of chaotic morphology of verical gas-liquid two-phase flow%垂直气液两相流混沌吸引子单元面积分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 杜亚威; 薛友林

    2016-01-01

    为了充分反映吸引子结构随时间延迟的变化规律,在现有吸引子形态描述方法基础上定义了吸引子单元面积,通过仿真发现,吸引子单元面积随时间延迟变化曲线第一个波峰的高度和时间延迟主要由信号中大幅值波动的数量、频率决定,利用此规律对实验采集到的气液两相流电导波动信号进行分析,发现在固定液相流量条件下,改变气相流量会导致泡状流、段塞流和混状流中大幅值波动幅度的改变,但相同流型信号中大幅值波动的频率比较接近。将吸引子单元面积随时间延迟变化曲线第一个波峰的时间延迟和落差比作为特征量,可以实现泡状流、段塞流、混状流的流型分类。%In order to better understand the variation of flow structure with delay time, we propose the element area (EA) of attractor morphology parameter in this paper. First, the conductance fluctuating signals and adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representations of different gas-liquid flows are shown, we can find that flow pattern evolution is always accompanied by the numerical and frequency changes of large amplitude fluctuation (LAF). Then three kinds of signals, i. e. , rossler signal, white noise and sinusoidal signal with multi-components, are used for analyzing the simulations, and the results indicate that the greater the frequency of LAF, the smaller the delay time of first crest of EA(τpeak) is, and that the more the LAF, the bigger the peak value of first crest of EA(hpeak) is. Additionally, we use the above rule to analyze the conductance fluctuating signals measured from upward gas-liquid two-phase flow experiments and the signal length is selected to be 10 s for analysis. When the water superficial velocity is fixed to be 0.1138 m/s and the gas superficial velocity is gradually increased, we find that the τpeak is constant and hpeak changes up and down at bubble flow. When the flow pattern

  5. Phase Vocoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Flanagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vocoder technique is described in which speech signals are represented by their short-time phase and amplitude spectra. A complete transmission system utilizing this approach is simulated on a digital computer. The encoding method leads to an economy in transmission bandwidth and to a means for time compression and expansion of speech signals.

  6. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS: A Report on the Human Systems Integration Phase 1 Simulation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Shively, R. Jay

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began a five-year Project to address the technical barriers related to routine access of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Planned in two phases, the goal of the first phase was to lay the foundations for the Project by identifying those barriers and key issues to be addressed to achieve integration. Phase 1 activities were completed two years into the five-year Project. The purpose of this paper is to review activities within the Human Systems Integration (HSI) subproject in Phase 1 toward its two objectives: 1) develop GCS guidelines for routine UAS access to the NAS, and 2) develop a prototype display suite within an existing Ground Control Station (GCS). The first objective directly addresses a critical barrier for UAS integration into the NAS - a lack of GCS design standards or requirements. First, the paper describes the initial development of a prototype GCS display suite and supporting simulation software capabilities. Then, three simulation experiments utilizing this simulation architecture are summarized. The first experiment sought to determine a baseline performance of UAS pilots operating in civil airspace under current instrument flight rules for manned aircraft. The second experiment examined the effect of currently employed UAS contingency procedures on Air Traffic Control (ATC) participants. The third experiment compared three GCS command and control interfaces on UAS pilot response times in compliance with ATC clearances. The authors discuss how the results of these and future simulation and flight-testing activities contribute to the development of GCS guidelines to support the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. Finally, the planned activities for Phase 2, including an integrated human-in-the-loop simulation and two flight tests are briefly described.

  7. Programme of air surveillance Air and Health 9 towns. Surveillance of effects on health in relation with air pollution in urban area. Phase 2; Programme de surveillance Air et Sante 9 villes. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The InVS published its first results on the Nine-City Air and Health Surveillance Programme (PSAS-9) in March 1999. This phase I pointed out that it was possible for various specialists in the field of air pollution and health to gather around a common set of problems. They also found a link between the daily variations of all the urban air pollution indicators and the total, cardio-vascular and respiratory mortality which, based on French data, contributed to strengthen scientific knowledge in this field. Today's report presents the results of phase Il of the PSAS-9 programme which essentially aimed at assessing the short-term exposure-risk relationships between pollution indicators and hospital admission indicators. This second phase also allowed to confirm the results of phase I on the short-term effect of air pollution on mortality thanks to longer periods of study. Exploratory analysis using new indicators and sensitivity analysis on the pertinence of results were also conducted. Finally, methodological tools were developed in order to optimise data collection and statistical modelization. All these results enabled the quantification of the short-term health impact of air pollution on the PSAS-9 cities. PSAS-9 is now an ongoing epidemiological surveillance programme on the effects of urban air pollution on health, providing information tools to decision-makers and the general population. (author)

  8. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  9. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  10. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...... moment distributions are of special interest in areas like demography and economics, and we calculate explicit formulas for the Lorenz curve and Gini index used in these disciplines....

  11. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  12. A phase III trial of efficacy of the FML-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of Brazil (São Gonçalo do Amaranto, RN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, V O; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Correia Pontes, N N; de Souza, E P; Luz, K G; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2000-12-01

    Protection against canine kala-azar was investigated in naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area, vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmania donovani. A total of 97% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and 100% showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 7 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls (ANOVA, P<0.0001). After 2 years, 92% (chi(2)=6.996; P<0.0025) protection was achieved: only 8% of vaccinees showed mild signs of kala-azar with no deaths while 33% of controls developed clinical or fatal disease. The FML-vaccine induced a significant, long-lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field.

  13. Development, calibration, and predictive results of a simulator for subsurface pathway fate and transport of aqueous- and gaseous-phase contaminants in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, S.O.; Sondrup, A.J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents the development, calibration, and predictive results of a simulation study of fate and transport of waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) (which is hereafter referred to as the SDA simulation study). This report builds on incorporates a previous report that dealt only with the calibration of a flow model for simulation of water movement beneath the SDA (Magnuson and Sondrup 1996). The primary purpose of the SDA simulation study was to perform fate and transport calculations to support the IRA. A secondary purpose of the SDA simulation study was to be able to use the model to evaluate possible remediation strategies and their effects on flow and transport in the OU 7-13/14 feasibility study.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95

  16. 土地整治项目效益分析研究--以宁夏中北部土地开发整理重大工程宁夏农垦渠口农场项目为例%An Analysis and Research on Benefits of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Projects-Taking Ningxia Qukou Farm Sub-project of North-central Ningxia Land Development and Consolidation Project as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雪彦虎; 姜继珍

    2014-01-01

    以宁夏中北部土地开发整理重大工程2011年度宁夏农垦渠口农场项目为例,在确定规划方案的基础上,从项目效益和工程管护2个方面入手进行论述分析,找出影响土地整治效益的因素。研究表明,项目设计的合理性决定了项目实施是否会产生较为明显的收益;合理优化种植结构使土地整治工程达到见效快收益高的目的;严格的工程管护决定了项目实施后能否长期运行。%Taking the Ningxia Qukou farm sub-project of the north-central Ningxia land development and consolidation pro-ject for the year 2011 as an example, on the basis of the determined planning scheme, an analysis is made in 2 aspects of the project benefit and engineering management to find the factors affecting the land consolidation benefits. The research shows that the rationality of the project design determines whether the implementation of the project will have obvious bene-fits and the optimization of the planting structure will make quick effectiveness and high profit in the land development and consolidation project. It also shows that strict project management determines the stability of the long-term operation of the project after implementation.

  17. Cause Analysis on the Phase Transition of the Tectonic Facies of the Metamorphic Rock Series in the Wutai Mountain-Heng Mountain Areas%五台山—恒山地区变质岩系构造相相变成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭景林; 米广尧; 范林森

    2011-01-01

    Areas in the Wutai mountain-Heng mountain are considered to be one of the most popular places for the tectonic facies researches owing to the various structural characters at different crust levels. In the present study, the structural characteristics of the Early Precambrian were analyzed. On the basis of the different geological characters of fold, fracture, pudding of the rock and syntectonic crystallization, some references were provided for analyzing the tectonic facies and the structural phase transition in the areas. Combined with the information of the geological characteristics, petrology, deformation,and metamorphic characteristics,and isotope chronology of the geological unit,the preliminary studies were conducted on the tectonic environment of the the Early Precambrian in the areas, and discussions were made on the crustal evolution andthe cause of the tectonic facies phase transition. The phenomena occurring commonly in the Metamorphic rock areas was explained reasonably,that is, the alienation between the same rocks and the convergence between the different rocks,or the same thing with different phases and the same phase with different faces. All of these provided the new research thinking and the working methods for the metamorphic rock areas.The high-grade regions of the Hornblende granulite phase in the Heng mountain areas represent the mid-lower crust's transitional zone and detachment zone. Their and it's typical structural styles, material composition, metamorphism and the effects of the deep melting have important significance on the researches of the mid-lower crust's rheological behavior, crustal differentiation and the cracking events for early continent.%五台山—恒山地区出露有不同层次的地壳,是研究构造相最理想的地区之一.作者对该区早前寒武纪构造特征进行了分析.根据不同层次的褶皱、断裂、布丁化岩石及同构造分泌结晶脉的宏观地质特征和与其相关的微组构特

  18. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region eastern area of Inner Mongolia the revitalization of old industrial bases in environmental protection the next phase of preliminary work thinking%内蒙古自治区蒙东地区老工业基地振兴战略环境保护下一阶段初步工作思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现华; 刘文静

    2013-01-01

    Through summing up the the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region eastern area of Inner Mongolia old industrial base revitali -zing the strategic planning for ten years (2003~2012 years) results and experience gained since the eastern area of Inner Mongolia , the re-vitalization of old industrial bases in environmental protection the next phase of preliminary work thinking this paper solve outstanding envi -ronmental problems from the environmental protection system , policy ideas , and optimize the economic development , to promote sound and rapid development of the eastern area of Inner Mongolia , promote the overall revitalization of northeast area has important significance .%通过认真总结内蒙古自治区蒙东地区老工业基地实施振兴战略规划十周年(2003~2012年)以来取得的成效和经验,本文从环境保护机制体制、政策思路、解决突出环境问题及优化经济发展方面提出蒙东地区老工业基地振兴战略环境保护下一阶段初步工作思路,对推进蒙东地区又好又快发展、促进东北地区全面振兴具有重要意义。

  19. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote. PMID:27556642

  20. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  1. Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  2. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...

  3. Numerical methods for phase retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Osherovich, Eliyahu

    2012-01-01

    In this work we consider the problem of reconstruction of a signal from the magnitude of its Fourier transform, also known as phase retrieval. The problem arises in many areas of astronomy, crystallography, optics, and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). Our main goal is to develop an efficient reconstruction method based on continuous optimization techniques. Unlike current reconstruction methods, which are based on alternating projections, our approach leads to a much faster and more robust method. However, all previous attempts to employ continuous optimization methods, such as Newton-type algorithms, to the phase retrieval problem failed. In this work we provide an explanation for this failure, and based on this explanation we devise a sufficient condition that allows development of new reconstruction methods---approximately known Fourier phase. We demonstrate that a rough (up to $\\pi/2$ radians) Fourier phase estimate practically guarantees successful reconstruction by any reasonable method. We also pres...

  4. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  5. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  6. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors

  7. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  8. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  9. Entransy in phase-change systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Entransy in Phase-Change Systems summarizes recent developments in the area of entransy, especially on phase-change processes. This book covers new developments in the area including the great potential for energy saving for process industries, decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, reducing energy bills and improving overall efficiency of systems. This concise volume is an ideal book for engineers and scientists in energy-related industries.

  10. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  11. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities

  12. Phases of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-04-09

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  13. EGEE enters second phase

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This month has seen the launch of the second two-year phase of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE-II), with a transition meeting for the partners held at CERN on 12-13 April. Co-funded by the European Commission and coordinated by CERN, the EGEE project is providing an international Grid computing infrastructure - now numbering some 200 sites and 20 000 CPUs in 39 countries - to support the scientific community worldwide. 'We are all very happy about the smooth start of the second phase of EGEE,' said Project Director Bob Jones. 'The project builds on the successes of its first two years and we are now focussing on the stability of the deployed infrastructure. Growing beyond our pilot application areas of HEP and biomedicine, we now see increasing use by researchers from other fields. Recently we've added finance and fusion to the list of disciplines we support, and we are always looking for new users.' More information on EGEE can be found at www.eu-egee.org.

  14. Phase locked loop

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, van, P.; Klumperink, Eric Antonius Maria; Nauta, Bram; Vaucher, Cicero Silveira

    2007-01-01

    A phase locked loop comprising a phase detector ( 100 ) for determining a phase difference between a reference signal (Ref) and mutually phase shifted signals (I, Q) to generate frequency control signals (U, D), the phase detector ( 100 ) comprising: means ( 10 ) for obtaining a first one of said frequency control signals (U, D) by binary multiplication of the reference signal (Ref) and one of the relative phase shifted signals (I, Q); and means ( 20 ) for obtaining a second one of said frequ...

  15. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  16. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  17. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R. [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of California, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  18. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  19. Simulation of rising bubbles and measurement of interfacial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical method to measure the interfacial area and the volume fraction in two-phase flows is proposed. Two-phase flow fields are simulated using the two-component two-phase Lattice Boltzmann method, since sharp interfaces are obtained and the coalescence of two bubbles are simulated easily. It is shown for basic geometries such as spherical and sinusoidal interfaces that the measured and analytical interfacial area and volume fraction are in good agreement. Rising bubbles are simulated as one of the fundamental two-phase flow phenomena. It is found that the interfacial area decreases during the coalescence and then increases due to the deformation of the coalesced bubble. The change in the interfacial area is shown to correspond to the change in the bubble shape. The proposed evaluation method is found to be effective for measurement of interfacial area in two- phase flows. (author)

  20. Simulation of rising bubbles and measurement of interfacial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tadashi; Ebihara, Kenichi [Center for Promotion of Computational Scinece and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The numerical method to measure the interfacial area and the volume fraction in two-phase flows is proposed. Two-phase flow fields are simulated using the two-component two-phase Lattice Boltzmann method, since sharp interfaces are obtained and the coalescence of two bubbles are simulated easily. It is shown for basic geometries such as spherical and sinusoidal interfaces that the measured and analytical interfacial area and volume fraction are in good agreement. Rising bubbles are simulated as one of the fundamental two-phase flow phenomena. It is found that the interfacial area decreases during the coalescence and then increases due to the deformation of the coalesced bubble. The change in the interfacial area is shown to correspond to the change in the bubble shape. The proposed evaluation method is found to be effective for measurement of interfacial area in two- phase flows. (author)

  1. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  2. INTERGRANULAR PHASES IN ELECTROCERAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, R; Brieu, M.; Legros, R.; Rousset, A.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of the resistivity of N.T.C. thermistors is improved by the presence of precipitated phases in the vicinity of the spinel phase. The electron microscopy study allows one to make sure that the barium does not enter the spinel spinel structure but rather the grains of spinel phase are coated with insulating phase. It can be suggested that the insulating phase could built-up diffusion barriers.

