WorldWideScience

Sample records for area strategy part

  1. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  2. Sewerage Service Areas, Part of Service Delivery Strategy that DCA requires, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Service Areas dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  3. Implementing marketing strategy (Part four).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D C; Dotson, M; McIlwain, T F; Young, D

    1993-01-01

    Every organization must monitor and evaluate the performance of its marketing strategies. The health care marketer must continually develop effective measures related to outcomes so that marketing efforts can be justified and garnish the support and resources they deserve. A major task for the marketing executive for the next decade is to develop marketing strategies and prove that those strategies are being met and that they help the health care organization carry out its objective to meet its mission.

  4. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  5. Counterfeit Parts Prevention Strategies Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    as part of an International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 9001 :200818 or AS9100C19 quality management system. The third and fourth steps, Reporting...when problems are detected after delivery. Companies operating to ISO 9001 or other QMS processes may need to enhance customer reporting practices...Critical Ground Support Hardware ISO - 9001 Quality Management System - Requirements ISO /IEC 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and

  6. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  7. The indication area of a diagnostic test. Part II-the impact of test dependence, physician's decision strategy, and patient's utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L.J.; Nelemans, P.J.; Geurts, S.M.; Jansen, E.; Boer, P.; Verbeek, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Any diagnostic test has an indication area of prior probabilities wherein the gain in diagnostic certainty outweighs its loss. Here, we investigate whether indication area and the maximum diagnostic gain are robust measures if we assume test dependence, alternative physician's heuristics

  8. 50 CFR Appendix B to Part 622 - Gulf Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf Areas B Appendix B to Part 622... Part 622—Gulf Areas Table 1 of Appendix B to Part 622—Seaward Coordinates of the Longline and Buoy Gear Restricted Area Point No. and reference location 1 North lat. West long. 1Seaward limit of Florida's...

  9. Five Strategies of Successful Part-Time Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Vivien; Lawrence, Thomas B.; Frost, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies commonalities in the approaches of successful part-time professionals. Discusses five strategies for success: (1) communicating work-life priorities and schedules to the organization; (2) making the business case for part-time arrangements; (3) establishing time management routines; (4) cultivating advocates in senior management; and…

  10. Surgical strategies for glioma involving language areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; JIANG Tao; XIE Jian; LIU Fu-sheng; LI Shou-wei; QIAO Hui; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of gliomas in or adjacent to language areas constitutes a major challenge to neurosurgery. The present study was performed to evaluate the procedure of language mapping via intraoperative direct cortical electrical stimulation under awake anaesthesia when performed prior to resective glioma surgery.Methods Thirty patients with gliomas and left-hemisphere dominance and, who underwent language mapping via intraoperative direct cortical electrical stimulation under awake anaesthesia before resective glioma surgery, were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had tumors in or adjacent to cortical language areas. The brain lesions were removed according to anatomic-functional boundaries with preservation of areas of language function. Both preoperative and postoperative functional findings were evaluated.Results Intraoperative language areas were detected in 20 patients but not in four patients. Language mapping failure for reasons attributable to the anaesthesia or to an intraoperative increase in intracranial pressure occurred in six cases.Seven patients presented with moderate or severe language deficits after six months of follow-up. Total resection was achieved in 14 cases, near-total resection in 12 cases and subtotal resection in four cases.Conclusions Intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation is an accurate and safe approach to identification of the language cortex. Awake craniotomy intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation, in combination with presurgical neurological functional imaging to identify the anatomic-functional boundaries of tumor resection, permits extensive tumor excision while preserving normal language function and minimizing the risk of postoperative language deficits.

  11. Strategic pricing: hitting the mark with pricing strategies. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, L; Manning, M

    1988-01-01

    Efforts by government and business to reduce healthcare expenditures by fostering competition and reducing utilization have combined to redefine the basic economic structure of the healthcare delivery system. Increased competition among providers has prompted an increased awareness of strategic pricing as a means of achieving institutional goals and objectives. In this article, the first in a three-part series on strategic pricing, the authors examine some of the key theoretical considerations related to pricing strategies for healthcare providers. Future articles will examine practical applications as they relate to package pricing, discounting, per diem systems, and capitation arrangements.

  12. Sentinel areas: a monitoring strategy in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Available techniques for monitoring the health situation have proven insufficient, thus leading to a discussion of the need for their improvement based on new data collection strategies allowing for data use by local health systems. This article presents the methodological basis for a strategy to monitor health problems utilizing demarcated intra-urban spaces called "sentinel areas" to collect fundamental social, economic, behavioral, and biological data for public health that allow for a closer approach to the reality of complex social spaces. The authors present an experience that is being developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the epidemiological impact of an environmental sanitation program. They discuss selection criteria for the areas and the potential uses of this strategy allowing for the rapid utilization of epidemiological resources by health services and the timely application of the results to reorient and enhance health intervention practices.

  13. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  14. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  15. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  16. Optimizing strategies to improve interprofessional practice for veterans, part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya SB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shelley B Bhattacharya,1–3 Michelle I Rossi,1,2 Jennifer M Mentz11Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, Veteran's Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, 2University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Albert Schweitzer Fellowship Program, Pittsburgh, PA, USAIntroduction: Interprofessional patient care is a well-recognized path that health care systems are striving toward. The Veteran's Affairs (VA system initiated interprofessional practice (IPP models with their Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM programs. GEM programs incorporate a range of specialties, including but not limited to, medicine, nursing, social work, physical therapy and pharmacy, to collaboratively evaluate veterans. Despite being a valuable resource, they are now faced with significant cut-backs, including closures. The primary goal of this project was to assess how the GEM model could be optimized at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania VA to allow for the sustainability of this important IPP assessment. Part 1 of the study evaluated the IPP process using program, patient, and family surveys. Part 2 examined how well the geriatrician matched patients to specialists in the GEM model. This paper describes Part 1 of our study.Methods: Three strategies were used: 1 a national GEM program survey; 2 a veteran/family satisfaction survey; and 3 an absentee assessment.Results: Twenty-six of 92 programs responded to the GEM IPP survey. Six strategies were shared to optimize IPP models throughout the country. Of the 34 satisfaction surveys, 80% stated the GEM clinic was beneficial, 79% stated their concerns were addressed, and 100% would recommend GEM to their friends. Of the 24 absentee assessments, the top three reasons for missing the appointments were transportation, medical illnesses, and not knowing/remembering about the appointment. Absentee rate diminished from 41% to 19% after instituting a reminder phone call policy.Discussion: Maintaining the

  17. The Importance of the Eye Area in Face Identification Abilities and Visual Search Strategies in Persons with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkmer, Marita; Larsson, Matilda; Bjallmark, Anna; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2010-01-01

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24…

  18. THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY IN TRANSITION: PART 1 – FROM STRATEGY FORMULATION TO STRATEGY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard M Louw

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By 2013, sufficient evidence had become publicly available to confirm what defence analysts had been suspecting for a while now: the military effectiveness of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF is deficient. This article proposes that this condition is due to strategic failure, brought about by the dynamic interaction between the preferred strategic management model of the organisation and its acquired strategic culture(s. The study on which this article reports, further suggests that a design school strategic management model best explains the method towards the SANDF’s current condition of organisational entropy, but that its root cause actually lies in a dichotomous strategic culture. In combination, these two variables conspired to diminish the defence force’s responsiveness to its operational context, resulting in the formation of inappropriate strategy that prevented the SANDF from achieving military effectiveness. While the authors consider the article to be hypothesis generating, it also has an exploratory dimension and paves the way for a validational study at a later stage. Part 1 therefore argues towards a strategic management model that could explain the SANDF’s strategy formulation process, its method of ensuring that strategic outcomes correlate with strategic intent, and ultimately its weakness in accounting for the external environment in realised strategy. This first part mainly employs inductive reasoning and draws its conclusions from an eclectic literary review that included business studies and dynamic systems theory.

  19. STRATEGY OF MAIZE'S CONCENTRATING TO ADVANTAGE AREAS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-ming; GU Li-li

    2003-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the main grain-producing provinces of China, which has dominant position in maize production, by the view of its advantages in policy, location, breed and market. And after entering WTO,some measures have been taken to enhance maize competitive ability. But there are some difficulties in concentrating production to maize advantaged areas. This paper expounds the basis that Jilin Province becomes the advantage area of maize, analyzes the problems and puts forward the supporting policy. Some strategic measures are proposed,as developing comparable advantages, carrying out the strategy of un-equilibrium development and cultivating advantaged product areas of maize to rapidly improve the international competitive ability and productivity of maize in Jilin Province, cast the agricultural predicament off and promote the agricultural development into a new stage.

  20. Regional Virtual Water Trade Strategy in Drought Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze the virtual water trade in drought area in China.[Method]Taking agricultural production which was related to water resources as study object and by dint of opportunity cost and comparative advantage theory,water resources have been included into a series of state macro-objective models,such as economic growth,crops safety,and increase of people's well-fare.Virtual water resource strategy was verified effectively and relevant suggestions on virtual water trade in the drought...

  1. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  2. Supporting Educational Uses of Telecommunication in the Secondary School: Part II Strategies for Improved Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty

    1992-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series on telecommunications in secondary schools examines strategies for better support of telecommunications implementation. Highlights include management strategies for CMC (computer-mediated communication) use; instructional strategies for online database inquiries; teacher support strategies; simulation…

  3. LEAN Manufacturing - Part of Business and Manufacturing Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  4. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  5. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact.

  6. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  7. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  8. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  9. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  10. 34 CFR Appendix to Part 648 - Academic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....05Mathematic Statistics 40.Physical Sciences 40.01Physical Sciences, General 40.02Astronomy 40.03Astrophysics..., Ethnic, and Cultural Studies 05.01Area Studies 05.02Ethnic and Cultural Studies 11.Computer and Information Sciences 11.01Computer and Information Sciences, General 11.02Computer Programming...

  11. Control strategies and inspection methods for welded part

    OpenAIRE

    Baradi, Divyank

    2013-01-01

    Present and future demonstrator designs were used to demonstrate the quality assurance of welds. The NDT methods tested on prototype demonstrator parts are: visual inspection, radius gauges, throat size gauge, liquid-penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing and ultrasonics with pulse echo and phased array. The other methods like eddy current, time of flight diffraction, radiography, impression test, macro test and infrared thermographs are currently being analyzed along with their inspect...

  12. [Treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Part 2: Pharmacological strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Ely, D; Pfueller, U; Mundt, C; Müller, U; Weisbrod, M

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are a clinically relevant symptom dimension and one of the best predictors for functional outcome. Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is still a challenge. The objective of this article is to present a detailed review of the literature on strategies for the pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits. It is not clear whether first-generation antipsychotics have a genuine positive influence on cognition. There is only sparse evidence for the positive effect of second-generation antipsychotics on cognitive processes. Furthermore it is not evident that second-generation antipsychotics are more beneficial than first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of cognitive deficits. The add-on use of substances which directly influence cognitive processes, so-called cognition-enhancing drugs is more promising.

