WorldWideScience

Sample records for area strategy part

  1. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  2. Sewerage Service Areas, Part of Service Delivery Strategy that DCA requires, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Service Areas dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  3. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  4. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  5. The indication area of a diagnostic test. Part II-the impact of test dependence, physician's decision strategy, and patient's utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L.J.; Nelemans, P.J.; Geurts, S.M.; Jansen, E.; Boer, P.; Verbeek, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Any diagnostic test has an indication area of prior probabilities wherein the gain in diagnostic certainty outweighs its loss. Here, we investigate whether indication area and the maximum diagnostic gain are robust measures if we assume test dependence, alternative physician's heuristics

  6. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194... Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B to Part 194—High Volume Areas As of January 5, 1993 the following areas are high volume areas: Major rivers Nearest town and state Arkansas River N. Little Rock, AR....

  8. Five Strategies of Successful Part-Time Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Vivien; Lawrence, Thomas B.; Frost, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies commonalities in the approaches of successful part-time professionals. Discusses five strategies for success: (1) communicating work-life priorities and schedules to the organization; (2) making the business case for part-time arrangements; (3) establishing time management routines; (4) cultivating advocates in senior management; and…

  9. LEAN Manufacturing - Part of Business and Manufacturing Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

      As part of an employment as Technology Architect at the company Linak in combination with research at the University of Southern Denmark, this paper will present results from a strategy process where Lean has been pointed out as being a very strategic element in the Linak Production System....... The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical......, organizational and management improvements in the company to what is named the Linak Production System.  ...

  10. Surgical strategies for glioma involving language areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; JIANG Tao; XIE Jian; LIU Fu-sheng; LI Shou-wei; QIAO Hui; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of gliomas in or adjacent to language areas constitutes a major challenge to neurosurgery. The present study was performed to evaluate the procedure of language mapping via intraoperative direct cortical electrical stimulation under awake anaesthesia when performed prior to resective glioma surgery.Methods Thirty patients with gliomas and left-hemisphere dominance and, who underwent language mapping via intraoperative direct cortical electrical stimulation under awake anaesthesia before resective glioma surgery, were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had tumors in or adjacent to cortical language areas. The brain lesions were removed according to anatomic-functional boundaries with preservation of areas of language function. Both preoperative and postoperative functional findings were evaluated.Results Intraoperative language areas were detected in 20 patients but not in four patients. Language mapping failure for reasons attributable to the anaesthesia or to an intraoperative increase in intracranial pressure occurred in six cases.Seven patients presented with moderate or severe language deficits after six months of follow-up. Total resection was achieved in 14 cases, near-total resection in 12 cases and subtotal resection in four cases.Conclusions Intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation is an accurate and safe approach to identification of the language cortex. Awake craniotomy intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation, in combination with presurgical neurological functional imaging to identify the anatomic-functional boundaries of tumor resection, permits extensive tumor excision while preserving normal language function and minimizing the risk of postoperative language deficits.

  11. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  12. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-11-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably.

  13. Strategic pricing: hitting the mark with pricing strategies. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, L; Manning, M

    1988-01-01

    Efforts by government and business to reduce healthcare expenditures by fostering competition and reducing utilization have combined to redefine the basic economic structure of the healthcare delivery system. Increased competition among providers has prompted an increased awareness of strategic pricing as a means of achieving institutional goals and objectives. In this article, the first in a three-part series on strategic pricing, the authors examine some of the key theoretical considerations related to pricing strategies for healthcare providers. Future articles will examine practical applications as they relate to package pricing, discounting, per diem systems, and capitation arrangements.

  14. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  15. Sentinel areas: a monitoring strategy in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Available techniques for monitoring the health situation have proven insufficient, thus leading to a discussion of the need for their improvement based on new data collection strategies allowing for data use by local health systems. This article presents the methodological basis for a strategy to monitor health problems utilizing demarcated intra-urban spaces called "sentinel areas" to collect fundamental social, economic, behavioral, and biological data for public health that allow for a closer approach to the reality of complex social spaces. The authors present an experience that is being developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the epidemiological impact of an environmental sanitation program. They discuss selection criteria for the areas and the potential uses of this strategy allowing for the rapid utilization of epidemiological resources by health services and the timely application of the results to reorient and enhance health intervention practices.

  16. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  17. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  18. THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY IN TRANSITION: PART 1 – FROM STRATEGY FORMULATION TO STRATEGY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard M Louw

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By 2013, sufficient evidence had become publicly available to confirm what defence analysts had been suspecting for a while now: the military effectiveness of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF is deficient. This article proposes that this condition is due to strategic failure, brought about by the dynamic interaction between the preferred strategic management model of the organisation and its acquired strategic culture(s. The study on which this article reports, further suggests that a design school strategic management model best explains the method towards the SANDF’s current condition of organisational entropy, but that its root cause actually lies in a dichotomous strategic culture. In combination, these two variables conspired to diminish the defence force’s responsiveness to its operational context, resulting in the formation of inappropriate strategy that prevented the SANDF from achieving military effectiveness. While the authors consider the article to be hypothesis generating, it also has an exploratory dimension and paves the way for a validational study at a later stage. Part 1 therefore argues towards a strategic management model that could explain the SANDF’s strategy formulation process, its method of ensuring that strategic outcomes correlate with strategic intent, and ultimately its weakness in accounting for the external environment in realised strategy. This first part mainly employs inductive reasoning and draws its conclusions from an eclectic literary review that included business studies and dynamic systems theory.

  19. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  20. Strategies for development metropolitan areas. Case Study about configuration of the Galati Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Zugravu; Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-01-01

    Economic and social development of each locality and finally, of human communities that live here, depends increasingly on the ways of their internal organizing but also on becoming closer with social partners in the area(s) concerned. It is increasingly important that each locality (territorial administrative unit, TAU) solve multiple problems of ensuring development conditions through various strategies and policies of cooperation and association. These may represent a real support and vect...

  1. The Importance of the Eye Area in Face Identification Abilities and Visual Search Strategies in Persons with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkmer, Marita; Larsson, Matilda; Bjallmark, Anna; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2010-01-01

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24…

  2. STRATEGY OF MAIZE'S CONCENTRATING TO ADVANTAGE AREAS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-ming; GU Li-li

    2003-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the main grain-producing provinces of China, which has dominant position in maize production, by the view of its advantages in policy, location, breed and market. And after entering WTO,some measures have been taken to enhance maize competitive ability. But there are some difficulties in concentrating production to maize advantaged areas. This paper expounds the basis that Jilin Province becomes the advantage area of maize, analyzes the problems and puts forward the supporting policy. Some strategic measures are proposed,as developing comparable advantages, carrying out the strategy of un-equilibrium development and cultivating advantaged product areas of maize to rapidly improve the international competitive ability and productivity of maize in Jilin Province, cast the agricultural predicament off and promote the agricultural development into a new stage.

  3. Cooperation with environmentalists as part of a utility's communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental organizations are the most zealous opponents to nuclear power and utilities. However, different organizations, although all having the word 'environment' or 'environmental' in their names, actually behave in different ways. As a rule, those organizations which loudly clamour demagogic phrases about the environment do nearly nothing for it, whereas those which are really active in helping Nature and the environment do not protest against nuclear power plants. This is a fact on which the Czech utility CEZ has built up its strategy of communication with the environmentally oriented part of the public. CEZ has been making efforts to enter into friendly contacts with reasonably thinking environmentalists who are open to a positive dialogue and cooperation. We try to make the difference between the true environmentalists and demagogic loud-mouths such as Greenpeace obvious to the public. The communication programme is meant to convey the following message to the public: CEZ utility is making efforts to generate electricity in an environmentally friendly manner. CEZ people also want to breathe healthy air and live in healthy environment. Nuclear power plants are environmentally clean facilities. Temelin will be the safest nuclear power plant in Europe. CEZ supports alternative energy sources and energy savings. In preparing some of our information brochures we directly cooperate with environmentalists, so that they are the authors of the texts (of brochures dealing with alternative energy sources for instance). We support activities of environmental organizations. For example, together with the Czech Nature Conservancy Institute we are going to publish a map of protected landscape regions, whose reverse side will bear information about the CEZ's environmental programme. We have been issuing information materials describing the advantages and disadvantages of alternative energy sources, the greenhouse effect, nuclear power, etc.. We provide the material to

  4. Climate change in urban areas. Part 1: Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuttler, Wilhelm [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Campus Essen, Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Angewandte Klimatologie und Landschaftsoekologie, Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The objective of this article, which is being published in two parts, is to investigate the effects of global climate change on a conurbation (the Ruhr area) and to discuss local counter-measures. Part 1 deals with the origins of the natural and anthropogenic greenhouse effects, presents the contributions of the two effects to global warming and discusses recent examples of climate development from the Ruhr metropolis. The climate changes projected by various numeric and statistical models include an increase in thermal stress for city-dwellers and a rise in convective precipitation with corresponding run-off peaks in summer. As regard air pollutants (e.g. O{sub 3}, PM{sub 10}), it will mainly be the concentration of the near-surface trace gas ozone which will be clearly increased with rising temperatures. In contrast, a close correlation between atmospheric fine dust concentrations ({<=} PM{sub 10}) and temperature changes has not yet been established. Part 2 of the publication indicates how global climate change can be effectively combated at the local level using a number of application-oriented examples. These include measures affecting both individual properties and whole areas with a view to reducing urban overheating and CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieses Beitrags, der in zwei Teilen erfolgt, ist es, die Wirkungen des globalen Klimawandels auf einen Ballungsraum (Ruhrgebiet) zu untersuchen und Gegenma{beta}nahmen auf lokaler Ebene zu diskutieren. Im ersten Teil wird auf die Entstehung des natuerlichen und anthropogenen Treibhauseffektes eingegangen und deren jeweilige Beitraege an der globalen Ueberwaermung herausgestellt. Exemplarisch wird auf die juengere Klimaentwicklung in der Metropolregion Ruhr eingegangen. Zu den durch verschiedene numerische und statistische Modelle projizierten Klimaveraenderungen zaehlen auch die Zunahme thermischer Belastungen fuer die Stadtbevoelkerung sowie die Verstaerkung sommerlicher konvektiver Niederschlaege

  5. STRESS COPING STRATEGIES AT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - PART I: GENDER DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Chýlová; Ludmila Natovová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the particularities of usingvarious stress coping strategies by undergraduate students at theCzech University of Life Sciences (CULS) with a special regard tothe balance between positive and negative stress coping strategies,and resulting consequences. Authors focused on comparingdifferences in the use of coping strategies between standardizedscores of the Czech population and student population, as well ason identifying differences in the use of cop...

  6. Regional Virtual Water Trade Strategy in Drought Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze the virtual water trade in drought area in China.[Method]Taking agricultural production which was related to water resources as study object and by dint of opportunity cost and comparative advantage theory,water resources have been included into a series of state macro-objective models,such as economic growth,crops safety,and increase of people's well-fare.Virtual water resource strategy was verified effectively and relevant suggestions on virtual water trade in the drought...

  7. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  8. Patient Education Strategies in Dermatology: Part 2: Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zirwas, Matthew J.; Holder, Jessica L.

    2009-01-01

    Patient education is an important aspect of patient care in dermatology. Successful education increases patient satisfaction and results in improved outcomes and adherence. This article individually evaluates several patient-education strategies: verbal education, written information, group-based learning, audiotapes, videotapes, computer-assisted education, and the internet. The review presents the strengths and limitations of each strategy based on recognized barriers to effective patient e...

  9. STRESS COPING STRATEGIES AT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - PART I: GENDER DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Chýlová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to investigate the particularities of usingvarious stress coping strategies by undergraduate students at theCzech University of Life Sciences (CULS with a special regard tothe balance between positive and negative stress coping strategies,and resulting consequences. Authors focused on comparingdifferences in the use of coping strategies between standardizedscores of the Czech population and student population, as well ason identifying differences in the use of coping strategies betweenboth genders. The data were collected using the standardized stresscoping strategies questionnaire - SVF 78. Of the total number of 177students, 63 were male and 114 were female undergraduate studentsof Faculty of Economics and Management (FEM at CULS. Themost important outcome of the current study research is a provensignificant distinction between the positive-negative stress copingstrategies employed by CULS undergraduate students and those ofthe Czech population sample. From the global point of view, the useof positive stress coping techniques seems comparatively high andmight therefore be considered as satisfactory. However, significantlylower use of the most constructive and, in longer prospective, mostapproved group of strategies is rather disappointing.

  10. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy and a

  11. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  12. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    part of the cost of an area-wide programme will be fighting the target pest away from the commercial production - before the commercial crops are susceptible - on wild or alternate hosts or abandoned orchards, untreated host plants in homeowners' gardens, etc. In most cases, area-wide insect control will be the responsibility of a separate organisation hired by the producers. A separate organisation can plan an aggressive offense against the target pest population over the entire area. High technology systems can be effectively utilised to plan the population management programme. Included will be satellite imagery to detect alternate hosts, sensitive methods to detect movement of the pest populations, computer programmes to predict changes in the pest insect population based on biological parameters, a systems approach to utilise natural enemies on an area-wide basis, genetic analysis to detect the development of resistance and utilisation of systems to delay the development of resistance over the total area. Further, area-wide programmes encourage the use of specialised methods of insect control that are not effective or are not used on a farm by farm basis. These include the sterile insect technique (SIT), male annihilation, inundative releases of parasites, mating inhibitors, large-scale trap cropping with very attractive plants, treatment of alternate hosts on public lands and hosts in private gardens, etc. The objective of area-wide control is to reduce the pest population within the target area to a non-economic level. This is accomplished by attacking the entire insect pest population in the target area. Conventional insect control attempts to protect the plant or animal, is carried out by individual producers over a small area with little planning, is short-term, low technology and is a reactive (defense) approach to insect control. Area-wide insect control attempts to reduce the pest population to a non-economic level over a large area involving many

  13. Marketing Strategy Study For Customized Humidors In East Ontario Area

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Harri

    2011-01-01

    Strategy has many definitions but most often it is connected to positioning and creating competitive advantages. The main purpose of a strategy is to find a particular position in the market and create overwhelming competitive advantages that competitors do not have. In other words, the strategy aims to find a way to defeat competitors. The content of the strategy can fluctuate a lot between different organizations, but this strategy includes segmentation, market analysis, positioning and com...

  14. Transition to a New World Economic Order Part II: Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins, Peter H.

    1995-01-01

    Research on the transition to a new world economic order has already produced rich empirical results which help to validate sixteen specific research hypotheses for socialist and capitalist, underdeveloped and developed contexts, as well as the world economy as a whole. This multi-disciplinary literature on the NWO also maps out appropriate strategies that nations could follow to reach the goals of international efficiency, equity, equilibrium and positive evolution. Because of remaining lacu...

  15. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  16. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  17. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact.

  18. Activities in the area of procurement, dedication and obsolete parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant Support Engineering (PSE) is a utility-driven organization within the EPRI which utilizes a consensus approach to identify, prioritize and solve emergent issues within the nuclear utility community. This paper addresses PSE efforts to assist utilities to develop products related to the procurement and dedication of commercial grade items and the identification of replacement parts for obsolete parts. These products include: technical guidelines to be used by engineering personnel specifying and procuring replacement parts and equipment; databases used to store information related to the procurement and dedication of commercial grade items; databases to assist utilities in meeting the challenge of identifying suitable replacement parts for equipment which has become obsolete. 3 figs

  19. PRODUCT POLICY MANAGEMENT AS PART OF SUSTAINABLE MARKETING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Pap; Marija Ham; Ana Turalija

    2015-01-01

    The product as an element of the marketing mix represents the primary mechanism through which value is provided to the consumer. If we add the fact that it is precise decisions related to product design that determine the types of resources, production processes, and the nature and type of future fl ows of waste, it is clear that product policy management is a key issue in sustainable marketing strategy. The purpose of the present study is to analyse and discuss the key elements and prerequis...

  20. Students’ Performative Strategies in the Practical part of Nursing Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The current political agenda has placed practical education in medium cycle education programs on the agenda with emphasis on more structured and organized teaching initiatives. This paper examines what kinds of performative strategies students employ to achieve these goals. ‘Performative...... strategies’ are mainly examined in a Bourdieu perspective where incorporated structures orient the student to act in a specific cultural setting. The study is based on ethnographic field studies at two Danish hospital wards and interviews with nurse students and clinical teachers. The study shows......, and the strong focus on academic knowledge means that students are performing accordingly while intrinsic qualities of practice are being downplayed....

  1. Furcation area and furcaction defects. Part 1. Topic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Alejandro Castro Rodríguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal disease, mainly due to the presence of biofilm, causes the insertion loss and bone at the tooth roots, the progression of periodontal disease entity level leads to multiradicular teeth furcation commitments, which constitute a particular and unique, difficult to treat by the anatomical characteristics of the furcation area. The injury is the anatomical area comprising the area division of the roots of teeth multiradicular; whether premolars or molars. The pathologies that bring to this area are very complex and are called furcation lesions. Furcation defects represent a great challenge for therapists because of its anatomical characteristics and variability in the form of response to treatment. The clinical attachment loss is set in horizontal or vertical direction of the area. A wide range of treatment modalities has been directed to keep this anatomical area. This article compiles the most current and relevant on the anatomy of multiradicular teeth database as PubMed and Cochrane, information about furcation area and the considerations for the diagnosis of furcation lesions.

  2. [Treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Part 2: Pharmacological strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Ely, D; Pfueller, U; Mundt, C; Müller, U; Weisbrod, M

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are a clinically relevant symptom dimension and one of the best predictors for functional outcome. Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is still a challenge. The objective of this article is to present a detailed review of the literature on strategies for the pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits. It is not clear whether first-generation antipsychotics have a genuine positive influence on cognition. There is only sparse evidence for the positive effect of second-generation antipsychotics on cognitive processes. Furthermore it is not evident that second-generation antipsychotics are more beneficial than first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of cognitive deficits. The add-on use of substances which directly influence cognitive processes, so-called cognition-enhancing drugs is more promising.

  3. Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T

    2006-05-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized "channels" via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia project to Broca's area. This circuitry is further posited to encompass at least two channels. One channel can be characterized as subserving procedural memory, while the other underlies the retrieval of knowledge from declarative memory. These hypotheses are supported by both anatomical and functional evidence. Implications and issues for further investigation are discussed. PMID:16881254

  4. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  5. [Pilon fractures. Part 1: Diagnostics, treatment strategies and approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettek, C; Bachmann, S

    2015-01-01

    Intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia (pilon fractures) are caused by axial forces, usually in combination with torsional moments. Routine diagnostics include plain films and three dimensional (3D) imaging with computed tomography (CT). Treatment is often impaired by complex fracture configurations and thin soft tissue layers. The management of complex pilon fractures with soft tissue injuries has seen many trends, with changes toward staged protocols of temporary external fixation followed by delayed open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) techniques and special implants, the benefits of negative pressure wound sealing and early "fix and flap" efforts to reconstruct soft tissue defects. Reduction and fixation must involve respectful management and careful handling of soft tissues in order to minimize the well-known complications of this difficult fracture. The proper approach is one of the keys to success. Approach planning is based on the careful and thorough analysis of the fracture pattern in the 3D data set, which is the basis for a successful strategy for articular reconstruction. PMID:25591416

  6. A new strategy for stiffness evaluation of sheet metal parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Q.; Volk, W.; Düster, A.; Rank, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the automotive industry, surfaces of styling models are shaped very often in physical models. For example, in the styling process of a car body important design work is realized by clay models and the resulting geometry information typically comes from optical scans. The scanned data is given in the form of point clouds which is then utilized in the virtual planning process for engineering work, e.g. to evaluate the load-carrying capacity. This is an important measure for the stiffness of the car body panels. In this contribution, the following two issues are discussed: what is the suitable geometric representation of the stiffness of the car body and how it is computed if only discrete point clouds exist. In the first part, the suitable geometric representation is identified by constructing continuous CAD models with different geometric parameters, e.g. Gaussian curvature and mean curvature. The stiffness of models is then computed in LS-DYNA and the influence of different geometric parameters is presented based on the simulation result. In the second part, the point clouds from scanned data, rather than continuous CAD models, are directly utilized to estimate the Gaussian curvature, which is normally derived from continuous surfaces. The discrete Gauss-Bonnet algorithm is applied to estimate the Gaussian curvature of the point clouds and the sensitivity of the algorithm with respect to the mesh quality is analyzed. In this way, the stiffness evaluation process in an early stage can be accelerated since the transformation from discrete data to continuous CAD data is labor-intensive. The discrete Gauss-Bonnet algorithm is finally applied to a sheet metal model of the BMW 3 series.

  7. Measurement of radio noise in the Delhi area Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Bhatt

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of radio noise levels were carried out at several field locations (which also included industrial areas, in and around the city of Delhi (28Degree 35'N, 77Degree5'E by an objective method using a portable equipment (Noise and Field Intensity mater- model NF-105 manufactured by the Empire Devices Products Corp., New York. Noise level values for the frequency band 150Kc/s to 21M/c were obtained during the month of July (1958, when the atmospheric levels usually have maximum values during this period of the year. Tables of Noise levels are given both in field strength values in micro volts/meter per Kc. bandwidth as well as in Noise Power in db above kTB. The results obtained indicate that the noise grade figures for this area need revision

  8. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E V; van Ierland, Ekko C; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J G J

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions. PMID:26934389

  9. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siderius

    Full Text Available One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise, coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL, and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions.

  10. Manufacturing strategy in the auto parts industry: a multicases study in companies at sorocaba’s region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Neves Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The alignment of manufacturing strategy with the business strategy is fundamental for achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In the particular case of the automotive industry, it is verified that the production strategy of suppliers is strongly influenced by the strategy of automakers. In this context, this paper aims at presenting characteristics of the content of the production strategy of four auto parts companies besides analyzing the influence of automakers in the definition of the strategy contents.This is a descriptive and exploratory research that uses  a qualitative approach and the multi-case study method. Among the main results, it was found that the prevalent competitive priority in the companies is quality followed by delivery. In the decision areas, it was noted that customers have great influence on the quality management of these companies and in the R&D activities, besides demanding frequent deliveries. Finally, it was found that auto parts companies seek to strengthen their competitive priorities by adopting criteria from suppliers  for selecting and evaluating.

  11. Global asymptotic stability of a passive juggling strategy: A possible parts-feeding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that a passive vibration strategy can bring a one-degree-of-freedom ball to a specified periodic trajectory from all initial conditions. We draw motivation from the problem of parts feeding in sensorless assembly. We provide simulation results suggesting the relevance of our analysis to the parts feeding problem.

  12. THE STRATEGY OF OPTIMIZATION AND INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF BUDGETED EXPENDITURES AS PART OF REGIONAL BUDGET STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana V. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we have considered the questions of increasing the efficiency of budgeted expenditures in the boundaries of formation of the regional budget strategy. The process of reforming of government’s budget system is vectored to introduction of the new forms of budget costs’ management and increasing its effectiveness. The main budget innovations are: state and municipal assignment, budgeting, focused on result, program-targeted budgeting. The proposed classification of budget expendi...

  13. COPING STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - PART II: ROLE CONFLICT AND AGE

    OpenAIRE

    NATOVOVÁ, Ludmila; CHÝLOVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the particularities of various stress coping strategies (measured by standardized stress coping strategies questionnaire SVF 78) used by undergraduate university students (N=177). The first part was focused on gender differences. Part II compares groups differing in age and level of family-school-work conflict, drawing on the division according to the type of study: Part-time (N=102) and Full-time (N=75) students as well as on the age distinction (age24: N=82). The finding...

  14. Open innovation as an important part of company’s innovation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Skibinska, Olesia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to create an innovation strategy for R&D Department of a company that is operating in IT industry with a special focus on Open innovation. It consists of theoretical and practical part. Theoretical part presents modern literature research on innovation and outlines main concepts. Definition of innovation, its types and different approaches are described. Moreover, main principles of audit of Open innovation readiness and its measurement is presented. The last part is...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  16. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF PROTECTED AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Manuela GOGONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability manifested locally expanded to national, outlining the context of Romanian tourism industry under guidance protection, conservation and regeneration of environmental resources. The paper analyzes the evolution over time of the number, and surface of protected natural areas, being a reference point in the direction of strategic management thinking of tourism in the protected areas in Romania under the spectrum of sustainability, leading to a quantitative development and qualitative at high levels. The analysis of the number and surface of protected natural areas is through the data retrieved from the database Tempo-one line from the NIS.

  17. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  18. Searching development strategies for less-favoured areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Kuiper, M.H.; Pender, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rural households in less-favoured areas (LFAs) face multiple constraints for overcoming chronic poverty and resource degradation. Strategic development options can be assessed through interdisciplinary research based on coupling of human and natural systems approaches. Simulation modelling enables t

  19. SUBSTANTIATING THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Costencu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected natural areas, irrespective of their classification modality or the motivations they propose, have become more and more attractive for tourists. However, in time, the increasing touristic flows they attract, often developed in an uncontrolled manner, lead to the erosion of the space and the degradation of ecosystems. Developing tourism on sustainable principles, with the appropriate balance of the two functions of a protected area – the scientific and the touristic function – should start from the analysis of this form of tourism and of the development opportunities and limits regarded from the perspective of the external environment, and from the particularisation of the concept “site’s tourist reception capacity”. Destination areas should meet the economic, social and ecological requirements in competition, so that they observe the integrity of natural resources and of local communities. The upper limit of the number of visits allowed in a protected area is purposefully set at a level below the identified level of accepted use, so that, in the long run, the environment could be able to cover the possible increases occurred in the number of tourists, without subjecting the environment to further harm.

  20. Strategy and criteria for deployment of high speed chargers - Part 1; Strategi og kriteriesett for utplassering av hurtigladere - Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This report was commissioned by Transnova, as a part of their commitment to the electrification of road transport. The project has been conducted by Poeyry and Architect Harald N. Roestvik in close cooperation with representatives of Transnova and Vegdirektoratet. In addition, a number of external experts provided information during the process. The first part of the report describes a strategy and a set of criteria for the deployment of fast charging stations. The purpose of this section is to find out how many charging points are needed and where they should be placed. The second part describes the possible business models for providers of quick chargers. This section is intended to give some ideas to those who are interested in running high speed charging, and evaluate opportunities for commercial operations.(auth)

  1. Euro area enlargement: dilemmas and strategies after the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges for the New Member States after joining the European Union were Euro adoption and dealing with the economic crisis. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on the New Member States of European Union, both to the four NMS countries that joined the euro area, and also for the eight countries which intend to do this in the next few years. The paper begins with an overview of the current situation and analyses the economic performance of the 12 NMS of EU based on the Maastricht Treaty criteria. Finally, we are considering an answer he question: is it necessary to reshape the Euro – area entry rules?

  2. Content Area Reading: Principles and Strategies to Promote Independent Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachrudin Musthafa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the formal education cannot be expected to provide individuals with sufficient knowledge to last a lifetime, educators need to help learners develop knowledge, skills, and predispositions essential for independent learning. Reading in content areas whose primary purpose is to help learners acquire content literacy or the ability to use reading (and writing for the acquisition of new knowledge from materials required in their subject is one way of preparing students to be independent learners.

  3. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  4. Child immunization coverage in rural hard-to-reach Haor areas of Bangladesh: possible alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Larson, Charles P; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Khan, Azharul Islam; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Chandra Saha, Nirod

    2009-01-01

    This article assessed the status of childhood vaccination coverage and the possibility of using selected alternative vaccination strategies in rural hard-to-reach haor (low lying) areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected through survey, in-depth interviews, group discussion, and observations of vaccination sessions. Complete immunization coverage among 12- to 23-month-old children was found to be significantly lower in study areas when compared with the national coverage levels. The study identified reasons for low complete immunization coverage in hard-to-reach areas, including irregular/cancelled extended program on immunization (EPI) sessions, less time spent in EPI spots by field staff, and absence of any alternative strategy for remote areas. The findings indicated that the existing service delivery strategy is not sufficient to improve immunization coverage in hard-to-reach areas. However, most of the strategies assessed are considered possible to implement by health care providers in hard-to-reach areas. The study suggested that before implementing alternative strategies in hard-to-reach areas, feasibility and effectiveness of the possible strategies need to be tested to identify evidence-based strategies.

  5. 10 Content-Area Literacy Strategies for Art, Mathematics, Music, and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Kavin

    2012-01-01

    Content-area literacy involves the use of research-based learning strategies that help students effectively and efficiently gain content knowledge. Its use is fundamental to all content areas, not just to those that rely heavily on printed materials. One of the major goals of content-area instruction is to produce critical thinkers and problem…

  6. The flipped classroom for professional development: part I. Benefits and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katie; Smith, Charlene M

    2013-10-01

    Individualizing the educational encounter is supported by flipping the classroom experience. This column offers an overview and describes the benefits of flipping the classroom. Part II will explore the practicalities and pedagogy of lecture capture using podcasts and videos, a technology strategy used in flipping the classroom.

  7. Mapping the Journey: Developing an Information Literacy Strategy as Part of Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Fiona; Sheridan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article will outline the development of an Information Literacy Strategy in 2009 as part of an overall program of curriculum review and renewal at La Trobe University, Australia. Current information literacy programs at La Trobe University Library employ a diverse range of approaches and delivery methods. However, they are limited in scope…

  8. Data Archive and Portal Thrust Area Strategy Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Stephan, Eric G.; Macduff, Matt C.; Hagler, Clay D.

    2014-09-30

    This report describes the Data Archive and Portal (DAP), a key capability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electron (A2e) initiative. The DAP Thrust Area Planning Group was organized to develop a plan for deploying this capability. Primarily, the report focuses on a distributed system--a DOE Wind Cloud--that functions as a repository for all A2e data. The Wind Cloud will be accessible via an open, easy-to-navigate user interface that facilitates community data access, interaction, and collaboration. DAP management will work with the community, industry, and international standards bodies to develop standards for wind data and to capture important characteristics of all data in the Wind Cloud.

  9. Malaria and its burden among pregnant women in parts of the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwuocha Uchechukwu Madukaku; Dozie Ikechukwu Nosike; Chukwuocha Adanna Nneoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the epidemiology and burden of malaria among pregnant women in parts of theNigerDelta ofNigeria.Methods:About140 pregnant women were selected from four communities for the study after consent was obtained from them and their husbands.Clinical malaria was confirmed usingGiemsa staining technique, while social demographic data was obtained using structured pretested questionnaires.Results:Results showed that57.1% patients were positive for malaria infection.The peak age specific incidence was15-20 years(35%) and there was a significant difference among age groups(P<0.05).The incidence of malaria varied significantly according to the trimesters of the pregnant women, locations, level of education and occupation(P<0.05).The burden of the disease among pregnant women in the study area were in forms of symptoms(χ2=7.67,P<0.05), abnormalities(χ2 =21.38,P<0.05) and cost of treatment(χ2=6.62,P<0.005).Pregnant women were mostly predisposed to malaria infection by presence of stagnant water(25.0%) and with farming/fishing activities(22.5%).The most perceived preventive/control measure was intermittent preventive treatment(20.00%) and AntenatalCare/Health education(13.75%).Conclusions:Malaria still exerts heavy public health and socioeconomic burden on pregnant women in the study area.This calls for concerted effort to scale up and sustain control strategies especially intermittent preventive treatment and health education during antenatal visits.

  10. Assessing Strategy of Power Transformers Insulation State Based on Part-division and Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ruijin; LIU Bin; ZHANG Yiyi; YANG Lijun; ZHENG Hanbo

    2013-01-01

    Failure mechanisms of power transformers are complex and uncertain; it is difficult to determine index weights of insulation state.Therefore,it is a challenge to acquire an accurate assessment of insulation state of power transformers.In this paper,an assessing strategy for transformer insulation is proposed base on part-division of transformer and a comprehensive weight determination method.An index system of transformer is established on the basis of part-division of transformer.Each index's weight is consisted of two parts,the constant weight and the variable weight,which are determined by improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy method respectively.After categorizing insulation state into four levels and standardizing assessing indexes,a Cauchy membership function is forged,and a fuzzy algorithm is employed to simulate the uncertainty of the insulation state.Finally,a confidence criterion is employed to perform part-division based condition assessment of transformer.Case studies reveal that the proposed assessing strategy method is effective,convenient,and practical; with the new strategy,potential failures of transformers can be forecasted and insulation state of transformer parts can also be assessed.Furthermore,the assessing results can be used to guide condition-based maintenance.

  11. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security...

  12. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  13. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  14. Improving health service delivery organisational performance in health systems: a taxonomy of strategy areas and conceptual framework for strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah W; Curry, Leslie; Bashyal, Chhitij; Berman, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-03-01

    Health systems strengthening (HSS) is a priority for global health funders, policy-makers and practitioners. Although many HSS efforts have focused on policy levers such as financing approaches, payment schemes or regulatory reforms, less attention has been directed to targeting the organisations that deliver health services such as hospitals, health centres and clinics. Evidence suggests that the impact of organisation-level interventions varies by context; however, we lack a general framework for integrating organisational context into performance improvement strategies for health service delivery organisations. Drawing on open systems theories from organisational behaviour and management as well as a review of 181 empirical studies of health service delivery organisations in low- and middle-income countries, we propose a taxonomy of seven strategy areas for improving organisational performance as well as a multistage conceptual framework for selecting among them. We propose that the choice of strategy for improving health service delivery organisational performance should be informed by: (i) the root cause of the organisation's performance gap; (ii) the environmental conditions facing the organisation; and (iii) the implementation capability of the organisation. We also highlight conditions under which different strategy areas may be expected to be optimally effective. The approaches presented in this paper offer a way for health system decision-makers and researchers to systematically assess and incorporate organisational context in the process of developing strategies to improve the performance of health service delivery organisations and, ultimately, of health systems.

  15. The effects of an interactive instructional strategy for enhancing reading comprehension and content area learning for students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C S; Anders, P L; Filip, D; Jaffe, L E

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an interactive vocabulary instructional strategy, semantic-feature analysis (SFA), on the content area text comprehension of adolescents with learning disabilities. Prior to reading a social studies text, students in resource classes either completed a relationship chart as part of the SFA condition or used the dictionary to write definitions and sentences as part of the contrast condition. Passage comprehension was measured on a multiple-choice test consisting of two types of items, vocabulary and conceptual. Comprehension was measured immediately following teaching and again 6 months after teaching. Prior knowledge for the content of the passage served as a covariate. Results indicated that students in the SFA instructional condition had significantly greater measured comprehension immediately following and 6 months after initial teaching. These results are discussed in relation to concept-driven, interactive strategies for teaching content and facilitating text comprehension.

  16. Use of social media as a part of organizations marketing strategy:opportunities, challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Orajärvi, P. (Paavo)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide companies guidance on how to adopt social media as a part of their marketing strategy and efforts. Social media has been making its way to being a crucial part of marketing communications for over a decade now and its importance has been steadily growing over the years. Marketers and managers have started to see the potential in the channel, and early research on the phenomenon has provided them with insight on how to use the channel properly. With use...

  17. Study on Control Strategy of Sulfur Dioxide Concentration in the Urban Area of Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光军; 于立军; 范丽; 王宇新; 赵根喜

    2003-01-01

    Two Gaussian air quality dispersion models, the industrial source complex short-term model (ISCST3) with and without modification have been used to simulate the pollutant concentration distribution in urban areas based on the meteorological data and the emissions distribution of sulfur dioxide. The verified data show that the modified model is more accurate in the urban area of Shijiazhuang. Using the modified model predictions, the control strategies of sulfur dioxide in the urban area have been studied, and the result show that the second long-term (to 2010) strategy can mitigate air pollution significantly and maintain pollution levels within permissible limits.

  18. Redesigned Surface Based Machining Strategy and Method in Peripheral Milling of Thin-walled Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhenyuan; GUO Qiang; SUN Yuwen; GUO Dongming

    2010-01-01

    Currently, simultaneously ensuring the machining accuracy and efficiency of thin-walled structures especially high performance parts still remains a challenge. Existing compensating methods are mainly focusing on 3-aixs machining, which sometimes only take one given point as the compensative point at each given cutter location. This paper presents a redesigned surface based machining strategy for peripheral milling of thin-walled parts. Based on an improved cutting force/heat model and finite element method(FEM) simulation environment, a deflection error prediction model, which takes sequence of cutter contact lines as compensation targets, is established. And an iterative algorithm is presented to determine feasible cutter axis positions. The final redesigned surface is subsequently generated by skinning all discrete cutter axis vectors after compensating by using the proposed algorithm. The proposed machining strategy incorporates the thermo-mechanical coupled effect in deflection prediction, and is also validated with flank milling experiment by using five-axis machine tool. At the same time, the deformation error is detected by using three-coordinate measuring machine. Error prediction values and experimental results indicate that they have a good consistency and the proposed approach is able to significantly reduce the dimension error under the same machining conditions compared with conventional methods. The proposed machining strategy has potential in high-efficiency precision machining of thin-walled parts.