  3. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  4. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  5. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O

    2014-06-01

    The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as `crowdsourcing'. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of `individuals', each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it possible to extract meaningful information in cases where limited resolution might otherwise prevent initial phasing. PMID:24914965

  6. High accuracy interface characterization of three phase material systems in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Hansen, Karin Vels; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    by tomography schemes such as focused ion beam serial sectioning or micro-computed tomography. We present a high accuracy method of calculating two phase surface areas and triple phase length of triple phase systems from subvoxel accuracy segmentations of constituent phases. The method performs a three phase...

  7. Investigation of two phase flow and phase trapping by secondary imbibition within Fontainebleau sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, William M; Packer, Ken J

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed magnetic field gradient stimulated echo NMR is used to investigate the simultaneous flow of two phases (an aqueous phase and an hydrocarbon phase) within a strongly water-wet sample of Fontainebleau sandstone. The Fontainebleau sandstone is prepared in increasing steady-state water saturations by a secondary imbibition process. The increase in the water saturation causes an increasing fraction of the oil phase (non-wetting phase) to become trapped within the sample. The stimulated echo dependence on the gradient pulse area, q, is used to derive the displacement probability, PX, for a fixed observation time. These displacement probabilities clearly show the progressive trapping of the hydrocarbon phase with increasing steady-state water saturations. Quantitative measurements of the fraction of the oil phase trapped were made from the echo attenuation function Edelta(q), both as a function of water saturation and observation time.

  8. Diffraction studies of ordered phases and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two investigations are reported here. First, monolayers of CF4 physisorbed on the (001) face of graphite have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction experiments carried out at the electron storage ring DORIS in Hamburg. The exfoliated graphite substrate UCAR-ZYX was used in order to obtain a large area for adsorption and hence a large sample. Four two-dimensional solid phases of the CF4 films were seen, including a structure which is 2x2 commensurate relative to the substrate. On compression (by variation of coverage or temperature), this phase transforms to a uniaxially compressed structure ('stripe' phase). Further, at higher coverages a hexagonal structure was seen, incommensurate relative to the substrate, and at low temperatures and coverages, a complicated structure emerged, giving three close diffraction peaks in the powder pattern. Data are presented characterizing the meltings and commensurate to incommensurate transitions. Complementary to the synchrotron X-ray data, a presentation of the theory of synchrotron radiation is given. The second investigation was of the ferromagnetic phase transitions in the randomly diluted, dipolar coupled uniaxial ferromagnets LiTbsub(.3)Ysub(.7)F4 and LiHosub(.3)Ysub(.7)F4 by neutron diffraction at the RIS0 DR 3 reactor. (orig.)

  9. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  10. Interface area transport of monodispersed spherical particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-05

    We present an interface area transport model required in tracking of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between dispersed and background materials. The basic transport equation has been rigorously derived from the volume fraction evolution equation. Interface area changes due to mass transport and local compression/expansion are included. The model is then simplified for the case in which the dispersed phase is composed of spheres of locally uniform size. A procedure for calculating advective flux with interface reconstruction has been suggested.

  11. Nonlinear phase contrast using a bacteriorhodopsin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe Castillo, Marcelo D.; Sanchez-de-la-Llave, J. D.; Ramos Garcia, Ruben; Tepichin-Rodriguez, Eduardo; Olivos-Perez, L. I.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel phase contrast system that employs a BR film. Since the filter is optically induced by the Fourier transform of the phase object, no alignment is necessary at the filter plane making it extremely robust. Due to the optical properties of BR films the phase filter can be induced with low light intensity levels. The material response allows operation at video frame rates, processing of high spatial resolution objects, and the use of relatively inexpensive laser sources. Such characteristics and the fact that BR films can be produced at a low cost makes the system simple to implement, relatively inexpensive and extremely robust. The effects of varying the illuminating area beyond the phase object area and filter saturation are also analyzed.

  12. Modern windships. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knud E. Hansen A/S (KEH) has, partly funded by the Energy Research Programme, (EFP-95) investigated in the possibilities of using windships for transportation of cargo on long routes, i.e. across the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. The task was to peruse experiences from projects made during the past 30 years and then, based on new materials and design principle to make proposals to modern wind driven ships to transportation of cargo - especially bulk carriers. KEH has thus prepared a suggestion for a 50,000 DWT wind driven bulk carrier on these terms. The bulk carrier in question is a modern rig inspired by the classical lugger and junk sail with a total sail area of abt. 10,000 m2. The hull of the ship has been developed in order to limit wave resistance and drifting. Project Windship has, in contrast to earlier tests and projects, designed a bulk carrier based on a complete evaluation of ecology, safety, economy and reasonable transportation speed. The research project shows that international sea transportation, with wind as the primary source of energy, does not seem to run up against any obstacles as regards safety. The economical analyses show that windship transportation, with today's oil prices, will be about 10% higher compared to the diesel driven transportation. In the light of the positive results of the research project the steering committee recommends that phase II of project 'Modern Windships' is carried out. (EG)

  13. Modern windships. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Knud E. Hansen A/S (KEH) has, partly funded by the Energy Research Programme, (EFP-95) investigated in the possibilities of using windships for transportation of cargo on long routes, i.e. across the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. The task was to peruse experiences from projects made during the past 30 years and then, based on new materials and design principle to make proposals to modern wind driven ships to transportation of cargo - especially bulk carriers. KEH has thus prepared a suggestion for a 50,000 DWT wind driven bulk carrier on these terms. The bulk carrier in question is a modern rig inspired by the classical lugger and junk sail with a total sail area of abt. 10,000 m{sup 2}. The hull of the ship has been developed in order to limit wave resistance and drifting. Project Windship has, in contrast to earlier tests and projects, designed a bulk carrier based on a complete evaluation of ecology, safety, economy and reasonable transportation speed. The research project shows that international sea transportation, with wind as the primary source of energy, does not seem to run up against any obstacles as regards safety. The economical analyses show that windship transportation, with today`s oil prices, will be about 10% higher compared to the diesel driven transportation. In the light of the positive results of the research project the steering committee recommends that phase II of project `Modern Windships` is carried out. (EG)

  14. Simplified phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Tanlick sine-wave phase detector gives dc output voltage nearly proportional to phase difference between oscillator signal and reference signal. Device may be used for systems in which signal-to-noise ratio is high.

  15. Engineering holographic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-10-01

    By introducing interacting scalar fields, we tried to engineer physically motivated holographic phase diagrams which may be interesting in the context of various known condensed matter systems. We introduce an additional scalar field in the bulk which provides a tunable parameter in the boundary theory. By exploiting the way the tuning parameter changes the effective masses of the bulk interacting scalar fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered for the boundary order parameters dual to those scalar fields. We give a few examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries which are strikingly similar to the known quantum phases at low temperature such as the superconducting phases. However, the important difference is that all the phases we have discussed are characterized by neutral order parameters. At the end, we discuss if there exists any emerging scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the dome in this phase diagram.

  16. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  17. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  18. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    OpenAIRE

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O

    2014-01-01

    The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which rel...

  19. Spectral phase conjugation via extended phase matching

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the copropagating three-wave-mixing parametric process, with appropriate type-II extended phase matching and pumped with a short second-harmonic pulse, can perform spectral phase conjugation and parametric amplification, which shows a threshold behavior analogous to backward wave oscillation. The process is also analyzed in the Heisenberg picture, which predicts a spontaneous parametric down conversion rate in agreement with the experimental result reported by Kuzucu et al. [...

  20. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  1. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  2. LeaseAreas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  3. Topological phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, J M

    2010-01-01

    Quantum eigenstates undergoing cyclic changes acquire a phase factor of geometric origin. This phase, known as the Berry phase, or the geometric phase, has found applications in a wide range of disciplines throughout physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, optics, and classical dynamics. In this article, the basic theory of the geometric phase is presented along with a number of representative applications. The article begins with an account of the geometric phase for cyclic adiabatic evolutions. An elementary derivation is given along with a worked example for two-state systems. The implications of time-reversal are explained, as is the fundamental connection between the geometric phase and energy level degeneracies. We also discuss methods of experimental observation. A brief account is given of geometric magnetism; this is a Lorenz-like force of geometric origin which appears in the dynamics of slow systems coupled to fast ones. A number of theoretical developments of the...

  4. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  5. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  6. Cholera in Azov area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  7. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  8. Two-phase flow research. Phase 1: Two-phase nozzle research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, S. J.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental performance of converging-diverging nozzles operating on air-water mixtures is presented for a wide range of parameters. Thrust measurements characterized the performance and photographic documentation was used to visually observe the off-design regimes. Thirty-six nozzle configurations were tested to determine the effects of convergence angle, area ratio, and nozzle length. In addition, the pressure ratio and mass flowrate ratio were varied to experimentally map off-design performance. The test results indicate the effects of wall friction and infer temperature and velocity differences between phases and the effect on nozzle performance. The slip ratio between the phases, gas velocity to liquid velocity, is shown to be below about 4 or 5.

  9. Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions and global phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bitan; Juricic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength $n$. We show that any local interaction has a \\emph{negative} scaling dimension $-2/n$. Consequently all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At one loop level, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is $\

  10. Aplicação da técnica de Estrutura Analítica de projeto para o sub-projeto do Catálogo de Sites da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde: Enfermagem Aplicación de la técnica de Estructura Analítica de proyecto para el subproyecto de lo Catalogo de Sitios de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud: Enfermería Application of the technique of Analytical Structure of project for the sub-project of Websites Catalog of the Virtual Health Library: Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura, de forma didática, explicar os benefícios de uso de uma técnica de gerenciamento de projetos, chamada de Estrutura Analítica do Projeto - uma ferramenta gráfica para identificar os resultados principais a serem desenvolvidos por um projeto. Os exemplos são reais, aplicados a um sub-projeto da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde em Enfermagem (BVS-Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento de Catálogo de Sites. Destacam-se os benefícios de visualização gráfica para um maior entendimento entre profissionais de diferentes áreas.Este artículo presenta, de una forma didáctica, algunas explicaciones sobre los beneficios de lo uso de la técnica de gestión de proyectos, llamada de Estructura Analítica del Proyecto una herramienta grafica para la identificación de los principales resultados que han de ser desarrollados en un proyecto. Los ejemplos son reales, aplicados a un subproyecto de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud Enfermería (BVS-Enfermagem para el desarrollo del catalogo de sitios. Son destacados los beneficios de visualización grafica para un mejor entendimiento entre profesionales de diferentes áreas.This work search of didactic form to explain the benefits of use of one technique of management project, called Work Breakdown Structure: a graphical tool to identify the main results to be developed for a project. The real examples are applied to a sub-project of the Virtual Library in Health in Nursing (BVSEnfermagem to development of the Sites Catalogs. It is distinguished the benefits of graphical visualization for a major agreement between professionals of different expertise

  11. Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculate the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy$-$temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy$-$temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.

  12. Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy–temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy–temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.

  13. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  14. Phasing Into Retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Steven G. Allen; Clark, Robert L.; Linda S. Ghent

    2003-01-01

    To help workers navigate the transition from work to retirement more effectively, employers have been launching phased retirement programs, which allow older employees to work part-time and receive full retirement benefits. This paper examines the experience of the phased retirement system for tenured faculty in the University of North Carolina system over the years 1996-98. After phased retirement was introduced, there was a sizable increase in the overall separation rate in the system. The ...

  15. Cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  16. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  17. Dual Phase Cosmic Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Shurtleff, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A calculation based on flat spacetime symmetries shows how there can be two quantum phases. For one, extreme phase change determines a conventional classical trajectory and four-momentum, i.e. mass times four-velocity. The other phase occurs in an effective particle state, with the effective energy and momentum being the rate of change of the phase with respect to time and distance. A cosmic ray proton moves along a classical trajectory, but exists in an effective particle state with an effec...

  18. Protected areas and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ...

  19. Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-07-01

    In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.

  20. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.

    1997-05-02

    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.

  1. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  2. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  3. UPVG phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG`s efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG`s Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative.

  4. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  5. UPVG phase 2 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG's efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG's Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative

  6. Quantum Enhanced Phase Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Liat; Poem, Eilon; Silberberg, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    The retrieval of phases from intensity measurements is a key process in many fields in science, from optical microscopy to x-ray crystallography. Here we study phase retrieval of a one-dimensional multi-phase object that is illuminated by quantum states of light. We generalize the iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to photon correlation measurements on the output plane, rather than the standard intensity measurements. We report a numerical comparison of classical and quantum phase retrieval of a small one-dimensional object of discrete phases from its far-field diffraction. While the classical algorithm was ambiguous and often converged to wrong solutions, quantum light produced a unique reconstruction with smaller errors and faster convergence. We attribute these improvements to a larger Hilbert space that constrains the algorithm.