  13. A new strategy for stiffness evaluation of sheet metal parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Q.; Volk, W.; Düster, A.; Rank, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the automotive industry, surfaces of styling models are shaped very often in physical models. For example, in the styling process of a car body important design work is realized by clay models and the resulting geometry information typically comes from optical scans. The scanned data is given in the form of point clouds which is then utilized in the virtual planning process for engineering work, e.g. to evaluate the load-carrying capacity. This is an important measure for the stiffness of the car body panels. In this contribution, the following two issues are discussed: what is the suitable geometric representation of the stiffness of the car body and how it is computed if only discrete point clouds exist. In the first part, the suitable geometric representation is identified by constructing continuous CAD models with different geometric parameters, e.g. Gaussian curvature and mean curvature. The stiffness of models is then computed in LS-DYNA and the influence of different geometric parameters is presented based on the simulation result. In the second part, the point clouds from scanned data, rather than continuous CAD models, are directly utilized to estimate the Gaussian curvature, which is normally derived from continuous surfaces. The discrete Gauss-Bonnet algorithm is applied to estimate the Gaussian curvature of the point clouds and the sensitivity of the algorithm with respect to the mesh quality is analyzed. In this way, the stiffness evaluation process in an early stage can be accelerated since the transformation from discrete data to continuous CAD data is labor-intensive. The discrete Gauss-Bonnet algorithm is finally applied to a sheet metal model of the BMW 3 series.

  14. Manufacturing strategy in the auto parts industry: a multicases study in companies at sorocaba’s region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Neves Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The alignment of manufacturing strategy with the business strategy is fundamental for achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In the particular case of the automotive industry, it is verified that the production strategy of suppliers is strongly influenced by the strategy of automakers. In this context, this paper aims at presenting characteristics of the content of the production strategy of four auto parts companies besides analyzing the influence of automakers in the definition of the strategy contents.This is a descriptive and exploratory research that uses  a qualitative approach and the multi-case study method. Among the main results, it was found that the prevalent competitive priority in the companies is quality followed by delivery. In the decision areas, it was noted that customers have great influence on the quality management of these companies and in the R&D activities, besides demanding frequent deliveries. Finally, it was found that auto parts companies seek to strengthen their competitive priorities by adopting criteria from suppliers  for selecting and evaluating.

  15. Global asymptotic stability of a passive juggling strategy: A possible parts-feeding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that a passive vibration strategy can bring a one-degree-of-freedom ball to a specified periodic trajectory from all initial conditions. We draw motivation from the problem of parts feeding in sensorless assembly. We provide simulation results suggesting the relevance of our analysis to the parts feeding problem.

  16. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF PROTECTED AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Manuela GOGONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability manifested locally expanded to national, outlining the context of Romanian tourism industry under guidance protection, conservation and regeneration of environmental resources. The paper analyzes the evolution over time of the number, and surface of protected natural areas, being a reference point in the direction of strategic management thinking of tourism in the protected areas in Romania under the spectrum of sustainability, leading to a quantitative development and qualitative at high levels. The analysis of the number and surface of protected natural areas is through the data retrieved from the database Tempo-one line from the NIS.

  17. Searching development strategies for less-favoured areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Kuiper, M.H.; Pender, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rural households in less-favoured areas (LFAs) face multiple constraints for overcoming chronic poverty and resource degradation. Strategic development options can be assessed through interdisciplinary research based on coupling of human and natural systems approaches. Simulation modelling enables t

  18. SUBSTANTIATING THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Costencu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected natural areas, irrespective of their classification modality or the motivations they propose, have become more and more attractive for tourists. However, in time, the increasing touristic flows they attract, often developed in an uncontrolled manner, lead to the erosion of the space and the degradation of ecosystems. Developing tourism on sustainable principles, with the appropriate balance of the two functions of a protected area – the scientific and the touristic function – should start from the analysis of this form of tourism and of the development opportunities and limits regarded from the perspective of the external environment, and from the particularisation of the concept “site’s tourist reception capacity”. Destination areas should meet the economic, social and ecological requirements in competition, so that they observe the integrity of natural resources and of local communities. The upper limit of the number of visits allowed in a protected area is purposefully set at a level below the identified level of accepted use, so that, in the long run, the environment could be able to cover the possible increases occurred in the number of tourists, without subjecting the environment to further harm.

  19. Euro area enlargement: dilemmas and strategies after the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges for the New Member States after joining the European Union were Euro adoption and dealing with the economic crisis. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on the New Member States of European Union, both to the four NMS countries that joined the euro area, and also for the eight countries which intend to do this in the next few years. The paper begins with an overview of the current situation and analyses the economic performance of the 12 NMS of EU based on the Maastricht Treaty criteria. Finally, we are considering an answer he question: is it necessary to reshape the Euro – area entry rules?

  20. Content Area Reading: Principles and Strategies to Promote Independent Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachrudin Musthafa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the formal education cannot be expected to provide individuals with sufficient knowledge to last a lifetime, educators need to help learners develop knowledge, skills, and predispositions essential for independent learning. Reading in content areas whose primary purpose is to help learners acquire content literacy or the ability to use reading (and writing for the acquisition of new knowledge from materials required in their subject is one way of preparing students to be independent learners.

  1. Child immunization coverage in rural hard-to-reach Haor areas of Bangladesh: possible alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Larson, Charles P; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Khan, Azharul Islam; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Chandra Saha, Nirod

    2009-01-01

    This article assessed the status of childhood vaccination coverage and the possibility of using selected alternative vaccination strategies in rural hard-to-reach haor (low lying) areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected through survey, in-depth interviews, group discussion, and observations of vaccination sessions. Complete immunization coverage among 12- to 23-month-old children was found to be significantly lower in study areas when compared with the national coverage levels. The study identified reasons for low complete immunization coverage in hard-to-reach areas, including irregular/cancelled extended program on immunization (EPI) sessions, less time spent in EPI spots by field staff, and absence of any alternative strategy for remote areas. The findings indicated that the existing service delivery strategy is not sufficient to improve immunization coverage in hard-to-reach areas. However, most of the strategies assessed are considered possible to implement by health care providers in hard-to-reach areas. The study suggested that before implementing alternative strategies in hard-to-reach areas, feasibility and effectiveness of the possible strategies need to be tested to identify evidence-based strategies.

  2. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  3. Strategies to prevent forest fires and techniques to reverse degradation processes in burned areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, António José Dinis; Alegre, Sérgio Prats; Coelho, Celeste Oliveira Alves; Shakesby, Rick A.; Páscoa, Fernando M.; Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires are probably the more deleterious event in forest and range areas in the Mediterranean nowadays. Despite the significant area burned every year, little has been done to develop strategies and techniques for soil and water conservation in burned areas, despite the major impacts on soi

  4. Environmental Risk Assessment and Waste Management Strategies in Rural Areas (Case Study: RamjerdVillage 1, Marvdasht city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hossaini Motlagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: protecting the environment is one of the important pillars of human rights, so that the maintenance and protection of the environment is one of the main tasks of the present and the future.A major part of the population of rural and natural areas of the country is allocated. One of the most important environmental health problems villages lack basic collection and disposal of waste produced.Waste management rural important action to prevent environmental hazards and one of the most important components of sustainable development is rural. Materials and Methods: In this study, the data collection method is the descriptive survey which aims to provide appropriate waste management strategy in Ramjerdvillage 1, Marvdashtcity done.In this study, using a sample of the population of the area under study, 400 subjects were selected.After analyzing and identifying environmental factors, matrices were made IFE and EFE. Conclusion: the final score 2.458 internal factors and external factors final score was 2.797. According to the final score, the matrix is composed of the situation and of the strategies of the IE model, SWOT, conservative strategies as a strategy QSPM were assigned to the matrix.Finally, with regard to the appeal, the strategy of "education for rural people and rural managers considering taking their training to avoid unseemly sights and informing them about the economic value of waste "as the most important strategy ago and was introduced with the highest rating.

  5. Strategy and criteria for deployment of high speed chargers - Part 1; Strategi og kriteriesett for utplassering av hurtigladere - Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This report was commissioned by Transnova, as a part of their commitment to the electrification of road transport. The project has been conducted by Poeyry and Architect Harald N. Roestvik in close cooperation with representatives of Transnova and Vegdirektoratet. In addition, a number of external experts provided information during the process. The first part of the report describes a strategy and a set of criteria for the deployment of fast charging stations. The purpose of this section is to find out how many charging points are needed and where they should be placed. The second part describes the possible business models for providers of quick chargers. This section is intended to give some ideas to those who are interested in running high speed charging, and evaluate opportunities for commercial operations.(auth)

  6. Data Archive and Portal Thrust Area Strategy Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Macduff, Matt C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hagler, Clay D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the Data Archive and Portal (DAP), a key capability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electron (A2e) initiative. The DAP Thrust Area Planning Group was organized to develop a plan for deploying this capability. Primarily, the report focuses on a distributed system--a DOE Wind Cloud--that functions as a repository for all A2e data. The Wind Cloud will be accessible via an open, easy-to-navigate user interface that facilitates community data access, interaction, and collaboration. DAP management will work with the community, industry, and international standards bodies to develop standards for wind data and to capture important characteristics of all data in the Wind Cloud.

  7. Data Archive and Portal Thrust Area Strategy Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Stephan, Eric G.; Macduff, Matt C.; Hagler, Clay D.

    2014-09-30

    This report describes the Data Archive and Portal (DAP), a key capability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electron (A2e) initiative. The DAP Thrust Area Planning Group was organized to develop a plan for deploying this capability. Primarily, the report focuses on a distributed system--a DOE Wind Cloud--that functions as a repository for all A2e data. The Wind Cloud will be accessible via an open, easy-to-navigate user interface that facilitates community data access, interaction, and collaboration. DAP management will work with the community, industry, and international standards bodies to develop standards for wind data and to capture important characteristics of all data in the Wind Cloud.

  8. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART II. GENE THERAPY STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In Part I of this Review, we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene...

  9. Malaria and its burden among pregnant women in parts of the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwuocha Uchechukwu Madukaku; Dozie Ikechukwu Nosike; Chukwuocha Adanna Nneoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the epidemiology and burden of malaria among pregnant women in parts of theNigerDelta ofNigeria.Methods:About140 pregnant women were selected from four communities for the study after consent was obtained from them and their husbands.Clinical malaria was confirmed usingGiemsa staining technique, while social demographic data was obtained using structured pretested questionnaires.Results:Results showed that57.1% patients were positive for malaria infection.The peak age specific incidence was15-20 years(35%) and there was a significant difference among age groups(P<0.05).The incidence of malaria varied significantly according to the trimesters of the pregnant women, locations, level of education and occupation(P<0.05).The burden of the disease among pregnant women in the study area were in forms of symptoms(χ2=7.67,P<0.05), abnormalities(χ2 =21.38,P<0.05) and cost of treatment(χ2=6.62,P<0.005).Pregnant women were mostly predisposed to malaria infection by presence of stagnant water(25.0%) and with farming/fishing activities(22.5%).The most perceived preventive/control measure was intermittent preventive treatment(20.00%) and AntenatalCare/Health education(13.75%).Conclusions:Malaria still exerts heavy public health and socioeconomic burden on pregnant women in the study area.This calls for concerted effort to scale up and sustain control strategies especially intermittent preventive treatment and health education during antenatal visits.

  10. Literature-Based Teaching in the Content Areas: 40 Strategies for K-8 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in theory and best-practices research, this practical text provides teachers with 40 strategies for using fiction and non-fiction trade books to teach in five key content areas: language arts and reading, social studies, mathematics, science, and the arts. Each strategy provides everything a teacher needs to get started: a classroom…

  11. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security...

  12. The flipped classroom for professional development: part I. Benefits and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katie; Smith, Charlene M

    2013-10-01

    Individualizing the educational encounter is supported by flipping the classroom experience. This column offers an overview and describes the benefits of flipping the classroom. Part II will explore the practicalities and pedagogy of lecture capture using podcasts and videos, a technology strategy used in flipping the classroom.