  19. A Survey on Software Project Management Report Part I Importance of Project Management Areas (Short Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Kadir Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    Visit research website for more information and reports http://faculty.nps.edu/kdemir/spm.htm Objectives of this Study: The objectives of this study are to identify (i) the importance of various project management areas and (ii) project management challenges in software projects. This study is conducted to form a basis for a software project management framework. This report focuses on the first part of the objective. The project management areas are identified through extensiv...

  20. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  1. A New Secure Strategy for Small-Scale IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As the main secret-key encryption techniques of the wireless local area network (WLAN have been proven to be unsafe, wireless network security is faced with serious challenges. It is unpractical for home users and small companies to buy expansive network equipments to improve the network security. Therefore, the secure strategy of wireless network needs to be changed. In this paper, we first introduce secure issues of the main secret-key encryption techniques currently adopted by the most popular commercial wireless routers. Then we propose a new strategy for small-scale IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network which can strengthen the network security. The new secure strategy is based on web authentication with unshared key and virtual local area network (VLAN in wireless network. It can provide protection against practical attacks which are popular nowadays. Moreover, it is simple, wieldy and low-cost.

  2. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan;

    This paper emphasizes the role of early and rapid globalization of technology start-ups as part of their innovation and growth strategies. It suggests a framework linking the ex-ante value of new technology firms and the ex-post characteristics of born global (BG) firms. We were inspired by Knight...... of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...

  3. Nuclear energy as a part of national energy strategy of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenian National Committee of the World Energy Council has prepared the draft of the National Energy Strategy of Slovenia for next 20 years. Following are the main conclusions of the nuclear part of proposed National Energy Strategy of Slovenia: NPP Krsko should operate until the end of its lifetime; possibilities for the extension of the operating lifetime of NPP Krsko should be investigated; possible new nuclear units of smaller size should be seriously considered after 2010; advantage should be taken of established knowledge basis and infrastructure and the option for construction of additional nuclear unit for production for European electricity market should be kept open; the site for the low and intermediate waste repository should be found as soon as possible, while the spent nuclear fuel should be stored temporarily until some regional solutions are available.(author)

  4. Sustainable development pattern and strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development pattern, development situation, and existing problems of land exploitation in Zigui County, Three Gorges Reservoir Areas of China were presented. The sustainable development mode and its strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas was also discussed. A sustainable development framework for low mountain regions, middle mountain regions and high mountain regions was developed, and management countermeasures for structural optimization of complex ecosystems were advanced.

  5. Current Protection of Geographical Indication Specialties in Anqing Area and Future Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzhen; XIONG; Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Shuting; WANG; Limin; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Current protection of geographical indications of specialty resources in Anqing area was introduced,development strategies for intellectual property right protection of geographical indications in the city were explored from the perspectives of protection of intangible cultural heritage,cultivation of high-quality specialties,technical specifications and quality control,poverty alleviation through industrial development.

  6. Comparing spatially explicit ecological and social values for natural areas to identify effective conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett Anthony; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Crossman, Neville David; King, Darran

    2011-02-01

    Consideration of the social values people assign to relatively undisturbed native ecosystems is critical for the success of science-based conservation plans. We used an interview process to identify and map social values assigned to 31 ecosystem services provided by natural areas in an agricultural landscape in southern Australia. We then modeled the spatial distribution of 12 components of ecological value commonly used in setting spatial conservation priorities. We used the analytical hierarchy process to weight these components and used multiattribute utility theory to combine them into a single spatial layer of ecological value. Social values assigned to natural areas were negatively correlated with ecological values overall, but were positively correlated with some components of ecological value. In terms of the spatial distribution of values, people valued protected areas, whereas those natural areas underrepresented in the reserve system were of higher ecological value. The habitats of threatened animal species were assigned both high ecological value and high social value. Only small areas were assigned both high ecological value and high social value in the study area, whereas large areas of high ecological value were of low social value, and vice versa. We used the assigned ecological and social values to identify different conservation strategies (e.g., information sharing, community engagement, incentive payments) that may be effective for specific areas. We suggest that consideration of both ecological and social values in selection of conservation strategies can enhance the success of science-based conservation planning. PMID:20825450

  7. Learning strategies used by undergraduate and postgraduate students in hybrid courses in the area of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Henry Maia; Peixoto, Mariana Maia; Alves, Elioenai Dornelles

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the learning habits and strategies of undergraduate and post-graduate students matriculated in hybrid courses in the area of healthcare at a Brazilian university. 220 graduate students were invited to participate in the research, of whom 67.27% accepted. An exploratory methodology was utilized, which analyzed quantitative data collected by a structured instrument. A similarity may be observed between undergraduate and postgraduate students concerning the majority of education habits and learning strategies, such as the large proportion of those who read more than half of the course content and of those who preferred to study alone, as well as in the high use of the majority of strategies evaluated. It is concluded that both the groups present appropriate study habits and satisfactorily used the learning strategies investigated.

  8. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing

  9. Stops and bonanzas in the EU: Does being part of the Euro Area make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Maria Madalena Godinho de Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether being part of the euro area influences the conditional probability of going through a sudden stop or a bonanza of capital flows. Our sample period is from 1995 until 2014. We identify these two phenomena and we evaluate which push and pull factors help predict the conditional probability of experiencing one of them. We find that most countries had significant capital inflows until 2008 and that there were more sudden stops during the recent financial cris...

  10. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management by small and medium enterprises (SMEs operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally family-owned businesses, and this study provides concrete insights into the mind-set of owners toward different functional strategies. The AHP implementation steps are performed using commercially available software “Expert Choice®.” Marketing strategy is considered to be the most important strategy, while manufacturing management strategy is the second most important strategy. There is little emphasis on the financial and human resource management which is a serious cause of concern. The study would help policy makers to understand the business behaviors of this sector and consequently formulate policies to enhance their performance.

  11. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This strategy paper identifies and defines the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) for source waste sites in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. This paper provides the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess and approve the Environmental Restoration Contractor's (ERC) approach to RD/RA. Additionally, DOE is requesting review/agreement from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on the strategy presented in this document in order to expedite remedial activities

  12. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  13. A Cost-Constrained Sampling Strategy in Support of LAI Product Validation in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid on leaf area index (LAI retrieval in mountainous areas. Mountainous areas present extreme topographic variability, and are characterized by more spatial heterogeneity and inaccessibility compared with flat terrain. It is difficult to collect representative ground-truth measurements, and the validation of LAI in mountainous areas is still problematic. A cost-constrained sampling strategy (CSS in support of LAI validation was presented in this study. To account for the influence of rugged terrain on implementation cost, a cost-objective function was incorporated to traditional conditioned Latin hypercube (CLH sampling strategy. A case study in Hailuogou, Sichuan province, China was used to assess the efficiency of CSS. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, land cover type, and slope were selected as auxiliary variables to present the variability of LAI in the study area. Results show that CSS can satisfactorily capture the variability across the site extent, while minimizing field efforts. One appealing feature of CSS is that the compromise between representativeness and implementation cost can be regulated according to actual surface heterogeneity and budget constraints, and this makes CSS flexible. Although the proposed method was only validated for the auxiliary variables rather than the LAI measurements, it serves as a starting point for establishing the locations of field plots and facilitates the preparation of field campaigns in mountainous areas.

  14. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  15. Analysing and Developing TQM Strategies - An Important Part of Company Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Ove

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies for development of total quality management as an integrated part of company innovation taking the size and other particular characteristics of the specific company into consideration, with the focus on issues related to the development of appropriate total quality...... activities and employee behaviour in industrial company cultures. The paper outlines and discusses some results of total quality management research projects and case study research in industrial companies carried out at the Technical University of Denmark. The background of the viewpoints and experience...... outlined is based on a combination of theoretical work, case study research and involvement in the practical development of total quality management in industrial companies of very different sizes....

  16. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer

  17. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  18. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  19. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  20. Developing marketing strategies for tourism destinations in peripheral areas of Europe: the case of Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann

    This thesis concentrates on the subject of destination marketing with a specific focus on the process of developing strategies through a Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO) for a peripheral area, illustrated by a case study from the Danish island of Bornholm. It investigates the theoretical...... foundations for destination marketing, concluding that there should be a shift in focus from general marketing theory to a broader application of organisational theories and associated fields, enabling the DMO to improve performance. The specific conditions for and structures of peripheral areas indicate...... that the process in these areas should be adapted to the circumstances generally experienced there. Specifically the predominant occurrence of lifestyle businesses in peripheral areas, either as micro-businesses or SMEs, which plan on a short-term basis, needs to be included in the strategic planning process...

  1. Study on the Improvement Strategies of Physical Environment for Square in Severe Cold Regions’ Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinYu Zhang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    To improve the comfortable physical environment for square in severe cold regions’ rural areas. This paper applies the methods of questionnaires, field testing and statistical analysis to compare and analyze two different square cases of Qingyunpu in Liaoning Province, and conclude the main factors which affect the physical environmental comfort. The improvement strategies for physical environment of rural square are put forward from the aspects of site selection, road position, orientation, landscape design, and ground pavement material selection, aiming to provide the design basis for the physical environment of square in severe cold regions’ rural areas.

  2. Study on the Outdoor Wind Environment Simulation and Design Strategies of Rural Settlements in Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Hong Jin; Xin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outdoor environment of rural settlement and reduce the energy consumption of rural houses in winterin cold areas,the seriously bad wind environment should been controlled and considered. This paper applies the method of numerical simulation to simulate the wind environment of some typical arrangement of building and courtyard in winter, and concludes the optimal building and courtyard arrangement types and strategies. It aims to provide some technical supports for improving the wind environment of rural settlements in cold regions.

  3. The strategy for assessing risks associated with remediation of the former production area at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for assessing the risks associated with the remediation of the former Production Area at the Fernald Environmental Management Project is discussed. The general approach to risk assessment is strongly influenced by a number of factors related to the nature of the site and to management proposals that have been made concerning the site. How these factors affect the approach to assessing baseline risks, to assessing risks associated with remedial activity, and to establishing cleanup criteria are examined

  4. Terminology standardization strategies towards the consolidation of the European Higher Education Area

    OpenAIRE

    Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel; Carrió Pastor, Mª Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the measures taken places special emphasis on the role of key documents within this process such as degree descriptions and course catalogues. However, previous studies on course catalogues from several European universities have revealed numerous weaknesses in the users input of information and terminology inconsistencies which confirm the need to develop and implement terminology standardization strategies. This p...

  5. Strategi Kepemimpinan Organisasi Pada PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Unit Area Sales Manager (Studi Kasus Tentang Strategi Komunikasi Upward dan Downward dalam Kepemimpinan Organisasi PT.Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Unit Area Sales Manager Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Surbakti, Sepratih

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul Strategi Komunikasi Organisasi Up Ward dan Down Ward Dalam Kepemimpinan PT.Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Unit Area Sales Manager Medan ( Studi Kasus Tentang Strategi Komunikasi Organisasi Upward dan Downward Dalam Kepemimpinan PT.Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Unit Area Sales Manager Medan). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan dan membahas bagaimanakah strategi komunikasi organisasi antara atasan dan bawahan dalam bekerja. Metode yang dilakukan da...

  6. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

  7. The multigene families of actinoporins (part II): Strategies for heterologous production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, A; Hervis, Y P; Socas, L B P; Canet, L; Faheem, M; Barbosa, J A R G; Lanio, M E; Pazos, I F

    2016-08-01

    The sea anemone venom contains pore-forming proteins (PFP) named actinoporins, due to their purification from organisms belonging to Actiniaria order and its ability to form pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Actinoporins are generally basic, monomeric and single-domain small proteins (∼20 kDa) that are classified as α-type PFP since the pore formation in membranes occur through α-helical elements. Different actinoporin isoforms have been isolated from most of the anemones species, as was analyzed in the first part of this review. Several actinoporin full-length genes have been identified from genomic-DNA libraries or messenger RNA. Since the actinoporins lack carbohydrates and disulfide bridges, their expression in bacterial systems is suitable. The actinoporins heterologous expression in Escherichia coli simplifies their production, replaces the natural source reducing the ecological damage in anemone populations, and allows the production of site-specific mutants for the study of the structure-function relationship. In this second part of the review, the strategies for heterologous production of actinoporins in Escherichia coli are analyzed, as well as the different approaches used for their purification. The activity of the recombinant proteins with respect to the wild-type is also reviewed. PMID:27080349

  8. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part II: Joint venture strategies and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A S

    1987-05-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this second part of the series, the author examines the internal and external issues that must be addressed to ensure success and the types of information that must be gathered.

  9. Using additive and subtractive manufacturing technologies in a new remanufacturing strategy to produce new parts from End-of-Life parts

    OpenAIRE

    LE, Van Thao; Paris, Henri; Mandil, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, additive manufacturing technique is considered as a technique of the third industrial revolution. The technique makes it possible to build a “real-material” part by adding materials, layer by layer, based on a CAD model. Taking into account the performances of these techniques, a new remanufacturing strategy seems possible to transform an End-of-Life (EoL) part into a new part without returning to the level of raw material. The purposes of this paper is to explore the technological ...

  10. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. PMID:25218331

  11. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision.

  12. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of...

  13. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational...

  14. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  15. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: radiation exposure and remediation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N; Grebenshikova, N; Isamov, N; Lazarev, N; Panov, A; Ulanovsky, A; Zhuchenko, Y; Zhurba, M

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of

  16. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement structure in these areas, the public transport network density is low and service frequency is often poor. The problems are exacerbated by increasing private car use, which, in a vicious circle, leads to further reductions in services. However, simple tools such as dialogue marketing and minor adjustments to scheduling can help change people’s perceptions. Dialogue marketing techniques have already been shown to increase passenger numbers by as much as 10 to 15 percent. Greater demand leads to higher revenues, making it possible to improve the system and attract even more passengers, turning the vicious circle into a positive loop.

  17. Infrastructure to support trading strategies against the occurrence of extraordinary events: Secure area of the equipment storage; Infraestructura de apoyo a las estrategias de operacion frente a la ocurrencia de sucesos extraordinarios: Area segura de almacenamiento de equipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas Gordo, A. de; Asensio Vega, J.; Fernandez Morales, E. J.; Font Hadinger, I.

    2013-07-01

    Compliance with the requirements specified in the Technical Instructions ITC and ITC-1-2, issued by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is conducting exhaustive analyzes on coping in Nuclear Power Plants emergencies due to the occurrence extraordinary events. As part of the necessary infrastructure, a secure area for parking and storage of projects teams involved in the development of various operational strategies. The design of it ensures compliance with all regulatory and practical requirements, ensuring minimization strategies and time functionality in the application of the same.

  18. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The first part of the study has been reported in Rasmussen and Thorning (2012).The starting point of the study was a need for more knowledge on methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration in Danish onshore areas, as an alternative to seismic investigations, when these cannot be used for nature protecting reasons. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different non-seismic methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The optimum choice for a field test was an electromagnetic experiment with a galvanic controlled source (Rasmussen and Thorning, 2012). However, due to organisational issues and a limited timeframe of the project, the final choice of method for the field test was settled on using the magnetotelluric method (MT). Though MT does not utilise galvanic controlled sources, and hence does not serve as a tool for direct hydrocarbon exploration, MT has been used in the past in relation with hydrocarbon exploration onshore and has recently gained considerable interest in China. A contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The test was carried out August 2012 in an area around Toender, and is reported here as ALTKUL Project Report Part 2. In total 42 MT stations were measured in a 180 km{sup 2} area. The digital data are enclosed with the report and hereby released to the public. A 3D model of the electrical resistivity variations to a depth of 6 km constitutes, together with the actual measured data, the main results of part 2 of the ALTKUL project. The 3D model was derived from an unconstrained 3D inversion of the MT data. The MT data show that pronounced lateral resistivity variations exist at the depth of interest for

  19. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 2: Guidance for the selection of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of ISO 18589 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. This part of ISO 18589 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This part of ISO 18589 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply. Information is provided on scope, normative references, terms and definitions and symbols, principle, sampling strategy, sampling plan, sampling process, pre-treatment of samples and recorded information. Five annexes inform about selection of the sampling strategy according to the objectives and the radiological characterization of the site and sampling areas, diagram of the evolution of the sample characteristics from the sampling site to the laboratory, example of sampling plan for a site divided in three sampling areas, example of a sampling record for a single/composite sample and example for a sample record for a soil profile with soil description. A bibliography is provided

  1. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Rhodes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  2. Attrition of Knowledge Workforce in Healthcare in Northern parts of India – Health Information Technology as a Plausible Retention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Suri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a global shortage of skilled health workers due to attrition, countries are struggling to build and maintain an optimum knowledge workforce in healthcare for delivering quality healthcare services. Forces that affect healthcare professional turnover needs to be addressed before a competent uniformly adoptable strategy could be proposed for mitigating the problem. In this study we investigate the effect of the socio –demographic characteristics on attrition of healthcare knowledge workforce in northern parts of India that have a wide gradient of rural and urban belt, taking into account both public and private healthcare organizations. For this purpose healthcare professional attrition tracking survey (HATS was designed. The data has been collected from a random sample of 807 respondents consisting of doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrators to explore the relationships between various factors acting as antecedents in affecting the job satisfaction, commitment and intention of a healthcare professional to stay in the job. Structured questionnaires were utilized as the data collection tools. Both public and private healthcare organizations in urban and rural areas were covered for the survey. Descriptive statistics and factor analyses using analysis on Rotated Factor Matrix using Principal Components Analysis (PCA in SPSS 16.0 package were carried out. Six factors of attrition namely Compensation and perks, Work Life Balance, Sense of Accomplishment, Work load leading to exhaustion, Need for automation and technology improvement, Break Monotony of Work have been identified as the main factors with a data reliability of 0.809%. Based on the survey response and analysis, a highly possible strategy of utilizing information technology implementation for increasing worker motivation, job satisfaction and commitment to reduce attrition has been proposed.

  3. First and second quarters 1999 -- TNX Area groundwater and effectiveness monitoring strategy data only report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-17

    This report presents data of groundwater monitoring conducted during the first and second quarters of 1999 in support of the Interim Remedial Action. The data is from groundwater monitoring wells described in this report as the primary, secondary, and recovery wells of the initial operation of the Effectiveness Monitoring Strategy (EMS) as stipulated in Revision 1.3 (WSRC, 1996), the proposed wells for the full operation of the EMS as described in Revision 1.5 (WSRC, 1999), and general wells pertinent to the report. Also included are data from SRTC projects in the TNX Area that are deemed useful for groundwater characterization.

  4. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  5. Area Completion Strategies at Savannah River Site: Characterization for Closure and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990's, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an 'area completion' strategy that: - unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, - integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D and D activities - reduces the number of required regulatory documents, - and, in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state. The area completion approaches being implemented at SRS reflect an evolution of the traditional RCRA/ CERCLA remedial process. Area completion strategies: - group waste units and/or D and D facilities together for characterization, remediation, and possible reuse; - identify data needs and integrate data collection activities for D and D, characterization, and remediation; - identify problems that require action

  6. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  7. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough - the Chociwel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Maciej; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Pająk, Leszek

    2015-09-01

    The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years' time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  8. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    area. It shows that most of the damage is caused by spilled sewage drains flooding basements and streets. Besides less fire brigade operations are observed in rural areas with constant amount of rainfall. The occurrence of heavy rain events is spatially limited, hot-spot areas with higher probability can be detected. Based on this finding, a resource management strategy for the fire brigade can be developed. Keywords: emergency planning strategy, critical infrastructure, heavy rainfall, fire-brigade resource management

  9. Radiocarbon datings and glacial striae from the innar part of Boknfjord area, South Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whale bones overlain by moraine at Borgoey island have been dated to 12,380+-150 B.P. At Tveit, further east, whale bones overlain by littoral material were dated to 11,970+-100 B.P. These datings, together with the glacial striae in the area, show that Borgoe was covered by ice during a glacial advance at about Older Dryas Chronozone, while Tveit was not, and that a calving bay existed in the inner part of the Boknfjord area at the same time. At the mouth of Vindafjord, east of Tveit, and 3-4 km outside terminal moraines of Younger Dryas age, shells overlain by ground moraine were dated to 11,630+-100 B.P. This shows that the ice front in an early phase of the Younger Dryas glacial advance was situated at least 3-4 km beyond the pronounced Ra moraines in Vindafjord. The main trend of the shore line displacement between 12,000 and 9,500 B.P., based upon the whale bones and earlier investigations, can be established. (Auth.)

  10. Developing a strategy for sustainable tourism. Case study: Constanta metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Isabella Stan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an interest in stimulating the development role of urban centers in Romania, in the context of regional and spatial planning. The accession of Romania to the European Union and the need to absorb EU funds were the main reasons behind the emergence of the legal framework for the development of metropolitan areas as urban growth poles. Constanta, situated on the Black Sea coast, is an important tourist city of the country which has developed as a center of trade between East and West, with good prospects in terms of sustainable tourism development because it’s the fourth largest port in Europe, has an international airport, inland waterway, and a functional highway. Tourism is an important economic component, which from the perspective of using the dimension of sustainable development - economic sustainability can become a key factor for a balanced metropolitan development. The purpose of this paper is to show the necessity to develop a strategy for tourism in the Constanta Metropolitan Area, strategy which could contribute to achieving a high level of economic and social development, a high standard of living for all its inhabitants.

  11. A strategy for GIS-based 3-D slope stability modelling over large areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mergili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GIS-based deterministic models may be used for landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas. However, such efforts require specific strategies to (i keep computing time at an acceptable level, and (ii parameterize the geotechnical data. We test and optimize the performance of the GIS-based, 3-D slope stability model r.slope.stability in terms of computing time and model results. The model was developed as a C- and Python-based raster module of the open source software GRASS GIS and considers the 3-D geometry of the sliding surface. It calculates the factor of safety (FoS and the probability of slope failure (Pf for a number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Model input consists of a DEM, ranges of geotechnical parameter values derived from laboratory tests, and a range of possible soil depths estimated in the field. Probability density functions are exploited to assign Pf to each ellipsoid. The model calculates for each pixel multiple values of FoS and Pf corresponding to different sliding surfaces. The minimum value of FoS and the maximum value of Pf for each pixel give an estimate of the landslide susceptibility in the study area. Optionally, r.slope.stability is able to split the study area into a defined number of tiles, allowing parallel processing of the model on the given area. Focusing on shallow landslides, we show how multi-core processing allows to reduce computing times by a factor larger than 20 in the study area. We further demonstrate how the number of random slip surfaces and the sampling of parameters influence the average value of Pf and the capacity of r.slope.stability to predict the observed patterns of shallow landslides in the 89.5 km2 Collazzone area in Umbria, central Italy.

  12. A strategy for GIS-based 3-D slope stability modelling over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, M.; Marchesini, I.; Alvioli, M.; Metz, M.; Schneider-Muntau, B.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-12-01

    GIS-based deterministic models may be used for landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas. However, such efforts require specific strategies to (i) keep computing time at an acceptable level, and (ii) parameterize the geotechnical data. We test and optimize the performance of the GIS-based, 3-D slope stability model r.slope.stability in terms of computing time and model results. The model was developed as a C- and Python-based raster module of the open source software GRASS GIS and considers the 3-D geometry of the sliding surface. It calculates the factor of safety (FoS) and the probability of slope failure (Pf) for a number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Model input consists of a digital elevation model (DEM), ranges of geotechnical parameter values derived from laboratory tests, and a range of possible soil depths estimated in the field. Probability density functions are exploited to assign Pf to each ellipsoid. The model calculates for each pixel multiple values of FoS and Pf corresponding to different sliding surfaces. The minimum value of FoS and the maximum value of Pf for each pixel give an estimate of the landslide susceptibility in the study area. Optionally, r.slope.stability is able to split the study area into a defined number of tiles, allowing parallel processing of the model on the given area. Focusing on shallow landslides, we show how multi-core processing makes it possible to reduce computing times by a factor larger than 20 in the study area. We further demonstrate how the number of random slip surfaces and the sampling of parameters influence the average value of Pf and the capacity of r.slope.stability to predict the observed patterns of shallow landslides in the 89.5 km2 Collazzone area in Umbria, central Italy.

  13. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  14. Potentialities of ensemble strategies for flood forecasting over the Milano urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Homar, Víctor; Romero, Romu; Lombardi, Gabriele; Mancini, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of ensemble forecasting strategies, which can provide a tangible backing for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Mediterranean region, is one of the fundamental motivations of the international HyMeX programme. Here, we examine two severe hydrometeorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area and for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed. Indeed, flood damage have exponentially increased during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. First, we examine how land-use changes due to urban development have altered the hydrological response to intense rainfalls. Second, we test a flood forecasting system which comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models. Accurate forecasts of deep moist convection and extreme precipitation are difficult to be predicted due to uncertainties arising from the numeric weather prediction (NWP) physical parameterizations and high sensitivity to misrepresentation of the atmospheric state; however, two hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have been designed to explicitly cope with uncertainties in the initial and lateral boundary conditions (IC/LBCs) and physical parameterizations of the NWP model. No substantial differences in skill have been found between both ensemble strategies when considering an enhanced diversity of IC/LBCs for the perturbed initial conditions ensemble. Furthermore, no additional benefits have been found by considering more frequent LBCs in a mixed physics ensemble, as ensemble spread seems to be reduced. These findings could help to design the most appropriate ensemble strategies before these hydrometeorological extremes, given the computational

  15. Strategies for lidar characterization of particulates from point and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Moore, Kori D.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-10-01

    Use of ground based remote sensing technologies such as scanning lidar systems (light detection and ranging) has gained traction in characterizing ambient aerosols due to some key advantages such as wide area of regard (10 km2), fast response time, high spatial resolution (sources in agricultural and industrial settings. A suite of massbased and size distribution point sensors are used to locally calibrate the lidar. Generating meaningful particle size distribution, mass concentration, and emission rate results based on lidar data is dependent on strategic onsite deployment of these point sensors with successful local meteorological measurements. Deployment strategies learned from field use of this entire measurement system over five years include the characterization of local meteorology and its predictability prior to deployment, the placement of point sensors to prevent contamination and overloading, the positioning of the lidar and beam plane to avoid hard target interferences, and the usefulness of photographic and written observational data.

  16. Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Ackerly, David; Harrison, Susan; Keeley, Jon E.; Vasey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits.Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California.Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots.Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history.Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects.

  17. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 10-mile buffer extending from the border of the combined entity Houston, TX. San Antonio Area San Antonio and a 10-mile buffer extending from the city border San Antonio, TX. WA Seattle Area Seattle... the border of the combined area Anaheim, CA; Santa Ana, CA. Bay Area Berkeley, Daly City,...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 679 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Statistical and Reporting Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 679—Bering Sea and Aleutian... economic zone as depicted on the current edition of NOAA chart INT 813 Bering Sea (Southern Part). Note:...

  20. Designing a hosting area as an advanced nursing care strategy in a pediatric nursing ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pino A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important comfort needs for caregivers are related to improving their hospital stay conditions, with more comfortable waiting rooms, a place to sleep, a toilette with shower, food and a safe place where to leave their belongings. Objective: To implement a hosting area that meets the comfort needs of parents who do not have their own accommodations during the hospitalization of their children. Methodology: Innovative strategies in providing advanced nursing care based on the theoretical model of Kolcaba, which allows us to bring the discipline of nursing care into practice, in direct benefit of patients. Results: We expect an increase in comfort perception of parents during hospitalization, which will lead to increased alertness of parents, effective participation in child care, improved response to educational interventions and effective linkages with the caring team. Conclusions: A hosting area for parents of hospitalized children, designed to meet the most important comfort needs reported in the literature and contextualized according to Kolcaba’s theory, can contribute to implement advanced nursing care, recovering the essence of nursing at the Pediatrics Service of the UC Hospital.

  1. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  2. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  3. Prioritization of strategies for protected area management with local people using the hybrid SWOT-AHP analysis: the case of Kakum conservation area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Foli Fiagbomeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of protected areas towards conservation and protection of biodiversity cannot be over emphasized. Likewise, the dependence of local communities on forest and natural resources cannot be overlooked. Hence for the long term viability of forest reserves and wildlife protected area, the relationship of local people living close to these areas are of key importance if conflict of use can be mitigated. Admittedly, decision-making with respect to forest resource use and protection are complex due to the multiple interests of the major stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement in the planning, management and policy analysis can help resolve conflicts, and increase the commitment of local people to support conservation of protected areas. In this paper, we employ the SWOT-AHP methodology, with the aid of the Priority Estimation Tool (PriEsT, to evaluate and prioritize three management strategies for the Kakum conservation area in Ghana, as a means to facilitate conservation while ensuring benefits to local people. Considering the management objectives of the conservation area, seventeen SWOT sub-factors were identified and used in rating the three alternative management strategies. Among the strength sub-factors, enforcement of protection regulations (S4 is the most important. Similarly, limited funds for patrolling and outreach programs (W3, local people’s interest in alternative livelihood (O4 and the presence of illegal activities (T3 are the most important weakness, opportunity and threat sub-factors respectively. The management strategy “institute village committees to support monitoring and protection of resources” (A1 has the highest priority rating, indicating that management authorities must pay more attention to collaborative management. We propose that to improve on protected area management in Ghana, more management strategy studies must be conducted. However, these studies may apply the fuzzy AHP technique since it is

  4. Geohydrology, simulation of regional groundwater flow, and assessment of watermanagement strategies, Twentynine Palms area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) Twentynine Palms, California, overlies the Surprise Spring, Deadman, Mesquite, and Mainside subbasins of the Morongo groundwater basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Historically, the MCAGCC has relied on groundwater pumped from the Surprise Spring subbasin to provide all of its potable water supply. Groundwater pumpage in the Surprise Spring subbasin has caused groundwater levels in the subbasin to decline by as much as 190 feet (ft) from 1953 through 2007. Groundwater from the other subbasins contains relatively high concentrations of fluoride, arsenic, and (or) dissolved solids, making it unsuitable for potable uses without treatment. The potable groundwater supply in Surprise Spring subbasin is diminishing because of pumping-induced overdraft and because of more restrictive Federal drinking-water standards on arsenic concentrations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MCAGCC, completed this study to better understand groundwater resources in the area and to help establish a long-term strategy for regional water-resource development. The Surprise Spring, Deadman, Mesquite, and Mainside subbasins are filled with sedimentary deposits of Tertiary age, alluvial fan deposits of Quaternary-Tertiary age, and younger alluvial and playa deposits of Quaternary age. Combined, this sedimentary sequence reaches a maximum thickness of more than 16,000 ft in the Deadman and Mesquite subbasins. The sedimentary deposits of Tertiary age yield a small amount of water to wells, and this water commonly contains high concentrations of fluoride, arsenic, and dissolved solids. The alluvial fan deposits form the principal water-bearing unit in the study area and have a combined thickness of 250 to more than 1,000 ft. The younger alluvial and playa deposits are unsaturated throughout most of the study area. Lithologic and downhole geophysical logs were used to divide the Quaternary/ Tertiary alluvial fan deposits into two

  5. Probabilistic blowout risk in former disputed area southeast in the Norwegian part of the Barents Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Silje

    2012-01-01

    The maritime delimitation in the former disputed area between Norway and Russia was agreed upon in 2011. It is therefore probable that the area will be opened for petroleum exploration in the near future. A blowout represents one of the most severe threats associated with petroleum exploration. This thesis has investigated the risk involved with such an activity through a case study, by considering geology and well specific conditions for this area. Currently, no wells have been drilled in th...

  6. The rhetorical strategy of William Paley's Natural theology (1802): part 1, William Paley's Natural theology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Niall

    2010-03-01

    This article reconstructs the historical and philosophical contexts of William Paley's Natural theology (1802). In the wake of the French Revolution, widely believed to be the embodiment of an atheistic political credo, the refutation of the transmutational biological theories of Buffon and Erasmus Darwin was naturally high on Paley's agenda. But he was also responding to challenges arising from his own moral philosophy, principally the psychological quandary of how men were to be kept in mind of the Creator. It is argued here that Natural theology was the culmination of a complex rhetorical scheme for instilling religious impressions that would increase both the virtue and happiness of mankind. Philosophy formed an integral part of this strategy, but it did not comprise the whole of it. Equally vital were those purely rhetorical aspects of the discourse which, according to Paley, were more concerned with creating 'impression'. This facet of his writing is explored in part one of this two-part article. Turning to the argumentative side of the scheme, part two examines Paley's responses to David Hume and Erasmus Darwin in the light of the wider strategy of inculcation at work throughout all his writings.

  7. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  8. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa;

    2007-01-01

    The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior of the struct...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....... of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling...

  9. DC Microgrids – Part I: A Review of Control Strategies and Stabilization Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2016-01-01

    which relies only on local measurements, some line of communication between units needs to be made available in order to achieve coordinated control. Depending on the communication method, three basic coordinated control strategies can be distinguished, i.e. decentralized, centralized and distributed...... control. Decentralized control can be regarded as an extension of local control since it is also based exclusively on local measurements. In contrast, centralized and distributed control strategies rely on digital communication technologies. A number of approaches to using these three coordinated control...... impedances, which can potentially oscillate with lightly damped power supply input filters. It is also demonstrated how the stability of the whole system is defined by the relationship of the source and load impedances, referred to as the minor loop gain. Several prominent specifications for the minor loop...

  10. Interference mitigation for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure networks: Transmission strategy and area spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure (HCS) is considered, where an access point (AP) broadcasts to local nodes (LNs) over orthogonal frequency subbands within a local cell located in a macrocell. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered with by the macrocell user (MU)\\'s transmissions over the same subband. To improve the performance of the AP\\'s broadcast service, a novel transmission strategy is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the purpose of performance evaluation, the ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified, and the corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional transmission scheme, which suffers from MU\\'s interference, illustrative numerical results substantiate that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than the traditional scheme as the MU-LN mean channel power gain is larger than half of the AP-LN mean channel power gain. Subsequently, we develop an optimized network design by maximizing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the AP\\'s broadcast in the local cell.

  11. Saving Strategy and Simulation Analysis of Green Log Walls in Severe Cold Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Peng Xu; Si Li

    2014-01-01

    Log house is a traditional type of vernacular dwelling in Chinese cold area. It contains distinct regional characteristics and architectural cultures. In recent years, log house has come into vogue softly with the development of wood techniques. However, log houses expend too much wood materials. There are also many negative aspects of this type of wood building which go against the criteria of energy conservation, and its high prime cost hinders the application as well. To solve these problems, the paper emphasizes using more environmental standardized techniques which save cost at the same time, and put forward technical strategy to improve the log walls. The optimization schemes are mainly divided into two categories:internal insulation and filled insulation. Each type of insulation is respectively derived two schemes through changing the thickness of main structure layers and insulation layer. Firstly, we use Weto software to calculate the timber volume of the four schemes, and it concludes that all the optimizations can save more timber than the prototype log wall with the section of 200 mm×200 mm. Secondly, thermal comfort of each scheme is insulated in Design Builder. The results show that thermal insulation of filling type represents better than the other schemes. At last, we use thermal calculating formula to calculate thermal resistance of every scheme. Contrast to the energy efficiency standards of Heilongjiang Province, the data show that the four schemes meet the requirements of the specification.

  12. Advanced management strategies for remote-area power-supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, R. H.; Baldsing, W. G. A.

    An operating strategy based on partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation has been developed for a remote-area power-supply (RAPS) system in Peru. The facility will power an entire village and comprises a photovoltaic array, a bank of gel valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a diesel generator, and a sophisticated control system. The PSoC schedule involves operation below a full state-of-charge (SoC) for 28 days, followed by an equalization charge. The schedule has been evaluated by operating a 24 V battery bank under simulated RAPS conditions in the laboratory. It is found that operation between 58 and 83% SoC causes the negative-plate potentials to move to significantly more negative values during charging as the PSoC duty progresses. This behaviour is undesirable, because it can lead to the activation of a preset limit and a subsequent reduction in system efficiency. Lowering the PSoC window to 47-72% SoC or 40-65% SoC during the 28-day cycle is found to stabilize the negative-plate potentials. The behaviour of the negative plates in gel batteries is very similar to that observed for absorptive glass mat (AGM) designs of VRLA batteries operated in hybrid electric vehicles.