  7. Comprehensive area assessment consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    The proposals for the new comprehensive area assessment are a very positive step forward for sustainable development compared to previous local performance assessment frameworks, but will need further strengthening if they are to help support the Government's aim of putting sustainable development at the heart of sustainable community strategies and their delivery mechanism, local area agreements. Publisher PDF

  8. Available area isotherm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, JC; Wesselingh, JA

    2004-01-01

    A new isotherm is presented for adsorption of proteins, the available area isotherm. This isotherm has a steric basis, unlike the (steric) mass action model. The shape of the available area isotherm is determined only by geometric exclusion. With the new isotherm, experimental results can be fitted

  9. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed with the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the similar Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce the conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  10. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  11. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub-project 2 - Ex-serviced 2.25Cr1M0 weld metal and cross weld repairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Feilitzen, Carl von

    2007-12-15

    Weld repair has been carried out in an ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe by using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables. Application of current welding procedure and consumables results in an over matched weld repair. This is verified by both creep tests and the creep simulations at even lower stresses than tested. Creep specimens have been extracted from ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM) and weld metal (WM), from virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 WM, from virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM, and from virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. In addition, cross weld specimens including weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and parent metal have been taken from the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld joint, and from three weld repairs. In total, there are nine test series. The sequence of creep lifetime at 540 deg C at given stresses is; virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal > virgin 15 Mo 3 weld metal approx virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 weld metal approx ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal >> ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal > ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld approx 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld repair approx 13 CrMo 4 4 cross weld repair approx and 15 Mo 3 cross weld repair. All the series show good creep ductility. The ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal shows a creep lifetime about one order of magnitude shorter than that for both the virgin parent metal and the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal, independent of stresses. Differences in creep lifetime among the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 cross weld and other cross weld repairs are negligible, simply because rupture always occurred in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal, approximately 10 mm from HAZ, for all the cross welds. Necking is frequently observed in the ex-serviced 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal at the opposite side of the fracture. Creep damage to a large and a small extend is found adjacent to the fracture and at the necking area, respectively. Other parts of the weld joint like weld metal and HAZ are damage-free, independent of stress, weld metal and

  12. Spatial-frequency-phase-time modulation of radio pulses in transmitting phased-array antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Gomozov, V. I.

    1995-01-01

    The work in this area was started by V.I. Gomozov and V.I. Zamyatin in 1978. Similar papers of foreign authors were published for the first time in 1988-1991. It is shown that in comparison with traditional spatial-phase modulation the proposed reciprocally matched spatial-frequency-phase-time modulation of radio pulses in the channels of transmitting Phased Array Antennas (PAA) has the following principal merits: duration of microwave radiation Focused Radio Pulse (FRP) is determined by the ...

  13. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  14. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  15. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf;

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  16. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur

  17. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  18. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  19. Dirac's Quantum Phase Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, J.; Vogel, W

    2009-01-01

    In 1927 the great physicist Paul A. M. Dirac failed to provide a consistent quantum description of the phase of a radiation field. Only one year later, he developed the famous Dirac theory of the electron, which led to the anti-particle -- the positron. We show that the reason for Dirac's failure with the phase problem bears a striking resemblance to his ingenious insight into the nature of the electron. For a correct quantum description of the phase of a radiation field it is necessary to ta...

  20. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  1. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  2. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  3. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  4. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (smbullet) Uranium fuel production (smbullet) Test reactor and separations experiments (smbullet) Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex (smbullet) .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  5. Driftless Area NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  6. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  7. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  8. Evaluation of yeast vitality during the stationary phase of very high gravity ethanol fermentation based on area under the curve of sugar secondary fermentation%基于二次发酵糖代谢曲线下面积法对高浓度酒精发酵后期酵母发酵活力的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文强; 伍时华; 赵东玲; 张健; 黄翠姬

    2015-01-01

    Vitality of fermentation yeast is one of the key factors of very high gravity ethanol fermentation and it is essential to accurately and quantitatively determine the vitality of fermentation yeast.In this study,the same amount of yeast cell was harvested by centrifuging cultures at 36,42,48,54 and 60 h during the primary ethanol fermentation and transferred into fresh fermentation medium for secondary fermentation,respectively.By the software graphpad prism 5,the curve of sugar metabolism was plotted during the secondary fermentation and the area under the curve (AUC) of sugar metabolism was calculated.And then the AUC was evaluated quantitatively as a measure of yeast vitality (the faster sugar consumption-the less AUC indicating that yeast vitality is stronger;vice versa).The results indicated that the ability of sugar metabolism of yeast cell from culture at 36,42,48,54 and 60 h during the primary fermentation gradually decreased and the AUC was 5 051,5 437,5 912,6 757 and 7 489,respectively,indicating that the vitality of yeast cell from the stationary phase of primary fermeantion gradually decreased as the time went on.By secondary fermentation parameter analysis,the results also showed that yeast vitality could be evaluated quantitatively based on the AUC,namely,the less AUC,the stronger yeast vitality,vice versa.%在主发酵过程的36、42、48、54与60 h取样离心,得到酵母细胞并等量地接入新鲜发酵培养基中进行二次发酵.测定酵母在二次发酵过程中糖代谢曲线并用Graphpad Prism 5软件计算糖代谢曲线下面积(AUC)来定量地表示酵母的发酵活力大小(糖消耗越快,糖代谢曲线下面积值越小,说明酵母的发酵活力越强).结果表明,主发酵36、42、48、54与60 h酵母糖代谢能力逐渐下降,二次发酵AUC值分别是5 051、5 437、5 912、6 757与7 489,说明随着时间的推移主发酵后期酵母细胞的发酵活力逐渐下降;二次发酵参数分析也表明,AUC能够定

  9. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  10. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  11. Dirac's Quantum Phase Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sperling, J

    2009-01-01

    In 1927 the great physicist Paul A. M. Dirac failed to provide a consistent quantum description of the phase of a radiation field. Only one year later, he developed the famous Dirac theory of the electron, which led to the anti-particle -- the positron. We show that the reason for Dirac's failure with the phase problem bears a striking resemblance to his ingenious insight into the nature of the electron. For a correct quantum description of the phase of a radiation field it is necessary to take the polarisation into account. Similarly to the introduction of the anti-particle of the electron, the inclusion of the second polarisation resolves the inconsistency of the quantum phase problem. This also leads to new insight into the quantum measurement problem of time.

  12. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  13. Unparticle phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles proposed by Georgi carry CP conserving phases in their propagators. We demonstrate that these peculiar phases have an important impact on CP violation. Without including the strong QCD phases, we study the unparticle phase effects on the direct CP asymmetries in the exclusive decays of $\\bar B_d\\to \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $B\\to \\pi K$, in which the flavor changing neutral currents are forbidden at tree level but induced by one-loop diagrams. Interesting and consistent results comparing to the data are obtained. In addition, we find that unparticles will significantly enhance the differential branching ratio of $b\\to s \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ at the small invariant mass of $\\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$. The forward-backward asymmetries for $b\\to s \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ due to unparticles are also explored.

  14. FEL phased array configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellan, Jeffrey B.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various phased array and shared aperture concepts for FEL configurations are discussed. Consideration is given to the characteristics of intra- and inter-micropulse phasing; intra-macropulse phasing; an internal coupled resonator configuration; and an injection locked oscillator array. The use of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration with multiple or single master oscillators for FELs is examined. The venetian blind, rotating plate, single grating, and grating rhomb shared aperture concepts are analyzed. It is noted that the shared aperture approach using a grating rhomb and the MOPA concept with a single master oscillator and a coupled resonator are useful for FEL phased array configurations; and the MOPA concept is most applicable.

  15. Phase angle measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madge, R.; Fischer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time measure of the power transfer across a transmission line was discussed. Phase angle measurement techniques, algorithms and applications relevant to power utilities were assessed. Phase-based applications compute the voltage angle difference between two stations, thereby allowing for power transfer calculations and power system control applications. A list of phase angle measurement applications was provided. It includes frequency measurement, state estimation, adaptive relaying, power system control, system restoration, real power flow monitoring and stability assessment, reactive power requirements monitoring, HVDC modulation, subsynchronous resonance, sequence of event recording, and loss reduction and fault location. The optimum timing requirement was determined for each application. Among the timing systems available today, the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by powerful computers and other custom hardware, is the only tool that can provide the accuracy and coverage needed by today`s power system applications. Commercially available equipment for phase angle measurements was also reviewed. 30 refs., 32 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Dual Phase Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Shurtleff, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A calculation based on flat spacetime symmetries shows how there can be two quantum phases. For one, extreme phase change determines a conventional classical trajectory and four-momentum, i.e. mass times four-velocity. The other phase occurs in an effective particle state, with the effective energy and momentum being the rate of change of the phase with respect to time and distance. A cosmic ray proton moves along a classical trajectory, but exists in an effective particle state with an effective energy that depends on the local gravitational potential. Assumptions are made so that a cosmic ray proton in an ultra-high energy state detected near the Earth was in a much less energetic state in interstellar space. A 300 EeV proton incident on the Earth was a 2 PeV proton in interstellar space. The model predicts such protons are in states with even more energy near the Sun than when near the Earth.

  17. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  18. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, F. R. N. C.; MacDowell, A.; Marchesini, S.; Padmore, H. A.; Parkinson, D. Y.; PIEN., J.; Schirotzek, A.; Yang, C

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard...

  19. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Filipe

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-R...

  20. Kinetics of phase change

    OpenAIRE

    Faleiros A.C.; Rabelo T.N.; Thim G.P.; Oliveira M.A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetic model for change of phases developed by M. Avrami at the end of the thirties has been used to describe the temporal behavior of phase changes. Until today this model is studied and adapted to include broader hypotheses. However, the mathematical format presented by M. Avrami is difficult to be understood by beginners. The purpose of this work is to clarify the mathematical treatment of Avrami's work, going straightforward to the arguments that led to his main results.

  1. Kinetics of phase change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Faleiros

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic model for change of phases developed by M. Avrami at the end of the thirties has been used to describe the temporal behavior of phase changes. Until today this model is studied and adapted to include broader hypotheses. However, the mathematical format presented by M. Avrami is difficult to be understood by beginners. The purpose of this work is to clarify the mathematical treatment of Avrami's work, going straightforward to the arguments that led to his main results.

  2. The SAT phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 李未

    1999-01-01

    Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r(ratio of clauses to variables) increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符

  3. Efficient Bayesian Phase Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new method called rejection filtering that we use to perform adaptive Bayesian phase estimation. Our approach has several advantages: it is classically efficient, easy to implement, achieves Heisenberg limited scaling, resists depolarizing noise, tracks time-dependent eigenstates, recovers from failures, and can be run on a field programmable gate array. It also outperforms existing iterative phase estimation algorithms such as Kitaev's method.

  4. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  5. Introduction to phasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introductory paper to the CCP4 weekend on experimental phasing introduces the concept of the ‘phase problem’ for non-experts. Modern methods of phasing are explored, including some recent examples that can be downloaded as tutorials. When collecting X-ray diffraction data from a crystal, we measure the intensities of the diffracted waves scattered from a series of planes that we can imagine slicing through the crystal in all directions. From these intensities we derive the amplitudes of the scattered waves, but in the experiment we lose the phase information; that is, how we offset these waves when we add them together to reconstruct an image of our molecule. This is generally known as the ‘phase problem’. We can only derive the phases from some knowledge of the molecular structure. In small-molecule crystallography, some basic assumptions about atomicity give rise to relationships between the amplitudes from which phase information can be extracted. In protein crystallography, these ab initio methods can only be used in the rare cases in which there are data to at least 1.2 Å resolution. For the majority of cases in protein crystallography phases are derived either by using the atomic coordinates of a structurally similar protein (molecular replacement) or by finding the positions of heavy atoms that are intrinsic to the protein or that have been added (methods such as MIR, MIRAS, SIR, SIRAS, MAD, SAD or combinations of these). The pioneering work of Perutz, Kendrew, Blow, Crick and others developed the methods of isomorphous replacement: adding electron-dense atoms to the protein without disturbing the protein structure. Nowadays, methods from small-molecule crystallography can be used to find the heavy-atom substructure and the phases for the whole protein can be bootstrapped from this prior knowledge. More recently, improved X-ray sources, detectors and software have led to the routine use of anomalous scattering to obtain phase information from

  6. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.J. (Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  7. Combustion 2000: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-11-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This Phase, Phase 2, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase 3. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase 3 program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase 2 Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4,and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  8. Euro Area business cycles in turbulent times: convergence or decoupling?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferroni, F.; Klaus, B.

    2014-01-01

    We study the business cycle properties of the four largest euro area economies in the wake of the recent recession episodes. The analysis is based on the factors estimated from a multi-country and multi-sector data-rich environment. We measure alikeness of business cycles by studying the synchronization of up and down phases, the convergence properties of country fluctuations towards the euro area cycles and the contribution of the euro area factor to national GDP volatilities. While the econ...

  9. Optical Phase Imaging Using Synthetic Aperture Illumination and Phase Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    We perform quantitative phase imaging using phase retrieval to implement synthetic aperture imaging. Compared to digital holography, the developed technique is simpler, less expensive, and more stable.

  10. Holographic phase transition probed by non-local observables

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed by the two point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes, the black hole undergos a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition successively before it reaches to a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find the equal area law for the first order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.