  13. Improving health service delivery organisational performance in health systems: a taxonomy of strategy areas and conceptual framework for strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah W; Curry, Leslie; Bashyal, Chhitij; Berman, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-03-01

    Health systems strengthening (HSS) is a priority for global health funders, policy-makers and practitioners. Although many HSS efforts have focused on policy levers such as financing approaches, payment schemes or regulatory reforms, less attention has been directed to targeting the organisations that deliver health services such as hospitals, health centres and clinics. Evidence suggests that the impact of organisation-level interventions varies by context; however, we lack a general framework for integrating organisational context into performance improvement strategies for health service delivery organisations. Drawing on open systems theories from organisational behaviour and management as well as a review of 181 empirical studies of health service delivery organisations in low- and middle-income countries, we propose a taxonomy of seven strategy areas for improving organisational performance as well as a multistage conceptual framework for selecting among them. We propose that the choice of strategy for improving health service delivery organisational performance should be informed by: (i) the root cause of the organisation's performance gap; (ii) the environmental conditions facing the organisation; and (iii) the implementation capability of the organisation. We also highlight conditions under which different strategy areas may be expected to be optimally effective. The approaches presented in this paper offer a way for health system decision-makers and researchers to systematically assess and incorporate organisational context in the process of developing strategies to improve the performance of health service delivery organisations and, ultimately, of health systems.

  14. The effects of an interactive instructional strategy for enhancing reading comprehension and content area learning for students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C S; Anders, P L; Filip, D; Jaffe, L E

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an interactive vocabulary instructional strategy, semantic-feature analysis (SFA), on the content area text comprehension of adolescents with learning disabilities. Prior to reading a social studies text, students in resource classes either completed a relationship chart as part of the SFA condition or used the dictionary to write definitions and sentences as part of the contrast condition. Passage comprehension was measured on a multiple-choice test consisting of two types of items, vocabulary and conceptual. Comprehension was measured immediately following teaching and again 6 months after teaching. Prior knowledge for the content of the passage served as a covariate. Results indicated that students in the SFA instructional condition had significantly greater measured comprehension immediately following and 6 months after initial teaching. These results are discussed in relation to concept-driven, interactive strategies for teaching content and facilitating text comprehension.

  15. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations.

  16. Study on Control Strategy of Sulfur Dioxide Concentration in the Urban Area of Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光军; 于立军; 范丽; 王宇新; 赵根喜

    2003-01-01

    Two Gaussian air quality dispersion models, the industrial source complex short-term model (ISCST3) with and without modification have been used to simulate the pollutant concentration distribution in urban areas based on the meteorological data and the emissions distribution of sulfur dioxide. The verified data show that the modified model is more accurate in the urban area of Shijiazhuang. Using the modified model predictions, the control strategies of sulfur dioxide in the urban area have been studied, and the result show that the second long-term (to 2010) strategy can mitigate air pollution significantly and maintain pollution levels within permissible limits.

  17. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area...

  18. Redesigned Surface Based Machining Strategy and Method in Peripheral Milling of Thin-walled Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhenyuan; GUO Qiang; SUN Yuwen; GUO Dongming

    2010-01-01

    Currently, simultaneously ensuring the machining accuracy and efficiency of thin-walled structures especially high performance parts still remains a challenge. Existing compensating methods are mainly focusing on 3-aixs machining, which sometimes only take one given point as the compensative point at each given cutter location. This paper presents a redesigned surface based machining strategy for peripheral milling of thin-walled parts. Based on an improved cutting force/heat model and finite element method(FEM) simulation environment, a deflection error prediction model, which takes sequence of cutter contact lines as compensation targets, is established. And an iterative algorithm is presented to determine feasible cutter axis positions. The final redesigned surface is subsequently generated by skinning all discrete cutter axis vectors after compensating by using the proposed algorithm. The proposed machining strategy incorporates the thermo-mechanical coupled effect in deflection prediction, and is also validated with flank milling experiment by using five-axis machine tool. At the same time, the deformation error is detected by using three-coordinate measuring machine. Error prediction values and experimental results indicate that they have a good consistency and the proposed approach is able to significantly reduce the dimension error under the same machining conditions compared with conventional methods. The proposed machining strategy has potential in high-efficiency precision machining of thin-walled parts.

  19. A New Secure Strategy for Small-Scale IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As the main secret-key encryption techniques of the wireless local area network (WLAN have been proven to be unsafe, wireless network security is faced with serious challenges. It is unpractical for home users and small companies to buy expansive network equipments to improve the network security. Therefore, the secure strategy of wireless network needs to be changed. In this paper, we first introduce secure issues of the main secret-key encryption techniques currently adopted by the most popular commercial wireless routers. Then we propose a new strategy for small-scale IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network which can strengthen the network security. The new secure strategy is based on web authentication with unshared key and virtual local area network (VLAN in wireless network. It can provide protection against practical attacks which are popular nowadays. Moreover, it is simple, wieldy and low-cost.

  20. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL...

  1. Sustainable development pattern and strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development pattern, development situation, and existing problems of land exploitation in Zigui County, Three Gorges Reservoir Areas of China were presented. The sustainable development mode and its strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas was also discussed. A sustainable development framework for low mountain regions, middle mountain regions and high mountain regions was developed, and management countermeasures for structural optimization of complex ecosystems were advanced.

  2. Learning strategies used by undergraduate and postgraduate students in hybrid courses in the area of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Henry Maia; Peixoto, Mariana Maia; Alves, Elioenai Dornelles

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the learning habits and strategies of undergraduate and post-graduate students matriculated in hybrid courses in the area of healthcare at a Brazilian university. 220 graduate students were invited to participate in the research, of whom 67.27% accepted. An exploratory methodology was utilized, which analyzed quantitative data collected by a structured instrument. A similarity may be observed between undergraduate and postgraduate students concerning the majority of education habits and learning strategies, such as the large proportion of those who read more than half of the course content and of those who preferred to study alone, as well as in the high use of the majority of strategies evaluated. It is concluded that both the groups present appropriate study habits and satisfactorily used the learning strategies investigated.

  3. Soft power as part of China's strategy for national image cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Signe

    at the highest level. This interest in soft power is generally seen as part of an important foreign policy shift, and the huge amounts of money spent by the government on cultural diplomacy testify to the importance attached to it. Understanding what might be the goal of China’s soft power strategy is however...... in Qiu Shi to find out how the concepts of soft power and national image together are being built into a discourse of strengthening China’s cultural identity. Various interpretations on how China’s soft power strategy is connected to her self-image may follow from this analysis, the question however...... remains whether it is really a softer identity, rather than soft power in the usual sense China is looking for? And is this image actually directed towards a foreign audience, or is it to some extent China’s own population this softer identity is directed at?...

  4. The fusiform face area is engaged in holistic, not parts-based, representation of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiedong Zhang

    Full Text Available Numerous studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging have shown that the fusiform face area (FFA in the human brain plays a key role in face perception. Recent studies have found that both the featural information of faces (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth and the configural information of faces (i.e., spatial relation among features are encoded in the FFA. However, little is known about whether the featural information is encoded independent of or combined with the configural information in the FFA. Here we used multi-voxel pattern analysis to examine holistic representation of faces in the FFA by correlating spatial patterns of activation with behavioral performance in discriminating face parts with face configurations either present or absent. Behaviorally, the absence of face configurations (versus presence impaired discrimination of face parts, suggesting a holistic representation in the brain. Neurally, spatial patterns of activation in the FFA were more similar among correct than incorrect trials only when face parts were presented in a veridical face configuration. In contrast, spatial patterns of activation in the occipital face area, as well as the object-selective lateral occipital complex, were more similar among correct than incorrect trials regardless of the presence of veridical face configurations. This finding suggests that in the FFA faces are represented not on the basis of individual parts but in terms of the whole that emerges from the parts.

  5. Strategies for reducing visual impairment and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan O. Oduntan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of visual impairment (VI and blindness in Africa is one of the highest in the world; a large proportion of the causes are preventable. The prevalence is particularly high in rural and remote areas, where many of the continent’s inhabitants live. This is of great concern because of the low number and poor distribution of primary eye care practitioners, as well as poor eye care infrastructure services in those areas. Uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of avoidable VI and blindness, and optometrists play a major role in refractive error correction on the continent. However, as with other healthcare providers in Africa, optometrists are few and tend to be mainly in major cities. This paper highlights possible strategies, in alignment with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, that can reduce VI in rural and remote areas of the continent. The strategies include increasing the eye care workforce, attracting them to rural areas and retaining them there, improving the eye care infrastructure, service improvement such as equitable distribution of eye care practitioners, implementing preventive measures such as vision screening and affordable spectacles, and eye health education such as eye health promotions, school health programmes and eye care awareness campaigns. Such strategies could drastically reduce the prevalence of VI and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa.

  6. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing

  7. State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future.

  8. A Cost-Constrained Sampling Strategy in Support of LAI Product Validation in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid on leaf area index (LAI retrieval in mountainous areas. Mountainous areas present extreme topographic variability, and are characterized by more spatial heterogeneity and inaccessibility compared with flat terrain. It is difficult to collect representative ground-truth measurements, and the validation of LAI in mountainous areas is still problematic. A cost-constrained sampling strategy (CSS in support of LAI validation was presented in this study. To account for the influence of rugged terrain on implementation cost, a cost-objective function was incorporated to traditional conditioned Latin hypercube (CLH sampling strategy. A case study in Hailuogou, Sichuan province, China was used to assess the efficiency of CSS. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, land cover type, and slope were selected as auxiliary variables to present the variability of LAI in the study area. Results show that CSS can satisfactorily capture the variability across the site extent, while minimizing field efforts. One appealing feature of CSS is that the compromise between representativeness and implementation cost can be regulated according to actual surface heterogeneity and budget constraints, and this makes CSS flexible. Although the proposed method was only validated for the auxiliary variables rather than the LAI measurements, it serves as a starting point for establishing the locations of field plots and facilitates the preparation of field campaigns in mountainous areas.

  9. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  10. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  11. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer

  12. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management by small and medium enterprises (SMEs operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally family-owned businesses, and this study provides concrete insights into the mind-set of owners toward different functional strategies. The AHP implementation steps are performed using commercially available software “Expert Choice®.” Marketing strategy is considered to be the most important strategy, while manufacturing management strategy is the second most important strategy. There is little emphasis on the financial and human resource management which is a serious cause of concern. The study would help policy makers to understand the business behaviors of this sector and consequently formulate policies to enhance their performance.

  13. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  14. Developing marketing strategies for tourism destinations in peripheral areas of Europe: the case of Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann

    by viewing them as cooperative customers. Thus the DMO needs to apply the principles of marketing to the development process of the strategy itself, and therefore to view the strategic plan as a product of the DMO, which needs to be marketed. The theoretical analysis shows that DMOs cannot control all......This thesis concentrates on the subject of destination marketing with a specific focus on the process of developing strategies through a Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO) for a peripheral area, illustrated by a case study from the Danish island of Bornholm. It investigates the theoretical...... foundations for destination marketing, concluding that there should be a shift in focus from general marketing theory to a broader application of organisational theories and associated fields, enabling the DMO to improve performance. The specific conditions for and structures of peripheral areas indicate...