  13. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications.

  14. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  15. Alternate slicing and deposition strategies for fused deposition modelling of light curved parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM, as one of the additive manufacturing (AM techniques, has been widely used in the manufacturing industry from the 1990s. It is relatively cheaper than other AM methods and there are other advantages such as being able to process a variety of other polymers. Currently, FDM is more likely to be suitable for direct production of the terminal-use parts, in some cases challenging traditional process such as injection molding. Research evidences indicate that change of road and layer structure would have significant influence on the meso-structure and thus impact the mechanical properties of the resulting polymer parts. Adaptive flat layer deposition and curved layer deposition have been introduced to improve the mechanical properties of terminal-use product. It is necessary that an appropriate deposition scheme is essential to ensure the best interroad and inter-layer connectivity. Uninterrupted connections are likely to result in a continuous network of polymer chains, as in the case of the conventional processes. The current research proposes conventional flat layer deposition, adaptive flat layer deposition and curved layer deposition for FDM. In particular for curved parts, curved layer deposition in expected to ensure fiber continuity and better meso-structure. Mathematical models are developed for curved slicing, practically implemented to print physical parts and test results suggest marked improvement in the mechanical characteristics of curved parts.

  16. Water and soil analyses of some parts in the Kozuf area, R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Tasev, Goran; Serafimovski, Todor; Boev, Blazo; Stefanova, Violeta; Šimek, Josef; Kahuda, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The present study of pollution of water and soils, was an integral part of the CEI funded project “Environmental Impact assessment of the Kozuf metallogenic district in southern Macedonia in relation to groundwater resources, surface waters, soils and socio-economic consequences (ENIGMA)” and was performed at particular parts of the famous Kožuf metallogenic district. Our compilation study have shown that the major pollution suffered stream sediments, soil and mine waste related to former ...

  17. Parts of the Whole: Strategies for the Spread of Quantitative Literacy: What Models Can Tell Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual frameworks, one from graph theory and one from dynamical systems, have been offered as explanations for complex phenomena in biology and also as possible models for the spread of ideas. The two models are based on different assumptions and thus predict quite different outcomes for the fate of either biological species or ideas. We argue that, depending on the culture in which they exist, one can identify which model is more likely to reflect the survival of two competing ideas. Based on this argument we suggest how two strategies for embedding and normalizing quantitative literacy in a given institution are likely to succeed or fail.

  18. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  19. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis. PMID:24601668

  20. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  1. A Survey on Software Project Management Report Part I Importance of Project Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Kadir Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    Visit research website for more information and reports http://faculty.nps.edu/kdemir/spm.htm The objectives of this study are to identify (i) the importance of various project management areas and (ii) project management challenges in software projects.

  2. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    OpenAIRE

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-01-01

    The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce foamed polyurethane nanocomposite (RU 2566149)» refers to production of constructional materials, in particular to polymer composites, that includes polymer and inorganic additive. Constructional materials based on foamed polyurethane is of great interest for many areas of industrial and ...

  3. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are kno...... the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information.......In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...

  4. Inbound marketing as an integral part of the marketing strategy of a modern enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Świeczak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential premise of this publication is to define the benefits brought to modern enterprises by introduction of multi-channel marketing strategy, or inbound marketing, to their business.This article defines the factors and processes that influence the effective course of actions undertaken in the framework of inbound marketing.In addition, it is demonstrated how the importance of an organization changes, how its value and importance realistically increases as a result of applying the instruments provided by inbound marketing. The purpose of the article is to present how the concept of inbound marketing is changing the perspective of looking at the modern marketing instruments and how their field of impact changes as a result of their application.It also illustrates how the choice of appropriate mechanisms influences consumer decisions and demonstrates that the key to understanding the processes embedded in the strategy is to reflect on the relationship between the enterprise and potential customers and communication with the customers.

  5. Home grown hydro, part 3: Vision, leadership needed to develop and implement crucial long-term strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian Pacific area offers good prospects for Canadian exports of equipment and expertise in the area of hydropower development. Rapidly growing economies in this area have large unsatisfied power demands, and many of these countries have significant undeveloped hydroelectric potential (notably China). Recent Canadian successes in Asia-Pacific hydropower developments are outlined, including the Chamera project in Himachal Pradesh, India; the feasibility study of the Three Gorges project, China; and technical assistance on a 5,000 MW hydroelectric project in Longtan, China. The issues facing Canada for developing and implementing long-term hydro development strategies are discussed. These issues are: establishing Canada's own energy needs; coordination and integration of Canadian hydro resource development; environmental issues and sustainable development; and realizing that energy exports are ethical. Benefits of domestic and international hydro development include environmental friendliness, creation of jobs and markets for Canadian products and expertise, and stimulation of technological and economic development. 1 tab

  6. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... on the implementation details but also establish finite convergence of the branch-and-bound method. The algorithm is based on solving a sequence of continuous non-convex relaxations which can be formulated as quadratic programs according to the theory in Part I. The quadratic programs to be treated...... within the branch-and-bound search all have the same feasible set and differ from each other only in the objective function. This is one reason for making the resulting branch-and-bound method very efficient. The paper closes with several large-scale numerical examples. These examples are, to the...

  7. Whole-Parts Strategies in Quantum Chemistry: Some Philosophical and Mereological Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Llored

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers mainly refer to quantum chemistry in order to address questions about the reducibility or autonomy of chemistry relative to quantum physics, and to argue for or against ontological emergence. To make their point, they scrutinize quantum approximations and formalisms as if they were independent of the questions at stake. This paper proposes a return to history and to the laboratory so as to emphasize how quantum chemists never cease to negotiate the relationships between a molecule, its parts, and its environment. This investigation will enable us to draw methodological conclusions about the role of history within philosophical studies, and to examine how quantum chemistry can clarify important philosophical and mereological issues related to the emergence/reduction debate, or to the way instruments and contexts are involved in the material making and the formal description of wholes and parts.

  8. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  9. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  10. AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN URBAN AREAS: EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING HYBRID CARS IN MADRID AND BARCELONA METROPOLITAN AREAS (SPAIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria; Guerrero, Pedro Jiménez; Baldasano, José M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: On-road traffic represents the largest source of pollutants’ emissions in urban areas. In southern Mediterranean countries exceedances of the NO2 and PM10 European air quality targets are observed in urban environments. Moreover the budget of urban emissions contributes to the emissions of O3 precursors (mainly NOx) in a region where the concentration of photochemical pollutants still remains a problem especially during summertime. Air quality modeling, used as a management...

  11. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Arid Areas of Western India: Strategies for Mutual Co-Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study has been carried out in the North Gujarat region of Gujarat state, Western India which represents unique habitats from arid regions to dry deciduous forests with annual rainfall ranging from 25-125 cms. Human-wildlife conflicts are intensifying owing to increase in human population and destruction of wildlife habitats. In the present study we characterized and classified the conflicts, identified zones with acute conflicts and evaluated the economic loss to the local villagers due to such humanwildlife conflicts. Sampling methods mainly included village surveys for interviewing locals who are affected by wildlife damage. The information was overlaid on the existing digital land use data to identify landscape characteristics associated with wildlife occupancy in the region. The result depicts that 80% of total damage in seasonal crop is caused by wild ungulates. Wild animals like Blue bull, Wild boar and Porcupine are reported as a chief crop raider. The Leopard is the only big cat occurring in the region reported to cause human injury and livestock predation. Sloth bear attacks on human are very common in some part of the study area. Conflicts are more severe around unprotected forests while high intensity of conflicts was recorded on the fringes of the forests

  12. Strategies to improve the performance of learners in a nursing college Part II: Issues pertaining to management, attitudes and values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Waterson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article forms part two of a bigger study that was conducted in a nursing college to explore and describe the reasons for the poor performance of learners. Part one of the study dealt with the issues pertaining to education, while this article (part two seeks to describe issues pertaining to management, attitudes and values that lead to the poor performance of learners in the nursing college under study. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that was contextual in nature was employed, and three focus groups interviews were conducted. Seven tutors formed one group while other two groups were formed by fourth-year learners following a comprehensive diploma course. All participants voluntarily participated in the study. Data was analyzed using the descriptive method of open coding in accordance with Tesch’s protocol (in Creswell, 1994:154-156. Trustworthiness was ensured using the following principles: credibility, conformability, transferability and dependability (Lincoln & Guba 1985:290-326. Findings were categorized into issues pertaining to management, attitudes and values that had an influence on the poor performance of learners as follows: Management: Inadequate resources and study facilities; policies that change frequently; tutors’ dissatisfaction with regard to staff development, the lack of involvement by management and lack of management support, staff shortage and maldistribution of staff members; ineffective selection process of learners; inconsistent regulations, and too many of them; policies and procedures resulting in confusion and poor discipline. Attitudes and values: Tutors’ lack of motivation and interest, lack of respect by learners and no team work among tutors.Through a conceptualization process and the recommendations by participants, strategies to improve the learners’ performance were described. It is recommended that these strategies be submitted to the staff development committee for

  13. From Literacy Strategies to Disciplined Inquiry: My Journey with Pre-Service Teachers in a Content Area Reading Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, Anne A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent calls have been made for content area literacy instruction to extend beyond the teaching of general literacy strategies as tools to use with any content text to a more disciplinary literacy approach that would support students in learning literacy practices specific to a discipline. This practitioner inquiry is my investigation into what…

  14. Minimizing investment cost for multi-period heat exchanger network retrofit by matching heat transfer areas with different strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Kang; Yongzhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Multi-period heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofit is usually performed by targeting and matching heat trans-fer areas. In this paper, based on the reverse order matching method we proposed previously, three strategies of matching heat transfer areas are proposed to minimize the investment cost for the retrofit of HEN in multi-period, in which replacement of heat exchangers, addition of heat exchangers and addition of heat transfer areas are performed. We demonstrate the procedures through three scenarios, including maximum number of substituted heat exchangers after retrofit, minimum additional heat transfer areas in the retrofitted HEN, and minimum investment cost for retrofit. The strategies are extended to a single period HEN retrofit problem. The results of multi-period and single period HEN retrofit problems indicate the effectiveness of the strategies. More-over, these results are better than those reported in literature. The strategies are simple and easy to implement, which are of great benefit to large-scale HEN retrofit in practice.

  15. Agentless robust load sharing strategy for utilising hetero-geneous resources over wide area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthakrit Sanguandikul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resource monitoring and performance prediction services have always been regarded as important keys to improving the performance of load sharing strategy. However, the traditional methodologies usually require specific performance information, which can only be collected by installing proprietary agents on all participating resources. This requirement of implementing a single unified monitoring service may not be feasible because of the differences in the underlying systems and organisation policies. To address this problem, we define a new load sharing strategy which bases the load decision on a simple performance estimation that can be measured easily at the coordinator node. Our proposed strategy relies on a stage-based dynamic task allocation to handle the imprecision of our performance estimation and to correct load distribution on-the-fly. The simulation results showed that the performance of our strategy is comparable or better than traditional strategies, especially when the performance information from the monitoring service is not accurate.

  16. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  17. The decontamination of a pressurised suit area at AEE Winfrith. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry suction cleaning and chemical foam treatment were used on a plutonium oxide decontaminated area. Details of the equipment and reagents are given together with the results. Average levels of contamination by one application were reduced by over 80 percent, and airborne levels by more than 99 percent. (U.K.)

  18. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  19. Addressing diabetes mellitus as part of the strategy for ending TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Kumar, Ajay M V; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Lin, Yan; Zachariah, Rony; Lönnroth, Knut; Kapur, Anil

    2016-03-01

    As we enter the new era of Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has committed to ending the TB epidemic by 2030 through implementation of an ambitious strategy to reduce TB-incidence and TB-related mortality and avoiding catastrophic costs for TB-affected families. Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of TB and increases the probability of adverse TB treatment outcomes such as failure, death and recurrent TB. The rapidly escalating global epidemic of DM means that DM needs to be addressed if TB-related milestones and targets are to be achieved. WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease's Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes, launched in 2011, provides a template to guide policy makers and implementers to combat the epidemics of both diseases. However, more evidence is required to answer important questions about bi-directional screening, optimal ways of delivering treatment, integration of DM and TB services, and infection control. This should in turn contribute to better and earlier TB case detection, and improved TB treatment outcomes and prevention. DM and TB collaborative care can also help guide the development of a more effective and integrated public health approach for managing non-communicable diseases.

  20. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 3

    OpenAIRE

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-01-01

    The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate (RU 2561616)» refers to the technologies for production of body of carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate. The flow of actuation gas is formed in the reaction chamber. The flow contains carrying gas, gas hydrocarbon and...

  1. Avian brood parasitism — a growing research area in behavioral ecology (part Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RΦSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2013-01-01

    正We are pleased to publish the second special issue on avian brood parasitism and to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds (Vol. 3, No. 4, 2012 and Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013), entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism - A Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology". The first issue was published in December 2012. The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in

  2. Restoration of partly drained fens in the Biebrza River Valley - questions of water management in protected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byczkowski, Andrzej; Okruszko, Thomasz [Warsaw Agricultural University (SAAW-AR), Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Recultivaton (Poland)

    2004-09-01

    The present paper discusses questions of water management in the protected areas, which should be restored due to the anthropogenic induced changes in natural water regime. The study was performed in the Biebrza Wetlands, which lay in North-East Poland in an ice-marginal valley of the Biebrza River. Due to the exceptional ecological values, part of the wetlands is protected in the form of the national park. Anthropogenic changes introduced 150 years ago have disturbed, piece of the system by draining some of the marshes in the central part of the valley. The channels continued to serve their purpose while the area was under extensive agriculture, as long as harvesting hay from small plots was still economically feasible. At present, this is no longer true for most of the area and farmers have been abandoning some of their plots. The review of existing literature on the natural conditions, transformation and possible restoration action in the this area as well as the discussion with the ecologists helped to elaborate the restoration plan, which hydrological consequences were verified by hydrological modeling including hydraulic model, ground water model and optimization, water distribution model. The results of the modeling indicate the area, which will be affected by the restoration project. This constitutes the base for the discussion with the local farmers about the future use of their grasslands. (orig.)

  3. Strategies to improve the performance of learners in a nursing college Part I: Issues pertaining to nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Waterson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three focus group interviews were conducted. One group was formed by seven tutors, and the other two groups were formed by fourth-year learners following a fouryear comprehensive diploma course. All participants voluntarily took part in the study. Data was analyzed using the descriptive method of open coding by Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:154-156. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with Lincoln and Guba’s (1985:290-326 principles of credibility, conformability, transferability and dependability. The findings were categorized into issues pertaining to nursing education as follows: curriculum overload; lack of theory and practice integration; teaching and assessment methods that do not promote critical thinking; tutors’ lack of skills and experience; inadequate preparation of tutors for lectures; insufficient knowledge of tutors regarding outcomes-based education approach to teaching and learning; inadequate process of remedial teaching; discrepancies between tutors’ marking; lack of clinical role-models and high expectations from the affiliated university as regards standards of nursing education in a nursing college. Strategies to improve the learners’ performance were described. It is recommended that these strategies be incorporated in the staff development programme by the staff development committee of the nursing college under study for implementation. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of the described strategies to improve the learners’ performance. It is also recommended that similar studies be conducted or replicated in other nursing colleges to address the problem of poor performance of learners engaged in a four-year comprehensive diploma course.

  4. Optimal Linear Precoding Strategies for Wideband Non-Cooperative Systems based on Game Theory-Part I: Nash Equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Scutari, Gesualdo; Barbarossa, S

    2007-01-01

    In this two-parts paper we propose a decentralized strategy, based on a game-theoretic formulation, to find out the optimal precoding/multiplexing matrices for a multipoint-to-multipoint communication system composed of a set of wideband links sharing the same physical resources, i.e., time and bandwidth. We assume, as optimality criterion, the achievement of a Nash equilibrium and consider two alternative optimization problems: 1) the competitive maximization of mutual information on each link, given constraints on the transmit power and on the spectral mask imposed by the radio spectrum regulatory bodies; and 2) the competitive maximization of the transmission rate, using finite order constellations, under the same constraints as above, plus a constraint on the average error probability. In Part I of the paper, we start by showing that the solution set of both noncooperative games is always nonempty and contains only pure strategies. Then, we prove that the optimal precoding/multiplexing scheme for both gam...

  5. The importance of addressing methane emissions as part of a comprehensive greenhouse gas management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylin, Carey [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Robinson, Donald; Cacho, Mariella; Russo, Ignacio; Stricklin, Eric [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rortveit, Geir Johan [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Chakraborty, A.B. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India); Pontiff, Mike [Newfield, The Woodlands, TX, (United States); Smith, Reid [British Petroleum (BP), London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Given the climate forcing properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the current state of the global economy, it is imperative to mitigate emissions of GHGs cost-effectively. Typically, CO{sub 2} is the main focus of most companies' and governments' GHG emissions reductions strategies. However, when considering near-term goals, it becomes clear that emissions reductions of other GHGs must be pursued. One such GHG is methane, the primary component of natural gas. Reducing GHG emissions and generating profits are not necessarily a mutually exclusive endeavor as illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program. The Program is a worldwide voluntary, flexible partnership of oil and gas companies which promotes cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations. In an effort to meet environmental goals without sacrificing profitability, Natural Gas STAR partner companies have identified over 60 cost-effective best practices to reduce their methane emissions, which they report to the EPA. This paper discusses: 1) the importance of reducing methane emissions and its economic impact, 2) a comparison of methane emission reduction projects relative to other greenhouse gas reduction projects in the oil and gas industry, 3) the value of source-specific methane emissions inventories, and 4) methane emission reduction opportunities from hydraulically fractured gas well completions and centrifugal compressor wet seals. From the analyses and examples in this paper, it can be concluded that methane emission reduction projects can be readily identified, profitable, and effective in mitigating global climate change. (author)

  6. Microwave Technologies as Part of an Integrated Weed Management Strategy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brodie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in controlling weed plants using radio frequency or microwave energy has been growing in recent years because of the growing concerns about herbicide resistance and chemical residues in the environment. This paper reviews the prospects of using microwave energy to manage weeds. Microwave energy effectively kills weed plants and their seeds; however, most studies have focused on applying the microwave energy over a sizable area, which requires about ten times the energy that is embodied in conventional chemical treatments to achieve effective weed control. A closer analysis of the microwave heating phenomenon suggests that thermal runaway can reduce microwave weed treatment time by at least one order of magnitude. If thermal runaway can be induced in weed plants, the energy costs associated with microwave weed management would be comparable with chemical weed control.

  7. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefpour, M.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (˜18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm2) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  8. Blue Ocean Strategy: A Vehicle for Entrepreneurship Development and Economic Growth in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Sharma; Piyush Seth; Shujauddin Niyazi

    2010-01-01

    This paper emphasizes on the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of a society with the perspective of Blue Ocean strategy used by organizations across the globe and especially in the context of Indian rural markets. The paper also utilizes live examples of organizations going towards uncontested rural markets and is suggestive of the crux and the core definition of entrepreneurship in correlation to the core philosophy of Blue Ocean strategy. In addition, the paper emphasizes tha...

  9. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  10. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  11. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... location is the base point. 2See 50 CFR 223.202(a)(2)(i) for regulations regarding 3 nm no transit zones... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  12. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2012-06-27

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system by establishing a relationship between the pumping test results and vertical electrical soundings by using regression technique. The relationship is applied to the area along the resistivity profiles where boreholes are not drilled. Our findings show a good match between pumped hydraulic conductivity and estimated hydraulic conductivity. In case of sparse borehole data, regression technique is useful in estimating hydraulic properties for aquifers with varying lithology. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Effect of Sea Breeze on Air Pollution in the Greater Athens Area. Part II: Analysis of Different Emission Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paola; Thunis, Philippe; Martilli, Alberto; Clappier, Alain

    2000-04-01

    The Mediterranean Campaign of Photochemical Tracers-Transport and Chemical Evolution that took place in the greater Athens area from 20 August to 20 September 1994 has confirmed the role of sea-breeze circulation in photochemical smog episodes that had been suggested already by a number of experiments and numerical studies.The meteorological and photochemical modeling of this campaign were discussed in Part I. Part II focuses on the study of the 14 September photochemical smog event associated with a sea-breeze circulation. The objective of the study is to identify and to understand better the nonlinear processes that produce high ozone concentrations. In particular, the effect of land and sea breezes is investigated by isolating the effect of nighttime and daytime emissions on ozone concentrations. The same principle then is used to isolate the effect on ozone concentrations of the two main sources of emissions in the greater Athens area: the industrial area around Elefsis and the Athens urban area. Last, the buildup of ozone from one day to another is investigated.From this study, it comes out that ozone production in the Athens area is mainly a 1-day phenomenon. The increased values of photochemical pollutant (up to 130 ppb at ground level) reached during summertime late afternoons on mountain slopes to the north and northeast of the city are related mainly to the current-day emissions. Nevertheless, the recirculation of old pollutants can have an important effect on ozone concentrations in downtown Athens, the southern part of the peninsula, and over the sea, especially near Aigina Island.

  14. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure. This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established. Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man?s activities may play a role in faulting as well. Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  15. Geology and pegmatites of part of the Fourmile area, Custer County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew J.; Redden, Jack Allison

    1953-01-01

    The Fourmile area, Custer County, S. Dak., is underlain by pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks that surround the granitic core of the Black Hills. The main structure in the area is the upright limb of an overturned anticline that plunges about 30 ? S. 10 ? E. Three units of metamorphic rocks are described that have a total thickness of at least 7, 700 feet. The oldest of these units, a quartz-mica schist, is more than 6, 500 feet thick. The overlying unit, about 200 feet thick, is composed of thin beds of amphibolite and hornblende schist, lime-silicate rock, cordierite-biotite schist, microcline-biotite schist, and other types of rocks. The youngest unit, a quartz-mica-feldspar schist, is more than 1,000 feet thick. The presence of kyanite, staurolite, cordierite, and sillimanite in the rocks indicates that they have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism. About 420 pegmatites were mapped in the quartzmica-schist and the quartz-mica-feldspar schist. A few thin pegmatites in the third unit were not mapped. Most of these are concordant with the schistosity and relict (?) bedding of the enclosing metamorphic rocks. They are as much as 250 feet thick and range from 10 to 2, 600 feet in length. Nine peqmatites are zoned and classified as heterogeneous. The remainder are homogeneous and are poorly zoned. The major constituents are plaqioclase, quartz, perthite, and muscovite. The accessory minerals are tourmaline, apatite, garnet, and biotite. Beryl was observed in 15 peqmatites. The heterogeneous pegmatites contain commercial deposits of potash feldspar, mica (sheet and scrap), and beryl.

  16. Three Development Strategies of China Capital Area%中国首都圈发展的三大战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭成文; 李国平; 杨开忠

    2001-01-01

    区域发展需要龙头,城市发展需要区域支撑,建设首都圈是中国南北经济格局协调、带动北京周边地区发展的需要,是首都北京可持续发展、建设成为世界城市的需要。根据首都圈的划分对首都圈关系进行了重构,提出首都圈内4个新关系域:知识经济域、旅游文化域、工业经济域、出海通道网络。为建设发展4个新关系域,结合现实,提出首都圈发展的三大战略:空间联系网络化战略、职能疏导战略、空间结构发展战略,具体包括网络化基础设施、网络化市场体系、劳动地域分工、双核都市圈、世界城市战略等。%Regional development needs center city, and urban developmentneeds regional supports. Constructing Capital Area is necessary to harmonize south-north economy pattern in China, to drive an area around Beijing to develop, and for Beijing to develop sustained and to add into world city rank. This paper focuses on how China Capital Area develops. Capital Area is reconstructed to four new-relation area in this paper: (1)Knowledge Economy Area. It's the core of Capital Area, which includes Beijing and Tianjin. The major industries are tertiary industry, hi-tech industry, and low-pollution industry. The Knowledge Economy Area will be the headquarter in Capital Area. (2) Tourism & Culture Area. This area includes Beijing, Baoding, Chengde, Qinhuangdao. (3) Industry Economy Area. It will be industry economy base of Capital Area, which includes Tianjin, Tangshan, Langfang, Baoding, Zhangjiakou, Cangzhou. (4) Out-contact Network. Division and Cooperation will drive Tianjin, Tangshan, Qinhuangdao, Cangzhou to a series of port-cluster with different scale and function in Capital Area. Combined with reality, this paper advances three development strategies: (1) Network Strategy in Spatial Relation. On the one hand, we should construct infrastructure network. Capital Area can works only based on convenient

  17. Narrative review of current context of malaria and management strategies in Uganda (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Liow, Eric; Rasool, Nabeela

    2015-12-01

    In accordance with international targets, the Uganda National Malaria Control Strategic Plan established specific targets to be achieved by 2010. For children under five, this included increasing the number of children sleeping under mosquito nets and those receiving a first-line antimalarial to 85%, and decreasing case fatality to 2%. This narrative review offers contextual information relevant to malaria management in Uganda since the advent of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as first-line antimalarial treatment in 2004. A comprehensive search using key words and phrases was conducted using the web search engines Google and Google Scholar, as well as the databases of PubMed, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, OvidSP (MEDLINE), PSYC Info, Springer Link, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. A total of 147 relevant international and Ugandan literature sources meeting the inclusion criteria were included. This review provides an insightful understanding on six topic areas: global and local priorities, malarial pathology, disease burden, malaria control, treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria, and role of the health system in accessing antimalarial medicines. Plasmodium falciparum remains the most common cause of malaria in Uganda, with children under five being most vulnerable due to their underdeveloped immunity. While international efforts to scale up malaria control measures have resulted in considerable decline in malaria incidence and mortality in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa, this benefit has yet to be substantiated for Uganda. At the local level, key initiatives have included implementation of a new antimalarial drug policy in 2004 and strengthening of government health systems and programs. Examples of such programs include removal of user fees, training of frontline health workers, providing free ACT from government systems and subsidized ACT from licensed private

  18. Post-Messinian evolution of the Florence Rise area (Western Cyprus Arc) Part II: Experimental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, N. C.; Vendeville, B. C.; Loncke, L.

    2013-04-01

    The Florence rise is located southwest of the island of Cyprus and belongs to the western part of the Cyprus arc. The Florence rise is an accretionary prism, with some amount of strike slip, where the thick layer of evaporitic Messinian decouples deformation in the post-Messinian cover from that in the pre-Messinian "basement." The basement structural highs, whether presently active or inactive, influence the deformation and displacement patterns of the salt and its overburden. Our first experiment focused on the presence, in nature, of normal faults located above basement thrusts. Deformation of the salt layer and its overburden was influenced by several processes. On one hand, the entire model was subjected to regional shortening, and basement thrusts formed. On the other hand, the local vertical rise associated with basement thrusts created local slopes down which the salt and overburden glided gravitationally, in some places leading to the formation of normal faults in an otherwise compressional regional setting. Our second experiment was designed to model the buttressing effect of the Florence rise and the Eratosthenes Seamount on thin-skinned displacement patterns during regional gravity spreading of the Nile cone. Results indicate that in the Northeastern distal region, buttressing by these two basement highs forced the salt and its overburden to flow northeastward, as a lateral escape toward the free boundary of the region.

  19. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce foamed polyurethane nanocomposite (RU 2566149» refers to production of constructional materials, in particular to polymer composites, that includes polymer and inorganic additive. Constructional materials based on foamed polyurethane is of great interest for many areas of industrial and power engineering as well as for shipbuilding, airplane engineering and car industry; this interest is due to the fact that such materials possess high heat-insulating properties, considerable chemical resistance respect to environment (atmosphere and sometimes water as well as good soundinsulating characteristics. The use of the materials makes it possible to provide an efficient thermal protection required in structures. The method to produce foamed polyurethane nanocomposite includes preliminary mechanical activation of the modifier with the following introduction of it into hydroxyl-containing polyester under ultrasound in the quantity of 0,5–3,0% respect to the weight of the produced nanocomposite, mixing and introduction of hardening agent. The invention «The method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for high-strength concrete (RU 2563264» refers to construction and building materials industry, in particular to the methods of production of complex nanodispersed additives. In this method the suspension with solid phase concentration 3% is produced by means of ultrasound dispersion when frequency of the ultrasound is 35 kHz. The suspension contains 65–70 mas.% of mineral element – metakaolin, 30–35 mas.% of super plasticizer C-3 in the form of dry substance and water. The technical result is the decreased particle size, decreased time of ultrasound impact and simpler additive production technology. The specialists may be also interested in

  20. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Census H Appendix H to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population...

  1. Problems and relevant strategies on natural forest protection in Changbai Mountain forest area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-cheng

    2003-01-01

    Changbai Mountain forest area is not only is a national timber base but also a green ecological defense for Songliao Plain of NE China. The Natural Forest Protection Project of this area has an important bearing on the social and economic sustainable development of Jilin Province or even the whole forest area in NE China. This paper summarized general conditions of natural forest in Changbai Mountain state-owned forest area and put forward six problems need to be urgently solved and five strategic suggestions on natural forest protection and sustainable management.

  2. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  3. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the frame of the research «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicate» new nanocomposite materials based on polyvinylchloride elastron with organomodified montmorillonite and combinations of it with non-halogen fire flame retardant have been developed. The experiment shows that carbamide-containing organoclay is the efficient filler of polyvinylchloride elastron. The receipts and production method for new polymer nanocomposites based on PVC elastron and organomodified montmorillonite have been designed. The paper provides information on the methods to obtain nanodimensional natural fillers; principles for choosing organomodifiers and their influence on the quality of nanodimensional flaked silicate fillers; application efficiency of organoclays when modifying properties of polymer materials. All that makes the results of the research to be very useful for specialists engaged into the area of filler manufacture, creation and processing of polymer composite material and designing products of them. Specialists can use published materials in their scientific and practical activities.

  4. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Scoping Summary Report - Part B Preliminary Technical Analysis Appendix A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes in general terms the nature of the voltage instability problem facing the Puget Sound area. The following two chapters cover the technical aspects of the problem. It deals with load growth, the root cause of the problem. Also addressed is the capacity of the current power system and the criteria for future system planning. It also explains the technical results of transmission system modeling which confirm the system's vulnerability to voltage instability, the principal symptom of the problem. The results of the scoping process in each of the four measure categories are presented. Included are lists of all options identified, a discussion of the screening criteria, and descriptions of the measures that survived the screening process and are proposed for further evaluation in Phase 2. We discuss the evaluation methodology which will be used to refine the analyses. The next steps in the planning process are outlined. It also describes the short term operational agreements that will assure continued reliable service until a long term solution is in place. 8 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Obtaining and research of physical and chemical properties of nanosized system nickel–copper» experimentally proved model of synthesis of nanosized powders of system nickel–copper based on the method of reduction of metal salts from water solution has been offered; optimal conditions for obtaining radiographic pure powders have been determined. The paper also deals with conditions for obtaining and phase composition of mixed nickel and copper hydroxides including those which are stable when stored in wet conditions. The copper hydroxide stabilization method has been proposed. The practical value of performed investigation «Research of electron structure functionalized carbon nanotubes by spectographic methods with synchronous radiation» is that it developed one of the areas of physical chemistry: complex research of electron structure of carbon nanotubes including functionalized ones was carried out by the method of experimental (spectographic with synchrotron radiation of different energies and theoretical methods; the general methods of the modern applied plasmonics aimed at identification of characteristics of defects formation in carbon nanosystems of low dimension have been developed.

  6. Economic competitiveness and governance in areas of urban deprivation: the case study of two growth strategies in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertotti, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    In an urban context characterised by concentrated and persistent deprivation there has been a history of policy intervention albeit with limited impact. Michael Porter's US inspired City Growth Strategy (CGS) initiative presented an alternative approach to urban economic regeneration within the UK characterised by a focus on the competitive advantages of deprived urban areas and a leading role for the private sector within the policy making process. This thesis investigates the implem...

  7. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  8. The Search for Progress Elementary Student Achievement and the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative's Focal Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.; Snipes, Jason C.; Eisberg, Jean

    2006-01-01

    A number of forces have increased the momentum for school districts to develop district-wide reform strategies as a means of initiating and sustaining school improvement. First, districts have sometimes found it easier to manage and support a single districtwide initiative rather than many different school reform models. Second, they have come to…

  9. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials bring a great efficiency to construction, housing and communal services and joint spheres of economy. The invention «The method to produce photocatalytically active nanocrystal titanium dioxide of anatase modification (RU 2551677» refers to the methods for production of nanocrystal titanium dioxide which can be used to provide air and water photocatalytic treatment and disinfection, to create photoelectric energy converters, new composite and catalytic materials. The technical result of the new method is the reduced time consumption for hydrolysis reaction; formation of crystal structure of anatase directly as an outcome of crystallization from solution under the temperature not exceeding boiling temperature under atmosphere pressure without application of additional thermal treatment of the sediment. The invention «The method to produce ceramic composite material based on aluminium and zirconium oxide (RU 2549945» refers to manufacture of ceramic constructional and functional materials. The technical result is the production of ceramics with increased crack-resistance coefficient. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce mixture for composite cellular concrete (RU 2543847, nanostructured welding wire (RU 2538228, nanofiber polymer material (RU 2543377, the method to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy (RU 2535109, the method to produce nonwoven nanocomposite material (RU 2533553, the method to produce nanodispersed nanopowders and the equipment for it (RU 2533580, the method to produce nanostructured coatings with shape memory on steel (RU 2535432, the method to apply nanodiamond material with combined electromechanical treatment (RU 2530432, the method to produce soot containing fullerenes and nanotubes from gaseous carbon matter (RU 2531291, polymer copper-containing composite and the

  10. Post-Messinian evolution of the Florence Ridge area (Western Cyprus Arc), Part I: Morphostructural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, N. C.; Loncke, L.; Vendeville, B. C.; Mascle, J.; Zitter, T.; Woodside, J.; Loubrieu, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Florence Ridge, part of the western Cyprus arc, is a compressional relief that was eroded during the Messinian salinity crisis while deposition of salt occurred North (Antalya basin) and South (Herodotus abyssal plain). In order to better assess the impact of salt-tectonics in the Florence Ridge region deformations, we conducted a morpho-structural analysis of available multibeam and seismic data (Simed and Prismed II campaigns). It is indeed a crucial issue to distinguish crustal and gravity driven structures in the compressional to strike-slip belts of the eastern Mediterranean. Along the Antalya basin, we mainly observed multi-directional tectonic rafts typical of gravity gliding above salt. On the Florence Ridge itself, the base of salt evolves laterally to a Messinian erosional surface that erodes a series of stacked nappes. This surface is involved in recent faulting. South of the Florence Ridge, a nearly 100 km wide fold belt characterizes the Herodotus abyssal plain. Three different zones parallel to the Florence Ridge appear within this fold belt. Those are respectively from North to South zones A, B and C. Zone A is characterized mainly by small-wavelength folding and faulting. Approaching Zone B, a long extensional graben deforms the seafloor. Zone B stands ~ 100 to 200 m higher than zones A and C. There, salt welding seems common. In the easternmost zone B deep sub-circular bathymetric depressions are associated with extremely thick and fan-shaped depocenters probably emplaced in relation with active sub-salt thrusts. Many evidences suggest post-Messinian uplift in this zone. Zone C shows medium to high wavelength salt-cored folds. Wavelength of those folds increase approaching the distal Nile deep-sea fan. Within zone C, a nearly undeformed domain exists approaching the Eratosthenes seamount. 'En echelon' folds bound this flat domain suggesting lateral salt extrusion at the junction between zone C and the distal Nile deep-sea fan. To conclude

  11. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  12. Mercury pollution in the Chongqing part of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its remediation and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen-ning; LIU Xin-an; LU Ting; HUANG Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of P. R. China merits special attention. We investigated into the current situation in the Chongqing part of the Reservoir area, identified the pollution sources and proposed some suggestions for the remediation and prevention of mercury pollution in this area. Atmospheric mercury in Chongqing was mainly from coal burning and releases of mercury-containing products such as various types of lights and fever thermometers. Urban drainage in Chongqing and Changshou, and runoffs from the high mercury background area in the lower reaches of the Wujiang River contributed most of the mercury in the water of the Yangtze River. A majority of the blame should be laid on mercury and gold mining in the Wujiang valley. We suggested foresting sloping lands to relieve soil erosion and prevent mercury-bearing soil from running into rivers, educational activities to discourage use of mercury-containing products and improved infrastructure to collect mercury-containing wastes for reducing mercury releases, more facilities for treating wastewater and solid waste to accommodate increased requirements of discharge, and growing selected perennial plants in mercury-contaminated land to absorb the mercury in soil. We also suggested concerted operation of a dedicated water-quality monitoring system, reinforced legislation and an effective administrative mechanism to ensure lasting efforts are invested in curbing mercury releases and restoring mercury contaminated land and water in the Reservoir area.