  11. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianming

    2016-08-22

    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms. PMID:27557170

  12. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianming

    2016-08-22

    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  13. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  14. Hartsville data and analysis book: Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preconstruction data base is recorded for the impact area surrounding the Hartsville nuclear construction project. The objective is to document baseline information for socioeconomic characteristics that may be either temporarily or permanently altered by the project. The analysis suggests that the five counties surrounding the site make up a primary impact area, but some impacts may occur outside the area. The work force for the construction phase of the project is segregated into four components: (1) former residents of the site county, (2) former residents of other counties in the impact area, (3) in-movers to the site county, and (4) in-movers to other counties in the impact area. A theoretical model is developed to illustrate the contribution of each component to the spatial pattern of economic benefits and social costs in the impact area. A shift-share analysis of agricultural characteristics in the impact area shows that employment and farm numbers in the area have declined at a slightly faster rate than in the nation but at a slower rate than in the South. A population and construction project threshold analysis suggests that, given the project size and population base at Hartsville, significant social and economic constraints may be encountered in the public and private economic infrastructure. These include amenities such as housing, school space, medical and police protection

  15. Transitions of Smectic A to Tilted Phases in Thin Free Standing Films of Liquid Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition of orthogonal smectic A (SmA) phase to the tilted phases, upon lowering the temperature, is explored with a discrete phenomenological model and the phase diagrams are presented. The results show that the transition of SmA to uniplanar structures can be affected by the effect of chirality. The areas showing the uniplanar phase in the phase diagrams diminish with the increase in effect of chirality. (author)

  16. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  17. Controllable tomography phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-03-01

    Tomography phase microscopy (TPM) is a new microscopic method that can quantitatively yield the volumetric 3D distribution of a sample's refractive index (RI), which is significant for cell biology research. In this paper, a controllable TPM system is introduced. In this system a circulatory phase-shifting method and piezoelectric ceramic are used which enable the TPM system to record the 3D RI distribution at a more controllable speed, from 1 to 40 fps, than in the other TPM systems reported. The resolution of the RI distribution obtained by this controllable TPM is much better than that in images recorded by phase contrast microscopy and interference tomography microscopy. The realization of controllable TPM not only allows for the application of TPM to the measurement of kinds of RI sample, but also contributes to academic and technological support for the practical use of TPM.

  18. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Patrick; Guevara Vasquez, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  19. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  20. Phase coexistence in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulminelli, F

    2003-05-01

    In this work the general theory of first order phase transitions in finite systems is discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamic description for small, short-lived systems de-exciting in the vacuum as nuclear samples coming from heavy ion collisions. After a short review of the general theory of phase transitions in the framework of information theory; we will present the different possible extensions to the field of finite systems. The concept of negative heat capacity, developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems, will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. A careful study of the thermodynamic limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. In the second part of the paper we will apply the theoretical ideas developed in the first part to the possible observation of a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The applicability of equilibrium concepts in a dynamical collisional process without boundary conditions will first be critically discussed. The observation of abnormally large partial energy fluctuations in carefully selected samples of collisions detected with the MULTICS-Miniball array will then be reported as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity in the nuclear equation of state. (author)

  1. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  2. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  3. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  4. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  5. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  6. Tangrams and Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Charlotte

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity for demonstrating the area of five geometric figures--the square, the rectangle, the parallelogram, the triangle, and the trapezoid--that is based on a simple tangram puzzle. Suggests ways in which this activity can be used at several different levels. (ASK)

  7. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  8. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F R N C; Marchesini, S; Padmore, H A; Parkinson, D Y; Pien, J; Schirotzek, A; Yang, C; 10.1117/12.861946

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  9. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  10. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  11. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation with a si......The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...

  12. Quantum phase slip noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .

  13. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  14. Utilization of peat procurement network for purchase of energy wood. Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to investigate and develop the energy wood procurement to the mire-terminals for production of mixed fuels, carried out by the peat contractors and forest machine entrepreneurs. The investigation of the costs of the chips produced for mixed fuels, the deviation of them and the possibilities to reduce them form the main part of the project. The duration of the project is two years, and it started in the summer 1997. Procurement of energy wood, carried out by forest machine and peat entrepreneurs, to the bog terminals for production of mixed fuels by the side of peat, will be studied in the project both experimentally and calculationally. The utilization of peat procurement network for energy wood procurement will mainly be studied. Costs and the harvesting logistics will be estimated using the software developed in the research. The project is divided into five sub-tasks: (1) survey on the contractor and machine needs of the experimental work; (2) selection of entrepreneurs and the harvesting sites; (3) practical harvesting experiments; (4) development of the cost calculation software; (5) analysis and reporting of the results

  15. There are no trends loke ozone trends Invited contribution to subproject TOR-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, M.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that the emissions of NOK and VOC in various countries in Europe are decreasing. According to the EMEP Emission Inventory NOK, NMVOC and CO emissions decreased from 1988 to 1995 with about 10-30 % in many countries in NW Europe (EMEP, 1996). Records of ambient air measurem

  16. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  17. Fuel Retrieval Sub-Project (FRS) Decapping Station Performance Test Data Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is to provide the test data report for Decapping Station Performance Testing. These performance tests were full scale and viewed as a continuation of development testing performed earlier (SNF-2710). A prototype decapping station confinement box was tested, along with some special tools required for the process, providing assurance that the fuel handling equipment will operate as designed, allowing for release of the FRS equipment for installation

  18. Equalization Technique for Balancing the Modulation Ratio Characteristics of the Single-Phase-to-Three-Phase Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadeshwaran Velu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-phase system has numerous advantages over the single-phase system in terms of instantaneous power, stability, and cost. Three-phase systems are not available in every location particularly in remote rural areas, hill stations, low voltage distribution homes, and so forth. Having a system that is capable of converting directly the readily available single-phase system to three phases will have greater usability in various applications. The routine techniques adopted in the direct ac-ac single-phase-to-three-phase converters do not yield the best desired outputs because of their complexity in the segregation process and bidirectional nature of the input signal. Other initiatives use ac-dc-ac converters which are huge and costly due to dc link energy storage devices. Further, none of these systems provide a convincing result in producing the standard three-phase output voltages that are 120° away from each other. This paper proposes an effective direct ac-ac single-phase-to-three-phase conversion technique based on space vector pulse width modulation based matrix converter system that produces a convincing three-phase output signals from a single-phase source with balanced modulation index characteristics. The details of the scientific programming adopted on the proposed technique were presented.

  19. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Microsolvated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte Linde

    Gas-phase studies of ion-molecule reactions shed light on the intrinsic factors that govern reactivity; and even solvent effects can be examined in the gasphase environment by employing microsolvated ions. An area that has received considerable attention with regard to the interplay between intri...... cannot be expected to catalyze hydrogen abstraction reactions by the hydroxyl radical under atmospherically relevant conditions....... from the solvent to the anion, resulting in a HO−(HOOH) rather than a HOO−(H2O) structure. However, the results demonstrate that the reactive nucleophile is nonetheless the HOO− anion. Finally, microsolvation applied to radical-molecule reactions allows us to demonstrate that a single water molecule......Gas-phase studies of ion-molecule reactions shed light on the intrinsic factors that govern reactivity; and even solvent effects can be examined in the gasphase environment by employing microsolvated ions. An area that has received considerable attention with regard to the interplay between...

  20. Geometric Phase, Curvature, and the Monodromy Group

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, B H

    2014-01-01

    The geometric phase requires the multivaluedness of solutions to Fuchsian second-order equations. The angle, or its complement, is given by half the area of a spherical triangle in the case of three singular points, or half the area of a lune in the case of two singular points. Both are fundamental regions where the automorphic function takes a value only once, and a linear-fractional transformation tessellates the plane in replicas of the fundamental region. The condition that the homologues of the poles, representing vertices, be angles places restrictions on quantum numbers which are no longer integers, for, otherwise, the phase factors would become unity. Restriction must be made to regular singular points for only then will solutions to the differential equation be rational functions so that the covering group will be cyclic and the covering space be a "spiral staircase". Many of the equations of mathematical physics, with essential singularities, become Fuchsian differential equations, with regular sing...

  1. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    with phase-type distributions. For the first order distribution we present an explicit formula for the related Lorenz curve and Gini index. Moment distributions of orders one, two and three have been extensively used in areas such as economy, physics, demography and civil engineering.......Both matrix-exponential and phase-type distributions have a number of important closure properties. Among those are the distributions of the age and residual life-time of a stationary renewal process with inter-arrivals of either type. In this talk we show that the spread, which is the sum...... of the age an residual life-time, is also phase-type distributed. Moreover, we give some explicit representations. The spread is known to have a first order moment distribution. If X is a positive random variable and ?i is its i'th moment, then the function fi(x) = xif(x)/?i is a density function...

  2. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm2/s and 4.9 cm3/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard

  3. The phase field technique for modeling multiphase materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Loginova, I.; Singer, H. M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews methods and applications of the phase field technique, one of the fastest growing areas in computational materials science. The phase field method is used as a theory and computational tool for predictions of the evolution of arbitrarily shaped morphologies and complex microstructures in materials. In this method, the interface between two phases (e.g. solid and liquid) is treated as a region of finite width having a gradual variation of different physical quantities, i.e. it is a diffuse interface model. An auxiliary variable, the phase field or order parameter \\phi(\\vec{x}) , is introduced, which distinguishes one phase from the other. Interfaces are identified by the variation of the phase field. We begin with presenting the physical background of the phase field method and give a detailed thermodynamical derivation of the phase field equations. We demonstrate how equilibrium and non-equilibrium physical phenomena at the phase interface are incorporated into the phase field methods. Then we address in detail dendritic and directional solidification of pure and multicomponent alloys, effects of natural convection and forced flow, grain growth, nucleation, solid-solid phase transformation and highlight other applications of the phase field methods. In particular, we review the novel phase field crystal model, which combines atomistic length scales with diffusive time scales. We also discuss aspects of quantitative phase field modeling such as thin interface asymptotic analysis and coupling to thermodynamic databases. The phase field methods result in a set of partial differential equations, whose solutions require time-consuming large-scale computations and often limit the applicability of the method. Subsequently, we review numerical approaches to solve the phase field equations and present a finite difference discretization of the anisotropic Laplacian operator.

  4. Phase locking of vortex cores in two coupled magnetic nanopillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan Zhu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase locking dynamics of the coupled vortex cores in two identical magnetic spin valves induced by spin-polarized current are studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results show that the available current range of phase locking can be expanded significantly by the use of constrained polarizer, and the vortices undergo large orbit motions outside the polarization areas. The effects of polarization areas and dipolar interaction on the phase locking dynamics are studied systematically. Phase locking parameters extracted from simulations are discussed by theoreticians. The dynamics of vortices influenced by spin valve geometry and vortex chirality are discussed at last. This work provides deeper insights into the dynamics of phase locking and the results are important for the design of spin-torque nano-oscillators.

  5. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  6. Analysis and simulation of phase transformation kinetics of zeolite A from amorphous phases

    CERN Document Server

    Marui, Y; Uchida, H; Takiyama, H

    2003-01-01

    Experiments on transformation rates of zeolite A from amorphous phases at different feed rates to alter the particle size of the amorphous phases were carried out to analyze the kinetics of the transformation, and were analyzed by performing simulation of the transformation. A clear dependence of the induction time for nucleation of zeolite A crystals on the surface area of the amorphous phase was recognized, indicating that the nucleation of zeolite A was heterogeneous and the nucleation rate was almost proportional to the size of the amorphous particles. From the simulation, the mechanism of the transformation was found to be heterogeneous nucleation of zeolite A crystals on the surface of amorphous particles followed by solution mediated phase transformation, and the transformation kinetics were well reproduced at different feed rates. (author)

  7. Computed Tomography of Transverse Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, A. [Fermilab; Johnstone, C. [Fermilab; Johnstone, J. [Fermilab

    2016-09-19

    Two computed tomography techniques are explored to reconstruct beam transverse phase space using both simulated beam and multi-wire profile data in the Fermilab Muon Test Area ("MTA") beamline. Both Filtered Back-Projection ("FBP") and Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique ("SART") algorithms [2] are considered and compared. Errors and artifacts are compared as a function of each algorithm’s free parameters, and it is shown through simulation and MTA beamline profiles that SART is advantageous for reconstructions with limited profile data.

  8. Fluctuations and the QCD Phase Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss how the study of various fluctuation observables may be used to explore the phase diagram of the strong interaction. We will briefly summarize the present study of experimental and theoretical research in this area. We will then discuss various corrections and issues which need to be understood and applied for a meaningful comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical predictions. This contribution is dedicated to Andrzej Bialas on the occasion of his $80^{\\mathrm{th}}$ birthday.

  9. New Phase Shifting Algorithms Insensitive to Linear Phase Shift Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyses multistep algorithms for evaluating of the wave field phase in interferometric measurements using the phase shifting technique. New phase shifting algorithms are proposed, with a constant but arbitrary phase shift between captured frames of the intensity of the interference field. The phase evaluation process then does not depend on linear phase shift errors. A big advantage of the described algorithms is their ability to determine the phase shift value at every point of the detector plane. A detailed analysis of these algorithms with respect to main factors that affect interferometric measurements is then carried out. The dependency of these algorithms on phase shift values is also studied several phase calculation algorithms are proposed. These are compared with respect to the resulting phase errors.

  10. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  11. Temperature stabilized phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The construction, tests, and performance of a temperature stabilized phase detector are discussed. It has a frequency stability of 5 parts in 10 to the 16th power at 100 MHz, with a temperature step of 20 C (15 to 35 C).

  12. Photoinduced phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, K

    2004-01-01

    A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.

  13. SSIP Phase I Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Lucas, Anne; Taylor, Cornelia; Kelley, Grace; Kasprzak, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This roadmap provides a description of the activities involved in the development of the State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) (SPP/APR Indicators C11 and B17) due to the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) on April 1, 2015. The roadmap is intended to support states with completing Phase I of the SSIP process. This document provides…

  14. Theory of alloy phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.E.; Ehrenreich, H.; Bennett, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Various non-thermodynamic approaches to understanding and predicting phase diagrams are explored from the viewpoint of solid-state physics. The review is intended to indicate the scope of activity and some of the progress which has been made. (GHT)

  15. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...

  16. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  17. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van, M.; Struik, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplanted at 18/12 or 26/20°C (tuber production phase, 6 weeks). Boosts in leaf area increase and leaf appearance occurred in the first days after planting to soil. A shock in leaf area increase occurred...