  15. Strategies of environmental restoration of contaminated areas after nuclear accident; Estrategias de restauracion de areas contaminadas tras accidente nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Vazquez, Carmen [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia

    2001-07-01

    The paper is framed in the area of restoration of contaminated environments after a nuclear accident. It considers the local specific characteristics of the contaminated scenario as a suitable way to optimize the intervention strategy. In this way, a system of classification of scenarios has been developed according to their potential for transferring radiation and radioactivity to man and their features having influence on the performance of the countermeasures. The established methodology provides the opportunity to jointly consider different types of systems (urban, agricultural, grazing and forest) in the analysis. Also, the consideration in the procedure of factors, not radiological in nature, related to the applicability of the countermeasures, their cost and their secondary effects (including the management and disposal of the wastes generated during the intervention) will improve the management of restoration. As final result a user friendly decision-aiding computerised system has been developed. The system is able to select the best local strategy of restoration when a post-accidental situation with environmental contamination is faced. (author)

  16. Study on the Improvement Strategies of Physical Environment for Square in Severe Cold Regions’ Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinYu Zhang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    To improve the comfortable physical environment for square in severe cold regions’ rural areas. This paper applies the methods of questionnaires, field testing and statistical analysis to compare and analyze two different square cases of Qingyunpu in Liaoning Province, and conclude the main factors which affect the physical environmental comfort. The improvement strategies for physical environment of rural square are put forward from the aspects of site selection, road position, orientation, landscape design, and ground pavement material selection, aiming to provide the design basis for the physical environment of square in severe cold regions’ rural areas.

  17. Study on the Outdoor Wind Environment Simulation and Design Strategies of Rural Settlements in Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Hong Jin; Xin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outdoor environment of rural settlement and reduce the energy consumption of rural houses in winterin cold areas,the seriously bad wind environment should been controlled and considered. This paper applies the method of numerical simulation to simulate the wind environment of some typical arrangement of building and courtyard in winter, and concludes the optimal building and courtyard arrangement types and strategies. It aims to provide some technical supports for improving the wind environment of rural settlements in cold regions.

  18. Distinct cortical areas for names of numbers and body parts independent of language and input modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clec'H, G; Dehaene, S; Cohen, L; Mehler, J; Dupoux, E; Poline, J B; Lehéricy, S; van de Moortele, P F; Le Bihan, D

    2000-10-01

    Some models of word comprehension postulate that the processing of words presented in different modalities and languages ultimately converges toward common cerebral systems associated with semantic-level processing and that the localization of these systems may vary with the category of semantic knowledge being accessed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate this hypothesis with two categories of words, numerals, and body parts, for which the existence of distinct category-specific areas is debated in neuropsychology. Across two experiments, one with a blocked design and the other with an event-related design, a reproducible set of left-hemispheric parietal and prefrontal areas showed greater activation during the manipulation of topographical knowledge about body parts and a right-hemispheric parietal network during the manipulation of numerical quantities. These results complement the existing neuropsychological and brain-imaging literature by suggesting that within the extensive network of bilateral parietal regions active during both number and body-part processing, a subset shows category-specific responses independent of the language and modality of presentation.

  19. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

  20. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision.

  1. Analysing and Developing TQM Strategies - An Important Part of Company Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Ove

    2000-01-01

    activities and employee behaviour in industrial company cultures. The paper outlines and discusses some results of total quality management research projects and case study research in industrial companies carried out at the Technical University of Denmark. The background of the viewpoints and experience......This paper discusses strategies for development of total quality management as an integrated part of company innovation taking the size and other particular characteristics of the specific company into consideration, with the focus on issues related to the development of appropriate total quality...... outlined is based on a combination of theoretical work, case study research and involvement in the practical development of total quality management in industrial companies of very different sizes....

  2. Size Matters: What Are the Characteristic Source Areas for Urban Planning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Wang, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz. the statistical correlation method commonly used by geographers for landscape fragmentation and the mechanistic footprint model by meteorologists for atmospheric measurements. Good agreement was found in the intercomparison of the estimate of source areas by the two methods, based on 2-m air temperature measurement collected using a network of weather stations. The results can be extended to shed new lights on urban planning strategies, such as the use of urban vegetation for heat mitigation. In general, a sizable patch of landscape is required in order to play an effective role in regulating the local environment, proportional to the height at which stakeholders’ interest is mainly concerned. PMID:27832111

  3. Outdoor (222)Rn-concentrations in Germany - part 2 - former mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M; Dushe, C; Müller, S; Gehrcke, K

    2014-06-01

    In the German Federal States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, centuries of mining and milling activities resulted in numerous residues with increased levels of natural radioactivity such as waste rock dumps and tailings ponds. These may have altered potential radiation exposures of the population significantly. Especially waste rock dumps from old mining activities as well as 20th century uranium mining may, due to their radon ((222)Rn) exhalation capacity, lead to significant radiation exposures. They often lie close to or within residential areas. In order to study the impact on the natural radon level, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has run networks of radon measurement points in 16 former mining areas, together with 2 networks in regions not influenced by mining for comparison purposes. Representative overviews of the long-term outdoor radon concentrations could be established including estimates of regional background concentrations. Former mining and milling activities did not result in large-area impacts on the outdoor radon level. However, significantly increased radon concentrations were observed in close vicinity of shafts and large waste rock dumps. They are partly located in residential areas and need to be considered under radiation protection aspects. Examples are given that illustrate the consequences of the Wismut Ltd. Company's reclamation activities on the radon situation.

  4. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational...

  5. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  6. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part II: Joint venture strategies and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A S

    1987-05-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this second part of the series, the author examines the internal and external issues that must be addressed to ensure success and the types of information that must be gathered.

  7. Implementation of sustainable sanitation in existing urban areas: long-term strategies for an optimised solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, I; Meyer, T; Kalsch, M; Schmitt, T G; Hamacher, H W

    2007-01-01

    If technologies for decentralised sanitation and reuse (DESAR) and for natural stormwater management should at least partially replace existing systems, then intensive reconstruction work becomes essential. A conversion can only be realised successively over a long period due to high construction and financial expenses and requires new strategies. This paper presents the development and practical implementation of a mathematical tool to find an optimised strategy for the realisation of alternative and more decentralised drainage and sanitation concepts in existing urban areas. The succession of construction measures (e.g. the implementation of decentralised greywater recycling) for the whole period of consideration is determined based upon a mathematical optimisation model on the condition that the favoured future state is known. The model describes the complex interdependencies of the urban water and nutrient cycle and enables the minimisation of both financial efforts and ecological impacts on the way toward the future state. The results of the implementation for a rural area in Germany show that the mathematical optimisation is an adequate instrument to support decision-making processes in finding strategies for the realisation of sustainable urban water management.

  8. Novel strategies: challenge loop diuretics and sodium management in heart failure--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Pietro Di; Sarullo, Filippo M; Paterna, Salvatorew

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a 2-part series. This article reviews the relationships among diuretics, neurohormonal activation, renal function, fluid and Na management, the cardiorenal syndrome, and heart failure. Part II will describe novel therapies based on these relationships, focusing particularly on vasopressin antagonists and treatment using hypertonic saline solution with high-dose loop diuretics. Heart failure (HF) is a complex hemodynamic disorder characterized by chronic and progressive pump failure and fluid accumulation. Diuretics are a vital component of symptomatic management, and enhancing diuretic response in the setting of diuretic resistance is therefore pivotal. In HF patients treated with diuretics, compensatory pathophysiologic mechanisms to maintain vascular resistance, such as nonosmotic stimulation of vasopressin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system, promote renal Na and water reabsorption. Thus, there remains a need to develop novel therapies for HF patients who are refractory to conventional medical treatment. The conflicting results of diuretic treatments in HF and the importance of Na management in the context of the cardiorenal syndrome and neurohormonal activation have suggested novel and counterintuitive strategies, focusing primarily on the use of vasopressin antagonists and hypertonic saline solution with high doses of loop diuretics and neurohormonal interference. The authors review the current evidence for these therapies and suggest hypothetical bases for their efficacy.

  9. Infrastructure to support trading strategies against the occurrence of extraordinary events: Secure area of the equipment storage; Infraestructura de apoyo a las estrategias de operacion frente a la ocurrencia de sucesos extraordinarios: Area segura de almacenamiento de equipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas Gordo, A. de; Asensio Vega, J.; Fernandez Morales, E. J.; Font Hadinger, I.

    2013-07-01

    Compliance with the requirements specified in the Technical Instructions ITC and ITC-1-2, issued by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is conducting exhaustive analyzes on coping in Nuclear Power Plants emergencies due to the occurrence extraordinary events. As part of the necessary infrastructure, a secure area for parking and storage of projects teams involved in the development of various operational strategies. The design of it ensures compliance with all regulatory and practical requirements, ensuring minimization strategies and time functionality in the application of the same.

  10. Multiagents-based wide area protection with best-effort adaptive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yongli; Wang, Dewen [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China); Song, Shaoqun [Fuzhou Electric Power Industry Bureau, Fujian Province (China)

    2009-02-15

    Abstract - Multi-trips of circuit breakers often occur within a short period in a severe blackout, and the tripping usually relates to relays' mal-operations. In fact, when two ore more electric primary devices are isolated by circuit breakers, the settings of most relays to protect their power system are getting infeasible and uncoordinated. Adaptive settings are needed to prevent them from wrong operation. This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme based on wide area information with best-effort protection strategy, and the outline of multiagents and WAN Based Adaptive Protection System (MAWAPS). In the scheme, the best-effort adaptive strategy is used to guarantee the adaptive settings to operate safely and effectively in most situations. The IP/SDH-based wide area network (WAN) is used to realize real-time wide area information exchange in the proposed protection scheme. Adaptive setting algorithms for the second stage zero-sequence current and phase overcurrent relays are proposed, which can provide larger line coverage than traditional relays. Moreover, multiagent techniques and IEC 61850 are employed to realize the fast communication between different agents, and MMS plays a prominent role in real-time remote communication. A simulating system has been developed according to the above ideas and approaches, and the experimental results show that the proposed adaptive protection scheme is feasible from the view of protective performance including the executing time. (author)

  11. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The first part of the study has been reported in Rasmussen and Thorning (2012).The starting point of the study was a need for more knowledge on methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration in Danish onshore areas, as an alternative to seismic investigations, when these cannot be used for nature protecting reasons. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different non-seismic methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The optimum choice for a field test was an electromagnetic experiment with a galvanic controlled source (Rasmussen and Thorning, 2012). However, due to organisational issues and a limited timeframe of the project, the final choice of method for the field test was settled on using the magnetotelluric method (MT). Though MT does not utilise galvanic controlled sources, and hence does not serve as a tool for direct hydrocarbon exploration, MT has been used in the past in relation with hydrocarbon exploration onshore and has recently gained considerable interest in China. A contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The test was carried out August 2012 in an area around Toender, and is reported here as ALTKUL Project Report Part 2. In total 42 MT stations were measured in a 180 km{sup 2} area. The digital data are enclosed with the report and hereby released to the public. A 3D model of the electrical resistivity variations to a depth of 6 km constitutes, together with the actual measured data, the main results of part 2 of the ALTKUL project. The 3D model was derived from an unconstrained 3D inversion of the MT data. The MT data show that pronounced lateral resistivity variations exist at the depth of interest for

  12. Defensive Rekeying Strategies for Physical-Layer-Monitored Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Benjamin; Mullins, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Control Systems Security; International audience; ZigBee networks are integrating rapidly into critical infrastructures such as the smart grid and public health centers. Numerous ZigBee-based smart meters have been installed in metropolitan areas and hospitals commonly employ ZigBee technology for patient and equipment monitoring. The associated ZigBee networks transport sensitive information and must be secured against exfiltration and denial-of-service attacks. Indeed, novel tools t...