  13. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate (RU 2561616» refers to the technologies for production of body of carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate. The flow of actuation gas is formed in the reaction chamber. The flow contains carrying gas, gas hydrocarbon and predecessor of catalyst for synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In some cases, when implementing invention, the flow of inert gas is directed to the surface of the base plate. This gas flow shades the zone of synthesis of carbon nanotubes from air when its pressure exceeds the pressure of actuation gas flow. The method provides the body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the base plates with big surface: up to several square metres. The invention «Composition of mixture for asphaltic concrete (RU 2561435» refers to the construction production in highway industry and can be applied in manufacture of asphaltic concrete including nanotechnologies. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to modify carbon nanomaterials (RU 2548083; nanofiber polymer material (RU 2543377; the method to produce nanosuspensions for manufacture of polymer nanocomposite (RU 2500695; the method to strengthen metal products to obtain nanostructured surface layers (RU 2527511; the method to form heat-resistant nanocomposite coating on the surface of the products made of heat-resistant nickel alloys (RU 2549813; the method to apply nanodiamond material by means of combined electromechanical treatment (RU 2530432; the method to produce soot with content of fullerens and nanotubes made of gas carbon raw material (RU 2531291; the method to produce powders of zinc oxide with surface modification for usage in construction sealing materials (RU

  14. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «Raw material mixture for high strength fiber concrete (RU 2569140» refers to the industry of building materials and can be used for production of concrete units in civil, industrial and road construction including ones with the use of nanotechnologies. The technical result of the invention is that it increases bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance of fiber concrete, decreases the consumption of silica-containing component introduced into raw material mixture to increase the corrosion resistance of the basalt fiber. The invention «The device to form nanostructured shape memory coatings on the surface of the hollow details (RU 2569871» refers to engineering and metallurgy. The device contains technological unit for ion purification of the surface of the treated detail by creating glow discharge in vacuum chamber. The source of metal ion implantation is installed at the frame of vacuum chamber and is connected with control block. On the lid of vacuum chamber there is a device round the upper end of the tube with the detail. The device is for surface plastic deformation of the applied coating to obtain nanostructured shape memory layer. All that increases strength characteristics, coating reliability as well as convertible deformation and wear resistance. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for high strength concrete (RU 2563264; the method to produce graphene nanocomposite and tungsten carbide (RU 2570691; the method of ultrasound final polishing for details from constructional and tool steels and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2530678; the method to produce nanodispersed powders and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2533580; the

  15. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method of production of mixture for composite honeycomb concrete (RU 2543847» refers to the field of construction materials and can be used to produce non-autoclave composite honeycomb concrete of the natural hardening. This method consists of the following stages: supply of composition elements into mixer, mixing of the elements to obtain homogenous mass, introduction of dry cellulating mixture into obtained composition and further joint mixing; then obtained composition is provided with zeolite additive which is produced by means of preliminary mixing of one- or multilayer nanotubes in water with atomizer in sprayed form with further mixing with zeolite in the cyclic action mixer, the preliminary prepared dry cellulating mixture is also added. The technical result is a production of homogenous dry mixture, decrease of volume weight, increase of strength and frost resistance of non-autoclave honeycomb concrete manufactured from the specified dry mixture. The invention «Nanostructured wood and mineral composite material (RU 2542025» refers to the production of construction materials and can be used in manufacture of wood and mineral slabs and finishing materials in civil and industrial engineering. The technical result is increased strength and water-resistance. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: epoxy composition for high-strength, alcali-resistant structures (RU 2536141; nanocomposite material based on mineral binders (RU 2538410; the method to produce nanopowders of zinc oxide with surface modification for the use in building sealing material (RU 2505379; a composition for conglutination of metal products (RU 2526991; the method for production of nanodispersed powders (RU 2537678; the method of synthesis

  16. Every teacher an English teacher? Literacy strategy teaching and research in the content area of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Thomas

    Recent statements from teachers of English and literacy (NCTE, 2007) have voiced the failure of schools to help minority students and ELLs close the literacy achievement gap and the responsibility of all teachers to help with this endeavor. Central to this effort in secondary schools are the content area teachers, as their subjects constitute the bulk of school day instruction. While there have been small studies and field reports of what content teachers are or are not teaching in the way of literacy instruction (Fisher and Ivey, 2005; Verplaste, 1996, 1998; Vacca and Vacca 1989), researchers have not had success measuring the literacy practices of content area teachers in a broad-based study. This study focuses specifically on what many researchers in both the content literacy and ESL fields have emphasized for promoting literacy in the classroom---teaching metacognitive strategies. Twelve metacognitive functions derived from a literacy strategies handbook are employed as a means to ascertain strategy usage within the lessons whether specifically known content strategies are named or not. The initial analysis is performed on over 100 lesson plans hosted at four prominent university science education sites, all within a five year period (2003-7). In addition to the lesson plan analysis, a review of 100 articles taken from five on-line science education journals reveal what the science education field addresses this issue. Findings suggest that while 80% of science teachers include some type of strategic teaching and learning in their lessons, only about 20% of science teachers explicitly utilize strategies as listed in content literacy manuals and promoted by literacy and ESL experts. Rather, most science teachers implicitly include these strategies within their lessons and/or promote their own subject-specific strategies in content teaching. Analysis of science education research and publications shows that there is a focus on literacy and specifically strategic

  17. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; Purnomo, A.H.; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  19. Research of Application of Passive Natural Ventilated Strategies of High-Density Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeXuan Song; ShaoYu Liu; SiJie Liu

    2014-01-01

    High⁃density development is becoming an inevitable tendency in Chinese urbanization. In this study, the application of natural ventilation in high⁃density urban development is discussed. Based on the domestic and foreign study on natural ventilation, indoor and outdoor natural ventilated strategies, and the application on natural ventilation in underground space development are analyzed. From the study, the relationship between passive and active ventilated technologies is interpreted into what is described to be synergistic, complementary and additive.

  20. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... through the area. Dated: August 2, 2010. D.A. Neptun, Rear Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, Commander,...

  1. [Presence, abundance and reproductive strategies of ferns in disturbed areas of Sierra Nevada, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Romero, Ma Lucía; Zavala Hurtado, José Alejandro; Pacheco, Leticia

    2011-03-01

    Diverse reproductive strategies shown by ferns and lycophytes allow them to colonize a variety of habitats, particularly after the incidence of natural or anthropogenic disturbances. This study assessed the presence, abundance and reproductive strategies of ferns growing in soils of temperate forests with different levels of disturbance at the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the State of Mexico. Vegetation, soil and environmental variables were recorded in 200 m2 permanent plots located in four forest stands. One-Way ANOVA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis resulted in the recognition of three landscape types defined by the degree of environmental alteration: low, moderate and severe. Also, from five soil samples collected in each stand, germination of ferns and lycophytes was induced. A positive relationship was found between the alteration degree and Cheilanthes abundance. Under a low landscape alteration regime, species richness is restricted to Cheilanthes bonariensis, C. marginata and Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia. The soil is a reservoir of spores of Cheilanthes and Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia because their spores can remain viable for different time intervals. Apogamy is the usual reproductive strategy of Cheilanthes species in disturbed ecosystems, although these species also show sexual reproduction in natural ecosystems with adequate water availability. Apogamy may be related to a shorter generation time in comparison with a low disturbed ecosystem. On the other hand, Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia only has sexual reproduction. Apogamy might be related to a faster generation in comparison with a low disturbed ecosystem. PMID:21516659

  2. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this planning document is to identify and define the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. Additionally, this document will support the Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC) team, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and regulatory agencies in identifying and agreeing upon the complete process for expedited cleanup of the 100 Area

  3. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  4. The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova V. V.; Kirievskaya D. V.; Bolotov A. Ye.

    2011-01-01

    It is the first time pockmark-like structures have been detected in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland with the help of a side-scan sonar and a profile recorder. The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium of the incoming mineralized solution meets the highly oxidizing sea water medium. The hydrodynamic and geochemical processes in the pockmark...

  5. Household Livelihood Strategies and Dependence on Agriculture in the Mountainous Settlements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingde Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which farmers in the Three Gorges Reservoir area remain highly dependent on agriculture despite rapid urbanization and industrialization. The study focuses on the factors that determine a household’s choice of livelihood strategy, with a particular focus on the production of and dependence on agricultural products. Using a sustainable livelihoods approach and survey data from farmers in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China, the study provides a descriptive statistical analysis and ordinal logistic regression model that shows that close to 56% of households exhibit a low dependence on agriculture. The following variables had a significant influence on livelihood strategy: the maximum years of education of any household member; the age of the household head; the number of laborers in a household; household location; and formal and informal social networks. Regardless of whether the household had children, house value and fixed assets had no significant influence on livelihood strategy. According to the analysis results, we put forward the suggestions that government departments increase investment in infrastructure and make loan policies more favorable for farmers so as to encourage rural able-person to use their social networks to actively establish businesses at migrant destinations.

  6. Strategy of protected areas development in purposes of using and keeping bioresources and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Features and condition of existing system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are presented in this paper. Their specific environmental problems are defined. Strong sides and weaknesses of functioning and management of objects of special protection are provided. For approbation of a complex of methods of steady exploitation of this territory modeling objects of special protection are allocated and the economic assessment is carried out them. Potential recipients of benefits from use of bioresources and ecosystem services on modeling objects arerevealed. Theterritories possessing a reservefor increasein use of their resources and services are presented. Offers on strategy of development of a control system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are developed. Development strategy of control system ofespecially protected natural territories is consisting of someinstitutional decisions. This acceptance of federal-regional agreement about management control;creating of regional rules, which regulatethe usage of natural resources in especially protected natural territories; application of an integrated approach to the use of territories, which provide the bases to increase recreation and tourist industry; transfer buffer zone territories to biosphere reservation.

  7. An example of rehabilitation strategies for radioactive contaminated areas in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for remediation and rehabilitation of areas contaminated by radionuclides is largely based on the predictions of individual doses, the internal doses being estimated by the potential contribution of major food products. As an example, the Chechersk region in the Gomel district has been selected to represent areas where, in 1995, individual doses exceeded the national dose limit of 1 mSv/yr. For this area, the contribution of food consumption to the total dose has been estimated, and measures for its reduction are proposed. The radical improvement of pastures for grazing of private dairy cows is one of the most effective measures to reduce internal 137Cs doses. It is shown that the use of herbage from a cultivated pasture with an average 137Cs contamination level of 405 kBq/m2 during five subsequent years leads to an individual accumulative averted dose from milk consumption of 0.98 mSv, which is below the given dose limit of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. In this paper estimates of fluxes of mainly 137Cs and to a smaller extent of 90Sr associated with foodstuffs derived from various ecosystems are given and account is also taken of the radioactivity exported from the area

  8. Attrition of Knowledge Workforce in Healthcare in Northern parts of India – Health Information Technology as a Plausible Retention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Bhattacharya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a global shortage of skilled health workers due to attrition, countries are struggling to build and maintain optimum knowledge workforce in healthcare for delivering quality healthcare services. Forces that affect healthcare professionals’ turnover needs to be addressed before a competent uniformly adoptable strategy could be proposed for mitigating the problem. In this study we investigate the effects of the socio–demographic characteristics on attrition of healthcare knowledge workforce in northern parts of India that have a wide gradient of rural and urban belt, taking into account both public and private healthcare organizations. For this purpose healthcare professional attrition tracking survey (HATS was designed. The data has been collected from a random sample of 807 respondents consisting of doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrators to explore the relationships between various factors acting as antecedents in affecting the job satisfaction, commitment and intention of a healthcare professional to stay in the job. Structured questionnaires were utilized as the data collection tools. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and path analysis were carried out using multiple regression and correlation to propose a model that best explains the theoretical assumption of factors leading to attrition. Six factors of attrition namely compensation and perks, work life balance, sense of accomplishment, work load, need for automation and technology improvement, substandard nature of work have been identified as the main factors with a data reliability of 0.809%. It has also been identified that the intention to shift is a major decision maker that affects attrition and in turn affected by job satisfaction dimensions. Based on the survey response and analysis, a highly possible strategy of utilizing information technology implementation for increasing worker motivation, job satisfaction and commitment to reduce attrition has been

  9. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  10. Energetic strategies for the sustainable development of the isolated areas of Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes the economic and energetic situation of the 35 % Amazonian inhabitants that live in remote and isolated sites, inside the Amazon forest. Generally, deforestation begins in those places and rapidly occurs the destruction of local ecosystems. The poverty is everywhere and the energy supply is insufficient or nonexistent. The electric energy is generated with diesel, but its acquisition consumes all available income.The man is not adapted to the environment, and destroys the forest to increase profit and comfort, but without protection the soil fragility causes poverty. To conclude some case studies are presented. Finally, it is proposed an energy strategy to protect the environment, through an an economic development, based on the use of renewable energy. (author)

  11. The Analysis of Land Use Based on CORINE Land Cover in the Romanian Part of the Tisa Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN MOLDOVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%, coniferous forests (6.22%, mixed forests (3.46% and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%. The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50% are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.

  12. Present Conditions and Strategies of Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection in Sichuan Ethnic Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunxia

    2013-01-01

    The intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is the most typical cultural re-source with ethnic characteristics . Its scientific protection and effective usage can not only help to transmit and develop the intangible cultural herit-age of ethnic minorities , but also can transform the ethnic minorities ’ cultural resources into advanta-geous resources , thus, promoting economic devel-opment in ethnic minority autonomous areas .For a long time, the ethnic minority autonomous areas have paid considerable attention to the protection of ethnic intangible cultural heritage ; explored vari-ous effective protective measures; and built up an effective model for protecting ethnic intangible cul-tural heritage guaranteed by the ethnic autonomous law.

  13. Wind speed variability and adaptation strategies in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends (both increasing and decreasing) in relation to climate drivers. This study fills a gap in the understanding of PNW wind behaviour by: determining if relationships exist between wind speed distributions, ocean/atmospheric climate indices, and monitoring station-specific attributes; assessing the robustness of relationships for forecasting wind speeds within the study area; and...

  14. Understanding physicians' decisions to practice in rural areas as a basis for developing recruitment and retention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, D L; Williams, S D; Li, L B

    1994-01-01

    The shortage of providers in rural areas is threatening the quality and availability of health care in many communities. The causes of the provider shortage are many and varied-from economic to social to personal. Government programs have addressed the issue of provider supply by offering scholarships and loan repayment programs for medical students who then must fulfil service obligations in underserved settings, among which are rural areas. Experience has shown that once providers complete their obligations under these grant programs, retention of providers in rural areas becomes an even more critical issue. Using focus group research, this study explores the practice setting choices of a group of physicians currently practicing in rural areas. The discussion reveals that personal values are one of the primary motivators for choosing to practice in rural settings while lack of availability of career opportunities for spouses and educational opportunities for children are major obstacles. The health care system poses barriers to success for providers in rural settings. The key rewards from rural practice are the ability to become integrated into the local community and the provider/patient relationships that develop in such settings. These findings are used as the basis for proposing recruitment and retention strategies for providers to improve access to medical care by patients in rural areas. PMID:10165487

  15. Strategies for the Optimization of Planted Area and to Increase Production of Avocado in Michoaca?n

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, José G.

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze how the increased use of the area planted with Hass Avocado from Michoacan state as a strategy will help catch up in production from the point of view based on resources. The basic question that will help us solve the problem is how to harness the avocado sector resources for greater production? Analytical method was used based on existing information to achieve the research objectives. The fundamental theory applied to the object of study is based on resources a...

  16. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  17. Soil mutagenicity as a strategy to evaluate environmental and health risks in a contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohren, Roberta de Souza; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Leal, Karen Alan; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2012-09-01

    Soil can be a storage place and source of pollutants for interfacial environments. This study looked at a site contaminated with wood preservatives as a source of mutagens, defined routes and extent of the dispersion of these contaminants by particle remobilization and atmospheric deposition, considering an evaluation of risk to human health by quantifying mutagenic risk. Soil sampling sites were chosen at gradually increasing distances (150, 500 and 1700m) from SI (industrial area pool) and indoor dust (pool in an area at risk at 385m and at 1700m). Mutagenesis was evaluated in the Salmonella/microsome assay, TA98, TA97a and TA100 strains with and without S9 mix, YGs strains 1041, 1042 and 1024 for nitrocompounds. Acid extracts were analyzed to define the effects of metals and organics for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitroderivates, besides concentrations of these compounds and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Risk to human health was obtained from the relation between the quantified potential of mutagenic risk and estimated soil ingestion for children according to USEPA. Metal concentrations showed a gradient of responses with As, Cr and Cu (total metal) or Cr and Cu (fraction available) higher for SI. However, mutagenic effects of the mixtures did not show this grading. Site SR1700, without a response, was characterized as a reference. In organic extracts, the mutagenesis responses showed the mobility of these compounds from the source. In the surrounding area, a smaller pattern similar to SI was observed at SR150, and at the other sites elevated values of direct mutagenesis at SR500 and diminished effects at SR1700. Tests with YG strains indicated that nitrated compounds have a significant effect on the direct mutagenesis found, except SR500. The investigation of indoor dust in the surrounding area enabled confirmation of the particle resuspension route and atmospheric deposition, showing responses in mutagenicity biomarkers, PAH concentrations and PCP

  18. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  19. Reduction Expansion Synthesis as Strategy to Control Nitrogen Doping Level and Surface Area in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES method utilizing graphite oxide (GO and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET. The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.

  20. Production strategy of companies located in a local productive arrangement: the application of a decision areas model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Mendonça Peixoto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elements permeate a company strategic configuration. These range from the industrial competition dynamics to the simple resolution of common problems. Accordingly, it was conducted an empirical research on 26 producing companies of a ceramic pole, registered in the Brazilian Service of Support for Micro and Small Enterprises (SEBRAE of São Paulo, through the application of a decision area model, in order to check if the main production strategy, focusing on costs, established by the companies participating in the Local Productive Arrangement (LPA is aligned with their actions. The research presented a quantitative-qualitative type and descriptive purpose. Using a mixed questionnaire, it was identified problems that directly and indirectly impact in the achieving of the main production strategy of the LPA companies. Thus, it is up to them reviewing the actions being taken in order to enable an alignment of these actions to the production strategy established by the companies, whose essence refers to the pursuit of lower costs, contributing to the effective achievement of the objectives plotted by the companies, i.e., by the arrangement as a whole.

  1. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dneves@ird.gov.br, e-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  2. The physician/hospital joint venture: developing a win/win strategy for success. Part III: Structuring and negotiating the deal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A S

    1987-08-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this third part of the series, the author examines the elements essential to structure a successful joint venture and key issues that need to be addressed during the negotiation process.

  3. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  4. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  5. Characterization of soils in terms of pedological variability under different physiography of Damodar command area (part, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Bera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five representative soil profiles occurring on four different physiography under subtropical environment of Damodar command area, India, were studied for soil pedological variability. Two way approaches were taken to evaluate the extent of profile development. Firstly different extractants were used to determine various forms of Fe and Al and their different ratios. Average contents of Fe and Al, extracted by different extracting reagents were found to be in descending order, as follows: Aldith > Aloxa > Alpyr and Fedith > Feoxa > Fepyr. Analysis of pyrophosphate (pyr, oxalate (oxa, and dithionate (dith extractable Fe and Al fractions indicated that with increasing soil age, the content of crystalline Fe and Al oxides increased at the expense of the poorly crystalline forms. The mean content of amorphous Fe and Al, crystalline Fe and Al, and their ratios estimated the degree of soil development. In the second part, elemental analysis was done, silica to sesquioxide ratio as well as ratio of alkali cations was measured and weathering index of each horizon was determined. The ratios and weathering indices indicated that except Madhpur soil series, all other soils were young and pedological development was still in progress in Damodar command area.

  6. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅲ—The strategies and practices of National Science Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Xiwen; LIU; Lin; LI; Yan; ZENG; Li-Ping; KU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper describes the strategies and practices of National Science Library(NSL),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS)in promoting open access(OA)and developing OA resources.Design/methodology/approach:Multi-facet frameworks are devised to guide the development of OA strategies and practices.Key OA initiatives are briefly described along the main aspects of the strategies as they contribute to implementation of the OA strategies.Findings:NSL defined its role as the Chief OA Officer for CAS and a key OA promoter for China.Accordingly,NSL has engaged in multiple fronts of promoting OA,including development of OA strategies for CAS,establishment of itself as an OA knowledge&promotion center,development of the CAS IR system,and support for OA publishing by CAS authors.Research limitations:OA is still evolving,so are the strategies and practices as many actions are experimental and explorative in nature.Open books,open data,and open educational resources are yet to be covered.Comparative studies are needed,so is the evidence-based impact analysis.Practical implications:Institutions can adopt,adapt,or compare with examples and lessons learned are described here.Originality/value:The multi-faceted frameworks,working principles,and lessons learned are based on NSL’s practices which can be valuable to the overall OA development.

  7. Strategi pencapaian pelanggan pitalebar bergerak di daerah perdesaan tahun 2019 [The strategy of mobile broadband subscriber achievement in rural areas in 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah Indonesia memiliki target untuk memberikan akses internet kepada seluruh rakyat Indonesia, termasuk di daerah perdesaan. Daerah perdesaan bagi penyelenggara telekomunikasi kurang memberikan keuntungan karena jumlah pelanggan tidak sebanding dengan biaya investasi yang dikeluarkan. Survei dalam penelitian ini dilakukan di empat desa yaitu Cangkringan, Hambalang, Purwosari dan Kondasatu untuk mengetahui hubungan kondisi masyarakat dengan internet. Hasil survei menunjukkan penggunaan handphone adalah 18,14% untuk telepon, 16,88% untuk SMS dan hanya 3,80% untuk internet. Analisis deskriptif dari data tersebut adalah masyarakat di desa masih belum menggunakan layanan internet secara optimal. Alasannya adalah keterbatasan infrastruktur dan belum ada kesadaran masyarakat. Sudut pandang operator telekomunikasi, mastel Indonesia dan BRTI diperoleh melalui Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Triangulasi data survei dan hasil FGD menghasilkan strategi yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah dan swasta melalui pengembangan ekosistem untuk masyarakat perdesaan. Selain itu, pemerintah dapat memberikan intervensi melalui optimasi penggunaan Biaya Hak Penggunaan Frekuensi untuk pengembangan mobile broadband dan melalui skema dana Universal Service Obligation (USO.*****Indonesian government has a target to provide internet access to all Indonesian people, including in rural areas. For telecommunication provider, rural areas is less profitable because of the number of customers are not comparable with the investment cost incurred. This study was conducted by doing survey in four villages namely Cangkringan, Hambalang, Purwasari, and Kondasatu to determine the condition of the people associated with the development of the internet. The results of the survey showed that 18.14% people use the mobile phone for voice communication, 16.88% for SMS, and only 3.80% for using internet. Villagers have not used the internet service optimally yet. The reason is lack of

  8. The Care of Corporal Punishment: Conceptions of Early Childhood Discipline Strategies among Parents and Grandparents in a Poor and Urban Area in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates conceptions of early childhood discipline strategies discussed in focus groups with parents and grandparents in a poor urban area in Tanzania. A grounded theory analysis suggested a model that included four discipline strategies related to corporal punishment: to beat with care, to treat like an egg, as if beating a snake…

  9. PRICING POLICY AND MARKETING STRATEGIES AS A PART OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF RETAILS STORES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Gburová; Róbert Štefko; Radovan Baèík

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with price and marketing pricing strategies of retail chain stores in the Slovak Republic. The aim of this paper is to highlight the perception of the impact of economic recession in the retail chain stores. To determine the most used marketing pricing strategies has been used analysis of variance ANOVA. The global finance crisis does not have influence to selection and implementation of pricing strategy, which is used by branches of chain stores marketing management of in are...

  10. Solar cells. Danish strategy for research, development, demonstration and distribution. Part 1 - Solar cell strategy 2010; Solceller. Dansk strategi for forskning, udvikling, demonstration og udbredelse. Del I - Solcellestrategi 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The areas for strategic action within Danish solar cells R and D range from a developmental effort that can take effect in a relatively short term to longer-term research and development efforts aimed at increasing solar cell efficiency and the development of new building components with integrated photovoltaic systems. In non-priority order the following actions are recommended: A. Silicon solar cells / modules. Development of silicon materials, solar cells and modules to the extent that a Danish effort is likely to have value and impact both nationally and internationally. B. New advanced solar cell types such as PEC, polymer cells and nano-structured cells. This is long term R and D, which is directed at producing solar cells that are significantly cheaper than today's solar cells. C. Power Conversion - inverter technology. Power conversion by inverters are an important part of grid-connected photovoltaic systems. D. System technology, including the integration into the power system. Grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Denmark are expected in the near future primarily to decentralized, often placed in each building as an integral part of the building's power installation and coupled to the low voltage grid. E. Photovoltaics in buildings (BIPV). Building integrated photovoltaic systems is expected to be a key area for development of the use of photovoltaic systems. F. Design and aesthetics, especially regarding multi-functional building components. This will be a special development area for building integrated solutions. G. Demonstration activities. Includes demonstration projects and activities that will maintain general Danish interest in solar cell technology and promote the transition from R and D to industrial processes, supporting Danish products and helping to market maturation. H. Dissemination activities. I. International cooperation. Participation in international cooperation in the solar cell field, including standardization work, IEA, EU

  11. Tourism Areas, backc - back country areas- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'backc - back...

  12. Solar cells. Danish strategy for research, development, demonstration and distribution. Part 2 - Background paper; Solceller. Dansk strategi for forskning, udvikling, demonstration og udbredelse. Del II - Baggrundsnotat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The background paper to the strategy for Danish R and D within the solar cell field describes the background and references for solar cell technology and its development, both nationally and internationally. Especially, the potentials for use of solar cells in Denmark together with the primary Danish actors and strongholds are presented.

  13. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  14. Results and exploitation of FP-4 and FP-5 research in the area 'Safety of existing installations'. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the most important achievements of the research programme co-financed by the European Union (EU) in the area of LWR safety over the FP-4 and FP-5 periods from the end-users point of view. The end-users are: the contracting organisations (i.e. utilities and associated engineering companies, regulatory bodies and associated technical safety organisations, manufacturing industry and associated services), the non-contracting organisations (including decision makers and opinion leaders) and the European Commission. Besides Community research strategy and programme implementation aspects in general, this paper is focusing on the S/T achievements obtained by multi-partner projects in the - 7 clusters of multi-partner projects in Euratom FP-4 (1994-1998): AGE for structural ageing, INV and EXV for in-vessel core degradation and ex-vessel molten corium coolability, ST for radiological source term, CONT for containment integrity, AMM for accident management measures and INNO for innovative safety features - the total cost of the 67 multipartner projects comprised in this Community research was Euro 71.3 million, out of which Euro 35.9 million was contributed by the EU budget - 3 clusters of multi-partner projects in Euratom FP-5 (1998-2002): PLEM for plant life extension and management; SAM for severe accident management and EVOL for evolutionary safety concepts - the total cost of the 71 multipartner projects comprised in this Community research is Euro 85.4 million, out of which Euro 43.5 million is contributed by the EU budget. The objectives of this Community research are discussed and a number of FP-4 and FP-5 projects are selected to demonstrate to what extent the proposed objectives were indeed met. Besides technological requirements, socio-economic aspects are becoming increasingly important due to the level of public and political acceptance and to the economic pressure of deregulated electricity markets; this is also discussed. Finally the

  15. Marketing Strategies Preferred by South Carolina One-Stop Career Center Area Directors to Attract Dislocated Workers under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eugene F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the marketing strategies South Carolina One-Stop Career Centers Area Directors felt provided the best opportunity for dislocated workers to learn about their services. Two theories emerged: the Service Marketing Theory and the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Theory. Of the 36 area directors cited for this study,…

  16. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  17. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI (Sweden); Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Autority, STUK (Finland); Andersson, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  18. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part I: The first step: developing the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A B

    1987-02-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," will examine the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this first article, the author emphasizes the organization's need to develop a strategic plan that includes a program for attracting physicians. It also points out the need for sensitivity to physicians' concerns and provides examples of successes and failures.

  19. Strategies in the processing and analysis of continuous gravity record in active volcanic areas: the case of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hinderer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to describe new strategies in the processing and analysis of continuous gravity records collected in active volcanic areas and to assess how permanent gravity stations can improve the geophysical monitoring of a volcano. The experience of 15 years in continuous gravity monitoring on Mt. Vesuvius is discussed. Several geodynamic phenomena can produce temporal gravity changes. An eruption, for instance, is associated with the ascent of magma producing changes in the density distribution at depth, and leading to ground deformation and gravity changes The amplitude of such gravity variations is often quite small, in the order of 10-102 nms-2, so their detection requires high quality data and a rigorous procedure to isolate from the records those weak gravity signals coming from different sources. Ideally we need gravity signals free of all effects which are not of volcanic origin. Therefore solid Earth tide, ocean and atmospheric loading, instrumental drift or any kind of disturbances other than due to the volcano dynamics have to be removed. The state of the art on the modelling of the solid Earth tide is reviewed. The atmospheric dynamics is one of the main sources precluding the detection of small gravity signals. The most advanced methods to reduce the atmospheric effects on gravity are presented. As the variations of the calibration factors can prevent the repeatability of high-precision measurements, new approaches to model the instrumental response of mechanical gravimeters are proposed too. Moreover, a strategy for an accurate modelling of the instrumental drift and to distinguish it from longterm gravity changes is suggested.

  20. Climate change, variability and extreme events : risk assessment and management strategies in a Peach cultivated area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Missere, Daniele; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in Mediterranean area is likely to reduce precipitation amounts and to increase temperature thus affecting the timing of development stages and the productivity of crops. Further, extreme weather events are expected to increase in the future leading to significant increase in agricultural risk. Some strategies for effectively managing risks and adapting to climate change involve adjustments to irrigation management and use of different varieties. We quantified the risk on Peach production in an irrigated area of "Emilia Romagna" region ( Italy) taking into account the impact on crop yield due to climate change and variability and to extreme weather events as well as the ability of the agricultural system to modulate this impact (adaptive capacity) through changes in water and crop management. We have focused on climatic events causing insufficient water supply to crops, while taking into account the effect of climate on the duration and timing of phenological stages. Further, extreme maximum and minimum temperature events causing significant reduction of crop yield have been considered using phase-specific critical temperatures. In our study risk was assessed as the product of the probability of a damaging event (hazard), such as drought or extreme temperatures, and the estimated impact of such an event (vulnerability). To estimate vulnerability we took into account the possible options to reduce risk, by combining estimates of the sensitivity of the system (negative impact on crop yield) and its adaptive capacity. The latter was evaluated as the relative improvement due to alternate management options: the use of alternate varieties or the changes in irrigation management. Vulnerability was quantified using cultivar-specific thermal and hydrologic requirements of a set of cultivars determined by experimental data and from scientific literature. Critical temperatures determining a certain reduction of crop yield have been estimated and used to assess

  1. Marketingová strategie pojišťovny Generali

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my diploma thesis is to analyse marketing strategy of Generali insurance company and to recommend improvements of the current marketing strategy. In theoretical part I am dealing with the role of marketing, analytical tools and approaches in the area of marketing strategies and types of marketing strategies. Gained knowledge is applied in the following practical part of the thesis. Practical part descibes current situation on the Czech insurance market. It is followed by detailed a...

  2. Municipal strategies for introducing housing on industrial estates as part of compact-city policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals Altes, W.K.; Tambach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting mixed-use development is part of policies aimed at enhancing urban quality. Until recently, however, industry and housing have rarely been found together in the same development as there is a long tradition of keeping these functions separate. As part of a compact-city policy, Dutch local

  3. The Constructor: a web application optimizing cloning strategies based on modules from the registry of standard biological parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, M.C.; Koehorst, J.J.; Slijkhuis, T.; Hugenholtz, F.; Odoni, D.I.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines molecular biology with engineering principles, which requires abstraction levels applied to a modular biological componentry. The Registry of Standard Biological Parts harbours such a repository of standardized parts, and thereby facilitates the c

  4. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing. PMID:27056662

  5. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types...

  6. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hao Fan; Hongwen He; Deng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB). In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator) model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area ne...

  7. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part II: Analysis of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.; Hewson, Mariana G.

    Presented is an analysis of a concept teaching technique that was developed according to a theoretical perspective which emphasizes the importance of a student's existing knowledge in influencing that person's subsequent learning. Significant differences between an experimental group which was exposed to this instructional strategy, and the…

  8. 基于VMI策略的常用备件库存控制研究%A Study on Common Spare Parts Inventory Control Based on VMI Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任南; 杜强

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem existing of traditional spare parts inventory, common spare parts, the important part of the spare parts inventory, was analyzed from the actual situation, and the common spare parts inventory based on VMI strategy was established. Through the case study, the model was performed under the condition which the shortage of the common spare parts was not allowed. The problem of spare parts inventory management was solved. The model optimize the structure of inventory. Finally, some suggestions on optimization are given.%针对传统备件库存中所存在的备件随机性强、需求规律差的问题,从供应商管理库存的角度出发,对常用备件的库存控制方法进行研究,建立了基于VMI策略的备件库存控制模型.并通过实例研究,对不允许缺货条件下的供应商管理备件库存模式与传统模式进行比较,结果表明,该方法可以很好的降低企业运营成本,解决了常用备件库存管理的问题,优化了备件库存结构,并给出了一些优化建议.

  9. Measurements of Urban Area-Wide CO2 and CH4 Fluxes as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepson, P.; Callahan, B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Davis, K. J.; Hardesty, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Moser, B.; Newberger, T.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Samarov, D. V.; Sarmiento, D.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was created in order to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement of greenhouse gas emission fluxes from urban environments. Such methods are important for a variety of reasons, including that more than half the global population now resides in cities, and because it is likely that many CO2 emissions reductions strategies will be implemented on local, largely urban, scales. INFLUX is using Indianapolis as a test case for measurements of urban scale greenhouse gas fluxes, because it is a fairly isolated urban environment with tractable meteorology, and a well-developed emission inventory (Vulcan/Hestia). INFLUX aims to quantify and reduce the uncertainty limits for such flux determinations, and to define the uncertainties for individual and combined approaches. The project currently combines a network of towers (currently 10 with 12 possible by the end of 2012) at which CO, CO2 and CH4 are measured, along with periodic flask sampling for 14CO2 and ~50 other trace gases and isotopes. Aircraft-based measurements of CO2, CH4 and H2O, along with flask samples for a variety of gases including 14CO2 are conducted from a light twin aircraft that enables flux measurements using the on-board turbulence/wind measurements via mass balance or eddy covariance methods. As of August of 2012 INFLUX has a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Fourier Transform Spectrometer at a downwind site, measuring column total CO2, CH4, H2O (and other greenhouse gases). The data from these tower, TCCON and aircraft measurements are then used in an inverse-modeling approach, using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LDPM) to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. When aggregated these fluxes can be compared to estimates derived from aircraft mass-balance estimates, and the 14CO2 and CO data are used to extract the fossil fuel component of the

  10. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  11. 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia--Briefs of the 3rd Conference on Conservative Land in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zurong

    2001-01-01

    @@ The author had the opportunity to attend the 3rd Conference on the Conservative Land in East Asia in Seoul, Korea in September 1999, whose theme was " 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia". As the majority of protected areas in China is located in mountain areas,since the government announced prohibition of any commercial wood cutting, all mountains have become sort of protected areas in a certain degree. The following is a brief introduction on the major issues discussed at the conference.

  12. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, P; Garrido, M; Collos, Y; Pasqualini, V

    2016-07-15

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations. PMID:27126183

  13. Attrition of Knowledge Workforce in Healthcare in Northern parts of India – Health Information Technology as a Plausible Retention Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajit Bhattacharya; Anandhi Ramachandran; Suri, R K; Gupta, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Faced with a global shortage of skilled health workers due to attrition, countries are struggling to build and maintain optimum knowledge workforce in healthcare for delivering quality healthcare services. Forces that affect healthcare professionals’ turnover needs to be addressed before a competent uniformly adoptable strategy could be proposed for mitigating the problem. In this study we investigate the effects of the socio–demographic characteristics on attrition of healthcare knowledge wo...