  18. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplan

  19. Biometeorological phases influence on stroke morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Milojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine influence of biometeorological phases on strokeincidence according to age and gender of patients, place of residence, days in a week, months in a year, type of stroke, additional diagnosis. Methodology Comparative analysis of the data on stroke patients (according to age, months, days, place of residence, age, sex, stroke type, additional diagnosis and number of hospitalization days obtained by examining the records of discharge and admission of patients in the Department of Neurology of Kragujevac and everyday biometeorological phases obtained from the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia (RHMS of Serbia, for the following years: 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Kragujevac.Results 4,700 patients diagnosed with stroke were hospitalized in the observed period. The highest number of strokes was noted in 2003 (1,030, the lowest in 2008 (851. The highest number of strokes was in March (444 and the lowest in February (351.The most frequent days were Mondays (805, and the least frequent Sundays (495. Three fifths of patients were from urban areas and the rest of them were from rural areas. Out of this number 2,382 (50.7% were males and 2.318 (49.3% were females, of which 1.847 (77.6% males and 1,894 (81.7% females were over 70 years old. The average number of hospitalization days was 12.29 days, and most patients were in hospital for less than 10 days (2101 patients. 4,130 (87.9% patients were diagnosed with thromboembolism, 422 (9.0% with intracerebral hemorrhage and 148 (3.2% with subarachnoid hemorrhage. As an additional diagnosis 1,946 (41.4% patients had hypertension, 867(18.6% had heart insufficiency and 15.40% had diabetes. Most strokes with significant correlation were in biometheorological phases 9 and 4 (1,227 and 1,010 strokes and the least were in phase 10 (29. As a daily average, the highest number of strokes was in phase 8 (2.76/ day, the lowest in phase 2 (2.33/day. Conclusion Biometeorological phases have a

  20. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  1. Phase Operator and Phase State in Thermo Field Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Nian-Quan

    We extend the Susskind-Glogower phase operator and phase state in quantum optics to thermo field dynamics (TFD). Based on the thermo entangled state representation, we introduce thermo excitation and de-excitation operators with which the phase operator and phase state in TFD can be constructed. The phase state treated as a limiting case of a new SU(1, 1) coherent states is also exhibited.

  2. Gouy phase compensation in quasi-phase matching

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Huw E.; Gawith, Corin B.E.; Smith, Peter G. R.

    2008-01-01

    In any focussed nonlinear interaction the focus induced phase shift, known as the Gouy phase shift, provides an imperfection in phase matching for any linearly invariant material. However, using an appropriately designed quasi-phase matched structure it is theoretically possible to compensate for the deleterious effects of the Gouy phase shift, allowing a symmetric frequency response and tighter optimal focussing than in a uniform material.

  3. Phase Computations and Phase Models for Discrete Molecular Oscillators.

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Alper; Şuvak, Önder

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Phase computations and phase models for discrete molecular oscillators Onder Suvak* and Alper Demir Abstract Background: Biochemical oscillators perform crucial functions in cells, e.g., they set up circadian clocks. The dynamical behavior of oscillators is best described and analyzed in terms of the scalar quantity, phase. A rigorous and useful definition for phase is based on the so-called isochrons of oscillators. Phase computation techniques for ...

  4. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  5. Geoconservation and protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Brilha, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation will fail if nature conservation policies impose artificial boundaries on the natural world. The protected area manager’s main task is biodiversity preservation. Nevertheless, nature conservation requires a broad perspective. Incorporating geology into conservation policies at the same level as biology is urgent. The slow rate of many geological processes leads to the misconception that geological resources are inexhaustible and immutable. Geologists know that this is not true an...

  6. Research Areas in Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. T. Waghmode

    2012-01-01

    Research is the most distinguished activity that enhances the quality of higher-education. A person obsessed with research has to face many problems. Apart from having an appropriate guide, the real problem begins with the selection of the research topic. The vast and gleaming research area is always changing its dimensions. Some well-set, readymade and stereotyped topics do not attract the attention of a competent researcher, because he or she is always looking for what is new and qualitativ...

  7. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  8. Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX '91, field phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment TROLIX '91 has been initiated as part of the TESLAS subproject of the cooperative programme EUROTRAC. It has been performed in June 1991 at the Rijksinstitut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene (RIVM) in Bilthoven, The Netherlands. The experiment was based on the simultaneous operation of different types of differential absorption lidars (DIAL), a special version of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument (DOAS), helicopter borne in situ instruments, and many other supporting measurements. After a short introduction to the general methodology the instruments are described, the experimental operations are explained, and a selection of data are presented. Some examples are given for the results of the intercomparison, as far as they have been available at the present stage of evaluation. The main purpose of this report, however, is to provide an overview over the material collected during the experiment, on order to facilitate further detailed studies in cooperation between the different groups which have participated. (orig.)

  9. Savannah River Plant construction [100 Area History]: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This report discusses five Reactor (100) Areas constructed at SRP. They were designated as 100-C, K, L, P and R. A minimum distance of two miles separated any two of the areas which were laid out in the form of a semi-circle, Each area contained approximately 40 permanent buildings and facilities for a total of 200 buildings for all of the 100 Areas. Construction was started on the R Area first and this was the first area to be completed and accepted by Operations. Construction of the other areas was started and completed in the following sequence: P, L, K and C. The difference in the design and construction of the various facilities in these areas is noted under the individual building discussion on the following pages of this section of the Construction History and also in the du Pont Engineering and Design History. In the series of manufacturing operations the separation of fissionable materials produced in the 100 Areas is accomplished by chemical and physical means in the 200 Areas These are the 200-F and 200-H Areas which have duplicate facilities in the process phase. However, a central laboratory, area shops, laundry, metallurgical and storage magazine buildings were constructed in the 200-F Area only and serve both areas. These activities are also presented in this report.

  10. Phase-unwrapping algorithm for images with high noise content based on a local histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Jaime; Gharbi, Tijani; Humbert, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    We present a robust algorithm of phase unwrapping that was designed for use on phase images with high noise content. We proceed with the algorithm by first identifying regions with continuous phase values placed between fringe boundaries in an image and then phase shifting the regions with respect to one another by multiples of 2pi to unwrap the phase. Image pixels are segmented between interfringe and fringe boundary areas by use of a local histogram of a wrapped phase. The algorithm has been used successfully to unwrap phase images generated in a three-dimensional shape measurement for noninvasive quantification of human skin structure in dermatology, cosmetology, and plastic surgery.

  11. Phase-only optical encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, P.C.; Glückstad, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have implemented a phase-only optical encryption and decryption system with a readout based on the generalized phase-contrast method. The experimental system has been implemented with Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators to generate binary phase-encrypted masks and a decrypting key. A phase...

  12. Geometric Properties of Quantum Phases

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bracken

    2006-01-01

    The Aharonov-Anandan phase is introduced from a physical point of view. Without reference to any dynamical equation, this phase is formulated by defining an appropriate connection on a specific fibre bundle. The holonomy element gives the phase. By introducing another connection, the Pancharatnam phase formula is derived following a different procedure.

  13. Phase estimation in optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today. The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre

  14. Using a plenoptic sensor to reconstruct vortex phase structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C

    2016-07-15

    A branch point problem and its solution commonly involve recognizing and reconstructing a vortex phase structure around a singular point. In laser beam propagation through random media, the destructive phase contributions from various parts of a vortex phase structure will cause a dark area in the center of the beam's intensity profile. This null of intensity can, in turn, prevent the vortex phase structure from being recognized. In this Letter, we show how to use a plenoptic sensor to transform the light field of a vortex beam so that a simple and direct reconstruction algorithm can be applied to reveal the vortex phase structure. As a result, we show that the plenoptic sensor is effective in detecting branch points and can be used to reconstruct phase distortion in a beam in a wide sense. PMID:27420487

  15. Mathematical Analysis of Queue with Phase Service: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of phase service queueing models. A large number of models have been developed in the area of queueing theory incorporating the concept of phase service. These phase service queueing models have been investigated for resolving the congestion problems of many day-to-day as well as industrial scenarios. In this survey paper, an attempt has been made to review the work done by the prominent researchers on the phase service queues and their applications in several realistic queueing situations. The methodology used by several researchers for solving various phase service queueing models has also been described. We have classified the related literature based on modeling and methodological concepts. The main objective of present paper is to provide relevant information to the system analysts, managers, and industry people who are interested in using queueing theory to model congestion problems wherein the phase type services are prevalent.

  16. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  17. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  18. Discommensurates and incommensurate phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this research thesis reports the study of the commensurate-incommensurate (C-I) transition of single layers of rare gases adsorbed on graphite. The anharmonicity of the interaction between adatoms could explain experimental results corresponding to krypton. The author also studied the orientation instability of the single layer with respect to the chemical potential. Near the C-I transition, walls or discommensurates are oriented in substrate symmetry directions which are determined. The effect of substrate deformation on C-I transition is also studied. In the second part, the author studied the phase diagram at low temperature of the anisotropic Ising model with competing interactions for the approximation of the mean field. Finally, the author presents a phenomenological model of Cerium Antimony which reproduces a large part of its phase diagram

  19. Phase zone photon sieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Jia; Xie Chang-Qing

    2009-01-01

    A novel diffractive optical element, named phase zone photon sieve (PZPS), is presented. There are three kinds of phase plates in PZPSs: PZPS1, PZPS2, and PZPS3. Each of the PZPSs has its own structure and is made on quartz substrate by etching. The three PZPSs have stronger diffraction peak intensity than a photon sieve (PS) when the margin pinhole and zone line width are kept the same. The PZPS3 can produce a smaller central diffractive spot than the ordinary PS with the same number of zones on the Fresnel zone plate. We have given the design method for and the simulation of PZPS and PS. PZPS has potential applications in optical maskless lithography.

  20. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono–thiolo rea......The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono......–thiolo rearrangement, and, in the case of the ethyl esters, ethylene elimination. The possible mechanisms for keten formation are discussed, and it is concluded that the thiono-carboxylates eliminates the mercaptan via an enethiolized structure, whereas the decomposition of the thiolo-esters apparently proceeds via...

  1. Phase modulated multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Pullerits, Tonu

    2015-01-01

    We show that the modulation of the phases of the laser beams of ultra-short pulses leads to modulation of the two photon fluorescence intensity. The phase modulation technique when used in multi-photon microscopy can improve the signal to noise ratio. The technique can also be used in multiplexing the signals in the frequency domain in multi-focal raster scanning microscopy. As the technique avoids the use of array detectors as well as elaborate spatiotemporal multiplexing schemes it provides a convenient means to multi-focal scanning in axial direction. We show examples of such uses. Similar methodology can be used in other non-linear scanning microscopies, such as second or third harmonic generation microscopy.

  2. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  3. Dementia in Taiwan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanhan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Taiwan has an increasing aging population like other developed areas. The aging population will lead to an increased prevalence of dementia. Methods:This article will reflect the status of dementia in Taiwan, including updated epidemiology, diagnosis, subtypes, and optimal treatment of dementia. Results:The article also describes and interprets the Taiwan Dementia Policy to establish a clear, large view of the current state of management of dementia in Taiwan and future policy implementation. Conclusion:A comprehensive policy to dementia, from the basic researches to clinical care and treatment, is necessary to the increased aged population in Taiwan.

  4. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  5. Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.

  6. Compactification on phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelady, Benjamin; Wheeler, James

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge for string theory is to understand the dimensional reduction required for comparison with the standard model. We propose reducing the dimension of the compactification by interpreting some of the extra dimensions as the energy-momentum portion of a phase-space. Such models naturally arise as generalized quotients of the conformal group called biconformal spaces. By combining the standard Kaluza-Klein approach with such a conformal gauge theory, we may start from the conformal group of an n-dimensional Euclidean space to form a 2n-dimensional quotient manifold with symplectic structure. A pair of involutions leads naturally to two n-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds. For n = 5, this leaves only two extra dimensions, with a countable family of possible compactifications and an SO(5) Yang-Mills field on the fibers. Starting with n=6 leads to 4-dimensional compactification of the phase space. In the latter case, if the two dimensions each from spacetime and momentum space are compactified onto spheres, then there is an SU(2)xSU(2) (left-right symmetric electroweak) field between phase and configuration space and an SO(6) field on the fibers. Such a theory, with minor additional symmetry breaking, could contain all parts of the standard model.

  7. Wavefunctions on phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of Torres-Vega and Fredrick (1993 J. Chem. Phys. 98 3103), Harriman (1994 J. Chem. Phys. 100 3651) and of Ban (1998 J. Math. Phys. 39 1744), in which phase space points (p, q) are used as configurational variables to formulate quantum mechanics are considered from the standpoint of a class of quantization schemes associating phase space functions with operators. The connection between these schemes and the theories given in Torres-Vega and Fredrick (1993 J. Chem. Phys. 98 3103), Harriman (1994 J. Chem. Phys. 100 3651), Dirac (1930 The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Oxford: Oxford University Press)), Moeller, Joergensen and Torres-Vega (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 106 7228), Klauder and Skagerstam (1985 Coherent States: Applications in Physics and Mathematical Physics (Singapore: World Scientific)), Li, Wei and Lue (2004 Phys. Rev. A 70 022105), Ban (1998 J. Math. Phys. 39 1744) is made by means of augmented wavefunctions ψ(λ)σ(p, q; t), where λ = 0 corresponds to the ordering of Wigner and Weyl. For that case we use these functions to define a family of positive operator-valued measures for the phase angle of an harmonic oscillator

  8. Polarity-adjustable reversed phase ultrathin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J Z; Taschuk, M T; Brett, M J

    2012-11-30

    Reversed phase thin layer chromatography (TLC) or high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates modified with C18, C8 or C2 to provide the silica-gel stationary phase with different polarities are available on the market, however, reversed phase plates with tunable polarity have not been reported. Given the limited variety of reversed phase plates, mobile phase composition optimization is necessary to obtain better separation of analytes with similar characteristics, which is often a time consuming step. We present polarity-adjustable reversed phase ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) plates, which simplifies the mobile phase screening process and greatly expands the selection of reversed phase plates. The plates were fabricated on glass substrates with SiO(2) nanopillars deposited using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. SiO(2) nanopillars were functionalized with octadecyltrichlorosilane to generate a super hydrophobic stationary phase. Unlike commercial silica-gel based stationary phases, the isolated nanopillar architecture presented here exposes a high surface area to post-fabrication surface treatments. In our work, an O(2) plasma treatment at different powers, pressures and exposure times was used to shorten the silane carbon chain and introduce COOH groups to the surface, producing plates with finely tunable polarities. Separation of a model dye mixture of Sudan blue and Sudan IV confirmed the tuning of surface polarities by measurement of retention behavior changes. The dye elution order reversed as a result of the change in surface polarity. When the same plasma treatment process was tested on commercial reversed phase plates, separation behavior did not change because the disordered and tortuous silica gel restricts the accessible surface area. Plasma treatment of GLAD structures with highly accessible surfaces improved control over interfacial properties, producing better reverse phase separations. PMID:23116804

  9. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, T., E-mail: timfrol@berkeley.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mishin, Y., E-mail: ymishin@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MSN 3F3, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality.