  13. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. M. Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  14. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The first part of the study has been reported in Rasmussen and Thorning (2012).The starting point of the study was a need for more knowledge on methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration in Danish onshore areas, as an alternative to seismic investigations, when these cannot be used for nature protecting reasons. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different non-seismic methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The optimum choice for a field test was an electromagnetic experiment with a galvanic controlled source (Rasmussen and Thorning, 2012). However, due to organisational issues and a limited timeframe of the project, the final choice of method for the field test was settled on using the magnetotelluric method (MT). Though MT does not utilise galvanic controlled sources, and hence does not serve as a tool for direct hydrocarbon exploration, MT has been used in the past in relation with hydrocarbon exploration onshore and has recently gained considerable interest in China. A contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The test was carried out August 2012 in an area around Toender, and is reported here as ALTKUL Project Report Part 2. In total 42 MT stations were measured in a 180 km{sup 2} area. The digital data are enclosed with the report and hereby released to the public. A 3D model of the electrical resistivity variations to a depth of 6 km constitutes, together with the actual measured data, the main results of part 2 of the ALTKUL project. The 3D model was derived from an unconstrained 3D inversion of the MT data. The MT data show that pronounced lateral resistivity variations exist at the depth of interest for

  15. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    area. It shows that most of the damage is caused by spilled sewage drains flooding basements and streets. Besides less fire brigade operations are observed in rural areas with constant amount of rainfall. The occurrence of heavy rain events is spatially limited, hot-spot areas with higher probability can be detected. Based on this finding, a resource management strategy for the fire brigade can be developed. Keywords: emergency planning strategy, critical infrastructure, heavy rainfall, fire-brigade resource management

  16. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  17. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  18. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  19. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Attrition of Knowledge Workforce in Healthcare in Northern parts of India – Health Information Technology as a Plausible Retention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Suri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a global shortage of skilled health workers due to attrition, countries are struggling to build and maintain an optimum knowledge workforce in healthcare for delivering quality healthcare services. Forces that affect healthcare professional turnover needs to be addressed before a competent uniformly adoptable strategy could be proposed for mitigating the problem. In this study we investigate the effect of the socio –demographic characteristics on attrition of healthcare knowledge workforce in northern parts of India that have a wide gradient of rural and urban belt, taking into account both public and private healthcare organizations. For this purpose healthcare professional attrition tracking survey (HATS was designed. The data has been collected from a random sample of 807 respondents consisting of doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrators to explore the relationships between various factors acting as antecedents in affecting the job satisfaction, commitment and intention of a healthcare professional to stay in the job. Structured questionnaires were utilized as the data collection tools. Both public and private healthcare organizations in urban and rural areas were covered for the survey. Descriptive statistics and factor analyses using analysis on Rotated Factor Matrix using Principal Components Analysis (PCA in SPSS 16.0 package were carried out. Six factors of attrition namely Compensation and perks, Work Life Balance, Sense of Accomplishment, Work load leading to exhaustion, Need for automation and technology improvement, Break Monotony of Work have been identified as the main factors with a data reliability of 0.809%. Based on the survey response and analysis, a highly possible strategy of utilizing information technology implementation for increasing worker motivation, job satisfaction and commitment to reduce attrition has been proposed.

  1. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  2. DATOURWAY: Transnational Strategy for the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Danube Area with Special Regard to Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Stancu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthesis of the DATOURWAY project which is a part of South Est Europe Program (2009-2012 and represents “an outstanding example of transnational cooperation” between partners from seven countries, from which six countries are touched by the Danube River. The cooperation within the project was committed to the development of tourism along and on the middle and south-eastern section of river Danube, while paying particular attention to the protection and enhancement of the natural and cultural resources linked to this part of River. National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Develoment ”URBAN-INCERC”, through “Urbanproiect Branch”, has been one of the Romanian partners in the DATOURWAY project, together with The National Institute for Research and Development in Tourism and the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism. “URBANPROIECT” has mainly contributed to the National Analysis and Strategy concerning Romanian territory and two Pilot-Projects: PiP3 – “Vidin-Calafat” (Romania and Bulgaria regarding city tourism and rural neighborhood, and PiP4 – “Deltas” (Romania-Italy regarding eco-friendly tourism development of river Danube and Po deltas. The DATOURWAY project has been a “contribution to sustainable territorial development and has reflected a common strategic interest by setting a common future approach in the field of tourist development, focusing mainly on the rural areas, by elaborating a set of mutually agreed tourist strategies and implementing different pilot projects tailored to special areas”.

  3. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  4. Potentialities of ensemble strategies for flood forecasting over the Milano urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Homar, Víctor; Romero, Romu; Lombardi, Gabriele; Mancini, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of ensemble forecasting strategies, which can provide a tangible backing for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Mediterranean region, is one of the fundamental motivations of the international HyMeX programme. Here, we examine two severe hydrometeorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area and for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed. Indeed, flood damage have exponentially increased during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. First, we examine how land-use changes due to urban development have altered the hydrological response to intense rainfalls. Second, we test a flood forecasting system which comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models. Accurate forecasts of deep moist convection and extreme precipitation are difficult to be predicted due to uncertainties arising from the numeric weather prediction (NWP) physical parameterizations and high sensitivity to misrepresentation of the atmospheric state; however, two hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have been designed to explicitly cope with uncertainties in the initial and lateral boundary conditions (IC/LBCs) and physical parameterizations of the NWP model. No substantial differences in skill have been found between both ensemble strategies when considering an enhanced diversity of IC/LBCs for the perturbed initial conditions ensemble. Furthermore, no additional benefits have been found by considering more frequent LBCs in a mixed physics ensemble, as ensemble spread seems to be reduced. These findings could help to design the most appropriate ensemble strategies before these hydrometeorological extremes, given the computational

  5. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  6. Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Ackerly, David; Harrison, Susan; Keeley, Jon E.; Vasey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits.Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California.Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots.Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history.Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 10-mile buffer extending from the border of the combined entity Houston, TX. San Antonio Area San Antonio and a 10-mile buffer extending from the city border San Antonio, TX. WA Seattle Area Seattle... the border of the combined area Anaheim, CA; Santa Ana, CA. Bay Area Berkeley, Daly City,...

  8. [Strategy for determining a baseline in areas of vector interruption for Chagas disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Diego; Vera, Mauricio; Zuleta, Liliana; Llanos, Violeta; Junqueira, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia. Colonization was related to palm-thatched houses constructed with adobe or wattle and daub. The Panstrongylus geniculatus vector was found to be colonizing. Almost 50% of the surveyed population associated the term CHD with human disease and 37%, with triatomines. Conclusions R. prolixus can be considered to be the principal vector of T. cruzi in domestic environments and the process of interruption is feasible within the prioritized municipality. New studies are needed to verify the existence of wild populations of R. prolixus that could affect future stages of the process and demonstrate whether P. geniculatus is a factor in the transmission of T. cruzi. These scenarios can be made viable by including the inhabitants throughout the process, since they have been highly sensitive in vector detection inside their houses. The study design presented here can be adapted to other endemic areas of the Region of the Americas.

  9. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  10. Prioritization of strategies for protected area management with local people using the hybrid SWOT-AHP analysis: the case of Kakum conservation area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Foli Fiagbomeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of protected areas towards conservation and protection of biodiversity cannot be over emphasized. Likewise, the dependence of local communities on forest and natural resources cannot be overlooked. Hence for the long term viability of forest reserves and wildlife protected area, the relationship of local people living close to these areas are of key importance if conflict of use can be mitigated. Admittedly, decision-making with respect to forest resource use and protection are complex due to the multiple interests of the major stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement in the planning, management and policy analysis can help resolve conflicts, and increase the commitment of local people to support conservation of protected areas. In this paper, we employ the SWOT-AHP methodology, with the aid of the Priority Estimation Tool (PriEsT, to evaluate and prioritize three management strategies for the Kakum conservation area in Ghana, as a means to facilitate conservation while ensuring benefits to local people. Considering the management objectives of the conservation area, seventeen SWOT sub-factors were identified and used in rating the three alternative management strategies. Among the strength sub-factors, enforcement of protection regulations (S4 is the most important. Similarly, limited funds for patrolling and outreach programs (W3, local people’s interest in alternative livelihood (O4 and the presence of illegal activities (T3 are the most important weakness, opportunity and threat sub-factors respectively. The management strategy “institute village committees to support monitoring and protection of resources” (A1 has the highest priority rating, indicating that management authorities must pay more attention to collaborative management. We propose that to improve on protected area management in Ghana, more management strategy studies must be conducted. However, these studies may apply the fuzzy AHP technique since it is

  11. Optimal provisioning strategies for slow moving spare parts with small lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.H.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    When an expensive piece of equipment is bought, spare parts can often be bought at a reduced price. A decision must be made about the initial provisioning of spare parts. Furthermore, if at a certain time the stock drops to zero, because a number of failures have occurred, a decision must be made ab

  12. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Chen, Lin H.; Jentes, Emily S.; Wilson, Mary E.; Han, Pauline V.; Benoit, Christine M.; MacLeod, William B.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Barnett, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2–4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for non adherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  13. Interference mitigation for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure networks: Transmission strategy and area spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure (HCS) is considered, where an access point (AP) broadcasts to local nodes (LNs) over orthogonal frequency subbands within a local cell located in a macrocell. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered with by the macrocell user (MU)\\'s transmissions over the same subband. To improve the performance of the AP\\'s broadcast service, a novel transmission strategy is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the purpose of performance evaluation, the ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified, and the corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional transmission scheme, which suffers from MU\\'s interference, illustrative numerical results substantiate that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than the traditional scheme as the MU-LN mean channel power gain is larger than half of the AP-LN mean channel power gain. Subsequently, we develop an optimized network design by maximizing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the AP\\'s broadcast in the local cell.

  14. Saving Strategy and Simulation Analysis of Green Log Walls in Severe Cold Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Peng Xu; Si Li

    2014-01-01

    Log house is a traditional type of vernacular dwelling in Chinese cold area. It contains distinct regional characteristics and architectural cultures. In recent years, log house has come into vogue softly with the development of wood techniques. However, log houses expend too much wood materials. There are also many negative aspects of this type of wood building which go against the criteria of energy conservation, and its high prime cost hinders the application as well. To solve these problems, the paper emphasizes using more environmental standardized techniques which save cost at the same time, and put forward technical strategy to improve the log walls. The optimization schemes are mainly divided into two categories:internal insulation and filled insulation. Each type of insulation is respectively derived two schemes through changing the thickness of main structure layers and insulation layer. Firstly, we use Weto software to calculate the timber volume of the four schemes, and it concludes that all the optimizations can save more timber than the prototype log wall with the section of 200 mm×200 mm. Secondly, thermal comfort of each scheme is insulated in Design Builder. The results show that thermal insulation of filling type represents better than the other schemes. At last, we use thermal calculating formula to calculate thermal resistance of every scheme. Contrast to the energy efficiency standards of Heilongjiang Province, the data show that the four schemes meet the requirements of the specification.