  14. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅱ——Challenges and responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Yan; ZENG; Lin; LI; Xiwen; LIU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper aims to provide a systematic analysis of challenges and responses of the imminent open access-based environment so as to enable sound development of open access(OA)resource strategies.Design/methodology/approach:A systematic and evidence-based analysis is used to discover,identify,and contextualize the factors that relate or interact.A challenge metric for the overall context and additional frameworks or alternative lists is used for the detailed analysis.Findings:Research libraries are facing a reality conflict between the traditional library solution and the OA solution.New resource strategies are needed but have to be based on an open knowledge infrastructure and a systematic analysis of factors and alternatives.Support for OA publishing is becoming a major task and complicated capabilities involved call for libraries to play a central role.Hybrid collection development should be in place to take full advantages of the open world while ensuring reliable and trusted retrieval,reuse,and preservation.Research limitations:The research covers main developments in US and European countries mostly in scientific fields and for scholarly papers.Practical implications:There are already evidences for sound OA resource policies.With the imminent dominance of OA resources,research libraries should and can set up their OA resource strategies.Originality/value:The paper suggests a factor metric as an analysis framework,presents rationale lists and policies to support OA publishing,and proposes a hybrid collection strategy to plan for collection development,retrieval,and preservation.

  15. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers.

  16. Impact of sampling time deviations on the prediction of the area under the curve using regression limited sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarem, Sarem; Nekka, Fahima; Ahmed, Iman Saad; Litalien, Catherine; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The regression limited sampling strategy approach (R-LSS), which is based on a small number of blood samples drawn at selected time points, has been used as an alternative method for the estimation of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). However, deviations from planned sampling times may affect the performance of R-LSS, influencing related therapeutic decisions and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sampling time deviation (STD) scenarios on the estimation of AUC by the R-LSS using a simulation approach. Three types of scenarios were considered going from the simplest case of fixed deviations, to random deviations and then to a more realistic case where deviations of mixed nature can occur. In addition, the sensitivity of the R-LSS to STD in each involved sampling point was evaluated. A significant impact of STD on the performance of R-LSS was demonstrated. The tolerance of R-LSS to STD was found to depend not only on the number of sampling points but more importantly on the duration of the sampling process. Sensitivity analysis showed that sampling points at which rapid concentration changes occur were relatively more critical for AUC prediction by R-LSS. As a practical approach, nomograms were proposed, where the expected predictive performance of R-LSS was provided as a function of STD information. The investigation of STD impact on the predictive performance of R-LSS is a critical element and should be routinely performed to guide R-LSS selection and use.

  17. 50 CFR Table 20 to Part 679 - Seabird Avoidance Gear Requirements for Vessels, based on Area, Gear, and Vessel Type. (See § 679...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seabird Avoidance Gear Requirements for Vessels, based on Area, Gear, and Vessel Type. (See § 679.24(e) for complete seabird avoidance program...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 20 Table 20 to Part 679—Seabird...

  18. USE OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION IN A LIMITED-AREA MESOSCALE MODEL - PART II: EFFECTS OF DATA ASSIMILATION WITHIN THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) scheme based on Newtonian relaxation or nudging has been developed and evaluated in the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Limited-Area Mesoscale Model. t was shown in Part I of this study ...

  19. Dynamic mechanism for horizontal deformation in part of North China area-- Three-dimensional finite-element calculation and analysis of results from GPS remeasurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A deformation monitoring network that covers part of North China area and takes the Beijing region as the center was measured for two times with high-precision GPS in 1995 and 1996 respectively. The results from remeasurement indicate that present horizontal movement in the monitored area is characterized by relative motion among several main tectonic blocks. Considering the spatial distribution features obtained from geological survey and results on seismic wave and activity in the area, and stratified features of crustal medium in depth, a three dimensional finite-element medium model is designed. And under the conditions of taking and not taking the action manner of the background stress field in the studied area into account, the relative motion between tectonic blocks is calculated and modeled. Based on the results from the analysis and calculations the dynamic mechanism for the present horizontal deformation in the area is discussed.

  20. A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account....... Such national legislations are however under pressure from the EU Commission who wants to abandon national rules to insure free movement of goods between the member states. There is thus a need to objectively assess the risk of introducing Em to free areas in order to optimise preventive strategies while...... the number of dogs imported, the risk of infection in the countries of origin, treatment efficacy and reinfection risk after treatment. The EFSA model identified relatively high risk of reinfection in the Swedish and Finnish prophylactic treatment strategies. These strategies allow Praziquantel...

  1. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  2. When the struggle against dejection becomes a part of everyday life: a qualitative study of coping strategies in older abused people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmoe A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrid Sandmoe, Solveig HaugeFaculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life.Methods: A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis.Results: Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience.Conclusion: Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience.Keywords: elder abuse, older parents, coping

  3. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  4. Influences of deposition strategies and oblique angle on properties of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled part by direct laser fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlin; Deng, Dewei; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-06-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) developed from laser cladding and rapid prototyping technique has been widely used to fabricate thin-walled parts exhibiting more functions without expending weight and size. Oblique thin-walled parts accompanied with inhomogeneous mechanical properties are common in application. In the present study, a series of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled parts are successfully produced by DLF, in addition, deposition strategies, microstructure, and mechanical property of the oblique thin-walled parts are investigated. The results show that parallel deposition way is more valuable to fabricate oblique thin-walled part than oblique deposition way, because of the more remarkable properties. The hardness of high side initially increases until the distance to the substrate reaches about 25 mm, and then decreases with the increase of the deposition height. Oblique angle has a positive effect on the tensile property but a negative effect on microstructure, hardness and elongation due to the more tempering time. The maximum average ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are presented 744.3 MPa and 13.5% when the angle between tensile loading direction and horizontal direction is 45° and 90°, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  6. Hydrocarbons in waters and bottom sediments of coastal areas in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface layer of water and bottom sediments are presented. The data were compared to the distribution of the total organic carbon, particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya bays, as well as in the Greater Sochi area. The intense transformation processes of organic compounds within the water mass and water-bottom interface have resulted in the prevalence of natural components in the alkane composition of the bottom sediments in the areas of the Black Sea considered. The riverine and marine water mixing zone acts as a geochemical barrier preventing the supply of the bulk of river-transferred pollutants to the open sea areas.

  7. Critical Study Of Ground Water Potential Of Part Of Obubra Local Government Area Cross River State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The vertical electrical sounding VES technique employing the Schlumberger electrode array was used to survey some villages in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State with a view to determine the groundwater potntial of the area. The study area is located between longitude 80 12 and 80 16 E and latitudes 50 45 and 60 15 N. a total of seventeen 17 electrical soundings were undertaken using the ABEM TERRAMETER model SAS 300 maximum current electrode spread of 500m was attained. The data were interpreted using resist computer software programme to obtain the final model for each VES location. These models were combined to produce a profile showing the geoelectric sections of the subsurface. Correlation of the inferred geoelectrical models showed that the first layer is composed of the sand mixed with clay and its resistivity is between 157 and 497Wm. The second layer inferred as clay has a resistivity range between 17 and 67Wm. the third layer suspected to be sandstone had resistivity range of 541-7603Wm. The fourth layer suspected to be shale had a resistivity range of 97-574Wm while the last layer is sandstone with resistivity range of 309-4412Wm. The sandstone layers 3rd and 5th are considered to be the potential aquifer units in the area.

  8. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  9. Human arachnoid granulations Part I: a technique for quantifying area and distribution on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman David W

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are herniations of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses on the surface of the brain. Previous morphological studies of AGs have been limited in scope and only one has mentioned surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic distribution of AGs on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex. Methods En face images were taken of the superior surface of 35 formalin-fixed human brains. AGs were manually identified using Adobe Photoshop, with a pixel location containing an AG defined as 'positive'. A set of 25 standard fiducial points was marked on each hemisphere for a total of 50 points on each image. The points were connected on each hemisphere to create a segmented image. A standard template was created for each hemisphere by calculating the average position of the 25 fiducial points from all brains. Each segmented image was mapped to the standard template using a linear transformation. A topographic distribution map was produced by calculating the proportion of AG positive images at each pixel in the standard template. The AG surface area was calculated for each hemisphere and for the total brain superior surface. To adjust for different brain sizes, the proportional involvement of AGs was calculated by dividing the AG area by the total area. Results The total brain average surface area of AGs was 78.53 ± 13.13 mm2 (n = 35 and average AG proportional involvement was 57.71 × 10-4 ± 7.65 × 10-4. Regression analysis confirmed the reproducibility of AG identification between independent researchers with r2 = 0.97. The surface AGs were localized in the parasagittal planes that coincide with the region of the lateral lacunae. Conclusion The data obtained on the spatial distribution and en face surface area of AGs will be used in an in vitro model of CSF outflow. With an increase in the number of samples, this analysis technique can be used

  10. The Strategy of De-Internationalization of the SMES of the Footwear in the Area Metropolitana de Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. VARGAS-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the exogenous and endogenous factors that determine the strategy of de-internationalization of SMEs in the sector of the footwear in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (ZMG. A model is proposed that explains the adoption of the strategy of de-internationalization from studies of comparative case in SMEs in the footwear sector of the ZMG. In-depth interviews were applied to managers and staff involved during the time that the company was exporting. Analysis points out that lack of strategic planning and the instability in the foreign currency exchange rate are major factors that determine the strategy of de-internationalization in SMEs in the ZMG. Also, it is evident that the strategic imbalance during the de-internationalization strategy is not considered as a failure, but rather as an opportunity to redirect it and thus grow in the local market

  11. Sand Dredging and River Morphology Change along Parts of New Calabar River in Akpor Area of Rivers State, Nigeria and its Implications for Biological Resource Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was instituted to assess the impact of sand dredging along parts of New Calabar River channel morphology and the implication for biological resources conservation.The study was conducted within a period of two years (2008 and 2009 in two major sand dredging sites (Ogbogoro and Rumuorlumeni areas along the new Calabar River in Rivers State, Nigeria. The channel measurement was ascertained using hydrographic survey report carried out by dredge operators in the areas. The influence of river channel incision on river hydraulics was evaluated by comparing stream velocity of the different years. The volume of sand in the two areas were ascertained from sand search report, sediment lost from the channel were also obtained from the dredge time reports of dredge operators. The study reveals thatsignificant down-cutting in the riverbed along these parts of the New Calabar River. Significant increase in stream velocity was observed with increase the sediment transport capacityand accelerated channel incision; in fact there was significant change in the channel geometry. Consequently, there was an observed decline in the productivity of aquatic resources in the area, which our survey affirms as being a result of intense sand dredging in the area. The study therefore concludes that intense and uncontrolled sand dredging in the study area would mean detrimental impact on river management systems as well as future of the aquatic biodiversity and biological resources in the area. Thus, there is need for stringent restrictions on in-channel sand mining to save the biophysical and socio-economic environment of the affected areas.

  12. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  13. Obg and Membrane Depolarization Are Part of a Microbial Bet-Hedging Strategy that Leads to Antibiotic Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Natalie; Knapen, Wouter Joris; Kint, Cyrielle Ines; Liebens, Veerle; Van den Bergh, Bram; Dewachter, Liselot; Michiels, Joran Elie; Fu, Qiang; David, Charlotte Claudia; Fierro, Ana Carolina; Marchal, Kathleen; Beirlant, Jan; Versées, Wim; Hofkens, Johan; Jansen, Maarten; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Within bacterial populations, a small fraction of persister cells is transiently capable of surviving exposure to lethal doses of antibiotics. As a bet-hedging strategy, persistence levels are determined both by stochastic induction and by environmental stimuli called responsive diversification. Little is known about the mechanisms that link the low frequency of persisters to environmental signals. Our results support a central role for the conserved GTPase Obg in determining persistence in Escherichia coli in response to nutrient starvation. Obg-mediated persistence requires the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp and proceeds through transcriptional control of the hokB-sokB type I toxin-antitoxin module. In individual cells, increased Obg levels induce HokB expression, which in turn results in a collapse of the membrane potential, leading to dormancy. Obg also controls persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and thus constitutes a conserved regulator of antibiotic tolerance. Combined, our findings signify an important step toward unraveling shared genetic mechanisms underlying persistence.

  14. Landscape pattern and its restoration for coal mine subsidence area in southern part of Tangshan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; ZHANG Tie-min; BIAN Lu-feng; BO Li-jie; CUI Jian-yu; HU Lin

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the ecosystem damage and environment pollution resulted from coal resources exploitation, based on remote sensing image, the landscape pattern was quantitatively analyzed with GIS and landscape pattern analysis software FRAGSTATS by utilizing multiform landscape pattern indexes, such as patch area,patch circumference, patch number, fractal dimension, fragmentation index, connectivity index and so on. Resuits indicate that the restored landscape type occupies the control status and accounts for the majority of the whole area, and needs to be further restored and adjusted because of its internal body with smaller patches,lower fractal dimension and better connectivity. The landscape type without restoration has destroyed the ecology and beauty of the whole landscape. In addition, some suggestive instructions for restoring various kinds of patches are put forward according to the quantitative analysis.

  15. Small Area Estimation under a Two Part Random Effects Model with Application to Estimation of Literacy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeffermann, Danny; Terryn, Bénédicte; Moura, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The UNESCO Institute for Statistics has initiated a programme to collect data on the level of literacy of adults in developing countries. This will involve conducting small-scale surveys in a few countries that will consist of giving interviewees aged 15+ a test to measure their literacy score. One of the main objectives of these surveys is to obtain summary measures of literacy levels in small geographical areas for which only very small samples would be available, thus requiring the use of ...

  16. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries: Part Ⅰ—The coming main streamlization of open access resources?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Lin; LI; Xiwen; LIU; Yan; ZENG

    2011-01-01

    Open access(OA)resources are becoming a main part of scholarly information.The paper summarizes the fast growth of OA journals and OA repositories,the outstanding OA journal impact increase,the rise of mega-OA journals like PLoS ONE,the overwhelming support of research communities to open access of publicly funded research,and the quick building up of OA support structures.These forces work together to push scholarly communications toward a turning point where OA resources occupy a major and increasing share of scholarly research resources and when management of OA resources becomes a strategic,yet unfamiliar,and potentially disruptive task for research libraries.This paper is composed of two parts.The first part will focus on the development of OA resources,while the second part will analyze the challenges in management of OA resources and develop an OA resource strategy exemplified by some of NSL’s initiatives.

  17. Conservation-minded development strategies in urban areas, illustrated by the Ruhr conservation area. Oekologisch orientierte Entwicklungsstrategien in Verdichtungsgebieten am Beispiel des Naturschutzprogramms Ruhrgebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, E. (Kommunalverband Ruhrgebiet, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The report shows and values a two years existing landscape and nature conservation project in the greatest european industrial area - the Ruhr- and Emscherzone in West Germany. The most important aim is the recultivation of former industrial sites. Going out from a regional analysis of the environmental capacity and the current pressure on the environment, local measures under planning points of view are realised. After two years working the participated administrations have to state, that a lot of separate measures are realised. But very much work is to do in the future, if to improve basicly the oecological situation in the Emscher-area. (orig.).

  18. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Dresel, P. Evan; McKinley, James P.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Um, Wooyong; Resch, Charles T.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Petersen, Scott W.

    2011-01-04

    At the Hanford Site, chromate was used throughout the 100 Areas (100-B, 100-C, 100-D/DR, 100-F, 100-H, and 100 K) as a corrosion inhibitor in reactor cooling water. Chromate was delivered in rail cars, tanker trucks, barrels, and local pipelines as dichromate granular solid or stock solution. In many occasions, chromate was inevitably discharged to surface or near-surface ground through spills during handling, pipeline leaks, or during disposal to cribs. The composition of the liquids that were discharged is not known and it is quite possible that Cr(VI) fate and transport in the contaminated sediments would be a function of the chemical composition of the waste fluids. The major objectives of this investigation which was limited in scope by the financial resources available, were to 1) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100-D Area spill sites; 2) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of macroscopic leaching studies, and microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone that can be used for developing options for environmental remediation. The information gathered from this research effort will help to further improve our understanding of Cr(VI) behavior in the vadose zone and will also help in accelerating the 100 Area Columbia River Corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of column experiments were conducted with contaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns. Column experiments used the field size fraction of the sediment samples and a simulated Hanford Site groundwater solution. Periodic stop flow events were applied to

  19. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 3: Special reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report (Part 3: Special reports) is the third in a series of four reporting the results of the eNERGIA project. The first report presents the eight countries examined in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The second report deals mainly with selected renewable energy technologies, which are discussed from different perspectives. The fourth report provides a summary of the whole project. The present report summarises the SWOT analyses of the Nordic countries and the eNERGIA workshops, and presents case studies of good practice. (Author) refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  20. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends. PMID:24601653

  1. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  2. A prospective study of ocular toxicity in patients receiving ethambutol as a part of directly observed treatment strategy therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: India is among the largest countries to implement the revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP. This program provides intermittent regimens to the patients, where the doses of isoniazid and ethambutol are more as compared to the daily regimen, which is a cause of concern, particularly with regard to the ocular toxicity of ethambutol. The present study was undertaken to explore the ocular toxicity in the patients registered under the program. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective single center cohort study of 64 patients of categories I and II, coming to the RNTCP-Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS center at a tertiary care referral hospital. The detailed history, best corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, and color vision test were carried out in all patients at the start of treatment and then at the first and second month of treatment. Results: Loss in visual acuity from the baseline was noted at the second month follow up in 12 (9.4% eyes (P = 0.001, visual field defects were seen in eight (6.3% eyes (P = 0.0412, and optic disc abnormalities were observed in six (4.7% (P = 0.013 eyes. Color vision abnormalities were noted in 16 (12.6% eyes (P = 0.003, four eyes showed impairment in red-green color perception, and the others showed impairment in blue-yellow color perception as well. Patients with ocular symptoms were advised to stop ethambutol and they showed improvement in visual acuity after follow up of one to two months. The overall outcome of treatment was not affected by discontinuation of ethambutol in these patients. Conclusion: Ethambutol when taken according to program could cause ocular toxicity. The early recognition of ocular symptoms is important to prevent unnecessary delay in diagnosis and probable irreversible visual loss.

  3. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - III. Seismic Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The seismic potential of any regional seismogenic area is analyzed in terms of the "open physical system" inflow - outflow energy balance model (Thanassoulas, 2008, Part - I). Following the magnitude determination method presented by Thanassoulas, (2008, Part - II) any region of any arbitrary area extent is assumed as being a potential seismogenic region. Consequently, the capability for the generation of a maximum magnitude future EQ at each virtual seismogenic region is investigated all over Greece at certain times. The later results are used to compile maps of the seismic potential / maximum expected EQ magnitude for Greece at 5 year's intervals ranging from 1970 to 2000. The comparison of these seismic potential maps / maximum expected EQ magnitude to the corresponding seismicity (M>6R) for each corresponding 5 years period reveals their tight interrelation. Therefore, the calculated seismic potential / maximum expected EQ magnitude, due to its drastic change in time in any seismogenic region, is a dynami...

  4. Fuzzy Classification for Shoreline Change Monitoring in a Part of the Northern Coastal Area of Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an unsupervised fuzzy c-means classification (FCM to observe the shoreline positions. We combined crisp and fuzzy methods for change detection. We addressed two perspectives of uncertainty: (1 uncertainty that is inherent to shoreline positions as observed from remote sensing images due to its continuous variation over time; and (2 the uncertainty of the change results propagating from object extraction and implementation of shoreline change detection method. Unsupervised FCM achieved the highest kappa (κ value when threshold (t was set at 0.5. The highest κ values were 0.96 for the 1994 image. For images in 2013, 2014 and 2015, the κ values were 0.95. Further, images in 2003, 2002 and 2000 obtained 0.93, 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Gradual and abrupt changes were observed, as well as a measure of change uncertainty for the observed objects at the pixel level. These could be associated with inundations from 1994 to 2015 at the northern coastal area of Java, Indonesia. The largest coastal inundations in terms of area occurred between 1994 and 2000, when 739 ha changed from non-water and shoreline to water and in 2003–2013 for 200 ha. Changes from water and shoreline to non-water occurred between 2000 and 2002 (186 ha and in 2013–2014 (65 ha. Urban development in flood-prone areas resulted in an increase of flood hazards including inundation and erosion leading to the changes of shoreline position. The proposed methods provided an effective way to present shoreline as a line and as a margin with fuzzy boundary and its associated change uncertainty. Shoreline mapping and monitoring is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of coastal inundation including its trend.

  5. A choreography for 1000 windmills. Wind turbines need a rural area story. Part 2; Een choreografie voor 1000 molens. Windmolens hebben landschappelijk verhaal nodig. Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddes, Y. (et al)

    2010-10-15

    A report of an study on a strategy to install onshore wind power capacity in the Netherlands. Three local workshops were held (for the Wadden Sea, the IJsselmeer area and the southwestern delta) to answer the question how a landscaping target for the installation of approximately 1,000 new onshore wind turbines could look like. [Dutch] Een verslag van een verkenning naar een plaatsingsstrategie voor het benodigde vermogen wind-op-land. In drie regionale werkbijeenkomsten (voor de Waddenkust, het IJsselmeergebied en de zuidwestelijke delta) is de vraag gesteld hoe een landschappelijk streefbeeld voor de plaatsing van ongeveer 1000 nieuwe windturbines op land er uit zou kunnen zien.

  6. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 3. Estimating Surface Area Exposure by Deuterium Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Donohoe, Gregory C; Valentine, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX), collision cross section (CCS) measurement, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) techniques were utilized to develop and compare three methods for estimating the relative surface area exposure of separate peptide chains within bovine insulin ions. Electrosprayed [M - 3H](3-) and [M - 5H](5-) insulin ions produced a single conformer type with respective collision cross sections of 528 ± 5 Å(2) and 808 ± 2 Å(2). [M - 4H](4-) ions were comprised of more compact (Ω = 676 ± 3 Å(2)) and diffuse (i.e., more elongated, Ω = 779 ± 3 Å(2)) ion conformer types. Ions were subjected to HDX in the drift tube using D2O as the reagent gas. Collision-induced dissociation was used to fragment mobility-selected, isotopically labeled [M - 4H](4-) and [M - 5H](5-) ions into the protein subchains. Deuterium uptake levels of each chain can be explained by limited inter-chain isotopic scrambling upon collisional activation. Using nominal ion structures from MDS and a hydrogen accessibility model, the deuterium uptake for each chain was correlated to its exposed surface area. In separate experiments, the per-residue deuterium content for the protonated and deprotonated ions of the synthetic peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK were compared. The differences in deuterium content indicated the regional HDX accessibility for cations versus anions. Using ions of similar conformational type, this comparison highlights the complementary nature of HDX data obtained from positive- and negative-ion analysis. PMID:26620531

  7. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 3. Estimating Surface Area Exposure by Deuterium Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX), collision cross section (CCS) measurement, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) techniques were utilized to develop and compare three methods for estimating the relative surface area exposure of separate peptide chains within bovine insulin ions. Electrosprayed [M - 3H]3- and [M - 5H]5- insulin ions produced a single conformer type with respective collision cross sections of 528 ± 5 Å2 and 808 ± 2 Å2. [M - 4H]4- ions were comprised of more compact (Ω = 676 ± 3 Å2) and diffuse (i.e., more elongated, Ω = 779 ± 3 Å2) ion conformer types. Ions were subjected to HDX in the drift tube using D2O as the reagent gas. Collision-induced dissociation was used to fragment mobility-selected, isotopically labeled [M - 4H]4- and [M - 5H]5- ions into the protein subchains. Deuterium uptake levels of each chain can be explained by limited inter-chain isotopic scrambling upon collisional activation. Using nominal ion structures from MDS and a hydrogen accessibility model, the deuterium uptake for each chain was correlated to its exposed surface area. In separate experiments, the per-residue deuterium content for the protonated and deprotonated ions of the synthetic peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK were compared. The differences in deuterium content indicated the regional HDX accessibility for cations versus anions. Using ions of similar conformational type, this comparison highlights the complementary nature of HDX data obtained from positive- and negative-ion analysis.

  8. Challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Part II. Feedback and occlusion effect reduction strategies, laser shell manufacturing processes, and other signal processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  9. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  10. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  11. Delivery strategy of mass annual single dose DEC administration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the urban areas of Pondicherry, South India: 5 years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nandha, B; Sadanandane, C; Jambulingam, P.; Das, PK

    2007-01-01

    Background The recommended strategy for elimination of Lymphatic filariasis is single-dose, once-yearly mass treatment with anti-filarial drugs and the program is in operation on a national level in India. Rate of coverage and consumption is the most crucial factor in the success of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) program. In spite of massive efforts, the program demonstrated sub-optimal coverage and consumption in urban areas than rural. The involvement of Anganwadi workers (AWWs) of the Inte...

  12. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  13. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  14. 2014 iAREA campaign on aerosol in Spitsbergen - Part 1: Study of physical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisok, J.; Markowicz, K. M.; Ritter, C.; Makuch, P.; Petelski, T.; Chilinski, M.; Kaminski, J. W.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Rozwadowska, A.; Jefimow, M.; Markuszewski, P.; Neuber, R.; Pakszys, P.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Struzewska, J.; Zielinski, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties during iAREA2014 campaign that took place on Svalbard between 15th of Mar and 4th of May 2014. With respect to field area, the experiment consisted of two sites: Ny-Ålesund (78°55‧N, 11°56‧E) and Longyearbyen (78°13‧N, 15°33‧E) with further integration of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station in Hornsund (77°00‧N, 15°33‧E). The subject of this study is to investigate the in-situ, passive and active remote sensing observations as well as numerical simulations to describe the temporal variability of aerosol single-scattering properties during spring season on Spitsbergen. The retrieval of the data indicates several event days with enhanced single-scattering properties due to the existence of sulphate and additional sea-salt load in the atmosphere which is possibly caused by relatively high wind speed. Optical results were confirmed by numerical simulations made by the GEM-AQ model and by chemical observations that indicated up to 45% contribution of the sea-salt to a PM10 total aerosol mass concentration. An agreement between the in-situ optical and microphysical properties was found, namely: the positive correlation between aerosol scattering coefficient measured by the nephelometer and effective radius obtained from laser aerosol spectrometer as well as negative correlation between aerosol scattering coefficient and the Ångstrom exponent indicated that slightly larger particles dominated during special events. The in-situ surface observations do not show any significant enhancement of the absorption coefficient as well as the black carbon concentration which might occur during spring. All of extensive single-scattering properties indicate a diurnal cycle in Longyearbyen, where 21:00-5:00 data stays at the background level, however increasing during the day by the factor of 3-4. It is considered to be highly connected with local emissions originating

  15. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area, Part I: Meteorological simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Byun, Daewon W.

    To predict atmospheric conditions in an urban environment, the land surface processes must be accurately described through the use of detailed land use (LU) and land cover (LC) data. Use of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 25-category data, currently in the Fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5), with the Noah land surface model (LSM) and MRF (medium-range forecast) planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes resulted in the over-prediction of daytime temperatures in the Houston downtown area due to the inaccurate representation as a completely impervious surface. This bias could be corrected with the addition of canopy water in the urban areas from the evapotranspiration effects of urban vegetation. A more fundamental approach would be to utilize an LULC dataset that represents land surface features accurately. The Texas Forest Service (TFS) LULC dataset established with the LANDSAT satellite imagery correctly represents the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area as mixtures of urban, residential, grass, and forest LULC types. This paper describes how the Noah LSM and PBL schemes in the MM5 were modified to accommodate the TFS-LULC data. Comparisons with various meteorological measurements show that the MM5 simulation made with the high resolution LULC data improves the boundary layer mixing conditions and local wind patterns in the Houston Ship Channel, which is a critically important anthropogenic emission area affecting the HGB air pollution problems. In particular, when the synoptic flows are weak, the improved LULC data simulates the asymmetrically elongated Houston heat island convergence zone influencing the location of the afternoon Gulf of Mexico sea-breeze front and the Galveston Bay breeze flows. This paper is part I of a two-part study and focuses on the meteorological simulation. In part II, effects of using the different meteorological inputs on air quality simulations are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (μ) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a μ of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing μ to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  17. Area of admission and short-term care: an integral part of the internal medicine ward organized to intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Serafini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The analysis of the production related to health care activities in the Medicine ward of dell’Angelo Hospital (Mestre-Venezia, Italy in the year 2010 reveals that the short-term hospitalization, less than 3 days, corresponds to 18% of all inpatient admissions.Objectives The short-term hospitalization approach need to be “governed”, both in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In our department we have identified an area called “Admission and Short Stay Area”, where the discharge follows a comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic pathway. Accordingly, we plan to extend the number of beds dedicated to the short stay in hospital, in order to decrease the average duration of stay avoiding the risk of increasing the readmissions, to share new pathways between health care workers.Materials and methods Within the department we have identified 8 beds for patients admitted from the emergency room. In the same beds triage is performed. In these beds the maximum duration of stay is 3 days. To achieve this goal we used clinical pathways shared between health workers, and bedside diagnostic procedures such as ultrasounds.Results In 2011 than to year 2010 there was an increased rate of short-term hospitalization (22–18%. Despite that the mean hospital stay was unchanged (10.3–10.6 days. The number of readmission within 90 days was also unchanged when we considered the most common diseases. More than 90% of health care workers followed the pre-established clinical care pathways.Conclusions The presence of a small number of beds within the medicine ward was dedicated to perform triage that allows to identify clinical care the needs of the patient. Among these some can be resolved in 3 days, rewarding patients and saving human and financial resources. To achieve this goal it is necessary that health care providers share clinical pathways, and that the bedside ultrasound is accessible.

  18. An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Daniel Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementation b...

  19. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Hiwat Hélène; Hardjopawiro Loretta S; Takken Willem; Villegas Leopoldo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case description The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC)/information, education and communication (IE...

  20. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: the case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Tumpale Sakijege; John Lupala; Shaaban Sheuya

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of ...

  1. Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. Part 4. Turbulent flows and plume dispersion in an actual urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation (LOHDIM-LES) to assess the safety at nuclear facilities and to respond to emergency situations resulting from accidental or deliberate releases of radioactive materials (e.g., a terrorist attack in an urban area). In Part 1, the unsteady behavior of a plume dispersing over a flat terrain was successfully simulated. In Parts 2 and 3, LESs of turbulent flows and plume dispersion around an isolated building and in building arrays with different obstacle densities were performed, which showed the basic performance comparable to wind tunnel experimental technique. In this study, we apply the LES model to turbulent flows and plume dispersion in an actual urban area. Although some of the turbulence and dispersion characteristics are quantitatively different from the wind tunnel experimental data, the distribution patterns are generally similar to those of the experiments. It is concluded that our LES model simulates reasonably the unsteady behavior of turbulent flows and plume dispersion even for complex heterogeneous urban areas. (author)

  2. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B. PMID:27536537

  3. Lithostratigraphic and radiometric appraisal of deeper parts of Srisailam and Palnad sub-basins in Kottapullareddipuram - Achchammagunta - Rachchamallepadu area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the northern part of Cuddapah Basin, Meso - to Neoproterozoic sediments are deposited in Srisailam and Palnad sub-basins over Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic basement granitoids with younger felsic and mafic intrusives, and are affected by a number of lineaments, faults and fractures signifying reactivation in the area. The lithostructural setup is akin to the classical unconformity type uranium mineralisation model as evident from significant uranium mineralisation in the marginal parts with <139 m thick sedimentary column. It is an established fact that thick pile of cover sediments plays a vital role in enrichment of grade and thickness of such type of mineralisation. In view of this, the deeper parts of these sub-basins were explored by stratigraphic core drilling. Radiometric examination of stratigraphic boreholes has indicated lean mineralisation ranging from 0.010 to 0.017% eU3O8 grade and 0.20 m to 1.70 m thickness in granitoids and mostly occurring 11-17 m below the unconformity. Quartzite hosted lean mineralisation (0.010-0.011% eU3O8 x 0.20-0.40 m), just above the unconformity, has also been recorded in Srisailam Sub-basin. This has opened up the deeper parts of Srisailam and Palnad sub-basins for detailed uranium exploration

  4. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  5. Soil-ecological conditions of Korean pine growth in its natural area and upon introduction in the European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voityuk, M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic expediency and soil-ecological potential of introducing Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) in the forest zone of the European part of Russia are discussed. The specificity of soil-ecological conditions and technologies applied for growing Korean pine in some tree farms in the Far East region and in the European part of Russia are compared. The main soil-ecological factors and optimum soil parameters for the successful development of Korean pine in its natural and introduction areas are determined. It is shown that development of Korean pine seedlings on well-drained soils depends on the contents of potassium, humus, and physical clay in the soils. The seedlings gain maximum size upon their growing on soddypodzolic soils (Retisols). The analysis of mineral nutrition of pine seedlings of different ages, soil conditions, and seasonal growth phases shows that the contents of potassium and some microelements play the leading role in the successful growth of introduced Korean pine.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Response Strategies to a Large-Scale Anthrax Attack on the Chicago Metropolitan Area: Impact of Timing and Surge Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrez, Debra; Parada, Jorge P.; Steinberg, Justin M.; Kahn, Adam; Bennett, Charles L.; Schmitt, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid public health response to a large-scale anthrax attack would reduce overall morbidity and mortality. However, there is uncertainty about the optimal cost-effective response strategy based on timing of intervention, public health resources, and critical care facilities. We conducted a decision analytic study to compare response strategies to a theoretical large-scale anthrax attack on the Chicago metropolitan area beginning either Day 2 or Day 5 after the attack. These strategies correspond to the policy options set forth by the Anthrax Modeling Working Group for population-wide responses to a large-scale anthrax attack: (1) postattack antibiotic prophylaxis, (2) postattack antibiotic prophylaxis and vaccination, (3) preattack vaccination with postattack antibiotic prophylaxis, and (4) preattack vaccination with postattack antibiotic prophylaxis and vaccination. Outcomes were measured in costs, lives saved, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We estimated that postattack antibiotic prophylaxis of all 1,390,000 anthrax-exposed people beginning on Day 2 after attack would result in 205,835 infected victims, 35,049 fulminant victims, and 28,612 deaths. Only 6,437 (18.5%) of the fulminant victims could be saved with the existing critical care facilities in the Chicago metropolitan area. Mortality would increase to 69,136 if the response strategy began on Day 5. Including postattack vaccination with antibiotic prophylaxis of all exposed people reduces mortality and is cost-effective for both Day 2 (ICER=$182/QALY) and Day 5 (ICER=$1,088/QALY) response strategies. Increasing ICU bed availability significantly reduces mortality for all response strategies. We conclude that postattack antibiotic prophylaxis and vaccination of all exposed people is the optimal cost-effective response strategy for a large-scale anthrax attack. Our findings support the US government's plan to provide antibiotic prophylaxis and

  7. Coastline lenghts and areas of islands in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea determined from the topographic maps at the scale of 1 : 25 000

    OpenAIRE

    Tea Duplančić Leder; Tin Ujević

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, modern definition of island established by the IHO has been accepted, and classification of islands, islets, rocks and rocks awash has been proposed according to their areas. The coastline of the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea was digitized from topographic maps produced at the scale of 1 : 25 000 (TM 25). Topographic maps used for digitization are more precise than the maps that were used in earlier works and consequently the data on the number of islands and their coastlin...

  8. Part-Load Performance Prediction and Operation Strategy Design of Organic Rankine Cycles with a Medium Cycle Used for Recovering Waste Heat from Gaseous Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is regarded as a suitable way to recover waste heat from gaseous fuel internal combustion engines. As waste heat recovery systems (WHRS have always been designed based on rated working conditions, while engines often work under part-load conditions, it is quite significant to analyze the part-load performance and corresponding operation strategy of ORC systems. This paper presents a dynamic model of ORC with a medium cycle used for a large gaseous fuel engine and analyzes the effect of adjustable parameters on the system performance, giving effective control directions under various conditions. The results indicate that the intermediary fluid mass flow rate has nearly no effect on the output power and thermal efficiency of the ORC, while the mass flow rate of working fluid has a great effect on them. In order to get a better system performance under different working conditions, the system should be operated with the working fluid mass flow rate as large as possible, but with a slight degree of superheating. Then, with the control of constant superheat degree at the end of the heating process, the performance of the combined system that consists of ORC and the engine at steady state under seven typical working conditions is also analyzed. The results indicate that the energy-saving effect of WHRS becomes worse and worse as the working condition decreases. Especially at 40% working condition the WHRS nearly has no energy-saving effect anymore.