  10. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  11. RELAP5 analysis of two-phase decompression and rarefaction wave propagation under a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of RELAP5 to model single and two-phase acoustic waves is demonstrated with the use of fine temporal and spatial discretizations. Two cases were considered: a single phase air shock tube problem and pressure waves observed by Takeda and Toda in a two-phase decompression experiment in a pipe. Whereas the agreement for the single phase case is excellent, some discrepancies were observed in the two-phase case. However, RELAP5 produced markedly better results after adjusting the bubble size and the choked flow area. These results illustrate the need of a dynamic model for the interfacial area concentration (i.e., the bubble size). (author)

  12. Estimation of the water volume to be managed in the infrastructure of phase II of the artificial recharge plant in the El Carracillo region, Segovia (western area); Determinacion de los volumenes de agua a gestionar en las infraestructuras de la fase II del proyecto de recarga artificial del acuifero cuaternario de la comarca de El Carracillo, Segovia (sector occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Antequera, C.; Martinez Gamo, R.; Martinez Rubio, J.

    2014-10-01

    The first hydrogeological investigation for the definition of the Carracillo aquifer (Segovia) was carried out in order to plan the best possible artificial recharge works provided for within the framework of the Royal Decree- Law 9/1998 El Carracillo Aquifer Recharge. Intake and Pipeline Work, Infiltration and Irrigation Adequacy (Segovia) These studies revealed the existence of two regions hydro geologically favourable for water storage from flows derived from the river Cega: the first known as the paleo-landform site located within the irrigation area, and the second area called the storage area located in the eastern sector of the district. In order to exactly estimate the minimum and maximum volume of water that has to be managed in the paleo-landform site over a period of five years, the Tragsa Group has carried out, at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, some of the hydrogeological work, which included the exhaustive follow up of the piezometric behaviour of the aquifer and the detailed analysis of each of the external actions that have a direct influence upon it, such as the useful rain, the artificial recharge, the extraction by pumping, and the overland flow, amongst others. (Author)

  13. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  14. Local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiropoulo, P

    1982-01-01

    Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.

  15. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Lewis-acid and redox-active zeolite catalysts for the activation of methane and lower hydrocarbons in the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. Subproject: structural characterization and kinetic modelling. Final report; Lewis-acide und redox-aktive Zeolith-Katalysatoren fuer die Aktivierung von Methan und Fluessiggas-Kohlenwasserstoffen in der SCR von NO{sub x}. Teilprojekt: Strukturelle Katalysatorcharakterisierung und Modellierung der Reaktionskinetik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenert, W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Technische Chemie; Sowade, T.; Schmidt, C.; Stroeder, U. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Zeolites (in particular ZSM-5) modified by indium and additionally promoted by ceria have been studied as catalysts for selective reduction of NO by methane. The structural properties of the catalysts have been investigated by XRD, FTIR, EXAFS, electron microscopy and XPS. The ceria promotor may be added to In-ZSM-5 by precipitation onto the external zeolite surface or by physically admixing a high surface-area powder. The preparation of the basic In-ZSM-5 system has a large influence on the properties of the catalyst. Preparation by aqueous exchange leads in most cases to a coexistence of a small amount of intra-zeolite indium species and extra-zeolite indium phases. Only at low pH, exclusively intra-zeolite indium is formed to a low extent (<10% exchange degree). Intrazeolite indium can be also obtained by dry preparations using InCl{sub 3} (solid-state ion exchange, sublimation, transport reaction). The In species formed carry Cl ligands, the stability of which depends on the indium content: after washing and calcination steps, Cl ligands could no longer be detected only in samples with low In content. Reductive solid-state ion exchange is a further method to prepare intra-zeolite In species. In mixtures containing excess indium, oligometric intra-zeolite In species are formed via this route. Intra-zeolite Cl-free In species exhibit significant SCR activity while Cl-containing In-species activate methane with low SCR selectivity. In ceria-promoted systems, the ceria provides full NO{sub 2} supply by catalysing the NO oxidation. With sufficient NO{sub 2} supply, the even Cl-containing In sites provide high SCR activities. Since the relevance of acidic sites was established e.g. by poisoning experiments, the reaction mechanism can by visualised by proceeding via methane activation over In sites, reaction of activated methane with NO{sub 2} to a volatile intermediate (e.g. nitromethane), which is then decomposed over the acidic sites. The reaction kinetics of the

  17. The three phases of the ensemble forecasting of niche models: geographic range and shifts in climatically suitable areas of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae As três fases da projeção combinada de modelos de nicho: distribuição geográfica e deslocamento de áreas climaticamente adequadas para Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Species' geographic ranges are usually considered as basic units in macroecology and biogeography, yet it is still difficult to measure them accurately for many reasons. About 20 years ago, researchers started using local data on species' occurrences to estimate broad scale ranges, thereby establishing the niche modeling approach. However, there are still many problems in model evaluation and application, and one of the solutions is to find a consensus solution among models derived from different mathematical and statistical models for niche modeling, climatic projections and variable combination, all of which are sources of uncertainty during niche modeling. In this paper, we discuss this approach of ensemble forecasting and propose that it can be divided into three phases with increasing levels of complexity. Phase I is the simple combination of maps to achieve a consensual and hopefully conservative solution. In Phase II, differences among the maps used are described by multivariate analyses, and Phase III consists of the quantitative evaluation of the relative magnitude of uncertainties from different sources and their mapping. To illustrate these developments, we analyzed the occurrence data of the tiger moth, Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, a Neotropical moth species, and modeled its geographic range in current and future climates.A distribuição geográfica das espécies tem sido considerada como a unidade básica em macroecologia e biogeografia, mas ainda há dificuldades em mensurá-la de forma adequada, por diferentes razões. Há cerca de 20 anos atrás, os pesquisadores começaram a utilizar dados locais da ocorrência das espécies para estimar essas distribuições utilizando modelos de nicho ecológico. Entretanto, ainda há uma série de problemas na avaliação dos modelos e em suas aplicações, e uma das soluções é utilizar um consenso de diferentes modelos, projeções climáticas, cenários de emissão e

  18. Incommensurate phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currat, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-11-01

    We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.

  19. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  20. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  1. "Phase diagrams of Lecithin-based microemulsions containing Sodium Salicylate "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Aboofazeli R

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial phase diagrams were constructed at 25°C to investigate the phase behaviour of systems composed of soybean lecithin, water, sodium salicylate, alcohol and isopropyl myristate. The lecithins used were the commercially available soy bean lecithins, namely E200 and E170 (phosphatidyl choline purities greater than 95% and 68-72% respectively. The cosurfactants employed were n-propanol, 2-propanol and n-butanol and these were used at lecithin/alcohol weight ratios (Km of 1:1 and 1.5:1. At a given Km, the aqueous phase consisted of a 2% w/w sodium salicylate solution. Phase diagrams showed the area of existence of a stable isotropic region along the surfactant/oil axis (i.e., reverse microemulsion area. The extension of the microemulsion domain was influenced by the purity of surfactant, the lecithin/alcohol weight ratios and the kind of the alcohol.

  2. SYNCHEM feasibility report: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Several Czech and US companies have entered into a development agreement for the purposes of determining the technical and economic feasibility and overall financeability of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) regional energy facility to be located adjacent to the Chemopetrol refinery in Litvinov, Czech Republic. The Project would use a feedstock comprised of coal supplied by Doly a upravny Komorany s.p. (DUK) coal mining company and mined from the Most/Litvinov area together with high sulfur residual oils from the Chemopetrol refinery. When gasified together with oxygen from an Air Products air separation plant, and based on an average yearly consumption of 2,100K metric tons per year of coal (as delivered) and 630K tonnes per year of oil, approximately 11 million normal cubic meters per day of syngas will be produced. At its current projected design capacity, when combusted in two General Electric advanced technology Frame 9FA gas turbines, the Project will produce approximately 690MW of electric power; 250 metric tons/hour of steam for process; and 135 thermal equivalent MW of district heat. The Feasibility Phase efforts described in this report indicate the real possibility for a successful and profitable IGCC Project for the Czech Republic. It is therefore incumbent upon all the Project Participants to review and evaluate the information contained herein such that a go/no-go decision can be reached by early next year.

  3. Morphology and crystalline phase characteristics of α-GST films irradiated by a picosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.J. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Liu, F.R., E-mail: Liufr@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Han, X.X.; Bai, N. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wan, Y.H. [College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Lin, X.; Liu, F. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2014-01-15

    The morphology and crystalline phase characteristics of amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films irradiated by a picosecond laser were investigated by 3D surface profiler, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) integrated with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The laser irradiated spot was divided into strong ablation area, gentle ablation area, melting area and irradiation area. By theoretical calculation, the ablation and melting thresholds were determined to be 173.05 mJ cm{sup −2} and 99.19 mJ cm{sup −2} respectively. Meantime, the local fine morphologies of the ablation and melting areas were shown and analyzed. We also studied the irradiation area which was made up by the non-phase-change area and phase-change area. In the phase-change area, crystalline phase was determined to be face-centered cubic structure and crystalline phase characteristics for films with different thicknesses were discussed.

  4. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  5. Phase retrieval using nonlinear diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hung; Barsi, Christopher; Williams, Matthew O; Kutz, J Nathan; Fleischer, Jason W

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to phase retrieval in a nonlinear system. Using a tunable photorefractive crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the noninterferometric technique by reconstructing an unknown phase object from optical intensity measurements taken at different nonlinear strengths.

  6. Reduction of phase artifacts in differential phase contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjen, Iwan; Revol, Vincent; Schuetz, Philipp; Kottler, Christian; Kaufmann, Rolf; Luethi, Thomas; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Urban, Claus; Sennhauser, Urs

    2011-07-01

    X-ray differential phase contrast computed tomography (DPC CT) with a Talbot-Lau interferometer setup allows visualizing the three-dimensional distribution of the refractive index by measuring the shifts of an interference pattern due to phase variations of the X-ray beam. Unfortunately, severe reconstruction artifacts appear in the presence of differential phase wrapping and clipping. In this paper, we propose to use the attenuation contrast, which is obtained from the same measurement, for correcting the DPC signal. Using the example of a DPC CT measurement with pronounced phase artifacts, we will discuss the efficiency of our phase artifact correction method. PMID:21747516

  7. Multiple phases of protien gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    1994-03-01

    A multiple phase transition was observed in gels made by covalently cross-linking proteins in either native or denatured state. The enzymatic activity of the gels prepared from native α-chymotrypsin was determined for each of the multiple phases. The reversibility of the swelling degrees and the enzymatic reaction rates upon phase transition suggests that the protein is at a free energy minimum and thus in a phase.

  8. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ...... and the development from temporary shelters to stone-built architecture in the area is discussed....

  9. 复苏的城市部落——昆明马街片区城中村改造“山海城邦项目一期”设计解读%The Revival of the Urban Tribes——Kunming Majie Area City Village Reconstruction "the First Phase of Shanhai City Project" Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣浪; 由嘉

    2012-01-01

    This article in view of the current urbanization construction background, through the kunming majie area villages reconstruction project case, ues the carrier of the city complex, from several main aspects of the project location, the total plane design and architectural design summarizes the design idea, discusses recovery strategy of the villages in the reconstruction project at city blind area.%本文针对当前城市化大建设的背景,通过昆明马街片区城中村改造项目的实践案例,引入城市综合体这一载体,从项目定位、总平面设计、建筑设计等几个主要方面分析总结了设计思路,探讨了在城中村改造项目中如何复苏城市盲区的设计策略。

  10. Unbiased (reference-free) phase field imaging for general optical fields including phase discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Berz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A new numerically and experimentally tested measurement method for the local electrical light field including its phase is presented. The method is based on Self Referencing Interferograms (SRI) such as shearing interferograms. The complex electric field is the solution vector of a linear equation with the pixel resolved interference term E_2* E_1 as a parameter. Linearization of the non linear equations is achieved by using preknowledge in the intensity as obtained by a conventional image detetctor. The resulting linear equations are not based on any approximation, iterative perturbation expansion etc. but are exact. The method is non iterative and stable against noise for arbitrarily chosen test fields. Allowed fields can exhibit highly fluctuating amplitudes/phases on the pixel scale, areas of vanishing amplitude and Pi phase jumps. The spatial resolution is of pixel size. No reference beam and no diaphragms are used. The new method can be implemented as a fast, one shot per frame video system. An outlook ...

  11. Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2012-01-01

    Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

  12. Supersymmetric phase-space operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A symmetric extension of the phase-space creation-annihilation operators and of the relevant formalism is considered. The symmetric phase-space partner potentials can be introduced and the concepts of supersymmetric quantum mechanics can be almost naturally extended to the phase-space case

  13. Phase Detector For Rectangular Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischert, Robert A.; Walter, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Phase detector for use with phase-locked-loops, servocontrol, and other electronic circuits designed to avoid disadvantages of other phase detectors. Used with both intermittent and continuous input signals. Circuit offers several advantages; reference signals continuous, burst of few pulses, or single pulse. Circuit "coasts" in absence of reference signal. Generates no steady-state output waveform at lock which makes filtering easier.

  14. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications.