  15. Regional Sustainable Development Strategy for the Athabasca Oil Sand Area : progress report July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents an update on the implementation of the Regional Sustainable Development Strategy for the Athabasca Oil Sands Area (RSDS) which was first released in July 1999 as a framework for managing the cumulative environmental effects of oil sands developments in Alberta to ensure sustainable development. The development of the Athabasca deposit has meant significant economic growth for northeastern Alberta, but also significant environmental impacts. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) is a regional multi-stakeholder group composed of government, industry, environmental organizations, and Aboriginal groups. Both CEMA and RSDS are working in partnership to ensure that environmental objectives are met. RSDS outlined activities and timelines for 14 different themes regarding environmental issues. The delivery of initial products is expected from the fall of 2001 to 2002. Individual product reports will be published and made available to the public as soon as objectives are developed and approved. CEMA has established 5 working groups and several subgroups that have established work plans, budgets and funding plans for their projects. The 5 working groups are as follows: (1) the sustainable ecosystems working group which will deal with issues regarding wildlife, landscapes, and cultural resources, (2) the trace metals and air contaminants working group, (3) nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide management working group, (4) the water working group, and (5) the reclamation working group. This paper described the challenges facing each group and the progress that has been made thus far. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Limited sampling strategy for determining metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Struchiner, Claudio José;

    2016-01-01

    and experimental conditions (r(2) = 0.976). The LSS model reproduced previously reported results for effects of polymorphisms in OCT2 and MATE1 genes on AUC(0,24 h) and renal clearance of metformin. CONCLUSIONS: The two point LSS algorithm may be used to assess the systemic exposure to metformin under diverse......AIM: The aim was to develop and validate limited sampling strategy (LSS) models to predict the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for metformin. METHODS: Metformin plasma concentrations (n = 627) at 0-24 h after a single 500 mg dose were used for LSS development, based on all.......9-7.7%. The accuracy of the two point LSS model was verified in study cohorts of individuals receiving single 500 or 1000 mg (r(2) = -0.933-0.934) or seven 1000 mg daily doses (r(2) = 0.918), as well as using data from 16 published studies covering a wide range of metformin doses, demographics, clinical...

  17. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence Among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Rhett J; Chen, Lin H; Jentes, Emily S; Wilson, Mary E; Han, Pauline V; Benoit, Christine M; MacLeod, William B; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2-4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for nonadherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications.

  18. DC Microgrids – Part I: A Review of Control Strategies and Stabilization Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of control strategies, stability analysis and stabilization techniques for DC microgrids (MGs). Overall control is systematically classified into local and coordinated control levels according to respective functionalities in each level. As opposed to local control...... which relies only on local measurements, some line of communication between units needs to be made available in order to achieve coordinated control. Depending on the communication method, three basic coordinated control strategies can be distinguished, i.e. decentralized, centralized and distributed...... control. Decentralized control can be regarded as an extension of local control since it is also based exclusively on local measurements. In contrast, centralized and distributed control strategies rely on digital communication technologies. A number of approaches to using these three coordinated control...

  19. Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the development and spread of resistance and to this end it has three strategic aims, namely to improve knowledge and understanding of resistance, to conserve and steward the effectiveness of existing treatments and to stimulate the development of new antibiotics, diagnostics and novel therapies. This article reviews the antimicrobial stewardship activities included in the strategy and describes their implementation and evaluation.

  20. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  1. Therapeutic communication part 2: strategies that can enhance the quality of the emergency care consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'gara, Paula E; Fairhurst, Wendy

    2004-10-01

    Therapeutic, patient-centred communication as well as being desirable in its own right may also have the potential to improve satisfaction, health outcomes and change health behaviours in Emergency Care. This paper, the second of two, identifies from a substantive literature review five specific communication strategies that, when employed in an Emergency Care consultation, could significantly enhance its therapeutic potential. The five strategies: questioning, listening and noticing, communicating empathy, establishing and incorporating the patient's cares and concerns and concluding the consultation have been derived from the purposeful selection and analysis of communication research between 1990 and 2002.

  2. A strategy for delineating the area of ground-water contribution to wells completed in fractured bedrock aquifers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D.W.; Barton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Delineating a contributing area to a well completed in a fractured bedrock aquifer in Pennsylvania is difficult because the hydrogeologic characteristics of fractured rocks are extremely complex. Because of this complexity, a single method or technique to delineate a contributing area will not be applicable for all wells completed in fractured-bedrock aquifers. Therefore, a strategy for refining the understanding of boundary conditions and major heterogeneities that control ground-water flow and sources of water to a supply well is suggested. The strategy is based on developing and refining a conceptual model for the sources of water to the well. Specifically, the strategy begins with an initial conceptual model of the ground-water-flow system, then requires the collection of hydrogeologic information to refine the conceptual model in a stepwise manner from one or more of sic categories: (1) hydrogeologic mapping, (2) water-level and streamflow measurements, (3) geochemistry, (4) geophysics and borehole flowmetering, (5) aquifer testing, and (6) tracer testing. During the refinement process, the applicability of treating the fratured-rock aquifer as a hydrologic continuum is evaluated, and the contributing area is delineated. Choice of the method used to delineate the contributing area is less important than insuring that the method is consistent with the refined conceptual model. By use of such a strategy, the improved understanding of the ground-water-flow system will lead to a technically defensible delineation of the contributing area.

  3. Video exposure monitoring as part of a strategy to assess exposure to nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens-Comuth, P.A.W.V.; Verbist, K.; Brouwer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a growing awareness of the potential risks for human health of exposure to ultrafine particles or nanoparticles. In that context, workplace air measurements become important, and various strategies have been developed to monitor exposure. In addition, observations and time/activ

  4. Remodeling the cortex in memory: Increased use of a learning strategy increases the representational area of relevant acoustic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2010-09-01

    Associative learning induces plasticity in the representation of sensory information in sensory cortices. Such high-order associative representational plasticity (HARP) in the primary auditory cortex (A1) is a likely substrate of auditory memory: it is specific, rapidly acquired, long-lasting and consolidates. Because HARP is likely to support the detailed content of memory, it is important to identify the necessary behavioral factors that dictate its induction. Learning strategy is a critical factor for the induction of plasticity (Bieszczad & Weinberger, 2010b). Specifically, use of a strategy that relies on tone onsets induces HARP in A1 in the form of signal-specific decreased threshold and bandwidth. The present study tested the hypothesis that the form and degree of HARP in A1 reflects the amount of use of an "onset strategy". Adult male rats (n=7) were trained in a protocol that increased the use of this strategy from approximately 20% in prior studies to approximately 80%. They developed signal-specific gains in representational area, transcending plasticity in the form of local changes in threshold and bandwidth. Furthermore, the degree of area gain was proportional to the amount of use of the onset strategy. A second complementary experiment demonstrated that use of a learning strategy that specifically did not rely on tone onsets did not produce gains in representational area; but rather produced area loss. Together, the findings indicate that the amount of strategy use is a dominant factor for the induction of learning-induced cortical plasticity along a continuum of both form and degree.

  5. Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Areas: Potential Co-Benefits of Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Forkel, R.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Even though much progress has been achieved through dedicated approaches to improving air quality in many European cities, there are various threats which still remain unchanged. According to the World Health Organization, outdoor air pollution was linked to 3.7 million deaths in year 2012. As climate changes, the frequency of days with harmful levels of air pollutants may significantly increase causing exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of alternative emission strategies on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem; Grell et al., 2005) to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The investigation area included the city of Munich (1.5 million inhabitants). The model performance has been evaluated against available air quality observations from the monitoring database "AirBase". The chemical species including O3, NO, NO2 and PM10 simulated by WRF/Chem compare favorably with the observations. The model performs especially well in resolving the observed O3 concentrations. In the ongoing study, different emission reduction scenarios are compared to a baseline 2009 scenario based on Germany's National Emissions Inventory. To investigate health effects associated with air pollution concentrations a local-scale health impact assessment (HIA) will be conducted. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) link the change in mortality rates to the change in concentrations of air pollutants. CRFs are applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence estimate numbers of attributable deaths and associated

  6. The rhetorical strategy of William Paley's Natural theology (1802): part 1, William Paley's Natural theology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Niall

    2010-03-01

    This article reconstructs the historical and philosophical contexts of William Paley's Natural theology (1802). In the wake of the French Revolution, widely believed to be the embodiment of an atheistic political credo, the refutation of the transmutational biological theories of Buffon and Erasmus Darwin was naturally high on Paley's agenda. But he was also responding to challenges arising from his own moral philosophy, principally the psychological quandary of how men were to be kept in mind of the Creator. It is argued here that Natural theology was the culmination of a complex rhetorical scheme for instilling religious impressions that would increase both the virtue and happiness of mankind. Philosophy formed an integral part of this strategy, but it did not comprise the whole of it. Equally vital were those purely rhetorical aspects of the discourse which, according to Paley, were more concerned with creating 'impression'. This facet of his writing is explored in part one of this two-part article. Turning to the argumentative side of the scheme, part two examines Paley's responses to David Hume and Erasmus Darwin in the light of the wider strategy of inculcation at work throughout all his writings.

  7. Broadcast Approach and Oblivious Cooperative Strategies for the Wireless Relay Channel - Part I: Sequential Decode-and-Forward (SDF)

    CERN Document Server

    Braginskiy, Evgeniy; Shamai, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    In this two part paper we consider a wireless network in which a source terminal communicates with a destination and a relay terminal is occasionally present in close proximity to the source without source's knowledge, suggesting oblivious protocols. The source-relay channel is assumed to be a fixed gain AWGN due to the proximity while the source-destination and the relay-destination channels are subject to a block flat Rayleigh fading. A perfect CSI at the respective receivers only is assumed. With the average throughput as a performance measure, we incorporate a two-layer broadcast approach into two cooperative strategies based on the decode-and-forward scheme - Sequential Decoded-and Forward (SDF) in part I and the Block-Markov (BM) in part II. The broadcast approach splits the transmitted rate into superimposed layers corresponding to a "bad" and a "good" channel states, allowing better adaptation to the actual channel conditions In part I, the achievable rate expressions for the SDF strategy are derived ...

  8. General models for the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms: fractality, geometric dissimilitude, and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okie, Jordan G

    2013-03-01

    Surface areas and volumes of biological systems-from molecules to organelles, cells, and organisms-affect their biological rates and kinetics. Therefore, surface area-to-volume ratios and the scaling of surface area with volume profoundly influence ecology, physiology, and evolution. The zeroth-order geometric expectation is that surface area scales with body mass or volume as a power law with an exponent of two-thirds, with consequences for surface area-to-volume (SA : V) ratios and constraints on size; however, organisms have adaptations for altering the surface area scaling and SA : V ratios of their bodies and structures. The strategies fall into three groups: (1) fractal-like surface convolutions and crinkles; (2) classic geometric dissimilitude through elongating, flattening, fattening, and hollowing; and (3) internalization of surfaces. Here I develop general quantitative theory to model the spectra of effects of these strategies on SA : V ratios and surface area scaling, from exponents of less than two-thirds to superlinear scaling and mixed-power laws. Applying the theory to cells helps quantitatively evaluate the effects of membrane fractality, shape-shifting, vacuoles, vesicles, and mitochondria on surface area scaling, informing understanding of cell allometry, morphology, and evolution. Analysis of compiled data indicates that through hollowness and surface internalization, eukaryotic phytoplankton increase their effective surface area scaling, attaining near-linear scaling in larger cells. This unifying theory highlights the fundamental role of biological surfaces in metabolism and morphological evolution.

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 3. Part 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Appropriations. .All or part of five declared underground water basins are present in the project area. Four of these, the Canadian River, Fort Sumner, Penasco ...Little Salt Lake De Baca Pecos (80 mi) Red Lake Alamogordo Res. Rio Penasco (40 mi) Bitter Lakes (7) Rio Hondo (47 mi) Chaves Two Rivers Res. Arroyo del

  10. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal.... The following will be forwarded to the Administrator, Attention: Water and Waste Disposal...

  11. The Private Life as Part of Croatian Politicians' Communication Strategies: The 2009-2010 Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šimunjak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are twofold. First, this research aims to detect the extent to which Croatian politicians strategically use information from the private sphere in public discourse; second, to detect the functions in which this information is used. I analyze the mediated statements in the main national daily newspapers of the two main presidential candidates in the 2009-2010 elections. I start with the premise that the macro (elements of political and media system and micro (candidates’ personalities contextual factors of this elections were favorable to privatization of politics. The results show that a significant extent of the public discourse was indeed privatized, but mostly due to the communication strategy of Milan Bandić. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the information from the private sphere was not used solely for the purpose of building one’s image, but also as a strategy of attacking the opponent.