  9. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - II. Maximum expected magnitude determination

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The (any) seismogenic area in the lithosphere is considered as an open physical system. Following its energy balance analysis earlier presented (Part - I, Thanassoulas, 2008), the specific case when the seismogenic area is under normal (input energy equals released energy) seismogenic conditions is studied. In this case the cumulative seismic energy release is a linear time function. Starting from this linear function a method is postulated for the determination of the maximum expected magnitude of a future earthquake. The proposed method has been tested "a posteriori" on real EQs from the Greek territory, USA and data obtained from the seismological literature. The obtained results validate the methodology while an analysis is presented that justifies the obtained high degree of accuracy compared to the corresponding calculated EQ magnitudes with seismological methods.

  10. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  11. Integrated exploration strategy for locating areas capable of high gas rate cavity completion in coalbed methane reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klawitter, A.L.; Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    In 1993, the San Juan Basin accounted for approximately 605 Bcf of the 740 Bcf of all coalbed gas produced in the United States. The San Juan {open_quotes}cavitation fairway{close_quotes} in which production occurs in open-hole cavity completions, is responsible for over 60% of all U.S. coalbed methane production. Perhaps most striking is the fact that over 17,000 wells had penetrated the Fruitland formation in the San Juan Basin prior to recognition of the coalbed methan potential. To understand the dynamic cavity fairway reservoir in the San Juan Basin, an exploration rationale for coalbed methan was developed that permits a sequential reduction in total basin exploration area based on four primary exploration criteria. One of the most significant criterion is the existence of thick, thermally mature, friable coals. A second criterion is the existence of fully gas-charged coals. Evaluation of this criterion requires reservoir geochemical data to delineate zones of meteoric influx where breaching has occurred. A third criterion is the presence of adequate reservoir permeability. Natural fracturing in coals is due to cleating and tectonic processes. Because of the general relationship between coal cleating and coal rank, coal cleating intensity can be estimated by analysis of regional coal rank maps. The final criterion is determining whether natural fractures are open or closed. To make this determination, remote sensing imagery interpretation is supported by ancillary data compiled from regional tectonic studies. Application of these four criteria to the San Juan Basin in a heuristic, stepwise process resulted in an overall 94% reduction in total basin exploration area. Application of the first criterion reduced the total basin exploration area by 80%. Application of the second criterion further winnows this area by an addition 9%. Application of the third criterion reduces the exploration area to 6% of the total original exploration area.

  12. Strategies for Change: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Hugh C.

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on notion of change as integrated into personal and library settings, this essay discusses routines versus change, redistribution of resources, effects of economic recession, technological changes in information transfer media (papyrus and clay tablets, video disks, fiber optics, microcomputers, databases), and changes in library patrons'…

  13. Using Expansion Strategies in Making Untranslatable Areas of Poetry Translatable: Sa'di's Bustan as a Case in Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore poetry translatability and seek to see what the translators do to compensate those untranslatable areas of poetry. In doing so, the researchers chose a literary work, i.e., Bustan, by one of the well-known Iranian poets, that is, Sa'di (Wickens, 1990) and one of its translations, "The Bustan by Shaikh…

  14. Marketingová strategie společnosti Back2life s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnčířová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Hrnčířová, L. Marketing strategy of Back2Life company. Bachelor thesis. Brno: Mendel University, 2015. This bachelor thesis deals with development of marketing strategy for Back2Life company. Thesis is divided into two parts. In first part, author described funda-mental theoretical definitions from area of marketing of services, marketing mix and strategy marketing. The second part is focused on applying those theoretical basics in the praxis. This practical part contains an analysis of envir...

  15. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  16. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  17. IPH response to the National Transport Authority on the Greater Dublin Area Draft Transport Strategy 2011-2030

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    The remit of the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) is to promote cooperation for public health between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in the areas of research and information, capacity building and policy advice. Our approach is to support Departments of Health and their agencies in both jurisdictions, and maximise the benefits of all-island cooperation to achieve practical benefits for people in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.IPH has a keen interest in t...

  18. Registered Trademarks… Reflections on the use of trademarks, consumption patterns and marketing strategies in rural areas of Argentina (1900-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lluch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trademarks are highly valuable devices that serve a relevant purpose in trade and consumption patterns. However, trademarks have been largely neglected by Argentina's economic history historiography. This article discusses how and when trademarks emerged and spread in Argentina's rural area in the early 20th century. It describes this gradual process, pointing out that, by the late 1920s, trademarks had already become a prominent feature in rural marketing strategies and consumption patterns. The study also analyzes how these processes contributed to shaping retailers' business practices as well as generic consumer goods' marketing channels (particularly, in the food and beverage industries

  19. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorná, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with issues of marketing strategy of a company in chosen retail business. Its main aim is to suggest new advertising strategy of a company for the purpose of increasing awareness customers and marketability of products. On the grounds of consultations with the management of the company, analysis of current marketing strategy and results of market research I have fulfiled this task. In the theoretical part of this diploma thesis I deal with introduction to strat...

  20. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  1. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy

  2. Successful outcome of an integrated strategy for the reduction of schistosomiasis transmission in an endemically complex area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhu Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the major public health problems in the People’s Republic of China (and elsewhere, seriously threatening health as well as social and economic development. An integrated control strategy, emphasising transmission control but also aimed at reducing greenhouse gases, was carried out in Jiangling county, Hubei province from 2007 to 2009. Three villages were chosen for a pilot study involving removal of cattle from neighbouring, snail-infested grasslands, improving sanitation and construction of units for household biogas production in addition to routine control measures. Both prevalence and intensity of infection in the snails in the neighbourhood were greatly reduced after two years of implementation, while the prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans in the three villages had been reduced by 29%, 34% and 24%, respectively. The removal of cattle and construction of biogas production units had an additional positive effect in that the annual, average emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 were reduced by an estimated 7.8 and 80.2 tons, respectively.

  3. Feasibility of storing CO2 in the Utsira formation as part of a long term Dutch CCS strategy. An evaluation based on a GIS/MARKAL toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides insight into the feasibility of a CO2 trunkline from the Netherlands to the Utsira formation in the Norwegian part of the North Sea, which is a large geological storage reservoir for CO2. The feasibility is investigated in competition with CO2 storage in onshore and near-offshore sinks in the Netherlands. Least-cost modelling with a MARKAL model in combination with ArcGIS was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the trunkline as part of a Dutch greenhouse gas emission reduction strategy for the Dutch electricity sector and CO2 intensive industry. The results show that under the condition that a CO2 permit price increases from 25 euro per tCO2 in 2010 to 60 euro per tCO2 in 2030, and remains at this level up to 2050, CO2 emissions in the Netherlands could reduce with 67% in 2050 compared to 1990, and investment in the Utsira trunkline may be cost-effective from 2020-2030 provided that Belgian and German CO2 is transported and stored via the Netherlands as well. In this case, by 2050 more than 2.1 GtCO2 would have been transported from the Netherlands to the Utsira formation. However, if the Utsira trunkline is not used for transportation of CO2 from Belgium and Germany, it may become cost-effective 10 years later, and less than 1.3 GtCO2 from the Netherlands would have been stored in the Utsira formation by 2050. On the short term, CO2 storage in Dutch fields appears more cost-effective than in the Utsira formation, but as yet there are major uncertainties related to the timing and effective exploitation of the Dutch offshore storage opportunities.

  4. The distribution of the phenolic metabolites barbaloin, aloeresin and aloenin as a peripheral defense strategy in the succulent leaf parts of Aloe arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutterman; Chauser-Volfson

    2000-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is a large, multi-stemmed shrub. It is used as hedge plants to protect agricultural fields or stock and as horticultural plants in gardens. In natural habitats it is one of the very common Aloe species along the Indian Ocean coast of southern Africa, from the Cape, in the south, to Zimbabwe and Malawi in the north. Secondary phenolic metabolites such as barbaloin (Rf 0.31-0.35), aloeresin (Rf 0.25-0.3) and aloenin (Rf 0.51-0.55) have been found to be distributed in the succulent leaves of Aloe arborescens in a peripheral defense strategy. The youngest leaves have the highest content. The terminal third of each leaf has the highest content and the basal third, the lowest. Along the leaf margins, on the top third and adaxial side, the content is the highest and in the base third, the lowest along the leaf center on the abaxial side. Similar relative amounts of these three secondary phenolic metabolites were found in the different leaf locations. The leaf orientation may affect the total content of these three phenols but not their relative amounts in the different parts of the leaves. It is possible that the more often the plant parts are damaged by consumption by animals such as elephants, kudu or insects, the greater the increase of their phenolic metabolites. This increase may reduce or prevent further consumption when the content of the metabolites reaches a certain level. The plants then have a chance to renew themselves. PMID:10913844

  5. The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 2: Clinical Implications for Chronic Pain, Substance Misuse, and Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Marina A; Vythilingam, Meena

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly utilized in the management of chronic pain since 1982. This second review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for chronic pain, substance use disorder, tobacco use disorder, and insomnia frequently co-occurring after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 72 relevant systematic reviews and clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. The Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of recommendation (SOR) for each clinical condition. Mindfulness-based interventions effectively and durably reduce pain intensity, improve functional status, pain-related psychological consequences, quality of life (SOR B). They can also be utilized as an adjunctive intervention aimed at improving health-related quality of life in individuals with substance use disorders interested in self-management strategies (SOR B). Mindfulness training for smokers used adjunctively with pharmacotherapy shows efficacy in maintaining abstinence comparable to that of the current standard of care (SOR B). Future large, well-designed randomized clinical trials using active controls in service members and veterans with co-occurring pain and psychological health conditions are necessary to provide more precise clinical guidance. PMID:27612339

  6. The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 1: Clinical Implications for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Marina A; Vythilingam, Meena

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly utilized in the management of mental health conditions. This first review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for mental health conditions frequently seen after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 52 systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were included. The Strength of Recommendation (SOR) Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of evidence for each clinical condition. Adjunctive mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective for decreasing symptom severity during current depressive episode, and for reducing relapse rate in recovered patients during maintenance phase of depression management (SOR moderate [SOR B]). Adjunctive mindfulness-based stress reduction is effective for improving symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and mindfulness in veterans with combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (SOR B). Currently, there is no sufficient data to recommend MBIs for generalized anxiety disorder (SOR B). MBIs are safe, portable, cost-effective, and can be recommended as an adjunct to standard care or self-management strategy for major depressive disorder and PTSD. Future large, well-designed randomized clinical trials in service members and veterans can help plan for the anticipated increase in demand for behavioral health services. PMID:27612338

  7. Isotopes and groundwater management strategies under semi-arid area: case of the Souss upstream basin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouragba, L; Mudry, J; Bouchaou, L; Hsissou, Y; Krimissa, M; Tagma, T; Michelot, J L

    2011-07-01

    This study concerns the Souss upstream basin. The objective is to investigate the characteristics of surface water and groundwater, to assess the impact of artificial recharge as reinforcement of the natural replenishment and assess the renewal of groundwater under semi-arid area. Two major water types are observed: (i) surface waters and upstream springs (least mineralized) and (ii) all groundwater samples (prevailing calcium and magnesium bicarbonate water type). Water isotopes show a low evaporation of precipitations during infiltration. Impoverishment in heavy isotopes is the characteristic of mountain rainfalls, or of a climate colder and wetter than present. Carbon-14 activities (34-94 pmc) indicate a long residence time. The artificial recharge is low compared to the reservoir volume, due to which the renewal rate is also low.

  8. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  9. Insights to the internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2012-12-15

    Within the last decade, the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of local biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. They are centered on the potential of biogas plants for supporting rural sustainable development processes. On the other side, the national biogas praxis is accompanied by several unwelcome and partly severe side effects. This contrast has given rise to research on how to master the complex challenge of operating biogas plants as part of overall sustainable development processes in rural Germany. The research presented in this article is mainly based on the extended case study method. It gives insight into the respective actions and significance of family farms that proactively use and develop their internal sphere of influence. These farms do so by embracing deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources, as well as sustaining continuous innovativeness. Furthermore, they make use of a farm's capacity for self-regulation. The strategies of the surveyed family farms reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has currently been observed as a worldwide repeasantization. Given Germany's rapid decline of family farms over the past several decades, the future role of the farms in mastering the complex challenge of supporting overall sustainable development processes, e.g., with biogas plants as a technical link, is uncertain. Making use of current repeasantization processes for expanding the sustainable use of biogas plants is an approach which, to date, seems to be hardly noticed and considerably underestimated. (orig.)

  10. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  11. The impact on the landscape, environment and society of new productive chains in a mountain area: strategies, analysis and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rainis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zootechnical farms enhance the preservation and valorization of the environmental value of the surroundings in marginal areas, such as the mountains of Friuli Venezia Giulia. An important tool for relaunching mountain animal husbandry can be the promotion of an appropriate policy to maintain and develop local food chains, supporting typical products, tightly related to the peculiarity of the agro-ecosystem. The aim of the chain Carne della Montagna Friulana-Carne di Qualità is to create a cooperation among primary producers, transformation companies, sellers and research institutes, in order to develop innovative pathways throughout the production of meat in Carnia (UD. The project was designed in 2007/08 but it was operative from 2010, with a first batch of animals. The stakeholders subscribed a chain agreement, adopting production guidelines and a commercial trademark. Since the meat is not yet ready, the present paper is, in part, an analysis of the preliminary modification of the operative context and, in part, a previsional examination of the possible effect of the activation of this production chain on the area. The results investigated economic, social, landscape, technical and technological (related to food safety elements. It can be observed, by an introductive evaluation, that this productive circuit may valorize the resources of this mountain area and can enhance zootechnics in mountain areas. The guidelines allow a vertical integration throughout the production path, coordinating all the operators. This type of production can be considered a niche product, related to the territory, with the maximum guarantee for the consumers. The environmental worthiness is the recovering and the improving of these marginal, agricultural areas. Actually, an overall evaluation can be done only from the summer of 2011, when data such as the organoleptic and qualitative characteristics, selling prices, level of appreciation by the customers and

  12. Impact of partly ice-free Lake Ladoga on temperature and cloudiness in an anticyclonic winter situation – a case study using a limited area model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of January 2012, a low-level cloud from partly ice-free Lake Ladoga caused very variable 2-m temperatures in Eastern Finland. The sensitivity of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM to the lake surface conditions was tested in this winter anticyclonic situation. The lake appeared to be (incorrectly totally covered by ice when the lake surface was described with its climatology. Both parametrisation of the lake surface state by using a lake model integrated to the NWP system and objective analysis based on satellite observations independently resulted in a correct description of the partly ice-free Lake Ladoga. In these cases, HIRLAM model forecasts were able to predict cloud formation and its movement as well as 2-m temperature variations in a realistic way. Three main conclusions were drawn. First, HIRLAM could predict the effect of Lake Ladoga on local weather, when the lake surface state was known. Second, the current parametrisation methods of air–surface interactions led to a reliable result in conditions where the different physical processes (local surface processes, radiation and turbulence were not strong, but their combined effect was important. Third, these results encourage work for a better description of the lake surface state in NWP models by fully utilising satellite observations, combined with advanced lake parametrisation and data assimilation methods.

  13. Possible impacts of the natural gas three-part tariff on the great industrial consumers over 500.000 m{sup 3}/month at the COMGAS distribution area; Possiveis impactos da tarifa trinomial de gas natural nos grandes consumidores industriais acima de 500.000 m{sup 3}/mes na area de concessao da COMGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: phsantana@fem.unicamp.br; jannuzzi@fem.uncamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The problem of saturation in the natural gas distribution pipelines in Brazil is not urgent, but it's possible to notice the need of reinforcements in some extensions. Price regulation does not consider this problem yet, but it's already predicted the adoption of a three-part tariff considering a contracted capacity for some industrial consumers - industries that buy more than 500.000 m3/month in the COMGAS distribution area. Some industries, like potteries and glass makers, would probably not suffer strong impacts with the implementation of this three-part tariff, since the majority of their manufacturing processes are continuous. Others sectors would probably have negative impacts with the contracted capacity, like pulp and paper, metallurgy and textile industries. The way that industry will manage the contracted capacity is still unknown. Some possibilities are: considering natural gas as one of the variables in the productions' decision; having a 'Back-up' system when the consumption surpass the contracted capacity; switch fuels when total consumption is above 500.000 m{sup 3}/month, so that the company does not fit in the three-part tariff. The three-part tariff has not been published yet, but it's already necessary a sign to the market that this will occur in the near future, so that the companies involved can already create a strategy for the use of natural gas. This signal is already predicted in the Technical Paper number X of CSPE. (author)

  14. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Ličko Lešće, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach. PMID:24993009

  15. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China——Take Xinlong County of GanziTibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaGuitan

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken area. Howeve,they were isotated for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The Feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Stchuan Province as an example.

  16. Effect of Niagara power project on ground-water flow in the upper part of the Lockport Dolomite, Niagara Falls area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Niagara River Power Project near Niagara Falls, N.Y., has created recharge and discharge areas that have modified the direction of groundwater flow east and northeast of the falls. Before construction of the power project in 1962, the configuration of the potentiometric surface in the upper part of the Silurian Lockport Dolomite generally paralleled the buried upper surface of the bedrock. Ground water in the central and east parts of the city of Niagara Falls flowed south and southwestward toward the upper Niagara River (above the falls), and ground water in the western part flowed westward into Niagara River gorge. The power project consists of two hydroelectric powerplants separated by a forebay canal that receives water from the upper Niagara River through two 4-mi-long, parallel, buried conduits. During periods of nonpeak power demand, some water in the forebay canal is pumped to a storage reservoir for later release to generate electricity during peak-demand periods. Since the power project began operation in 1962, groundwater within 0.5 mi of the buried conduits has seeped into the drain system that surrounds the conduits, then flows both south from the forebay canal and north from the Niagara River toward the Falls Street tunnel--a former sewer that crosses the conduits 0.65 mi north of the upper Niagara River. Approximately 6 million gallons of ground water a day leaks into the Falls Street tunnel, which carries it 2.3 mi westward to the Niagara River gorge below the falls. Daily water-level fluctuations in the forebay canal affect water levels in the drain system that surrounds the conduits, and this , in turn, affects the potentiometric surface in the Lockport Dolomite within 0.5 mi of the conduits. The drains transmit changes in pressure head near the forebay canal southward at least as far as the Falls Street tunnel area and possibly to the upper Niagara River. Some water in the pumped-storage reservoir recharges ground water in the Lockport

  17. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  18. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to establish a suitable strategy for Centropen company. The master's thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part deals with analyses of the internal and external environment, which is based on literature. The practical part then applies the said analyses to the company. The internal analysis is carried out based on source and financial analysis. The external environment is studied through the PEST analysis and the Porter's Five Forces ...

  19. Research on the Purchasing Strategy of Spare Parts in Maanshan Iron Based on Material Properties%基于物料属性的马钢备件采购策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱平

    2014-01-01

    文中立足备件的多种属性,分析马钢备件采购现状,研究备件采购的策略定位;通过对不同属性的备件采购定位分析,建立备件采购策略的选择机制,进而优化备件采购模式。%Based on the variety of properties of spare parts,this paper analysis the present situation of procurement of spare parts in Maanshan Iron.Then the strategic positioning of procurement of spare parts is researched.Through positioning analysis for different attributes of spare parts,the selection mechanism of spare parts procurement strategy is built.And this can optimize the procurement mode of the spare parts.

  20. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  1. Tourism Areas, back ski use- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski...

  2. Tourism Areas, back ski 3 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 3 -...

  3. Tourism Areas, back ski 1- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 1-...

  4. Tourism Areas, Back ski 2 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Back ski 2 -...

  5. Tourism Areas, back ski 4 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 4 -...

  6. Tourism Areas, B plan for Nordic - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'B plan for...

  7. Tourism Areas, D plan for alpine - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'D plan for...

  8. Tourism Areas, C plan for alpine - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'C plan for...

  9. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  10. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. PMID:27478588

  11. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies through Indigenous Knowledge System: Aspect on Agro-Crop Production in the Flood Prone Areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the climate change adaptation strategies for agro crop production and assesses the financial suitability through indigenous knowledge in flood prone areas of Bangladesh. However, for this purpose two types of experiments have conducted with selected eight agro crop species. Firstly, the seven treatments have been experimented in a Tub (an earthen pot. In this case, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum is more beneficial among these seven treatments and average benefit-cost ratio of this treatment was 3.54. Thereafter, the seven treatments also have been experimenting in Tukri (a bamboo basket. Likewise, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum is more beneficial in the second experiment and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 3.52 because the soil and the cow dung mixture have been used as a potting medium. On the contrary, Long coriander (Eryngium foetidum is more beneficial and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 4.74 after using the soil and water hyacinth mixture as a potting medium. According to indigenous knowledge, these results could be developed from different climate change adaptation strategies in farming system for production of common agro crops as well as their financial suitability by the flood affected people of Bangladesh to harness the effect of climate change.

  12. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  13. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  14. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 1: Deep Convective Updraft Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, A. C.; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Collis, Scott M.; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Snow reflectivity can exceed 40 dBZ in a two-moment scheme when a constant bulk density of 100 kg m-3 is used. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to area rather than volume should somewhat alleviate this problem. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations. This is associated with large amounts of liquid water above the freezing level in updraft cores. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of large rainwater contents lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. Strong simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some showing supercell characteristics. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 meters to 100 meters weakens strong updrafts, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may partly be a product of interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and large-scale environmental biases that promote different convective modes and strengths than observed.

  15. Sentinel areas: a monitoring strategy in public health Áreas sentinelas: uma estratégia de monitoramento em saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Teixeira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Available techniques for monitoring the health situation have proven insufficient, thus leading to a discussion of the need for their improvement based on new data collection strategies allowing for data use by local health systems. This article presents the methodological basis for a strategy to monitor health problems utilizing demarcated intra-urban spaces called "sentinel areas" to collect fundamental social, economic, behavioral, and biological data for public health that allow for a closer approach to the reality of complex social spaces. The authors present an experience that is being developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the epidemiological impact of an environmental sanitation program. They discuss selection criteria for the areas and the potential uses of this strategy allowing for the rapid utilization of epidemiological resources by health services and the timely application of the results to reorient and enhance health intervention practices.As técnicas disponíveis para monitoramento da situação de saúde têm se mostrado insuficientes, razão pela qual discute-se a necessidade de aperfeiçoá-las com base no desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de coleta de informa��ões, de modo a permitir seu uso pelos sistemas locais de saúde. Este artigo apresenta as bases metodológicas de uma estratégia de monitoramento de problemas de saúde que emprega espaços intra-urbanos delimitados - "áreas sentinelas" - para coleta de informações sociais, econômicas, comportamentais e biológicas que são fundamentais para a Saúde Pública por permitirem uma maior aproximação com a realidade de espaços sociais complexos. Os autores apresentam uma experiência que está sendo desenvolvida em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, para avaliação de impacto epidemiológico resultante da implantação de um programa de saneamento ambiental. Discutem os critérios de seleção das áreas e as potencialidades de uso desta estratégia, por

  16. Study area boundary derived from 1:1,000,000-scale hydrographic areas and flow systems for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the amalgamation of the hydrographic area (HA) boundaries and polygons for the GBCAAS study area. The study area consists of 165 HAs based on...

  17. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Brabcová, Sanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to conduct strategic analysis and create a strategy for travel agency Autoturist a.s. Part of the analysis is research on external environment that includes PEST analysis, 4C method and Porter's five forces analysis. Internal environment is explored especilly with financial analysis, analysis of resources and SWOT analysis. Outcome is to propose concrete strategy for selected company.

  18. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part I. Treatment modalities of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Taylor, R.E. [Radiotherapy Dept., Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarzello, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Padua General Hospital (Italy); Gnekow, A.K. [Children' s Hospital, Augsburg (Germany); Dieckmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, General Hospital Vienna (Austria)

    2003-08-01

    Background: Treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas is a challenging issue owing to their low incidence and the lack of consensus about ''optimal'' treatment approach. Material and Methods: Reports in the literature spanning 60 years of radiation therapy, including orthovoltage, megavoltage and recently modern high-precision treatments, were reviewed with respect to visual function, survival, prognostic factors, dose prescriptions, target volumes, and treatment techniques. Based on these experiences, future strategies in the management of childhood low-grade glioma are presented. Results: Evaluation of published reports is difficult because of inconsistencies in data presentation, relatively short follow-up in some series and failure to present findings and results in a comparable way. Even with the shortcomings of the reports available in the literature, primarily concerning indications, age at treatment, dose response, timing and use of ''optimal'' treatment fields, radiation therapy continues to play an important role in the management of these tumors achieving long-term survival rates up to 80% or more. Particularly in gliomas of the visual pathway, high local tumor control and improved or stable function is achieved in approximately 90% of cases. Data on dose-response relationships recommend dose prescriptions between 45 and 54 Gy with standard fractionation. There is consensus now to employ radiation therapy in older children in case of progressive disease only, regardless of tumor location and histologic subtype. In younger children, the role of radiotherapy is unclear. Recent advances in treatment techniques, such as 3-D treatment planning and various ''high-precision'' treatments achieved promising initial outcome, however with limited patient numbers and short follow-ups. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality in children with low-grade glioma regarding tumor control

  19. Technology Strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'; Technology Target Areas; TTA1 - environmental technology for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The OG21 Technology Target Area 1 (TTA 1) group has produced a strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'. A key aim of this work is to ensure that the operators on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) remain in a leading position with respect to environmental performance, while contributing to optimised resource recovery and value creation. This strategy focuses on environmental technology, which includes hardware, methods, software and knowledge. The TTA 1 group has agreed on a common vision: 'Norwegian oil and gas activities shall be leading in environmental performance, and Norway shall have the world leading knowledge and technology cluster within environmental technologies to support the zero harmful impact goals of the oil and gas industry.' Priorities have been made with emphasis on gaps that are considered most important to close and that will benefit from public research and development funding either for initialisation (primarily via the Petromaks and Climit programs) or acceleration (via Petromaks / Climit and particularly Demo 2000 where demonstration or piloting is required). The priorities aim to avoid technology gaps that are expected to be closed adequately through existing projects / programs or which are covered in other TTA strategies. The priority areas as identified are: Environmental impact and risk identification / quantification for new areas: Make quality assured environmental baseline data available on the web. Develop competence necessary to quantify and monitor the risks and risk reductions to the marine environment in new area ecosystems; Carbon capture and storage: Quantify environmental risks and waste management issues associated with bi-products from carbon capture processes and storage solutions. Develop and demonstrate effective carbon storage risk management, monitoring and mitigation technologies. Develop more cost and energy efficient power-from-shore solutions to reduce / eliminate CO{sub 2

  20. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED; (ii the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED; (iii the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA; and (iv the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED. The updated checklist (December 2010 of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718, less in the WMED (328 and CMED (267 and least in the Adriatic (171. Of these, 535 species (56% are established in at least one area.Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(subtropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED.Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  1. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  2. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part I. distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide-related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Huggins, D.; Welker, G.; Dias, J.R.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Murowchick, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticide-related compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 ??g/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency of detection of PAHs increased with increasing urbanization of the residential watersheds. Four- and five-ring PAH compounds predominated the PAH composition (73-100%), especially fluoranthene and pyrene. The PAH composition profiles along with the diagnostic isomer ratios [e.g., anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene), 0.16 ?? 0.03; fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), 0.55 ?? 0.01)] indicate that pyrogenic sources (i.e., coal-tar-related operations or materials and traffic-related particles) may be common PAH contributors to these residential streams. Historical-use organochlorine insecticides and their degradates dominated the occurrences of pesticide-related compounds, with chlordane and dieldrin detected in over or nearly 50% of the samples. The occurrence of these historical organic compounds was associated with past urban applications, which may continue to be nonpoint sources replenishing local streams. Concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW; two or three rings) and high molecular weight (HMW; four to six rings) PAHs covaried along individual streams but showed dissimilar distribution patterns between the streams, while the historical pesticide-related compounds generally increased in concentration downstream. Correlations were noted

  3. Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959–99 – Part 1: Determination of length, area, and volume changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Haeberli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Storglaciären, located in the Kebnekaise massif in northern Sweden, has a long history of glaciological research. Early photo documentations date back to the late 19th century. Measurements of front position variations and distributed mass balance have been carried out since 1910 and 1945/46, respectively. In addition to these in-situ measurements, aerial photographs have been taken at decadal intervals since the beginning of the mass balance monitoring program and were used to produce topographic glacier maps. Inaccuracies in the maps were a challenge to early attempts to derive glacier volume changes and resulted in major differences when compared to the direct glaciological mass balances. In this study, we reanalyzed dia-positives of the original aerial photographs of 1959, -69, -80, -90 and -99 based on consistent photogrammetric processing. From the resulting digital elevation models and orthophotos, changes in length, area, and volume of Storglaciären were computed between the survey years, including an assessment of related errors. Between 1959 and 1999, Storglaciären lost an ice volume of 19×106 m3, which corresponds to a cumulative ice thickness loss of 5.69 m and a mean annual loss of 0.14 m. This ice loss resulted largely from a strong volume loss during the period 1959–80 and was partly compensated during the period 1980–99. As a consequence, the glacier shows a strong retreat in the 1960s, a slowing in the 1970s, and pseudo-stationary conditions in the 1980s and 1990s.

  4. 2014 iAREA campaign on aerosol in Spitsbergen - Part 2: Optical properties from Raman-lidar and in-situ observations at Ny-Ålesund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C.; Neuber, R.; Schulz, Alexander; Markowicz, K. M.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Lisok, J.; Makuch, P.; Pakszys, P.; Markuszewski, P.; Rozwadowska, A.; Petelski, T.; Zielinski, T.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Gausa, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work multi wavelength Raman lidar data from Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen have been analysed for the spring 2014 Arctic haze season, as part of the iAREA campaign. Typical values and probability distributions for aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarisation, the lidar ratio and the color ratio for 4 different altitude intervals within the troposphere are given. These quantities and their dependencies are analysed and the frequency of altitude-dependent observed aerosol events are given. A comparison with ground-based size distribution and chemical composition is performed. Hence the aim of this paper is to provide typical and statistically meaningful properties of Arctic aerosol, which may be used in climate models or to constrain the radiative forcing. We have found that the 2014 season was only moderately polluted with Arctic haze and that sea salt and sulphate were the most dominant aerosol species. Moreover the drying of an aerosol layer after cloud disintegration has been observed. Hardly any clear temporal evolution over the 4 week data set on Arctic haze is obvious with the exception of the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio, which significantly decreased below 2 km altitude by end April. In altitudes between 2 and 5 km the haze season lasted longer and the aerosol properties were generally more homogeneous than closer to the surface. Above 5 km only few particles were found. The variability of the lidar ratio is discussed. It was found that knowledge of the aerosol's size and shape does not determine the lidar ratio. Contrary to shape and lidar ratio, there is a clear correlation between size and backscatter: larger particles show a higher backscatter coefficient.

  5. Multi-isotope approach for the identification and characterisation of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano lagoon (Italy) and parts of its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multi-tracer approach for the identification and characterisation of nitrate sources in a lagoon environment was used. • Different nitrate pollution sources in the lagoon were identified. • Isotopes in nitrate and boron were applied to distinguish different anthropogenic pollution sources. • Atmospheric depositions (based on Δ17O analyses of nitrate) were recognized as additional nitrate source. - Abstract: A multi-isotope approach has been used in the Marano lagoon (NE Italy) and parts of its catchment area to identify causes of increased NO3- pollution. The hydrogeochemical features of different water types and potential sources of NO3- were characterized using the isotopic composition of NO3- (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) and other source-related species such as B (δ11B), water (δ2H and δ18O) and SO42- (δ34S and δ18O). Water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater, sewer pipes, and open sea water have been collected at quarterly intervals in the years 2009–2010. The results indicate that the NO3- load in the lagoon was not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as urban waste water, in situ nitrification and atmospheric deposition. The δ34S signature in the lagoon clearly denotes the largely prevailing origin of aqueous SO42- from seawater, and practically points to the absence of any appreciable redox process involving S species in the lagoon. It also supports the existence of a connection between the lagoon and the nearby Tagliamento river

  6. A Study to ascertain the Optimum Yield from Groundwater Source in the Eastern Part of Kolkata Municipal Corporation Area in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing stress on fresh water resources due to ever-rising demands and profligateuses as well as growing population and industrial establishment of Kolkata is an issue ofgreat concern. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative estimate of the availablegroundwater resources in the eastern part of Kolkata for efficient utilization andmanagement of groundwater resources. The methodology involved the investigation,drilling, lowering, collection and analysis of main well and observation wells data andgroundwater quality as well. Based upon the study of lithological logs as also the electricallog, the sub-surface deposition of the assembly pipes have been determined. The resultsindicate that the aquifers are composite and composed of sands and overlying silts/claybeds. Long term Tests pumping indicate that the main well may be capable of a long termdischarge rate of 120 m3/hr restricted at 120 m and 156.65 m. The aquifer parametersfrom the study area are estimated from the analysis of short and long durations pumpingtest data. For the alluvial aquifer, transmissivity of 1491 m2/d, hydraulic conductivity of49.7 m/d and storage coefficient of 0.0064 are recommended found by using differentmethods. Long duration pumping tests have indicated that the maximum drawdown inwater table by 4.89 m may be achievable by radius of influence about 682 m. After theclosure of pumping operation, recuperation test was also carried out in the main wells aswell as also from observation wells. Recovery test was monitored for 20 hrs after closureof pumping. Slope of the residual drawdown from t/t’ indicated aquifer transmissivity of1322 m2/d and therefore hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial sand aquifer is 44 m/dhaving an aquifer thickness of 30 m. The physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis ofgroundwater of two pumping wells were tested and the results showed the groundwatermust be disinfected before supplying to the consumers.

  7. 2014 iAREA campaign on aerosol in Spitsbergen - Part 2: Optical properties from Raman-lidar and in-situ observations at Ny-Ålesund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C.; Neuber, R.; Schulz, Alexander; Markowicz, K. M.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Lisok, J.; Makuch, P.; Pakszys, P.; Markuszewski, P.; Rozwadowska, A.; Petelski, T.; Zielinski, T.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Gausa, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work multi wavelength Raman lidar data from Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen have been analysed for the spring 2014 Arctic haze season, as part of the iAREA campaign. Typical values and probability distributions for aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarisation, the lidar ratio and the color ratio for 4 different altitude intervals within the troposphere are given. These quantities and their dependencies are analysed and the frequency of altitude-dependent observed aerosol events are given. A comparison with ground-based size distribution and chemical composition is performed. Hence the aim of this paper is to provide typical and statistically meaningful properties of Arctic aerosol, which may be used in climate models or to constrain the radiative forcing. We have found that the 2014 season was only moderately polluted with Arctic haze and that sea salt and sulphate were the most dominant aerosol species. Moreover the drying of an aerosol layer after cloud disintegration has been observed. Hardly any clear temporal evolution over the 4 week data set on Arctic haze is obvious with the exception of the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio, which significantly decreased below 2 km altitude by end April. In altitudes between 2 and 5 km the haze season lasted longer and the aerosol properties were generally more homogeneous than closer to the surface. Above 5 km only few particles were found. The variability of the lidar ratio is discussed. It was found that knowledge of the aerosol's size and shape does not determine the lidar ratio. Contrary to shape and lidar ratio, there is a clear correlation between size and backscatter: larger particles show a higher backscatter coefficient.

  8. Mapeo de ingeniería geológica en parte sur del área metropolitana de San Salvador Engineering geology mapping in the southern part of the metropolitan area of San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Chávez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de mapas geológicos clásicos que agrupan los estratos por edad u origen, dificulta la interpretación y uso para diseños de ingeniería civil o planificación urbana, para las personas sin conocimientos profundos en geología. Debido a esto se ha llevado a cabo mapeo de ingeniería geológica en sector sur del Área Metropolitana de San Salvador, haciendo uso de la metodología de bandas. El objetivo de la metodología es que la información geológica, peligrosidad geológica y recomendaciones geotécnicas puedan representarse y agruparse dependiendo de las características intrínsecas de cada zona. Esta información puede ser fácilmente interpretada por los planificadores urbanos, constructores privados y agencias gubernamentales. La debilidad en la recopilación e investigación de información geológica y geotécnica en El Salvador, son unas de las razones de la problemática que experimenta la región, indicando la importancia de mejorar el manejo del riesgo, así como la mecánica de suelos y de rocasThe use of classic geologic maps, where geological layers are grouped according to their age or origin, makes difficult the interpretation and use for civil engineer design or urban planning to people without deep knowledge in geology. Due to this reason engineering geological mapping has been carried out in the southern part of the Metro- politan Area of San Salvador using the stripe method. The objective of the methodology is that geological information, geological hazards and geotechnical recommendations as well, can be represented and grouped depending on the intrinsic characteristics of each zone. This information can be easily interpreted for urban planners, private builders and government agencies. The weakness in the compilation and research of geological and geotechnical information in El Salvador, are some of the reasons for the current problems that experiment the region, indicating the importance of improving risk

  9. Brand Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kopecký, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with building a marketing strategy for chocolate pralines called Tatiana. The first part analyzes different approaches and opinions of authors on strategic marketing management and marketing mix. Moreover, there are described and evaluated approaches to integrated marketing communication and its implementation in the market. The research part deals with analyses of internal and external environment of the brand. Criteria and methods used give foundation for designing new opp...