  15. Geometric phase and Pancharatnam phase induced by light wave polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Lages, J; Vigoureux, J -M

    2013-01-01

    We use the quantum kinematic approach to revisit geometric phases associated with polarizing processes of a monochromatic light wave. We give the expressions of geometric phases for any, unitary or non-unitary, cyclic or non-cyclic transformations of the light wave state. Contrarily to the usually considered case of absorbing polarizers, we found that a light wave passing through a polarizer may acquire in general a non zero geometric phase. This geometric phase exists despite the fact that initial and final polarization states are in phase according to the Pancharatnam criterion and can not be measured using interferometric superposition. Consequently, there is a difference between the Pancharatnam phase and the complete geometric phase acquired by a light wave passing through a polarizer. We illustrate our work with the particular example of total reflection based polarizers.

  16. Phase detector for three-phase power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A phase detector for the three phase power factor controller (PFC) is described. The phase detector for each phase includes an operational amplifier which senses the current phase angle for that phase by sensing the voltage across the phase thyristor. Common mode rejection is achieved by providing positive feedback between the input and output of the voltage sensing operational amplifier. this feedback preferably comprises a resistor connected between the output and input of the operational amplifier. The novelty of the invention resides in providing positive feedback such that switching of the operational amplifier is synchronized with switching of the voltage across the thyristor. The invention provides a solution to problems associated with high common mode voltage and enables use of lower cost components than would be required by other approaches.

  17. Phase-locked loops. [in analog and digital circuits communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt to systematically outline the work done in the area of phase-locked loops which are now used in modern communication system design is presented. The analog phase-locked loops are well documented in several books but discrete, analog-digital, and digital phase-locked loop work is scattered. Apart from discussing the various analysis, design, and application aspects of phase-locked loops, a number of references are given in the bibliography.

  18. Development of interfacial area transport equation - modeling and experimental benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic treatment of interfacial area concentration has been studied over the last decade by employing the interfacial area transport equation. When coupled with the two-fluid model, the interfacial area transport equation replaces the flow regime dependent correlations for interfacial area concentration and eliminates potential artificial bifurcation or numerical oscillations stemming from these static correlations. An extensive database has been established to evaluate the model under various two-phase flow conditions. These include adiabatic and heated conditions, vertical and horizontal flow orientations, round, rectangular, annulus and 8×8 rod bundle channel geometries, and normal-gravity and simulated reduced-gravity conditions. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in the development of the interfacial area transport equation, available experimental databases and 1D and 3D benchmarking work of the interfacial area transport equation. (author)

  19. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  20. Global protected area impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use 'matching' (or 'apples to apples') for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

  1. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    the simplest approach. The Service Area approach is based on searches in road networks and represents the actual feeder routes and is thereby a more detailed approach. The Service Area approach can be refined by adding additional resistance to certain points in the road network, e.g. stairways. Differences...... by calculating travel potential along the line. The article shows how the different approaches result in differences in the examined catchment areas. It shows how the Service Area approach prevents inaccessible areas to be included in the catchment area and how it allows for detours in feeder routes to....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...

  2. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  3. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  4. Optimum annular focusing by a phase plate

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional light focusing, i. e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into an annular field with topological charge of arbitrary integer order q. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the focal field with the maximum possible peak intensity. In particular, we discuss and implement experimentally the optimum annular focusing of a Gaussian beam. The attributes of optimum annular focal fields, namely the high peak intensity, intensity gradient and narrow annular section, are advantageous for different applications of such structured fields.

  5. Geometric phase and spinorial representation of mixed state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.S., E-mail: zishengwang@yahoo.com; Liu, Qian

    2013-12-17

    A novel approach to geometric phase of mixed state is proposed by using the normalized spinorial representation in connecting the density matrix with mixed state vector. We find that though the spinor involves N separate U(1) phases correspondingly to any N-level decomposition of the density matrix, both geometric phase and density matrix of mixed state are holonomy ⨂{sub k=1}{sup N}U(1) gauge invariants. This noncyclic invariant is conceptually useful in analyzing geometric phase and CP violation of open system. Under a quasicyclic case, the geometric phase depends only on the symplectic area spanned in a given closed evolving curve with the classical probabilities relating to the Bloch radius, in which quantifies mixed degree of open system, in the Bloch sphere structure.

  6. Phase coexistence far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of simple far-from-equilibrium systems exhibiting phase separation leads to the conclusion that phase coexistence is not well defined in this context. This is because the properties of the coexisting nonequilibrium systems depend on how they are placed in contact, as verified in the driven lattice gas with attractive interactions, and in the two-temperature lattice gas, under (a) weak global exchange between uniform systems, and (b) phase-separated (nonuniform) systems. Thus, far from equilibrium, the notions of universality of phase coexistence (i.e., independence of how systems exchange particles and/or energy), and of phases with intrinsic properties (independent of their environment) are lost.

  7. Reclamation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  8. Spatial Distribution of Phase Singularities in Optical Random Vector Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, L; Alpeggiani, F; Di Falco, A; Kuipers, L

    2016-08-26

    Phase singularities are dislocations widely studied in optical fields as well as in other areas of physics. With experiment and theory we show that the vectorial nature of light affects the spatial distribution of phase singularities in random light fields. While in scalar random waves phase singularities exhibit spatial distributions reminiscent of particles in isotropic liquids, in vector fields their distribution for the different vector components becomes anisotropic due to the direct relation between propagation and field direction. By incorporating this relation in the theory for scalar fields by Berry and Dennis [Proc. R. Soc. A 456, 2059 (2000)], we quantitatively describe our experiments. PMID:27610854

  9. Practical designs for Phase I combination studies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, Nolan A; Ivanova, Anastasia; Marchenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Phase I trials evaluating the safety of multidrug combinations are becoming more common in oncology. Despite the emergence of novel methodology in the area, it is rare that innovative approaches are used in practice. In this article, we review three methods for Phase I combination studies that are easy to understand and straightforward to implement. We demonstrate the operating characteristics of the designs through illustration in a single trial, as well as through extensive simulation studies, with the aim of increasing the use of novel approaches in Phase I combination studies. Design specifications and software capabilities are also discussed. PMID:26379085

  10. Unsupervised malaria parasite detection based on phase spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuming; Xiong, Wei; Lin, Weisi; Chen, Zhenzhong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for malaria parasite detection based on phase spectrum. The method first obtains the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum for blood smear images through Quaternion Fourier Transform (QFT). Then it gets the reconstructed image based on Inverse Quaternion Fourier transform (IQFT) on a constant amplitude spectrum and the original phase spectrum. The malaria parasite areas can be detected easily from the reconstructed blood smear images. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of this novel method. PMID:22256196

  11. Quantum phases in intrinsic Josephson junctions: Quantum magnetism analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Keita; Koyama, Tomio

    2013-08-01

    We explore quantum phases in intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stacks, whose in-plane area is so small that the capacitive coupling has a dominant role in the superconducting phase dynamics. In such cases, the effective Hamiltonian for the superconducting phase can be mapped onto that of one-dimensional ferromagnetically-interacting spin model, whose spin length S depends on the magnitude of the on-site Coulomb repulsion. The ferromagnetic model for IJJ’s prefers synchronized quantum features in contrast to the antiferromagnetically-interacting model in the conventional Josephson junction arrays.

  12. Coherent imaging without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...

  13. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  14. Dirac phase leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Steve

    2007-01-01

    I present here a concise summary of the preprint arXiv:0707.3024, written in collaboration with A. Anisimov and P. Di Bari. There we discuss leptogenesis when {\\em CP} violation stems exlusively from the Dirac phase in the PMNS mixing matrix. Under this assumption it turns out that the situation is very constrained when a hierarchical heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum is considered: the allowed regions are small and the final asymmetry depends on the initial conditions. On the other hand, for a quasi-degenerate spectrum of RH neutrinos, the {\\em CP} asymmetry can be enhanced and the situation becomes much more favorable, with no dependence on the initial conditions. Interestingly, in the extreme case of resonant leptogenesis, in order to match the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, we obtain a lower bound on \\sin \\q_{13} which depends on the lightest active neutrino mass m_1.

  15. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment

  16. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Metastable phases, phase transformations, and phase diagrams in physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V.

    2006-07-01

    Concepts of a 'phase' and a 'phase transition' are discussed for stable and metastable states of matter. While condensed matter physics primarily considers equilibrium states and treats metastable phases as exceptions, organic chemistry overwhelmingly deals with metastable states. It is emphasized that many simple light-element compounds — including most hydrocarbons; nitrogen oxides, hydrides, and carbides; carbon monoxide CO; alcohols and glycerin — are also metastable at normal pressure in the sense that they do not correspond to a minimum Gibbs free energy for a given chemical composition. At moderate temperatures and pressures, the phase transformations for these metastable phases are reversible with the fulfilment of all laws of equilibrium thermodynamics over the entire range of experimentally accessible times. At sufficiently high pressures (> 1-10 GPa), most of the metastable molecular phases irreversibly transform to lower-energy polymer phases, stable or metastable. These transitions do not correspond to the equality of the Gibbs free energy for the involved phases before and after the transition and so they are not first-order in the 'classical' sense. At normal pressure, the resulting polymer phases can exist at temperatures above the melting point of the original metastable molecular phase, as the examples of polyethylene and polymerized CO dramatically illustrate. As pressure is increased further to 20-50 GPa, the PV contribution to Gibbs free energy gives rise to stable high-density atomic phases. Many of the intermediate-energy polymer phases can likely be synthesized by methods of 'classical' chemistry at normal pressure.

  18. VFT PHASE VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT IN THREE-PHASE ENCLOSED GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建华; 岳子丁; 李洋

    2002-01-01

    The measuring of VFT phase voltage in three-phase enclosed GIS is more complex and difficult than in single-phase ones. There are 3 capacitive sensors in the measuring system, the outputs of which are with a linear relation to the three phase voltages. This linear relation is presented with a factorial matrix. Because each capacitive sensor is coupled with the electric field of three phases (A, B, and C), the electric coupling coefficients are introduced. In order to determine the matrix of electric coupling coefficients, the numerical calculation method can be used. From the discussion on two types of three-phase enclosed GIS bus, i.e. standard arrangement and biased arrangement, the dominant electric coupling coefficients are named, which can be simply and approximately calculated by an analytic expression. Finally, as an example, the waveforms of VFT phase voltage generated on a three-phase enclosed GIS bus model are displayed. When a capacitive sensor is located at the 'shortest point' of phase A (or B, or C), the VFT phase voltage VA (or VB, or VC) can almost be measured by that capacitive sensor alone.

  19. Phase Coarsening in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. G.; Glicksman, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    Phase coarsening (Ostwald ripening) phenomena are ubiquitous in materials growth processes such as thin film formation. The classical theory explaining late-stage phase coarsening phenomena was developed by Lifshitz and Slyozov, and by Wagner in the 1960s. Their theory is valid only for a vanishing volume fraction of the second phase in three dimensions. However, phase coarsening in two-dimensional systems is qualitatively different from that in three dimensions. In this paper, the many-body concept of screening length is reviewed, from which we derive the growth law for a `screened' phase island, and develop diffusion screening theory for phase coarsening in thin films. The coarsening rate constant, maximum size of phase islands in films, and their size distribution function will be derived from diffusion screening theory. A critical comparison will be provided of prior coarsening concepts and improvements derived from screening approaches.

  20. Phase aberration effects in elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, T; Bilgen, M; Ophir, J

    2001-06-01

    In sonography, phase aberration plays a role in the corruption of sonograms. Phase aberration does not have a significant impact on elastography, if statistically similar phase errors are present in both the pre- and postcompression signals. However, if the phase errors are present in only one of the pre- or postcompression signal pairs, the precision of the strain estimation process will be reduced. In some cases, increased phase errors may occur only in the postcompression signal due to changes in the tissue structure with the applied compression. Phase-aberration effects increase with applied strain and may be viewed as an image quality derating factor, much like frequency-dependent attenuation or undesired lateral tissue motion. In this paper, we present a theoretical and simulation study of the effects of phase aberration on the elastographic strain-estimation process, using the strain filter approach.

  1. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Mercedes E; Duvert, Gilles; Duchene, Gaspard; Thiebaut, Eric; Young, John; Absil, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Phillipe; Beckert, Thomas; Hoenig, Sebastian; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Testi, Leonardo; Tatuli, Eric; Borkowski, Virginie; de Becker, Michael; Surdej, Jean; Aringer, Bernard; Hron, Joseph; Lebzelter, Thomas; Chiavassa, Andrea; Corradi, Romano; Harries, Tim

    2008-01-01

    One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce images. Such techniques allow only to achieve modest dynamic ranges. However, with high contrast objects, for faint targets or when structure detail is needed, phase referencing techniques as used in radio interferometry, should theoretically achieve higher dynamic ranges for the same number of telescopes. Our approach is not to provide evidence either for or against the hypothesis that phase referenced imaging gives better dynamic range than closure phase imaging. Instead we wish to explore the potential of this techniq...

  2. Engineering Holographic Superconductor Phase Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-01-01

    We study how to engineer holographic models with features of a high temperature superconductor phase diagram. We introduce a field in the bulk which provides a tunable "doping" parameter in the boundary theory. By designing how this field changes the effective masses of other order parameter fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered. We give examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries similar to a superconducting dome and an anti-ferromagnetic phase by including two order parameter fields. We also explore whether the pseudo gap phase can be described without adding another order parameter field and discuss the potential scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the superconducting dome in this phase diagram.

  3. 78 FR 5750 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... use the data to determine whether unsubsidized competitors offer service within all or a portion of an incumbent LEC's study area, and to phase out support where unsubsidized competitors offer voice and..., 445 12th Street SW., Room CY-B402, Washington, DC 20554. Customers may contact BCPI, Inc. via...

  4. 47 CFR 22.949 - Unserved area licensing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... also sets forth the Phase II process applicable to applications to serve the Gulf of Mexico Coastal... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.949 Unserved area licensing process. This section... file competing applications for authority to operate a new cellular system in or to expand an...

  5. LIHTC Difficult to Develop Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Difficult Development Area (DDA) for the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program is an area designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)...