  12. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...... the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information....

  13. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  14. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  15. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Arid Areas of Western India: Strategies for Mutual Co-Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study has been carried out in the North Gujarat region of Gujarat state, Western India which represents unique habitats from arid regions to dry deciduous forests with annual rainfall ranging from 25-125 cms. Human-wildlife conflicts are intensifying owing to increase in human population and destruction of wildlife habitats. In the present study we characterized and classified the conflicts, identified zones with acute conflicts and evaluated the economic loss to the local villagers due to such humanwildlife conflicts. Sampling methods mainly included village surveys for interviewing locals who are affected by wildlife damage. The information was overlaid on the existing digital land use data to identify landscape characteristics associated with wildlife occupancy in the region. The result depicts that 80% of total damage in seasonal crop is caused by wild ungulates. Wild animals like Blue bull, Wild boar and Porcupine are reported as a chief crop raider. The Leopard is the only big cat occurring in the region reported to cause human injury and livestock predation. Sloth bear attacks on human are very common in some part of the study area. Conflicts are more severe around unprotected forests while high intensity of conflicts was recorded on the fringes of the forests

  16. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    -and-bound search all have the same feasible set and differ from each other only in the objective function. This is one reason for making the resulting branch-and-bound method very efficient. The paper closes with several large-scale numerical examples. These examples are, to the knowledge of the authors, by far...... we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... on the implementation details but also establish finite convergence of the branch-and-bound method. The algorithm is based on solving a sequence of continuous non-convex relaxations which can be formulated as quadratic programs according to the theory in Part I. The quadratic programs to be treated within the branch...

  17. Minimizing investment cost for multi-period heat exchanger network retrofit by matching heat transfer areas with different strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Kang; Yongzhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Multi-period heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofit is usually performed by targeting and matching heat trans-fer areas. In this paper, based on the reverse order matching method we proposed previously, three strategies of matching heat transfer areas are proposed to minimize the investment cost for the retrofit of HEN in multi-period, in which replacement of heat exchangers, addition of heat exchangers and addition of heat transfer areas are performed. We demonstrate the procedures through three scenarios, including maximum number of substituted heat exchangers after retrofit, minimum additional heat transfer areas in the retrofitted HEN, and minimum investment cost for retrofit. The strategies are extended to a single period HEN retrofit problem. The results of multi-period and single period HEN retrofit problems indicate the effectiveness of the strategies. More-over, these results are better than those reported in literature. The strategies are simple and easy to implement, which are of great benefit to large-scale HEN retrofit in practice.

  18. From Literacy Strategies to Disciplined Inquiry: My Journey with Pre-Service Teachers in a Content Area Reading Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, Anne A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent calls have been made for content area literacy instruction to extend beyond the teaching of general literacy strategies as tools to use with any content text to a more disciplinary literacy approach that would support students in learning literacy practices specific to a discipline. This practitioner inquiry is my investigation into what…

  19. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis July 2012...WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT If a Bacillus anthracis incident occurs in the United States or within its territories, the public health and

  20. Asymmetry in Maritime Access and Undersea Anti-Access/Area-Denial Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    A corollary to the second criterion states that the threat involves a weapon, tactic, or strategy that the United States would not comnat by...Strategies and Their Implications for the United States," RAND Corporation , 2007. 32. Montgomery C. Meigs, "Unorthodox Thoughts about Asymmetric Warfare

  1. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  2. Coping Strategies of Part-Time MBA Students: The Role of Boundary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Using the framework of boundary theory as applied to the work-life-school construct, the study focused on part-time MBA students who worked full-time, their tendency to segment or integrate their numerous roles, and the coping tactics they utilized in redistributing their efforts as they added graduate school to these roles. The research…

  3. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  4. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa;

    2007-01-01

    of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....

  5. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  6. Inbound marketing as an integral part of the marketing strategy of a modern enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Świeczak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential premise of this publication is to define the benefits brought to modern enterprises by introduction of multi-channel marketing strategy, or inbound marketing, to their business.This article defines the factors and processes that influence the effective course of actions undertaken in the framework of inbound marketing.In addition, it is demonstrated how the importance of an organization changes, how its value and importance realistically increases as a result of applying the instruments provided by inbound marketing. The purpose of the article is to present how the concept of inbound marketing is changing the perspective of looking at the modern marketing instruments and how their field of impact changes as a result of their application.It also illustrates how the choice of appropriate mechanisms influences consumer decisions and demonstrates that the key to understanding the processes embedded in the strategy is to reflect on the relationship between the enterprise and potential customers and communication with the customers.

  7. Whole-Parts Strategies in Quantum Chemistry: Some Philosophical and Mereological Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Llored

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers mainly refer to quantum chemistry in order to address questions about the reducibility or autonomy of chemistry relative to quantum physics, and to argue for or against ontological emergence. To make their point, they scrutinize quantum approximations and formalisms as if they were independent of the questions at stake. This paper proposes a return to history and to the laboratory so as to emphasize how quantum chemists never cease to negotiate the relationships between a molecule, its parts, and its environment. This investigation will enable us to draw methodological conclusions about the role of history within philosophical studies, and to examine how quantum chemistry can clarify important philosophical and mereological issues related to the emergence/reduction debate, or to the way instruments and contexts are involved in the material making and the formal description of wholes and parts.

  8. Conducting polymer coatings in electrochemical technology: part 2 – application areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce De Leon, Carlos; Campbell, Sheelagh; Smith, James; Walsh, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Conducting polymers can combine the electronic characteristics of metals with the engineering properties of polymers. Polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyaniline (PAni) are common examples of conducting polymers which can be electrodeposited from their respective heterocyclic monomers. The applications of these and other electrodeposited polymer materials are considered in this review. Application areas include electronic and optical materials, sensors, bioimplants, actuators and c...

  9. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kishore, Vidya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Xun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ajinjeru, Christine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  10. Strategies to improve the performance of learners in a nursing college Part II: Issues pertaining to management, attitudes and values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Waterson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article forms part two of a bigger study that was conducted in a nursing college to explore and describe the reasons for the poor performance of learners. Part one of the study dealt with the issues pertaining to education, while this article (part two seeks to describe issues pertaining to management, attitudes and values that lead to the poor performance of learners in the nursing college under study. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that was contextual in nature was employed, and three focus groups interviews were conducted. Seven tutors formed one group while other two groups were formed by fourth-year learners following a comprehensive diploma course. All participants voluntarily participated in the study. Data was analyzed using the descriptive method of open coding in accordance with Tesch’s protocol (in Creswell, 1994:154-156. Trustworthiness was ensured using the following principles: credibility, conformability, transferability and dependability (Lincoln & Guba 1985:290-326. Findings were categorized into issues pertaining to management, attitudes and values that had an influence on the poor performance of learners as follows: Management: Inadequate resources and study facilities; policies that change frequently; tutors’ dissatisfaction with regard to staff development, the lack of involvement by management and lack of management support, staff shortage and maldistribution of staff members; ineffective selection process of learners; inconsistent regulations, and too many of them; policies and procedures resulting in confusion and poor discipline. Attitudes and values: Tutors’ lack of motivation and interest, lack of respect by learners and no team work among tutors.Through a conceptualization process and the recommendations by participants, strategies to improve the learners’ performance were described. It is recommended that these strategies be submitted to the staff development committee for

  11. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefpour, M; Kashi, M Almasi; Ramazani, A; Montazer, A H

    2016-06-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm(-2) for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (∼18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm(2)) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  12. Electrochemical pore filling strategy for controlled growth of magnetic and metallic nanowire arrays with large area uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefpour, M.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    While a variety of template-based strategies have been developed in the fabrication of nanowires (NWs), a uniform pore filling across the template still poses a major challenge. Here, we present a large area controlled pore filling strategy in the reproducible fabrication of various magnetic and metallic NW arrays, embedded inside anodic aluminum oxide templates. Using a diffusive pulsed electrodeposition (DPED) technique, this versatile strategy relies on the optimized filling of branched nanopores at the bottom of templates with Cu. Serving the Cu filled nanopores as appropriate nucleation sites, the DPED is followed by a uniform and homogeneous deposition of magnetic (Ni and Fe) and metallic (Cu and Zn) NWs at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 for an optimal thickness of alumina barrier layer (˜18 nm). Our strategy provides large area uniformity (exceeding 400 μm2) in the fabrication of 16 μm long free-standing NW arrays. Using hysteresis loop measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, the electrodeposition efficiency (EE) and pore filling percentage (F p) are evaluated, leading to maximum EE and F p values of 91% and 95% for Ni and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the resulting NW arrays are found to be highly crystalline. Accordingly, the DPED technique is capable of cheaply and efficiently controlling NW growth over a large area, providing a tool for various nanoscale applications including biomedical devices, electronics, photonics, magnetic storage medium and nanomagnet computing.

  13. Novel strategies: challenge loop diuretics and sodium management in heart failure--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Pietro; Sarullo, Filippo M; Paterna, Salvatorew

    2007-01-01

    The conflicting results of diuretic treatments in heart failure (HF) and the importance of Na management in the context of the cardiorenal syndrome and neurohormonal activation in HF have suggested novel and counterintuitive strategies, focused primarily on the use of vasopressin antagonists and hypertonic saline solution with high doses of loop diuretics and their neurohormonal interference. The emerging novel therapies involving direct inhibition of vasopressin receptors appear to show promising results. The use of hypertonic saline solution mixed with a high dose of loop diuretics produces, probably by indirect mechanisms, a reduction or inhibition of the activated neurohormonal systems in HF patients. This treatment opens a new window on the role of sodium management in these patients and on the relation between sodium and the kidney's role and function in heart failure. The authors review the current evidence for these therapies and suggest hypothetical bases for their efficacy.

  14. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...... for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...

  15. Microwave Technologies as Part of an Integrated Weed Management Strategy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Brodie; Carmel Ryan; Carmel Lancaster

    2012-01-01

    Interest in controlling weed plants using radio frequency or microwave energy has been growing in recent years because of the growing concerns about herbicide resistance and chemical residues in the environment. This paper reviews the prospects of using microwave energy to manage weeds. Microwave energy effectively kills weed plants and their seeds; however, most studies have focused on applying the microwave energy over a sizable area, which requires about ten times the energy that is embodi...

  16. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-01-01

    The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method of production of mixture for composite honeycomb concrete (RU 2543847)» refers to the field of construction materials and can be used to produce non-autoclave composite honeycomb concrete of the natural hardening. This method consists of the following stages: supply of composition elements into mixer, ...

  17. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 3. An evaluation of thermal water in the Weiser area, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Weiser area encompasses about 200 square miles in southwest Idaho and contains two thermal water areas: (1) the Crane Creek subarea, which is 12 miles east of Weiser, Idaho, and (2) the Weiser Hot Springs subarea, which is 5 miles northwest of Weiser. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Pleistocene age have been faulted and folded to form the northwest-trending anticlines present in much of the area. Basalt of the Columbia River Group or underlying rocks are believed to constitute the reservoir for the hot water. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are present in both subareas. A preliminary audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a shallow conductive zone is associated with each thermal site. Above-normal ground temperatures measured at a depth of 1 metre below the land surface in the Weiser Hot Springs subarea correlate with relatively high concentrations of boron in underlying ground waters, which, in turn, are usually associated with thermal waters in the study area. Sampled thermal waters are of a sodium chloride sulfate or sodium sulfate type, having dissolved-solids concentrations that range from 225 to 1,140 milligrams per litre. Temperatures of sampled waters ranged from 13/sup 0/ to 92.0/sup 0/C. Minimum aquifer temperatures calculated from chemical analysis of water, using geochemical thermometers, were 170/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C in the Crane Creek and Weiser Hot Springs subareas, respectively. Estimated maximum temperatures ranged from 212/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and 200/sup 0/ to 242/sup 0/C, respectively, in these subareas. The probable heat sources for both subareas are (1) young magmatic intrusive rocks underlying the basalt or (2) above-normal temperatures resulting from thinning of the earth's crust. Maps are included.