  10. 武陵山区东北门户的林业扶贫攻坚策略%The old red areas green portal golden forest village forestry poverty alleviation strategy in northeast gateway of Wuling mountainous area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆胜东; 汪红卫; 田春艳

    2012-01-01

    长阳土家族自治县是武陵山区门户,是长江流域重要生态屏障,是国家级贫困县。笔者通过调查研究,针对现状和问题,用现代林业理念进行定位思考,提出了定位生态民生改善、定位内生示范、定位9年同步全国,大打科技战、生态战、产业战,率先建成全国林药产业大县。%As northeast gateway of Wuling mountainous area and a state-level poverty county,Changyang Tujia Autonomous county serves as important ecological barrier to Yangtze river basin.Based on investigation and study,with fixed position thinking under modern forestry concept,the authors put forward the following strategies to build an advanced county with large forest-medicine industry in the country,which could improve people's livelihood,concentrate on interior development,catch up the nation level in 9 years and launch the war of science and technology,ecology and industry.

  11. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on...

  12. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the Strategy... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area...

  13. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  14. Globalny kryzys ekonomiczny a strategie organizacji gospodarczych

    OpenAIRE

    Potocki, Arkadiusz; Łukasik, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Article concentrates on the problem of business strategy during crises, which is con- nected with redefinition of current business strategy. In the next part, article presents main business strategies for crises i.e.: development strategy, stabilization strategy, restructuring strategy and liquidation strategy. The main purpose of this article was showing relationship between strategy of corporation and knowledge management strategy...

  15. 湖南粮食生产区域布局优化战略%Optimized Strategy for Layout of Crop Production Areas in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文; 杨玉

    2014-01-01

    The optimized strategy made a comprehensive consideration of resources, technology, market orientation, production scale, industry basis and layout based on the principle of crop security and farmers’ income increasing, and determined the general planning on layout and structure optimization of future crop production ar-eas, with present crop production, market outlook, future industry development, con-cluding crop production characteristics of the 4 crop regions, and proposing function orientation and highlights.%在综合分析资源禀赋、技术条件、市场区位、生产规模、产业基础及布局指向等方面因素,兼顾相对集中连片原则,结合粮食生产现状、市场前景与产业发展趋势的基础上,提出了将湖南划分为“一区一圈两带”的粮食生产区域布局优化战略。对“一区一圈两带”4个片区的粮食生产特征进行了总结,并提出了各片区的功能定位和主攻方向。

  16. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  17. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  18. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  19. Compounds with anti-influenza activity: present and future of strategies for the optimal treatment and management of influenza Part II: Future compounds against influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D.; Lai, P. L.; BRAGAZZI, N.L.; PANATTO, D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential f...

  20. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  1. Supporting the development of interpersonal skills in nursing, in an undergraduate mental health curriculum: reaching the parts other strategies do not reach through action learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Anna; McNay, Lisa; Dewar, Belinda; McCaig, Marie

    2014-09-01

    The centrality of therapeutic relationships is considered to be the cornerstone of effective mental health nursing practice. Strategies that support the development of these skills and the emotional aspects of learning need to be developed. Action learning is one such strategy. This article reports on a qualitative research study on the introduction of Action Learning Sets (ALS) into a Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programme. This teaching and learning methodology was chosen to support the emotional aspects of learning and mental health nursing skills. Four themes were identified: developing skills of listening and questioning in 'real time', enhanced self-awareness, being with someone in the moment--there is no rehearsal and doing things differently in practice. Students and lecturers found the experience positive and advocate for other Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programmes to consider the use of ALS within the curriculum.

  2. Modelling and Control Strategies of Microgrid in Grid-Connected and Islanded Operation Modes - Part I: Active Power Sharing and Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lu; Hu, Yanting; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the utilization of renewable energy resources has promoted more and more microgrid developed. The microgrid consists of distributed generations (DGs) associate with distributed energy resources (DERs), which are normally located next to the customer and provide electric power...... at distributed voltage level. However, when a large number of DGs were connected to the AC power grid, it can cause power quality, grid security and stability issues. This paper presents an improved P-f droop control strategy using the reciprocal characteristic to improve the stability performance. Based...... on simulation analyses with Matlab/Simulink, the results show that the presented droop control strategy has good effects in grid-connected and islanded mode, and during operation mode transitions....

  3. How Can International Staff Exchange be Implemented as Part of the Execution of an Internationalisation Strategy in UK Higher Education? The Case of a Strategic Entrepreneur

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This work constructs a bridge across the "knowing-doing gap" of international staff exchange: the gap between strategy formulation and its execution within the constraints of a post-1992 university business school in the UK. It goes beyond the common, well-intentioned and yet vague statements involving the "encouragement" of international staff exchange to propose a model of execution through strategic entrepreneurship. The promotion of international staff mobility is a founding principle...

  4. A Novel Strategy to Increase Identification of African-Born People With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sharon; Johnson, Matthew; Harris, Aaron M.; Kaufman, Gary I.; Freedman, David; Quinn, Michael T.; Kim, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most research on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States is limited to Asian populations, despite an equally high prevalence among African immigrants. The purpose of this study was to determine testing and detection rates of HBV infection among African-born people residing in the Chicago metropolitan area. Methods A hepatitis education and prevention program was developed in collaboration with academic, clinical, and community partners for immigrant and refugee populations at risk for HBV infection. Community health workers implemented chain referral sampling, a novel strategy for recruiting hard-to-reach participants, targeting African-born participants. Participants were tested in both clinical and nonclinical settings. To assess infection status, blood samples were obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), core antibody, and surface antibody testing. Demographic information was collected on age, sex, health insurance status, country of origin, and years residing in the United States. Participants were notified of testing results, and HBsAg-positive participants were referred for follow-up medical care. Results Of 1,000 African-born people who received education, 445 (45%) agreed to participate in HBV screening. There were 386 (87%) participants tested in clinical and 59 (13%) tested in nonclinical sites. Compared with participants who were tested in clinical settings, participants tested in nonclinical settings were older, were less likely to have health insurance, and had lived in the United States longer (P Somalia (11%), or Ethiopia (10%). There were 35 (8%) HBsAg-positive people, 37% had evidence of past infection, and 29% were immune. Conclusions Chain referral sampling identified many at-risk African-born people with chronic HBV infection. The large proportion of HBsAg-positive people in this sample reinforces the need for health promotion programs that are culturally appropriate and community-driven. PMID:27584874

  5. A Novel Strategy to Increase Identification of African-Born People With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sharon; Johnson, Matthew; Harris, Aaron M.; Kaufman, Gary I.; Freedman, David; Quinn, Michael T.; Kim, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most research on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States is limited to Asian populations, despite an equally high prevalence among African immigrants. The purpose of this study was to determine testing and detection rates of HBV infection among African-born people residing in the Chicago metropolitan area. Methods A hepatitis education and prevention program was developed in collaboration with academic, clinical, and community partners for immigrant and refugee populations at risk for HBV infection. Community health workers implemented chain referral sampling, a novel strategy for recruiting hard-to-reach participants, targeting African-born participants. Participants were tested in both clinical and nonclinical settings. To assess infection status, blood samples were obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), core antibody, and surface antibody testing. Demographic information was collected on age, sex, health insurance status, country of origin, and years residing in the United States. Participants were notified of testing results, and HBsAg-positive participants were referred for follow-up medical care. Results Of 1,000 African-born people who received education, 445 (45%) agreed to participate in HBV screening. There were 386 (87%) participants tested in clinical and 59 (13%) tested in nonclinical sites. Compared with participants who were tested in clinical settings, participants tested in nonclinical settings were older, were less likely to have health insurance, and had lived in the United States longer (P Nigeria (13%), Ghana (11%), Somalia (11%), or Ethiopia (10%). There were 35 (8%) HBsAg-positive people, 37% had evidence of past infection, and 29% were immune. Conclusions Chain referral sampling identified many at-risk African-born people with chronic HBV infection. The large proportion of HBsAg-positive people in this sample reinforces the need for health promotion programs that are culturally appropriate and community

  6. Ecosystem description of a drainage area - a strategy in biosphere descriptions during site investigations for a repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Novel methods based on systems and landscape ecology are developed to understand and model the radionuclide flow in the biosphere using site specific data for a safety assessment. This work describes the strategy for development of a descriptive ecosystem model for the surface ecosystem. The site description is needed to: a) perform a safety assessment that describes and analyzes different scenarios for radionuclide releases into the ecosystem and possible pathways for dispersal or accumulation radionuclides in the ecosystem, b) detect changes caused by the construction of a repository, c) establish a baseline for detecting long-term effects of the repository. The description adopts a site-specific approach focusing on the quantification of the properties that will constitute the descriptive model. The aim is also to present the methodology for determining the properties, to describe the development of the framework for the descriptive ecosystem models by integrating use of different properties, and finally, to present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology. The safety assessment will use an approach, among other methods, where transport and accumulation of radionuclides will be modelled by quantifying biogeochemical pathways of matter. The descriptive ecosystem model applied to the site was therefore built to describe and quantify processes affecting i.e. turnover of matter in a drainage area. The conclusions from applying this approach was that by have estimating the flow of matter the ecological and physical constrains on the system reduces the potential variations in outcome of future states of the ecosystem and thus also reduces the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  7. DEMAND-PULLED AIRCRAFT SPARE PART PROGNOSTICATION AND CONTROL STRATEGY%"需求拉动式"航空器材需求预测与控制模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桐水; 苏芮; 纪春丽

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of demand-pulled spare parts inventory. It establishes a spare part demand prognosticating model based on reliability analysis. Through parts reliability data the model gets the reliable life function of spare parts and determines parts demand time, depending on part life at given reliabilities. Moreover, a case study is taken to illuminate the demand prognostication and inventory control of on-condition maintenance rotables.%提出了"需求拉动式"航空器材库存控制模式,建立了基于可靠性分析的航空器材需求预测模型.该模型通过对航空器材使用信息进行可靠性分析,得出零件可靠性寿命函数,并根据给定可靠度下的零件寿命预测航空器材需求时间.最后对视情维护下的周转件需求预测与库存控制进行了案例分析.

  8. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  9. Irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater, Humboldt, and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and Carson Lake, West-Central Nevada, 1988-90 : Part II effects on wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the affects of irrigation induced contaminants on fish, wildlife, and human health near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. In 1988, the U.S....

  10. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part III. Moving Ahead: Basic Skills for Career Advancement. A Work in America Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 3 in a 3-year study, considers literacy programs designed to qualify employees for promotions or professional advancement. It adopts a multidimensional definition of moving ahead, one that extends to monetary rewards, career development, and employment security. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case…

  11. Two strategies for the delivery of IPTc in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in the Gambia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa A Bojang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI provides an effective way of delivering intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPT to infants. However, it is uncertain how IPT can be delivered most effectively to older children. Therefore, we have compared two approaches to the delivery of IPT to Gambian children: distribution by village health workers (VHWs or through reproductive and child health (RCH trekking teams. In rural areas, RCH trekking teams provide most of the health care to children under the age of 5 years in the Infant Welfare Clinic, and provide antenatal care for pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: During the 2006 malaria transmission season, the catchment populations of 26 RCH trekking clinics in The Gambia, each with 400-500 children 6 years of age and under, were randomly allocated to receive IPT from an RCH trekking team or from a VHW. Treatment with a single dose of sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP plus three doses of amodiaquine (AQ were given at monthly intervals during the malaria transmission season. Morbidity from malaria was monitored passively throughout the malaria transmission season in all children, and a random sample of study children from each cluster was examined at the end of the malaria transmission season. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of malaria. Secondary endpoints included coverage of IPTc, mean haemoglobin (Hb concentration, and the prevalence of asexual malaria parasitaemia at the end of malaria transmission period. Financial and economic costs associated with the two delivery strategies were collected and incremental cost and effects were compared. A nested case-control study was used to estimate efficacy of IPT treatment courses. Treatment with SP plus AQ was safe and well tolerated. There were 49 cases of malaria with parasitaemia above 5,000/µl in the areas where IPT was delivered through RCH clinics and 21 cases in the areas where IPT was delivered by VHWs

  12. Nonceramic insulators for the transmission power lines. Part II: Application that it requires of a careful selection; Aisladores no ceramicos para las areas de transmision. Parte II: Aplicacion que requiere de una seleccion cuidadosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro Chavez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this second part is mentioned the possible mechanisms of degradation that can appear in nonceramic insulators in order to identify them during the inspections that are made in the field throughout their useful life. Some techniques of evaluation of accelerated aging, as well as important aspects that must be considered for the selection of the insulation in the case of a particular application, are presented. [Spanish] En esta segunda parte se mencionan los posibles mecanismos de degradacion que pueden presentarse en los aisladores no ceramicos a fin de identificarlos durante las inspecciones que se realicen en campo a lo largo de su vida util. Se exponen algunas tecnicas de evaluacion de envejecimiento acelerado, asi como aspectos importantes que deben considerarse para la seleccion del aislamiento en el caso de una aplicacion particular.

  13. 阻碍英语听力理解的因素及对策(一)%Factors and Strategies in Listening (Part One)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书菁

    2005-01-01

    Listening is one of the five basic skills of students in English. The listening level of the students affects their study deeply.But there are some barriers to listening comprehension. They directly affects the improvement of the students' listening levels. The main cause is that the students have not mastered strategies removing those listening barriers. So it is very important to erase those barriers and master some strategies in the process of listening comprehension.%听力是学生英语五项基本技能(听、说、读、写、译)之一.学生听力水平的高低对学生的学习有着很大的影响.但是在学生的英语听力理解方面存在着许多阻碍因素,直接影响学生听力水平的提高.主要原因是学生没有掌握解决那些听力阻碍的策略.因此,在听力教学过程中,解决这些障碍和掌握一些相应的对策与技能是重要的.本文就如何解决学生在听力理解上的障碍和培养学生的听力技能做一些简单的阐述.

  14. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  15. Nuclear operations branch outage management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, partly in response to declining nuclear performance in Ontario Hydro, six priority areas were chosen where improvement efforts should be focused. Of these, outage management has the greatest potential for increasing near-term electrical generation. Many initiatives are being undertaken to improve performance in this key area. The outage management strategy is intended to focus these improvement efforts, and put outage management at Ontario Hydro's nuclear generating stations on a more predictable and business-like basis. This paper outlines the strategic planning process, and provides an overview of the outage management strategy. 2 refs, 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injections, and the impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI pathology, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) status in patients with early...

  17. Safety and quality of food contact materials. Part 1: Evaluation of analytical strategies to introduce migration testing into good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigenbaum, A.; Scholler, D.; Bouquant, J.;

    2002-01-01

    behaviour and market share. These classes were characterized by analytical methods. Analytical techniques were investigated for identification of potential migrants. High-temperature gas chromatography was shown to be a powerful method and H-1-magnetic resonance provided a convenient fingerprint of plastic....... These different techniques were introduced into a systematic testing scheme that is envisaged as being suitable both for industrial control and for enforcement laboratories. Guidelines will be proposed in the second part of this paper....

  18. Drawing up a geothermal model for parts of Hamburg and neighbouring areas; Erstellung eines geothermischen Modells fuer Teile Hamburgs und anliegende Gebiete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghy, Darius; Pechnig, Renate [Geophysica Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Aachen (Germany); Taugs, Renate; Kroeger, Jens [Geologisches Landesamt Hamburg (Germany). Behoerde fuer Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt; Thomsen, Claudia; Hese, Fabian; Liebsch-Doerschner, Thomas [Landesamt fuer Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und laendliche Raeume Schleswig Holstein (LLUR), Flintbek (Germany). Geologischer Dienst - Dezernat 64 Ingenieurgeologie, Energierohstoffe

    2010-07-01

    In order to assess the geothermal potential of Hamburg and neighbouring parts of Schleswig-Holstein, a regional numeric model was drawn up on the basis of a 3D geological model. The purpose of the project was the simulation of the undisturbed temperature field under the influence of the strongly heterogeneous structures, in particular the salt domes.

  19. Issues in Learner Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑英

    2004-01-01

    There is an urgent need in China that learning strategy and strategy training be given the attenion and status that it deserves.Strategy training can help students make effcetive use of multiple strategies.Studying good language learners has proved a useful way of investigating how strategies affect language learning.The first approach to strategy training suggested by Cohen is targets isolated strategies by including explicit modeling and explanation of the benefits of applying a specific strategy,extensive functional practice with the strategy.The second approach outlined by Oxford is to raise students' awareness as to the purpose and rationale of strategy use.The third approach by Cohen is to help students to complete language learning tasks through planning,monitoring,problem solving and evaluation.Teachers play an important part in strategy training.

  20. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-15

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and

  1. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and long term, and not

  2. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In January 2008 the Danish Government decided to prepare a strategy for reducing CO2 from the transport sector in Denmark. The decision to prepare the strategy was part of the follow-up to the national Infrastructure Commission report of January 2008. The preparations have been chaired...... by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020......, a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...

  3. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Paxová, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The point of the application part of the thesis is to define the position selected on the basis of competitive and industry pressures, as well as in the context of internal resources and skills, using appropriate analytical methods of strategic management. The analysis results are used as a basis for generating strategic alternatives, which are processed into various future scenarios. Subsequent design company strategy as the goal of the thesis, is a long-term plan acceptable to all stakehold...

  4. Communication Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Šlapáková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    This document introduces a definition of communication strategy and its close contexts. At the beginning it presents the theme of the communication and its historical development. Consequently there are explanations of the communication process, its requirements, schemes, parts. Document shows a basic division of the communication, its functions, components, tools and describes its usage in daily life of business. The communication is introduced as a tool for social interaction as an instrume...

  5. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies.

  6. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies

  7. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - I. Accelerated deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The seismogenic area in the lithosphere is considered as an open physical system. The mathematical analysis of its inflow - outflow energy balance reveals the presence of specific energy flow physical models. The later comply with what has been observed by seismologists as "accelerated deformation" and "seismic quiescence". These physical models are represented by low-order cumulative seismic energy release analytical polynomial functions in time. The time derivatives of these functions, analytically calculated, provide a more sharp indication for the time of occurrence of a future large EQ. Examples from the application of this approach on real large EQs from the Greek territory are presented. Moreover, this methodology can be used for the determination of: the maximum expected magnitude of a future large EQ of a specific seismically activated seismogenic area and the compilation of seismic potential regional maps. The later will be presented in details in articles to follow soon.

  8. The relationship between Business Strategy, IT Strategy and Alignment Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Aligning business and IT strategy is a prominent area of concern. Organizations that successfully align their business strategy and their IT strategy, outperform their non-aligned peers (Chan et al., 1997). This chapter explores the relationship between business strategy, IT strategy and alignment c

  9. Wave-equation based traveltime seismic tomography – Part 2: Application to the 1992 Landers earthquake (Mw 7.3 area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution 3-D P and S wave crustal velocity and Poisson's ratio models of the 1992 Landers earthquake (Mw 7.3 area are determined iteratively by a wave-equation based traveltime seismic tomography (WETST technique as developed in the first paper. The details of data selection, synthetic arrival-time determination, and trade-off analysis of damping and smoothing parameters are presented to show the performance of this new tomographic inversion method. A total of 78 523 P wave and 46 999 S wave high-quality arrival-time data from 2041 local earthquakes recorded by 275 stations during the period of 1992–2013 is used to obtain the final tomographic models which costs around 10 000 CPU h. Checkerboard resolution tests are conducted to verify the reliability of inversion results for the chosen seismic data and the wave-equation based traveltime seismic tomography method. Significant structural heterogeneities are revealed in the crust of the 1992 Lander earthquake area which may be closely related to the local seismic activities. Strong variations of velocity and Poisson's ratio exist in the source regions of the Landers and three other strong earthquakes in this area. Most seismicity occurs in areas with high-velocity and low Poisson's ratio, which may be associated with the seismogenic layer. Pronounced low-velocity anomalies revealed in the lower crust along the Elsinore, the San Jacinto and the San Andreas faults may reflect the existence of fluids in the lower crust. The recovery of these strong heterogeneous structures are facilitated by the use of full wave equation solvers and WETST and verifies their ability in generating high-resolution tomographic models.

  10. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment.

  11. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  12. E-Learning Strategies in Technical Part-Time Studies at Campus Pinkafeld – A Moderate Constructivist Approach to Learning and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kelz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of part-time studies contributed decisively to a wider acceptance of technical degree programmes at Campus Pinkafeld as their particular organisational design allows students to study alongside work and family commitments. As far as higher technical education is concerned, they provide constructivist-oriented pedagogic approaches to best prepare students for the workplace. In contrast to traditional behaviourist notions, constructivist frameworks allow for blended-learning settings which help implement learning scenarios based on open, technology-aided, learner-centred, self-directed and collaborative learning environments. Exploring some of these more progressive, process-oriented approaches to learning and teaching and the theory behind it are the primary aims of this paper.

  13. Compounds with anti-influenza activity: present and future of strategies for the optimal treatment and management of influenza. Part II: Future compounds against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Bragazzi, N L; Panatto, D

    2014-12-01

    In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential for viral replication and propagation. These latter compounds have been developed quite recently. Among the first group, we will focus especially on hemagglutinin, M2 channel and neuraminidase inhibitors. The second group of compounds may pave the way for personalized treatment and influenza management. Combination therapies are also discussed. In recent decades, few antiviral molecules against influenza virus infections have been available; this has conditioned their use during human and animal outbreaks. Indeed, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks, antiviral drugs have usually been administered in mono-therapy and, sometimes, in an uncontrolled manner to farm animals. This has led to the emergence of viral strains displaying resistance, especially to compounds of the amantadane family. For this reason, it is particularly important to develop new antiviral drugs against influenza viruses. Indeed, although vaccination is the most powerful means of mitigating the effects of influenza epidemics, antiviral drugs can be very useful, particularly in delaying the spread of new pandemic viruses, thereby enabling manufacturers to prepare large quantities of pandemic vaccine. In addition, antiviral drugs are particularly valuable in complicated cases of influenza, especially in hospitalized patients. To write this overview, we mined various databases, including Embase, PubChem, DrugBank and Chemical Abstracts Service, and patent repositories. PMID:26137785

  14. Compounds with anti-influenza activity: present and future of strategies for the optimal treatment and management of influenza. Part II: Future compounds against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Bragazzi, N L; Panatto, D

    2014-12-01

    In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential for viral replication and propagation. These latter compounds have been developed quite recently. Among the first group, we will focus especially on hemagglutinin, M2 channel and neuraminidase inhibitors. The second group of compounds may pave the way for personalized treatment and influenza management. Combination therapies are also discussed. In recent decades, few antiviral molecules against influenza virus infections have been available; this has conditioned their use during human and animal outbreaks. Indeed, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks, antiviral drugs have usually been administered in mono-therapy and, sometimes, in an uncontrolled manner to farm animals. This has led to the emergence of viral strains displaying resistance, especially to compounds of the amantadane family. For this reason, it is particularly important to develop new antiviral drugs against influenza viruses. Indeed, although vaccination is the most powerful means of mitigating the effects of influenza epidemics, antiviral drugs can be very useful, particularly in delaying the spread of new pandemic viruses, thereby enabling manufacturers to prepare large quantities of pandemic vaccine. In addition, antiviral drugs are particularly valuable in complicated cases of influenza, especially in hospitalized patients. To write this overview, we mined various databases, including Embase, PubChem, DrugBank and Chemical Abstracts Service, and patent repositories.

  15. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  16. Groundwater demand management at local scale in rural areas of India: a strategy to ensure water well sustainability based on aquifer diffusivity and community participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Himanshu; Vijay Shankar, P. S.; Deolankar, S. B.; Shah, Mihir

    Watershed development programmes provide an opportunity for sustainable management strategies, although currently, they remain largely `supply-side' mechanisms of water resources development. Hydrogeological conditions, community participation and status of groundwater usage are important in evolving strategies on `demand-side' groundwater management. Neemkheda aquifer is a typical low-storage, low-hydraulic conductivity aquifer from a watershed in the dryland regions of Madhya Pradesh State of central India. A shallow unconfined aquifer, it consists of an upper coarse, calcareous sandstone unit underlain by a fine-grained sandstone unit. A `well commune' of seven wells is poised to test the concept of joint groundwater management, wherein wells are mechanisms of tapping a common water source, the Neemkheda aquifer. The strategy for systematic groundwater management in the Neemkheda well commune is based upon the relationship between Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S), i.e. aquifer diffusivity, and its variation within the aquifer. Wells within a high diffusivity domain tend to dewater more quickly than wells within a low diffusivity domain. A well-use schedule during the dry season, based upon aquifer diffusivity forms the basis of the groundwater management concept. The distribution of local aquifer diffusivities governs the relationship between local and regional aquifer depletion times and forms the basis of the groundwater management exercise being proposed for the Neemkheda aquifer. Los programas de desarrollo de una cuenca hídrica son una oportunidad para el uso de estrategias de gestión sostenible, aunque hoy en día estas siguen siendo principalmente mecanismos para el desarrollo de recursos hídricos con énfasis en la ``oferta''. Las condiciones hidrogeológicas, la participación comunitaria y la condición de utilización del agua subterránea, son importantes en el desarrollo de estrategias para la gestión del agua subterránea, desde

  17. Damping control strategies of inter-area low-frequency oscillation for DFIG-based wind farms integrated into a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Shengquan; Ji, Haiting;

    2014-01-01

    -frequency oscillation is theoretically analyzed through the active/reactive power control of grid-connected wind farms. Additional damping control strategies with the active/reactive power loop of the DFIG-based wind farm are presented using the feedback signal of the transmission line active power flow based on the...... power system stabilizer (PSS) control method. Transient simulation on different damping gain coefficients are conducted for justification. Following the OTEF mechanism analysis, an additional fuzzy damping control strategy with the active/reactive power loop is proposed by identifying the oscillation...... phase and the severity to prevent different damping gain coefficients from affecting the presented PSS damping control method. Transient and dynamic simulation results and comparisons showed that both additional control strategies with the active and reactive power loops of the DFIG-based wind farm can...

  18. Wave and tidal level analysis, maritime climate change, navigation's strategy and impact on the costal defences - Study case of São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Areas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredini, P.; Pezzoli, A.; Cristofori, E. I.; Dovetta, A.; Arasaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Area concentrates around of 40% of Brazilian GNP, Santos Harbour is the America South Atlantic Hub Port and São Sebastião Oil Maritime Terminal is the most important oil and gas facility of PETROBRAS, the Brazilian National Petroleum Company. Santos Harbour had in the last decade increased rapidly the container handling rate, being the first in Latin America. In the last decade important oil and gas reserves were discovered in the Santos Oceanic Basin and São Paulo Coastline received a big demand for supplier ships harbours for the petroleum industry. Santos Metropolitan Region is one of the most important of Brazilian Coastline, also considering the turism. For that great economic growth scenario it is very important to have the main maritime hydrodynamics forcing processes, wave climate and tidal levels, well known, considering the sea hazards influence in ship operations. Since the hindcast just represents the deep water wave climate, to make time-series of the waves parameters in coastal waters, for evaluation of sea hazards and ship operations, it is necessary to take into acount the variations of those parameters in shallow waters with coastal instrumental data. Analysis of long term wave data-base (1957-2002) generated by a comparison between wave's data modeled by a "deep water model" (ERA40-ECMWF) and measured wave's data in the years 1982-1984 by a coastal buoy in Santos littoral (São Paulo State, Brazil) was made. Calibration coefficients according to angular sectors of wave's direction were obtained by the comparison of the instrument data with the modeled ones, and applied to the original scenarios. Validation checking procedures with instrumental measurements of storm surges made in other years than 1982-1984 shows high level of confidence. The analysis of the wave climate change on the extreme storm surge wave's conditions, selecting cases of Hs > 3,0 m, using that virtual data-base shows an increase in the Hs

  19. 基于延迟策略的汽车零部件企业精益运作模式研究%Auto parts enterprises lean operation mode based on postponement strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小荣; 陈峰; 陈岗; 戴伟

    2015-01-01

    Duo to the dual pressures of the supply capacity of upstream raw material suppliers and downstream customers'pro-curement costs and time, auto parts business management complexity is aggravated.Its essence is mass production conflict with customization, and the constraints of dynamic uncertain, delivery and product cost conflict with manufacturing time and costs.To solve these problems, we propose auto parts enterprises lean operation mode based on postponement strategies.It in-cludes the design postponement strategy, production postponement strategy, packaging postponement strategies and distribution postponement strategies in the process of ordering to delivery.Finally, we give an example of a large clutch production compa-nies.The results show that the model can effectively reduce product costs and improve on-time delivery rate of product or-ders, enhance their market competitiveness.%受上游原材料供应商供应能力和下游客户压缩采购成本、时间的双重压力,加剧了汽车零部件企业管理的复杂性,其本质是大规模生产和个性化定制的冲突,以及外部环境的动态不确定性、交货期和产品成本等约束条件与制造时间、制造成本之间的冲突。针对这些问题,提出了基于延迟策略的汽车零部件企业精益运作模式,在产品从接单到交付的过程中的不同节点分别构建了设计延迟策略、生产延迟策略、包装延迟策略和分销延迟策略等四种延迟策略。以某大型离合器生产企业为例,对这四种延迟策略进行了分析,结果表明,该模式可以有效降低产品成本,提高产品订单的按期交付率,增强企业的市场竞争力。

  20. High-density macroseismic survey in urban areas. Part 1: proposal for a methodology and its application to the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tertulliani

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide an original contribution to the investigation of local macroseismic variations in urban areas by means of questionnaire surveys. In this paper, we propose a methodology to investigate earthquake effects in large cities. This procedure for a high-density macroseismic survey is here applied to the city of Rome (Italy during the September 1997-April 1998 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy seismic sequence. A sort of macroseismic network in the urban area was arranged, thanks to the co-operation of public high schools, where ad hoc macroseismic questionnaires were delivered to students. This method provided us with a large amount of macroseismic information related to the October 14, 1997 (Mw =-5.6; I0 VIII MCS; h ?10 km and March 26, 1998 (Mw = 5.3; I0 = VII MCS;h ?50 km earthquakes. In the first survey, 949 useful questionnaires were collected in 10 high schools and related to 669 observation points. For the second event, 1083 useful questionnaires were collected in 27 high schools and related to 928 (+39% observation points. The mean data density in the urbanized sector reached 3.4 data/km2 in the first survey and rose to 4.7 (+38% data/km2 in the second one. Such a high density was hardly achieved in previous macroseismic surveys in large cities. The sample reliability was checked considering the data distribution versus urban setting inhomogeneity and the percentage distribution of the main lithological units outcropping in the investigated area. Such reliability was also confirmed by the check of the data density distribution. All results confirm that the data sample is largely representative. Both the applications here shown proved that this method can be successfully performed in a large city.

  1. Mineral investigations near Bodmin, Cornwall. Part 2, new uranium, tin and copper occurrences in the Tremayne area of St Columb Major

    OpenAIRE

    Tandy, B.C.; Mountford, B.R.; Basham, I.R.; Jones, R C; Michie, U.M.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of radiometric anomalies 2 km north-east of St Columb Major, Cornwall, indicate that at the main (Tremayne) occurrence a body containing 600 to 1000 tonnes of uranium at a grade of 0.2 % U may exist within 60 m of the surface. A tin stockwork, similar to the nearby Mulberry and Prosper mines, may be indicated, but tin values are erratic. The surface radiometric anomalies (150 pR/h maximum) lie in close proximity in an area of altered Lower Devonian...

  2. 电压无功自动控制策略在地区电网中的应用%Application of voltage and Reactive Power Control Strategy in Area Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 刘箫

    2011-01-01

    AVC是地区电网电压无功优化调度发展的最新阶段,文章介绍了地区电网AVC系统的体系结构,详细介绍了地调AVC系统控制原理、控制策略以及系统安全策略。通过控制策略与安全策略研究寻求解决实际应用问题的最佳途径,为地区电网电压无功自动控制这一目标的实现提供理论和技术支持。%AVC is the newest stage of optimization automatic voltage control of area power grid. The article introduced the system architecture of AVC, and explained detailed the control principles, the control strategy, and safety strategy; It researched the control strategy and safety strategy to seek the best solution to applications, and provided academic and technical support for the reality of realization of automatic voltage and reactive power control of area power grid.

  3. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowski, Tomasz; Tiukało, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  4. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orczykowski Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  5. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  6. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  7. The 1-way on-line coupled atmospheric chemistry model system MECO(n – Part 1: The limited-area atmospheric chemistry model COSMO/MESSy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kerkweg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical weather prediction model of the Consortium for Small Scale Modelling (COSMO, maintained by the German weather service (DWD, is connected with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy. This effort is undertaken in preparation of a~new, limited-area atmospheric chemistry model. This model is as consistent as possible, with respect to atmospheric chemistry and related processes, with a previously developed global atmospheric chemistry general circulation model: the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model. The combined system constitutes a new research tool, bridging the global to the meso-γ scale for atmospheric chemistry research. MESSy provides the infrastructure and includes, among others, the process and diagnostic submodels for atmospheric chemistry simulations. Furthermore, MESSy is highly flexible allowing model setups with tailor made complexity, depending on the scientific question. Here, the connection of the MESSy infrastructure to the COSMO model is documented. Previously published prototype submodels for simplified tracer studies are generalised to be plugged-in and used in the global and the limited-area model. They are used to evaluate the tracer transport characteristics of the new COSMO/MESSy model system, an important prerequisite for future atmospheric chemistry applications. A supplementary document with further details on the technical implementation of the MESSy interface into COSMO with a complete list of modifications to the COSMO code is provided.

  8. Drivers for differences in dairy farmers perceptions of farm development strategies in an area with nature and landscape as protected public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verhees, F.; Verstegen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nature and landscape are increasingly appreciated as public goods and community assets in need of protection. Policy schemes aiming to protect vulnerable nature and landscape assets affect options for farm development and thus the opportunities for farm income strategies. Farmers as small business o

  9. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part II. Treatment-related late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Taylor, R.E. [Radiotherapy Dept., Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarzello, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Padua General Hospital (Italy); Gnekow, A.K. [Children' s Hospital Augsburg (Germany); Dieckmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, General Hospital Vienna (Austria)

    2003-09-01

    such as neurocognitive and endocrinological outcome are needed in order to clarify the impact of radiation therapy on the risk of late sequelae. Presently, the strategy to postpone radiotherapy in the younger children, especially with NF, is justified to reduce the risk of late effects. These information and the contribution of tumor, surgery and chemotherapy will help to define the role of radiation therapy in the future management of childhood low-grade glioma and whether the use of highly sophisticated and expensive treatment techniques is justifiable. The recently initiated prospective study of the APRO (Pediatric Radiooncology Working Party) on documentation of dose prescription to organs at risk and the network of the GPOH to explore late effects as well as the forthcoming prospective SIOP/GPOH (International Society of Pediatric Oncology/German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology) LGG 2003 trial are addressing these issues. (orig.)

  10. Worldwide glacier monitoring as part of policy-related climate observation: development and strategy of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.; Zemp, M.