  6. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  7. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  8. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  9. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author)

  10. Quantitative characterization of phase separation in the photoactive layer of polymer solar cells by the phase image of atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have quantitatively characterized the phase separation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films and studied the effect of phase separation of photoactive layer on the performance of polymer solar cells. A mixed solvent of dichlorobenzene and chlorobenzene was adopted to prepare the P3HT:PCBM blend films, and a series of blend films with different morphologies were obtained by adjusting both the volume ratio of dichlorobenzene to chlorobenzene and the solvent annealing time. The surface morphology and phase distribution were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interface length between the domains of donor and acceptor, which is extracted from the AFM phase image of blend film, was used to quantitatively characterize the phase separation of photoactive layer. It was found that the short-circuit current density (JSC) of bulk heterojunction solar cells is proportional to the interfacial area of two phases, while it has a negligible effect on the open-circuit voltage. These results indicate that the larger interfacial area of donor and acceptor phases is beneficial to the exciton dissociation and carrier transport resulting in a significant increase of JSC and power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Phase separation of photoactive layers in polymer solar cells was evaluated quantitatively. • Interface contours between the donor and acceptor were extracted from AFM phase images. • Effects of phase separation on polymer solar cell performance were investigated. • The interface area mainly influences short-circuit current of the polymer solar cells

  11. Equivalent-circuit modeling of a MEMS phase detector for phase-locked loop applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juzheng; Liao, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an equivalent-circuit model of a MEMS phase detector and deals with its application in phase-locked loops (PLLs). Due to the dc voltage output of the MEMS phase detector, the low-pass filter which is essential in a conventional PLL can be omitted. Thus, the layout area can be miniaturized and the consumed power can be saved. The signal transmission inside the phase detector is realized in circuit model by waveguide modules while the electric-thermal-electric conversion is illustrated in circuit term based on analogies between thermal and electrical variables. Losses are taken into consideration in the modeling. Measurement verifications for the phase detector model are conducted at different input powers 11, 14 and 17 dBm at 10 GHz. The maximum discrepancies between the simulated and measured results are 0.14, 0.42 and 1.13 mV, respectively. A new structure of PLL is constructed by connecting the presented model directly to a VCO module in the simulation platform. It allows to model the transient behaviors of the PLL at both locked and out of lock conditions. The VCO output frequency is revealed to be synchronized with the reference frequency within the hold range. All the modeling and simulation are performed in Advanced Design System (ADS) software.

  12. Nonlinear Phase Control and Anomalous Phase Matching in Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute a particularly attractive set of materials. By means of modern nanolithographic fabrication techniques, flat, ultrathin optical elements may be constructed. However, in spite of their strong optical nonlinearities, plasmonic metasurfaces have so far been investigated mostly in the linear regime. Here we introduce full nonlinear phase control over plasmonic elements in metasurfaces. We show that for nonlinear interactions in a phase-gradient nonlinear metasurface a new anomalous nonlinear phase matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analog of the generalized Snell law demonstrated for linear metasurfaces. This phase matching condition is very different from the other known phase matching schemes. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities provides a foundation for the design of flat nonlinear optical elements based on metasurfaces. Our demonstrated flat nonlinear elements (i.e. lenses) act...

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  15. Quantum Phase Transitions and Dimerized Phases in Frustrated Spin Ladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Rui; LIU Guang-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phase diagram of a frustrated spin ladder model by applying the bosonization technique and the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm. Effect of the intra-chain next-nearestneighbor (NNN) super-exchange interaction is investigated in detail and the order parameters are calculated to detect the emergence of the dimerized phases. We find that the intra-chain NNN interaction plays a key role in inducing dimerized phases.

  16. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  17. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  18. Optimal Phase Oscillatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, Rosangela

    2013-03-01

    Important topics as preventive detection of epidemics, collective self-organization, information flow and systemic robustness in clusters are typical examples of processes that can be studied in the context of the theory of complex networks. It is an emerging theory in a field, which has recently attracted much interest, involving the synchronization of dynamical systems associated to nodes, or vertices, of the network. Studies have shown that synchronization in oscillatory networks depends not only on the individual dynamics of each element, but also on the combination of the topology of the connections as well as on the properties of the interactions of these elements. Moreover, the response of the network to small damages, caused at strategic points, can enhance the global performance of the whole network. In this presentation we explore an optimal phase oscillatory network altered by an additional term in the coupling function. The application to associative-memory network shows improvement on the correct information retrieval as well as increase of the storage capacity. The inclusion of some small deviations on the nodes, when solutions are attracted to a false state, results in additional enhancement of the performance of the associative-memory network. Supported by FAPESP - Sao Paulo Research Foundation, grant number 2012/12555-4

  19. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  20. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  1. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  3. Áreas prioritárias na Amazônia para conservação dos recursos genéticos de espécies florestais nativas: fase preliminar Priority areas for genetic resources conservation of native Forest Species: preliminary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Conte Leite

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O CENARGEN/EMBRAPA está realizando a prospecção das áreas prioritárias para a conservação in situ dos recursos genéticos de espécies com importância sócio-econômica para cada bioma existente no Brasil, buscando a conservação da variabilidade genética das mesmas. Para a prospecção da floresta tropical úmida amazônica, inicialmente foram feitos levantamentos de herbários nacionais bem como de literatura, para tentar definir os padrões de distribuição geográfica de algumas espécies prioritárias da região. A ocorrência das mesmas foi correlacionada com solos, clima, vegetação e com a existência de unidades de conservação na Amazônia, no intuito de se propor as áreas mais adequadas para a implantação de reservas genéticas (conservação in situ e de bancos de germoplasma (conservação ex situ à campo. As espécies relatadas no presente trabalho são Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (pau-rosa, Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. (castanha-do-Pará, Carapa quianensis Aubl. (andiroba, Cedrela fissilis Veil, e C. odorata L. (cedros, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e C. multijuga Hayne (copaibas, Cordia goeldiana Huber (freijó, Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Dom (pará-pará, Simaruba amara Aubl. e Virola sebifera Aubl. e V. surinamensis Warb. (ucuúbas e Voucapoua americana Aubl. e V. pallidor Ducke (acapús. Trabalhos posteriores com as mesmas incluirão a corroboração à campo dos dados obtidos nos herbários e na literatura, bem como estudos a nível de população dentro das áreas selecionadas.CENARGEN/EMBRAPA is investigating priority areas for in situ conservation of genetic resources of socially and economically important species. Herbaria and the literature were consulted to determine the distribution patterns of some tropical rain forest species. Known species distribution were correlated with soils, climate, vegetation types and the existence of conservation units, in order to propose the establishment of genetic reserves for

  4. Learning phase transitions by confusion

    CERN Document Server

    van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Huber, Sebastian D

    2016-01-01

    Classifying phases of matter is a central problem in physics. For quantum mechanical systems, this task can be daunting owing to the exponentially large Hilbert space. Thanks to the available computing power and access to ever larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine learning techniques. Here, we propose to use a neural network based approach to find phase transitions depending on the performance of the neural network after training it with deliberately incorrectly labelled data. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to a generic tool to identify unexplored phase transitions.

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations on shock wave induced phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.

    2001-06-01

    Shock wave loading of a material can cause variety of phase transitions, like polymorphism, amorphization, metallization and molecular dissociations. As the shocked state lasts only for a very short duration (about a few microseconds or less), in-situ microscopic measurements are very difficult. Although such studies are beginning to be possible, most of the shock-induced phase transitions are detected using macroscopic measurements. The microscopic nature of the transition is then inferred from comparison with static pressure data or interpreted by theoretical methods. For irreversible phase transitions, microscopic measurements on recovered samples, together with orientation relations determined from selected area electron diffraction and examination of the morphology of growth of the new phase can provide insight into mechanism of phase transitions. On theoretical side, the current ab initio band structure techniques based on density functional formalism provide capability for accurate computation of the small energy differences (a few mRy or smaller) between different plausible structures. Total energy calculation along the path of a phase transition can furnish estimates of activation barrier, which has implications for understanding kinetics of phase transitions. Molecular dynamics calculations, where the new structure evolves naturally, are becoming increasingly popular especially for understanding crystal to amorphous phase transitions. Illustrations from work at our laboratory will be presented.

  6. Phase structures in fuzzy geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R; Gupta, K S; Martin, X

    2012-01-01

    We study phase structures of quantum field theories in fuzzy geometries. Several examples of fuzzy geometries as well as QFT's on such geometries are considered. They are fuzzy spheres and beyond as well as noncommutative deformations of BTZ blackholes. Analysis is done analytically and through simulations. Several features like novel stripe phases as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking avoiding Colemen, Mermin, Wagner theorem are brought out. Also we establish that these phases are stable due to topological obstructions.

  7. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  8. Phenomenological description of phase inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, K; Ooms, G; Sengers, J V

    2009-02-01

    We propose an extended Ginzburg-Landau model for a description of the ambivalence region associated with the phenomenon of phase inversion observed in dispersed water-oil flow through a pipe. In analogy to the classical mean-field theory of phase transitions, it is shown that a good quantitative representation of the ambivalence region is obtained by using the injected phase volume fraction and a friction factor as the appropriate physical parameters.

  9. Superconductors with Mesoscopic Phase Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, A.J.; Yukalova, E. P.; V. I. Yukalov

    1997-01-01

    A model of superconductivity is proposed taking into account repulsive particle interaction, mesoscopic phase separation and softening of crystalline lattice. These features are typical of many high-temperature superconductors. The main results obtained for the model are: (i) phase separation is possible only if repulsive forces play a significant role; (ii) the critical temperature as a function of the superconducting phase fraction can have non-monotonic behaviour; (iii) superconductivity i...

  10. Singularly perturbed phase response curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sacré, Pierre; Franci, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel geometric method, based on singular perturbations, to approximate isochrones of relaxation oscillators and predict the qualitative shape of their (finite) phase response curve. This approach complements the infinitesimal phase response curve approach to relaxation oscillators and overcomes its limitations near the singular limit. We illustrate the power of the methodology by deriving semi-analytic formula for the (finite) phase response curve of generic planar...

  11. Phase barograms–phase diagrams of vapor pressure: Eutectoid phase formation in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic considerations of complex heterogeneous equilibria. ► Derivative of the three-dimensional Clausius–Clapeyron equation. ► Relationship between phase diagram and related phase barogram. ► Transformation of thermal effects of vapor pressure measurements. ► Eutectoid phase formation CsSeO2Br in the system CsBr/SeO2. - Abstract: Phase barograms are specific representations of conventional (x, T) phase diagrams considering the vapor pressure as additional thermodynamic parameter. Thus, the determination of the vapor pressure is complementary to conventional DTA or DSC measurements. A stringent relationship between the phase diagram and the corresponding phase barogram is derived by thermodynamic considerations of phase relations for complex heterogeneous equilibria. For that purpose, a derivative of the three-dimensional Clausius–Clapeyron equation is utilized. As a result, a validation of DTA/DSC measurements becomes feasible by the transformation of characteristic effects of vapor pressure measurements into thermal effects in conventional phase diagrams. The system CsBr/SeO2 is presented as a case study of systems with a eutectoid phase formation. CsSeO2Br is formed from the binaries at θf = 180(5) °C; the compound decomposes peritectically at θp = 470(10) °C.

  12. Phase structure of soliton molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E-fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained

  13. Phase structure of soliton molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, A.; Hartwig, H.; Seifert, B.; Stolz, H.; Böhm, M.; Mitschke, F.

    2007-06-01

    Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E -fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained.

  14. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, Giorgio, E-mail: papini@uregina.ca [Department of Physics and Prairie Particle Physics Institute, University of Regina, Regina, Sask S4S 0A2 (Canada); International Institute for Advanced Scientific Studies, 89019 Vietri sul Mare (Italy)

    2012-03-12

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation. -- Highlights: ► Berry phases generate Zitterbewegung oscillations in the propagation of particles. ► The covariant approach applies to gravitational and electromagnetic fields. ► The curvature of space–time affects Hilbert space via Berry phases. ► Berry phases mix the positive and negative energy states of relativistic particles.

  15. Quantum phase transition in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.

  16. Magnetic resonance of phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also

  17. Phase retrieval with prior information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, R; Lane, R G

    1998-09-01

    An algorithm for phase retrieval with Bayesian statistics is discussed. It is shown how the statistics of Kolmogorov turbulence can be used to compute the likelihood for a particular phase screen. This likelihood is then added to that of the observed data to produce a functional that is maximized directly by use of conjugate gradient maximization. It is shown that although this can significantly improve the quality of the phase estimate,the issue is complicated by local maxima introduced by the possibility of phase wrapping. The causes of the local maxima are analyzed, and a method that increases the likelihood of convergence to the global maximum is presented.

  18. Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized

  19. Condensed phase decomposition and gas phase combustion of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragomir, O.E.; Tummers, M.J.; Veen, E.H. van; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments on the condensed phase decomposition and the gas phase combustion of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF). The experiments include SEM analysis of quenched samples that showed evidence of the formation of a foam layer. FTIR spectrometry and mass s

  20. Environmental program. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has between 1991 and 1993 conducted an environmental program. The objectives were to: Enhance the knowledge of emissions to air and discharges to sea from Norwegian offshore oil and gas production operations. Evaluate the technology and the associated costs for potential reduction of continuous emissions and discharges. Phase 2 of the program has in particular focused on the relationship between the cost and benefit of emission and discharge reduction measures. The purpose has been to identify the measures giving the largest reductions per unit cost. This has now been performed and is documented in 24 technical reports. Total production of oil and gas from the Norwegian sector was 130 million tons oil equivalents (toe) in 1992, most of which was exported to markets in Europe. All this will ultimately be consumed, primarily through energy conversion processes, with release of CO2 and other greenhouse emission gases. The current gas production of 26 million toe per year will increase rapidly during the coming ten years, while the present increase in oil production is expected to culminate in the same period. Reduction of atmospheric emissions from the Norwegian oil and gas industry may be achieved primarily through energy efficiency measures. Approximately 2.5% of the fossil fuel energy is consumed in the production and transportation process. Different environmental standards between producing nations will primarily affect production cost. The competitiveness of the various producing regions, rather than the overall environmental impact of the petroleum industry and its products, will be effected. 36 refs., 61 figs., 33 tabs