    2011-12-01

    Internationally coordinated observation of long-term glacier fluctuations as a key indication of global climate changes has a long tradition, starting already in 1894. With the development of the Global Climate Observing System in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, glaciers and ice caps became an Essential Climate Variable within the Global Terrestrial Observing System. A corresponding Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was indeed established as a pilot project to this program. The basic principles followed by GTN-G and similar networks are to be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community and the public. Following recommendations by the International Council for Sciences, a contribution should be made to free and unrestricted international sharing of high-quality, long-term and standardized data and information products. A tiered strategy was adopted in order to bridge the gap between detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage through satellite remote sensing. Efforts were also made to ensure continuity of long-term measurement series by combining traditional approaches with modern, future-oriented technologies. Today, the GTN-G is jointly run by three operational bodies in glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service, the US National Snow and Ice Data Center, and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space initiative. With an online service, GTN-G provides fast access to regularly updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. Currently, this includes global information from 100,000 glaciers mainly based on aerial photographs and outlines from 95,000 glaciers mainly based on satellite images, length change series from 1,800 glaciers, mass balance series from 250 glaciers, information on special events (e.g., hazards, surges, calving instabilities) from 130 glaciers, as well as 13,000 photographs from some 500

  11. Burns and injuries from non-electric-appliance fires in low- and middle-income countries Part II. A strategy for intervention using the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Oen, Irma M M; Swart, Dehran; Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2008-05-01

    A large proportion of burns in developing countries are related to the nature of domestic appliances used for cooking, heating, and lighting. Our overview of the problem elucidated the need for better surveillance with epidemiologic studies, which will more accurately assess the true incidence in vulnerable populations. This paper will create a framework for envisaging new approaches to the problem and begin to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of proposed interventions. We used the Haddon Matrix to accumulate proposed interventions that encompass a pre-event, event, and post-event timeline. We propose an initial strategic outline plan for interventions based on values that are suited to the problem and the setting, are culturally appropriate, and can be employed in a reasonable period of time for a sustained period to ensure success. Recommended action steps include promoting the use of alternative energy sources, encouraging an integrated approach to finding interdisciplinary solutions, devising a better system of kerosene containerization, re-engineering appliance designs, legislating for enforcement of health and safety standards, taking a holistic approach through government inter-departmental collaboration, formally discouraging corruption, encouraging ventilation of cooking or living areas, implementing building codes, educating consumers, and training caregivers and health and emergency workers.

  12. The distribution of leaf area, radiation, photosynthesis and transpiration in a Shamouti orange hedgerow orchard, part 2: photosynthesis, transpiration and the effect of row shape and direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the distribution of radiation in an orange canopy on transpiration and photosynthesis was examined by developing a model of these processes. The leaf energy balance, microclimate relationships and climatic data are combined with radiation, leaf conductance, and leaf carbon uptake models to simulate orchard photosynthesis and transpiration over 2 days. Calculated hourly values of transpiration showed good agreement with measured values of sap flow in the orange orchard. Calculated carbon uptake during the six summer months was 22 kg CO2 per tree; however, experimental estimates of annual dry matter production yield 55 kg CO2 per tree. The calculated figure is therefore considerably in error and indicates that present information used in carbon balance modeling of Citrus is inadequate. Even so, it is shown that radiation levels deep in the canopy, where a significant amount of leaf area and transpiration is located, are too low for significant carbon uptake to occur. As an example of the usefulness of the model, the distributions of photosynthesis, transpiration and photosynthetic radiation were simulated in hedgerow canopies of three different shapes following current pruning practices in Israel. The distribution of foliage inside the given hedgerow cross-section was calculated based on the relationship of average measured foliage density to calculated diffuse photosynthetic irradiance in the canopy. The simulation was run for rows oriented north-south and east-west and for climatic conditions of midsummer. The results of the simulation indicated that: (a) The highest photosynthesis in citrus orchards is obtained by covering the largest ground areas possible with a thick canopy, i.e., maximum leaf area index (LAI). Under such conditions most photosynthesis occurs in the upper 1 m of the canopy. (b) Although rows with slanted walls do not have the highest photosynthesis, they allow more light penetration into the canopy and have productive regions on

  13. Continental Collision Structures and Post-Orogenic Geological History of the Kangerlussuaq Area in the Southern Part of the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, Central West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Engström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the tectonic deformation style of such an orogen. This paper adds new information on the tectonic history of the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. It focuses on (1 the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical and topographic data and aerial photo interpretation, (2 detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3 a tectonic structural model describing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession that recognizes eight tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2 have been identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm (2.05 Ga into the Archaean continent. These dyke intrusions are very important, since by examining the style of deformation for these intrusions it is possible to define the transition from the North Atlantic Craton in the south to the mobile belts in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in the north. Five different types of pronounced lineaments and one less pronounced lineament post-dating the Kangâmiut dykes extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting. These lineaments cover both the collisional and post-collisional tectonic history of the area. The study focused on two types of lineaments: one semi-ductile type trending E–W with a dextral sense of shear and a second, a pronounced lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq–Russell thrust fault. These two features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the latter lineaments have a more brittle

  14. Strategie rozvoje organizace

    OpenAIRE

    Pilařová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Prime focus of this bachelor thesis with the theme “Development Strategy of an Organisation” is to create analyses of external environment for the company of TESCO Stores CR, a.s. which represents one of the most significant retailer on the market. First, theoretical part, is solved in a form of literature recherché where there are presented and explained principles including processes in strategy creation process. Second part is focused on analytical part of strategic analyses (namely PES...

  15. Zircon U-Pb Ages of Bottom and Top Parts of the Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan Area (West Liaoning Province) and Luanping Area (North Hebei Province) and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Xiaoming; Zhang Yeqing; Yuan Honglin; Hu Zhaochu; Diwu Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    In Lingyuan region of West Liaoning Province, the Zhangjiakou Formation (J3z) and the Yixian Formation (K1y) display an angular unconformity. That is, the Lower Mesozoic strata of the Zhangjiakou Formation are ENE (near E-W) oriented, while the overlying strata of the Yixian Formation exhibit an NNE orientation. The results of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages show the Zhangjiakou Formation formed from about 130 Ma to 132 Ma in Lingyuan and 135 Ma to 136 Ma in Luanping (North Hebei Province), respectively. Three conclusions can be drawn: (1) The Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan is comparable to that in Luanping, with the volcanic rocks of the Zhangjiakou Formation from Lingyuan being younger than those from Luanping. (2) 5-6 Ma difference between the top of the Zhangjiakou Formation and the bottom of the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan proves the angular unconformity between the two formations; and it reflects that the 5-6 Ma interval period is the main period of the transition of tectonic framework in Mesozoic in North Hebei and West Liaoning. In the interval period, the magmatic action went up to high tide in Mesozoic in the northeast of China. Moreover, after the interval period, the "Rehe fauna" developed into "erupted" period. This reflects that the interval period is also an important biological interface in Northern Hebei and Western Liaoning. (3) The Dabeigou Formation in Luanping should correspond to the upper part of the Zhangjiakou Formation, but not to the lower part of the Yixian Formation.

  16. Subsurface and seismic investigation of the geopressured-geothermal potential of south Louisiana. Part I: the Abbeville area, September 1, 1978-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, W.R.; Kinsland, G.L.; Duhon, M.P.; Dungan, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The structure investigated is a basin roughly bounded by the Abbeville Dome on the West, the Erath Dome on the Southeast and the Grosse Isle Dome on the Northeast and whose center is located at approximately Section 31 T14S R4E. The geopressured sands investigated are below approximately 12,800 feet (3901 M) in the center of the basin and consist of two groups of rather thin, discontinuous, marly sands. These two groups, rather arbitrarily defined, are termed the upper and lower geopressured sands and the following map types and analyses have been derived from subsurface data of each: structure, temperature, pressure, salinity and net sand maps; and porosity, permeability and methane content analyses. The Reservoir analysis was accomplished by the use of wire line surveys (electric logs) and computer analyses based on standard relationships found in Schlumberger manuals. Seismic analysis proved to be an invaluable tool in establishing the structure of the area.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater as Part of the Greenland Analogue Project in an Area of Continuous Permafrost Adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkemans, E.; Frape, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson-Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Annable, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Studying groundwater in areas of continuous permafrost is often limited to studies of springs and open pingos (eg. Pollard et al. 1999 and Allen et al. 1976). Boreholes in such locations are expensive, risky and logistically challenging (eg. Stotler et al. 2011) resulting in a limited understanding of the interaction between continental scale ice sheets and groundwater. Continental ice sheet models are often coupled to groundwater flow systems; however, there is a lack of modern field data with which to compare the results of models and their treatment of groundwater flow systems under the influence of glaciation. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) aims to eliminate some of the uncertainties in modeling ice sheets by using the Greenland ice sheet as a modern analogue for past glaciations. Since 2009, 3 boreholes have been drilled, 2 of which contain sampling systems. DH-GAP01 is a 191 m deep borehole drilled at an angle into a talik and has been sampled and studied since 2009. DH-GAP04 is a 632 m deep, angled borehole that intersects the groundwater flow system directly beneath Isunguata Sermia and is producing preliminary groundwater samples. Additional information on groundwater in the Kangerlussuaq area comes from a spring located directly in front of the Leverett ice lobe. Geochemical and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H, δ37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S and δ18O of SO4) tools are used to interpret geochemical processes acting on groundwaters and provide insight into groundwater flow. Analyses of δ18O and δ2H in groundwaters from DH-GAP01 show the borehole waters fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Evaporation is an important process affecting the δ18O-δ2H of surface waters in the region causing lakes to plot along a local evaporation line (Leng and Anderson, 2003). The waters from the Leverett spring plot to the right of the GMWL as possibly a mixture of groundwater and surface evaporated fluids. However, both the waters from DH-GAP01 and the Leverett

  18. Rongelap Resettlement Support-Preliminary Report Part 1 - In-Situ Gamma Spectrometric Measurements around the Service and Village Area on Rongelap Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brunk, J; Gouveia, F; Robison, W

    2001-04-01

    The combined remedial measures of limited soil removal and addition of coral fill have been very effective in reducing the external {sup 137}Cs exposure in and around the proposed service and village area on Rongelap Island. The average effective dose for a year's occupancy within the village has been reduced from about 19 to 0.6 mrem y{sup -1}, and is below the target level of 1 mrem y{sup -1} recommended to RALGOV. Some additional actions could be taken to reduce the external dose around specific sites but on the basis of the data presented in this report, it appears that the resettlement contractor has met the basic requirements for this phase of the project.

  19. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 5. Geochemistry and geologic setting of the thermal waters of the northern Cache Valley area, Franklin County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1976-07-01

    The thermal waters of the north-south trending graben structure known as northern Cache Valley in southeastern Idaho were sampled during the summer and fall of 1973. Geologic and gravity data for the area indicate fault control for nearly all thermal water occurrences. Thermal-water discharges are generally restricted to the course of the Bear River with few known in areas away from the river. Spring deposits in the form of travertine may not be indications of low temperature thermal waters because abundant limestone and dolomite make up the geologic framework. Much gas, believed to consist mostly of carbon dioxide, is being evolved from many of the springs. The hottest water is found near Battle Creek and Squaw hot springs approximately 4 kilometers northwest of the town of Preston. Metoric waters descend along fault planes, fractures, and fissures to depths at which they are heated by increasing rock temperatures (geothermal gradient of 5/sup 0/C per 100 meters). Due to decreased density, the heated waters rise along the same or adjacent fault planes to the surface. The quartz equilibrium geochemical thermometer applied to the thermal water discharges indicates temperatures approaching 150/sup 0/C may be encountered by deep drilling. Mixing models, based on quartz solubility, indicate higher aquifer temperatures than the quartz equilibrium thermometer, but chloride concentration vs. temperature plots are not linear. The sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometer indicates higher temperatures than quartz equilibrium and mixing models. The thermal waters are higher in total dissolved solids (12,000 to 13,000 milligrams per liter) than are known elsewhere in Idaho and represent potential pollution hazards should large scale withdrawal be attempted.

  20. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 7. Geochemistry and geologic setting of the thermal waters of the Camas Prairie area, Blaine and Camas Counties, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1976-09-01

    The thermal waters of the east-west trending intermontane basin making up the Camas Prairie area were sampled during the fall of 1973. Average ground water temperature is 15/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/C above mean annual temperature). The thermal waters, chemically similar to thermal waters discharging from granitic rocks elsewhere in Idaho, have high pH, high Na/K and Na/Ca ratios, and high fluoride content. They are low in total dissolved solids (less than 365 mg/l), low in chloride, and exhibit relatively constant chloride/fluoride ratios and silica concentrations. Geochemical thermometers are interpreted to indicate that maximum aquifer temperatures in the Camas Prairie Basin are only about 100/sup 0/C, although higher temperatures were predicted by the quartz equilibrium geochemical thermometer and mixing models. The Magic Hot Springs well, located near the north shore of the Magic Reservoir at Hot Springs Landing, is an exception to these general conclusions. These waters may be circulating to depths approaching 1,800 to 2,500 m along faults or fissures; or may be due to leakage from an aquifer or reservoir heated by a shallow heat source, related perhaps to the Holocene basalt flows south of Magic Reservoir. These waters are nearly neutral in pH, are much higher in dissolved solids, exhibit higher chloride/fluoride, chloride/carbonate plus bicarbonate, and chloride/sulfate ratios, and are, in general, chemically dissimilar to thermal waters elsewhere in the area. Temperatures predicted by geochemical thermometers are thought to indicate that Magic Hot Springs well waters are ascending from an aquifer or reservoir with temperatures from 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Temperatures in this range would be sufficient for application in many industrial processes, including power generation, should sufficient water be available.

  1. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  2. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II—sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Nile E.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Sibley, Paul K.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs,OCpesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants. Sediments are a repository for many contaminants released into surface waters. Because of this, organisms inhabiting sediments may be exposed to a wide range of contaminants (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000; American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] American Society for Testing and Materials International 2012). Contaminants of potential concern in sediments typically include trace elements (metals

  3. Poliomyelitis control in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip: changing strategies with the goal of eradication in an endemic area.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldblum, N.; Gerichter, C B; Tulchinsky, T H; Melnick, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Israel has faced the challenge presented by epidemic poliomyelitis by using different immunization strategies. In the 1950s, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) helped to reduce the total burden of the disease, but cases continued to occur. Introduction of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mid-1961 had a dramatic effect in controlling an extensive epidemic of poliomyelitis; however, poliovirus activity and cases continued during the 1970s, and at a low level in the 1980s. A localized outbreak...

  4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S BORDER AREAS: CROATIA AS A REGIONAL MODEL FOR DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Maja PULIC

    2015-01-01

    The newest member joined the European Union (EU) with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrat...

  5. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S BORDER AREAS: CROATIA AS A REGIONAL MODEL FOR DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PULIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The newest member joined the European Union (EU with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Although not very successful in public diplomacy, a complex system of coordinated activities that Croatia implemented resulted in strengthening the perception and image of the overall destination brand. This research aims at exploring the Croatian destination branding strategy as a potential model for its closest neighboring country, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. Sharing a common history, borders and people, BIH and Croatia represent a unique comparative case study for regional spill-over development between the EU and non-EU countries. Therefore, this study takes into account what has been done so far on both sides regarding destination branding strategy, thus exploring what lessons could be learned from Croatia and what is the best future regional approach for creating a BIH’s destination brand.

  6. Evaluation of geophysical techniques for the detection of paleochannels in the Oakland area of eastern Nebraska as part of the Eastern Nebraska Water Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Asch, Theodore H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Cannia, James C.; Phillips, Jeffery D.; Lackey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Over the winter and spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a general assessment of the capabilities of several geophysical tools to delineate buried paleochannel aquifers in the glacial terrain of eastern Nebraska. Mapping these paleochannels is an important objective for the Eastern Nebraska Water Resources Assessment group. Previous attempts at mapping these channels included a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over an area near the town of Oakland, Nebraska, in March 2007. This survey had limited success in imaging the paleochannels due to the restricted depth of investigation of the system in the clay-rich till overburden. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other airborne electromagnetic or surface geophysical techniques, including audio-magnetotelluric, time-domain electromagnetic, gravity, and magnetic methods, could be used to image the paleochannels in the clay-rich tills of eastern Nebraska. This report releases the results of testing the ability of selected geophysical techniques to map aquifers in glacial deposits near the town of Oakland, Nebraska.

  7. 黑龙江省垦区西北部高寒地区优质牧草引种试验%Introduction Test of Forages of High Quality in Cold Area in Northwest Part of Heilongjiang Reclamation Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范圣华; 孙伯臣; 邱继兰; 阚文亮; 荣占华

    2009-01-01

    对来源不同的22份优质牧草材料通过4年(2004~2007年)的试验进行筛选,结果表明:草原2号苜蓿、肇东苜蓿、龙牧801苜蓿、农菁1号苜蓿、草原1.号苜蓿、敖汉苜蓿、公农1号苜蓿、羊草、鹅观草、冰草等牧草能够在黑龙江垦区西北部高寒地区安全越冬,产量性状、抗病性等都优于其它品种.%22 high-quality forage materials from different parts were screened for four years (2004~ 2007), the results showed that: alfalfa "Caoyuan No. 2",alfalfa "Zhaodong", alfalfa "Longmu 801", alfal- fa "Nongjing No. 1", alfalfa "Caoyuan No. 1", alfalfa "Aohan", alfalfa "Gongnong No. 1", Leymus chinesis, Roegneria kamogi and wheatgrass can over winter safely, they were superior to other varieties in yield and diseases resistance.

  8. Impact of migration origin on individual protection strategies against sexual transmission of HIV in Paris metropolitan area, SIRS cohort study, France.

    OpenAIRE

    Kesteman, Thomas; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Costagliola, Dominique; Massari, Véronique; Chauvin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of migration and country or region of origin on sexual behaviours and prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV has been scarcely studied in France. The objective of this study was to evaluate if and how individual attitudes of prevention towards HIV infection are different according to country or region of origins in Paris area, France. Methods 3006 individuals were interviewed in the Paris metropolitan area in 2010. Outcome variables were (i) the intention of the in...

  9. Petrotectonic framework of granulites from northern part of Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: Compressional vis-à-vis transpressional tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushik Das; Sankar Bose; Subrata Karmakar; Supriya Chakraborty

    2012-02-01

    Granulite-facies rocks occurring north-east of the Chilka Lake anothosite (Balugan Massif) show a complex metamorphic and deformation history. The M1–D1 stage is identified only through microscopic study by the presence of S1 internal foliation shown by the M1 assemblage sillimanite–quartz–plagioclase–biotite within garnet porphyroblasts of the aluminous granulites and this fabric is obliterated in outcrop to map-scale by subsequent deformations. S2 fabric was developed at peak metamorphic condition (M2–D2­) and is shown by gneissic banding present in all lithological units. S3 fabric was developed due to D3 deformation and it is tectonically transposed parallel to S2 regionally except at the hinge zone of the F3 folds. The transposed S2/S3 fabric is the regional characteristic structure of the area. The D4 event produced open upright F4 folds, but was weak enough to develop any penetrative foliation in the rocks except few spaced cleavages that developed in the quartzite/garnet–sillimanite gneiss. Petrological data suggest that the M4–D4 stage actually witnessed reactivation of the lower crust by late distinct tectonothermal event. Presence of transposed S2/S3 fabric within the anorthosite arguably suggests that the pluton was emplaced before or during the M3–D3 event. Field-based large-scale structural analyses and microfabric analyses of the granulites reveal that this terrain has been evolved through superposed folding events with two broadly perpendicular compression directions without any conclusive evidence for transpressional tectonics as argued by earlier workers. Tectonothermal history of these granulites spanning in Neoproterozoic time period is dominated by compressional tectonics with associated metamorphism at deep crust.

  10. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Bursa, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The Goal of this Thesis is to process the Strategic Analysis of the specific Business. In the theoretical Part I deal with the Terms, which are needed to understand the Business Strategy and also the Internal Analysis and the External Analysis. For the External Analysis I chose the Porter's Five Forces Model, PEST Analysis and the Analysis of the Attractiveness of the Branch. For the Internal Anylisis I chose the BCG Matrix and the financial Analysis. After that I'll make the SWOT Analysis as...

  11. The Cooperation of the Danube Countries within the frames of the Priority Area 11 of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region /EUSDR/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Koev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to underline the importance of the issues, which are object of intervention within Priority 11 of the EUSDR, namely working together to tackle security and organized crime. The author has presented a large scale study on the security issues in European context, reflected in his PhD dissertation. Exploration of the existing EU programming documents and strategic plans for cooperation in the area of security. Through examining the progress of activities and results within the Priority area 11 of the EUSDR, the author outlines the contribution of all Danube countries for the cooperation in security within the Danube region. The paper can attract the attention of academics, stakeholders and NGOs on initiating of projects within the Priority area 11 of EUSDR. The added value of the paper is in finding the interconnection between guaranteeing the security in all its types within the Danube space and the prosperity of the region.

  12. 基于NoSQL的PDM零件非几何信息存储策略%The storage strategy of non-geometric information of parts in PDM based on NoSQL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秀峰; 郭洋

    2015-01-01

    MBD技术在制造业上的应用,使现有PDM系统中存在着大量RDB难以处理的非结构化数据。提出了一种PDM混合数据存储策略,用RDB存储零件的描述信息,而其实际内容则用No-SQL数据库存储。该方案不仅可以利用RDB的结构化特点来方便查询与统计,还能充分利用No-SQL灵活的存储结构较快处理非结构化数据。实验结果表明,该策略可以有效的提升查询速度,降低数据的存储空间。%With the application of MBD in the manufacturing industry,a large number of unstructured da-taisstoredinthePDMsystemwhichis hard to process by RDB. A hybrid storage strategy is proposed with RDB to store description information of parts and NoSQL to store non-geometric-information. It uses the structural characteristics of RDB to facilitate the query and statistics,and fully usesthestorage structures of NoSQL to process unstructured data quickly. The experimental results show that this strategy can effectively improve the query speed and reduce the data storage space.

  13. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China. PMID:26383598

  14. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; ZHANG SiWei

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West", an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation, extensive collaboration in argumen-tation and decision-making, and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China's old industrial district remodeling, the paper offers some suggestions.

  15. THE CHALLENGES OF INTEGRATING DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT (DRM), INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (IWRM) AND AUTONOMOUS STRATEGIES IN LOW-INCOME URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF DOUALA, CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Roccard, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Climate change affects water resources suitable for human consumption, transforming water quality and quantity. These changes exacerbate vulnerabilities of human society, increasing the importance of adequately protecting and managing water resources and supplies. Growing urban populations provide an additional stress on existing water resources, particularly increasing the vulnerability of people living in poor neighbourhoods. In urban areas, official responses to climate change are currentl...

  16. Investigacion Educativa: Areas - Politicas - Estrategias y Proyectos del ICOLPE, 2 (Educational Research: Topics, Policies, Strategies, and Projects of the Colombian Institute of Pedagogy, 2),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This booklet defines and establishes guidelines for educational research in Colombia. Sections describe basic philosophy and objectives, types of research, policies for educational investigation, governmental role, and principle areas for educational research. A listing of current and proposed research projects is provided. The final section…

  17. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China.

  18. Geohimicheskaja harakteristika donnyh otlozhenij v zone pokmarkov v vostochnoj chasti Finskogo zaliva [The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Varvara; Kirievskaya Dubrava; Bolotov Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is the first time pockmark-like structures have been detected in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland with the help of a side-scan sonar and a profile recorder. The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium of the incoming mineralized solution meets the highly oxidizing sea water medium. The hydrodynamic and geochemical processes in the pockmark...

  19. SOFT MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rossoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A certain resistance on the part of the responsible controllers for the strategy exists, in using techniques and tools of modeling and simulation. Many find them excessively complicated, already others see them as rigid and mathematical for excessively for the use of strategies in uncertain and turbulent environments. However, some interpretative boarding that take care of, in part exist, the necessities of these borrowers of decision. The objective of this work is to demonstrate of a clear and simple form, some of the most powerful boarding, methodologies and interpretative tools (soft of modeling and simulation in the business-oriented area of strategy. We will define initially, what they are on models, simulation and some aspects to the modeling and simulation in the strategy area. Later we will see some boarding of modeling soft, that they see the modeling process much more of that simply a mechanical process, therefore, as seen for Simon, the human beings rationally are limited and its decisions are influenced by a series of questions of subjective character, related to the way where it is inserted. Keywords: strategy, modeling and simulation, soft systems methodology, cognitive map, systems dynamics.

  20. Signal Control Strategies for Bottleneck Area on Urban Expressway%城市快速路瓶颈区域控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹胜超; 许润民; 张毅; 李志恒

    2012-01-01

    Urban expressways in China have special features. Distance between on-ramp and off-ramp is relatively shorter compared with tins that in developed countries ( normally longer than 1000 m) , off-ramps are usually connected with urban streets and intersections. Thus successful ramp control strategies used in Europe or U.S. may not be suitable in China. First, this paper studies traffic flow characteristics at several representative "bottlenecks" in Beijing urban expressways. Efforts are devoted to improve the capability of traffic simulation platform to simulate detailed traffic behaviours by calibrating simulation model parameters. Efficiencies of different signal control strategies in road network involving on-ramp, off-ramp, adjacent streets and intersections are compared. Results indicate that combing adaptive ramp control with Synchronization signal control strategies is an efficient way to enhance road capacity and alleviate congestions for urban expressways.%中国的城市快速路与发达国家相比有着截然不同的特征.中国城市快速路匝道出入口之间距离相对较短,且城市快速路匝道出口经常与城市道路交叉口相连,因此在欧美成功应用的快速路匝道控制方案不一定适用于中国.本文详细描述了如何在仿真中设置模型参数,使得城市快速路交通流特性仿真结果与实际测量值具有较高的匹配精度.在具体阐述自适应与协同信号控制策略的基础之上,给出了各种方案在匝道入口、出口辅路和出口下游交叉口的具体部署方案.最终仿真结果表明,自适应和协同控制策略能够提高瓶颈区域道路通行能力8% -9%,有效地缓解城市快速路交通拥堵.

  1. Alignment of HR strategy to the business strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Lauko, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis draws its attention to the importance of aligning HR strategy to the business strategy. Both of these strategies are in detail described in the theoretical part o the thesis. The practical part is then devoted to a practical case of aligning the strategies. The case is HR transformation in one of the global leading companies where the process of the alignment is depicted and the impact of the HR transformation on the regional business and HR organization is observed.

  2. Local and Global Parsing with Functional (FX-bar Theory and SCD Linguistic Strategy (I. Part I. FX-bar Schemes and Theory. Local and Global FX-bar Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys latest developments of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency linguistic strategy, with its basic components: FX-bar theory with local and (two extensions to global structures, the hierarchy graph of SCD marker classes, and improved versions of SCD algorithms for segmentation and parsing of local and global text structures. Briefly, Part I brings theoretical support (predicational feature and semantic diathesis for handing down the predication from syntactic to lexical level, introduces the new local / global FX-bar schemes (graphs for clause-level and discourse-level, the (global extension of dependency graph for SCD marker classes, the problem of (direct and inverse local FX-bar projection of the verbal group (verbal complex, and the FX-bar global projections, with the special case of sub-clausal discourse segments. Part II discusses the implications of the functional generativity concept for local and global markers, with a novel understanding on the taxonomy of text parsing algorithms, specifies the SCD marker classes, both at clause and discourse level, and presents (variants of SCD local and global segmentation / parsing algorithms, along with their latest running results.

  3. Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ≫ Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.

  4. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  5. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmithals

    Full Text Available North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  6. Promotion of sustainable forms of renewable energy key to poverty eradiction strategies among poor people in rural areas of Kenya. A call for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Githinji, M.M. [Rural Friends Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2004-07-01

    Energy is very essential for sustainable development in rural areas. Electricity supply in Kenya is confined mostly in major urban centres only. Poor people rely on unsustainable forms of energy sources mainly burning of wood for domestic needs such as lighting resulting in serious environmental and health consequences among them, desertification and internal pollution. The latter is a pre-cursor of prevalent asthmatic conditions. There is therefore an urgent and greater need to provide sustainable and affordable forms of renewable energy to poor people in rural areas for household use and to help stimulate development activities in information technology and other light agro-industries. We propose a credit scheme through a revolving fund to enable poor people access solar technology to meet their energy needs. We appeal for support from the international community in this initiative. (orig.)

  7. A Study on Hydrogeological Condition and Water Inflow Calculation in Deep Part Baoding Mine Area%宝鼎矿区深部水文地质条件研究及涌水量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏克敏; 赵茂森; 王友长

    2011-01-01

    宝鼎矿区浅部资源行将枯竭,深部开采已迫在眉睫,而预测深部涌水量成为其首要解决的问题.通过对矿区深部水文地质条件研究与矿井充水因素的分析,认为矿区各含水间水力联系差,同一含水层组的不同地段间的含水裂隙的连通性亦差;断层多为高角度压性逆断层,导水性差,富水性弱;矿区上部水平及下部水平的浅埋区的充水水源主要为大气降水和老窑水,而下部水平主要的充水水源为上覆水平的采空区积水和地下水.运用比拟法和地下水动力学对延深的第一接替水平四个区段的较大涌水量和一般涌水量进行了计算,经过比较,采用了比拟法的计算结果:矿井的一般涌水量为2 860.88m3/d,据此提出了切实可行防治水措施,从而为矿井深部建设提供了水文地质依据.%The coal resources in the shallow part Baoding mine area about to exhausted, thus the deep part mining is extremely urgent, while the prediction of deep part water inflow is the first issue to be solved. Through mine area hydrogeological condition study and mine water filling factor analysis, considered that the hydraulic connection between aquifers are rather poor, connectivity of water-bearing fractures in different sectors of a same aquifer (group) is also poor. Faults in the area are mostly high angle compressive reverse faults with poor transmissibility and water yield property. Water filling sources of mine area upper levels and shallow part of lower levels are mainly atmospheric precipitation and gob area water, while main water filling sources of lower levels are gob area water from overlying levels and groundwater. Using analogue method and groundwater dynamics carry out computation for greater and general mine inflows in four sectors of deepening first relayed level. After comparison, results from analogue method are adopted:general mine inflow is 2860.88m3/d. For reason given above, practical water control

  8. Strategies for attraction and retention of health workers in remote and difficult-to-access areas of Chhattisgarh, India: Do they work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra Lisam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To address the acute shortages of health workers in underserved, remote, and difficult-to-access areas, the Government of Chhattisgarh and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM launched the Chhattisgarh Rural Medical Corps (CRMC in 2009. CRMC has enabled provisions such as financial incentives, residential accommodation, life insurance, and extra marks during admission at the postgraduate (PG level to eligible doctors for the attraction and retention of health workers, i.e., doctors, staff nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs, and rural medical assistants (RMAs in underserved areas. Objectives: This study aims to understand the CRMC scheme in terms of implementation, challenges, gaps, and outcome in achieving the attraction and retention of health workers in the remote and difficult-to-access areas of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The study adopts a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purposive sampling method was used for the selection of three districts having normal, difficult, and inaccessible areas. Data were collected through key informant (KI interviews with beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of CRMC or district and state government officials, and reviews of document were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: CRMC has made positive outcome as 1319 health workers, including doctors, have joined the service in 2010-11, reducing the vacancy of doctors from 90% to 45%. The scope of CRMC was primarily limited to payment of monthly financial incentives. The fund utilization rate of CRMC has increased (from 27% in 2009-10 to 98% in 2011-12, though there are delays in payment of incentives. The majority of staff lack awareness about CRMC during job applications. The payment of incentives based on facility performance has demotivated staff. Conclusions: Establishment of a performance management system, activating the CRMC cell to make it functional, and wide publicity of CRMC

  9. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West" ,an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation,extensive collaboration in argumentation and decision-making,and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China’s old industrial district remodeling,the paper offers some suggestions.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  11. Marketingová strategie firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Trubač, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis on marketing strategy of the company, is to evaluate the current marketing strategies that are implemented by Apple and based on the analytical findings suggest measures to streamline the effects of these strategies focus will be on defining new strategies based on information and data that we receive from situational analysis. The thesis is divided into three main parts, namely the theoretical basis and practical part of the evaluation results and recommendations. The f...

  12. A strategy for examining human reliability aspects of plant security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a strategy for developing a long-term research plan for human factors issues which can adversely affect safeguards at nuclear power plants. It was developed in order to prioritize and propose research for appropriately addressing nuclear power plant safeguards needs. The strategy consists of a series of parts, the first of which identifies and ranks human factors issues affecting the quality of nuclear power plant safeguards in terms of their importance. The second part involves determining the feasibility of conducting research in the areas found to be important to nuclear power plant safeguards. Third, research efforts are then developed and prioritized into main program elements according to the importance of human factors issue areas derived in the first part and the feasibility of research determined in the second part

  13. Company Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Honsová, Radka

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to design an appropriate marketing strategy of designing activity of MBQ-Mikulov Plc. based on results of marketing environment analyzes and my own marketing research. The thesis consists of three main parts. The first part of the thesis is devoted to theoretical findings. Basic terms from marketing field are defined here. Concretely it is marketing, marketing strategy, marketing mix, communication mix, situation analysis and marketing research. In ...

  14. Analysis of biomedical industrial development strategy in Shiyan area based on SWOT%基于SWOT对十堰地区生物医药产业发展战略的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富超; 方宝霞; 李鹏; 杨曼; 朱军; 陈琴华

    2010-01-01

    Relying on unique wild Chinese crude drug, animal and plant resources of Wudang Mountain and Shennongjia, biological pharmacy technology and talent advantages, Shiyan area has a definite competitive advantage in the development of biomedicine industry. This paper analyzed the current situation of biomedical industry and put forward corresponding strategies in Shiyan area based on SWOT.%十堰市依托武当山和神农架特有的野生中药材、动植物资源、生物制药技术以及人才优势,在发展生物医药产业方面具有一定的竞争优势.本文运用SWOT方法对十堰地区生物医药产业的发展现状进行分析评价,并提出了相应的对策.

  15. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  16. Strategies for Developing Cultural Economy in Minority Areas%浅析少数民族地区文化经济发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆艳; 穆智

    2014-01-01

    To develop cultural economy fuels the economic growth at county level in minority areas. The cultures in minority areas are di-versified, separated by regions, inherited in mystical ways and shared inside a nation respectively. The ethnic culture affects the economic behavior of minority laborers and the economic objects at county level. It has both positive roles and restriction to the growth of the county economy. The growth of cultural economy in minority areas could be facilitated by developing ethnic culture industry groups, creating cul-tural brands, establishing multi-variety investment agencies, and proactively developing cultural resources.%发展少数民族地区文化经济成为促进少数民族地区县域经济发展的推动力。少数民族地区形成了独具特色的文化,且具有多样性、分布区域性、传承的神秘性以及民族的共同性。少数民族特有的民族文化影响了少数民族劳动者的经济行为、县域经济客体;而对县域经济发展具有双重作用。应大力培育和发展文化产业,加快建立、培育和发展特色民族文化产业集团;不断创建民族文化品牌;积极构建多元化投资机构,吸引投资;积极开发文化资源,大力发展文化产业以促进少数民族地区文化经济发展。

  17. Strategie podnikatelského subjektu

    OpenAIRE

    Janeta, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describing Strategy of business unit is divided into three parts. First theoretical part summarizes strategic management together with strategic analysis, consisting of external and internal part. Second part describes operations on betting market, contemporary Czech market, its development and actual services offered. Last part analyses the strategy of Tipsport Company. It contains basic characteristic of the company followed by development of individual parts of business strategy...

  18. Walrus parts collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached field diary notes provide documentation of walrus parts collection activities which occurred in the Nome and surrounding area during the periods of May...

  19. Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.

  20. Effective panchromatic sensitization of electrochemical solar cells: strategy and organizational rules for spatial separation of complementary light harvesters on high-area photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Nak Cheon; Son, Ho-Jin; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Lee, Chang Yeon; Jensen, Rebecca A; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2012-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells, especially those comprising molecular chromophores and inorganic titania, have shown promise as an alternative to silicon for photovoltaic light-to-electrical energy conversion. Co-sensitization (the use of two or more chromophores having complementary absorption spectra) has attracted attention as a method for harvesting photons over a broad spectral range. If implemented successfully, then cosensitization can substantially enhance photocurrent densities and light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies. In only a few cases, however, have significant overall improvements been obtained. In most other cases, inefficiencies arise due to unconstructive energy or charge transfer between chromophores or, as we show here, because of modulation of charge-recombination behavior. Spatial isolation of differing chromophores offers a solution. We report a new and versatile method for fabricating two-color photoanodes featuring spatially isolated chromophore types that are selectively positioned in desired zones. Exploiting this methodology, we find that photocurrent densities depend on both the relative and absolute positions of chromophores and on "local" effective electron collection lengths. One version of the two-color photoanode, based on an organic push-pull dye together with a porphyrin dye, yielded high photocurrent densities (J(SC) = 14.6 mA cm(-2)) and double the efficiency of randomly mixed dyes, once the dyes were optimally positioned with respect to each other. We believe that the organizational rules and fabrication strategy will prove transferrable, thereby advancing understanding of panchromatic sensitization as well as yielding higher efficiency devices.