  18. Opacity and Mass Emission Relationship in Forging Areas of Large Caliber Metal Parts Facilities,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    SEDICK JACA COIORATIN MCC560 PINI/OWN ROAD FONT WASHINGTO. PA 190S - JOSEPH T. CLANCY ARRADCON NOVEMBER 1961 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... JACA Corporation Joseph T. Clancy, ARRADCOM DAAKIO-7 9-C-Ol 57 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. tPROJE, r I ,K AREA...WORK UNIT NUMBERS JACA Corporation 550 Pinetown Road, MMT-5794084 and . ,Mff-58040,1,,’ Fort Washington. PA 19035 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND

  19. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  20. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2012-06-27

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system by establishing a relationship between the pumping test results and vertical electrical soundings by using regression technique. The relationship is applied to the area along the resistivity profiles where boreholes are not drilled. Our findings show a good match between pumped hydraulic conductivity and estimated hydraulic conductivity. In case of sparse borehole data, regression technique is useful in estimating hydraulic properties for aquifers with varying lithology. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Kiska I./Cape St. Stephen Aleutian I. 51°52.50 N 177°12.70 E 51°53.50 N 177°12.00 E 20 Kiska I./Sobaka... Alaska 60°35.00 N 147°34.00 W Wooded I. (Fish I.) Gulf of Alaska 59°52.90 N 147°20.65 W 20 Glacier Island... the Gulf of Alaska Area. 7Contact the Alaska Department of Fish and Game for fishery restrictions...

  2. Addressing diabetes mellitus as part of the strategy for ending TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D.; Kumar, Ajay M.V.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Lin, Yan; Zachariah, Rony; Lönnroth, Knut; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the new era of Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has committed to ending the TB epidemic by 2030 through implementation of an ambitious strategy to reduce TB-incidence and TB-related mortality and avoiding catastrophic costs for TB-affected families. Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of TB and increases the probability of adverse TB treatment outcomes such as failure, death and recurrent TB. The rapidly escalating global epidemic of DM means that DM needs to be addressed if TB-related milestones and targets are to be achieved. WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease's Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes, launched in 2011, provides a template to guide policy makers and implementers to combat the epidemics of both diseases. However, more evidence is required to answer important questions about bi-directional screening, optimal ways of delivering treatment, integration of DM and TB services, and infection control. This should in turn contribute to better and earlier TB case detection, and improved TB treatment outcomes and prevention. DM and TB collaborative care can also help guide the development of a more effective and integrated public health approach for managing non-communicable diseases. PMID:26884497

  3. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  4. Optimal Linear Precoding Strategies for Wideband Non-Cooperative Systems based on Game Theory-Part I: Nash Equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Scutari, Gesualdo; Barbarossa, S

    2007-01-01

    In this two-parts paper we propose a decentralized strategy, based on a game-theoretic formulation, to find out the optimal precoding/multiplexing matrices for a multipoint-to-multipoint communication system composed of a set of wideband links sharing the same physical resources, i.e., time and bandwidth. We assume, as optimality criterion, the achievement of a Nash equilibrium and consider two alternative optimization problems: 1) the competitive maximization of mutual information on each link, given constraints on the transmit power and on the spectral mask imposed by the radio spectrum regulatory bodies; and 2) the competitive maximization of the transmission rate, using finite order constellations, under the same constraints as above, plus a constraint on the average error probability. In Part I of the paper, we start by showing that the solution set of both noncooperative games is always nonempty and contains only pure strategies. Then, we prove that the optimal precoding/multiplexing scheme for both gam...

  5. Three Development Strategies of China Capital Area%中国首都圈发展的三大战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭成文; 李国平; 杨开忠

    2001-01-01

    区域发展需要龙头,城市发展需要区域支撑,建设首都圈是中国南北经济格局协调、带动北京周边地区发展的需要,是首都北京可持续发展、建设成为世界城市的需要。根据首都圈的划分对首都圈关系进行了重构,提出首都圈内4个新关系域:知识经济域、旅游文化域、工业经济域、出海通道网络。为建设发展4个新关系域,结合现实,提出首都圈发展的三大战略:空间联系网络化战略、职能疏导战略、空间结构发展战略,具体包括网络化基础设施、网络化市场体系、劳动地域分工、双核都市圈、世界城市战略等。%Regional development needs center city, and urban developmentneeds regional supports. Constructing Capital Area is necessary to harmonize south-north economy pattern in China, to drive an area around Beijing to develop, and for Beijing to develop sustained and to add into world city rank. This paper focuses on how China Capital Area develops. Capital Area is reconstructed to four new-relation area in this paper: (1)Knowledge Economy Area. It's the core of Capital Area, which includes Beijing and Tianjin. The major industries are tertiary industry, hi-tech industry, and low-pollution industry. The Knowledge Economy Area will be the headquarter in Capital Area. (2) Tourism & Culture Area. This area includes Beijing, Baoding, Chengde, Qinhuangdao. (3) Industry Economy Area. It will be industry economy base of Capital Area, which includes Tianjin, Tangshan, Langfang, Baoding, Zhangjiakou, Cangzhou. (4) Out-contact Network. Division and Cooperation will drive Tianjin, Tangshan, Qinhuangdao, Cangzhou to a series of port-cluster with different scale and function in Capital Area. Combined with reality, this paper advances three development strategies: (1) Network Strategy in Spatial Relation. On the one hand, we should construct infrastructure network. Capital Area can works only based on convenient

  6. Strategies to improve the performance of learners in a nursing college Part I: Issues pertaining to nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Waterson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three focus group interviews were conducted. One group was formed by seven tutors, and the other two groups were formed by fourth-year learners following a fouryear comprehensive diploma course. All participants voluntarily took part in the study. Data was analyzed using the descriptive method of open coding by Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:154-156. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with Lincoln and Guba’s (1985:290-326 principles of credibility, conformability, transferability and dependability. The findings were categorized into issues pertaining to nursing education as follows: curriculum overload; lack of theory and practice integration; teaching and assessment methods that do not promote critical thinking; tutors’ lack of skills and experience; inadequate preparation of tutors for lectures; insufficient knowledge of tutors regarding outcomes-based education approach to teaching and learning; inadequate process of remedial teaching; discrepancies between tutors’ marking; lack of clinical role-models and high expectations from the affiliated university as regards standards of nursing education in a nursing college. Strategies to improve the learners’ performance were described. It is recommended that these strategies be incorporated in the staff development programme by the staff development committee of the nursing college under study for implementation. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of the described strategies to improve the learners’ performance. It is also recommended that similar studies be conducted or replicated in other nursing colleges to address the problem of poor performance of learners engaged in a four-year comprehensive diploma course.

  7. Three dimensional gravity modeling techniques with application to the Ennis Geothermal Area: Final report: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmens, D.

    1987-12-01

    3-D gravity modeling was done in the area of the Ennis hot spring in an attempt to determine controlling structure of the Ennis hot spring. The modeling was done in a two-step process where: 1) The topography was modeled by modeling the valley fill from the highest elevation in the modeling area to some elevation below the lowest station elevation using Talwani and Ewing's (1960) method of modeling with vertically-stacked, horizontal, n-sided polygons. Once the gravity contributions of the valley fill included in this ''topographic model'' are calculated, they were removed from the original gravity data; 2) The remaining valley fill was modeled using blocks where the 3-D algorithm for modeling with blocks results from integrating the gravity formula in the X and Z directions and approximating the integration in the Y-direction using a quadrature formula. Finally, an inverse 3-D gravity modeling program was written to automatically adjust the bedrock topography output from this two-step modeling process. The gravity data calculated from the adjusted bedrock topography, output from the inverse modeling program, should match the observed gravity data within the error of the survey. 43 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Census H Appendix H to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population...

  9. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  10. Problems and relevant strategies on natural forest protection in Changbai Mountain forest area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-cheng

    2003-01-01

    Changbai Mountain forest area is not only is a national timber base but also a green ecological defense for Songliao Plain of NE China. The Natural Forest Protection Project of this area has an important bearing on the social and economic sustainable development of Jilin Province or even the whole forest area in NE China. This paper summarized general conditions of natural forest in Changbai Mountain state-owned forest area and put forward six problems need to be urgently solved and five strategic suggestions on natural forest protection and sustainable management.

  11. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  12. Microwave Technologies as Part of an Integrated Weed Management Strategy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brodie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in controlling weed plants using radio frequency or microwave energy has been growing in recent years because of the growing concerns about herbicide resistance and chemical residues in the environment. This paper reviews the prospects of using microwave energy to manage weeds. Microwave energy effectively kills weed plants and their seeds; however, most studies have focused on applying the microwave energy over a sizable area, which requires about ten times the energy that is embodied in conventional chemical treatments to achieve effective weed control. A closer analysis of the microwave heating phenomenon suggests that thermal runaway can reduce microwave weed treatment time by at least one order of magnitude. If thermal runaway can be induced in weed plants, the energy costs associated with microwave weed management would be comparable with chemical weed control.

  13. The importance of addressing methane emissions as part of a comprehensive greenhouse gas management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylin, Carey [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Robinson, Donald; Cacho, Mariella; Russo, Ignacio; Stricklin, Eric [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rortveit, Geir Johan [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Chakraborty, A.B. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India); Pontiff, Mike [Newfield, The Woodlands, TX, (United States); Smith, Reid [British Petroleum (BP), London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Given the climate forcing properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the current state of the global economy, it is imperative to mitigate emissions of GHGs cost-effectively. Typically, CO{sub 2} is the main focus of most companies' and governments' GHG emissions reductions strategies. However, when considering near-term goals, it becomes clear that emissions reductions of other GHGs must be pursued. One such GHG is methane, the primary component of natural gas. Reducing GHG emissions and generating profits are not necessarily a mutually exclusive endeavor as illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program. The Program is a worldwide voluntary, flexible partnership of oil and gas companies which promotes cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations. In an effort to meet environmental goals without sacrificing profitability, Natural Gas STAR partner companies have identified over 60 cost-effective best practices to reduce their methane emissions, which they report to the EPA. This paper discusses: 1) the importance of reducing methane emissions and its economic impact, 2) a comparison of methane emission reduction projects relative to other greenhouse gas reduction projects in the oil and gas industry, 3) the value of source-specific methane emissions inventories, and 4) methane emission reduction opportunities from hydraulically fractured gas well completions and centrifugal compressor wet seals. From the analyses and examples in this paper, it can be concluded that methane emission reduction projects can be readily identified, profitable, and effective in mitigating global climate change. (author)

  14. T-Regulatory Cells as Part of Strategy of Immune Evasion by Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, F Yu; Rizopulu, A P

    2015-08-01

    Under physiological conditions, regulatory processes can suppress the immune response after elimination of a pathogen and restore homeostasis through the destruction and suppression of obsolete effector cells of the immune system. The main players in this process are T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and immature dendritic cells, which suppress the immune response by their own products and/or by inducing synthesis of immunosuppressive interleukins IL-10, IL-35, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) by other cells. This mechanism is also used by widespread "successful" pathogens that are capable of chronically persisting in the human body - herpes virus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori, and others. During coevolution of microbial pathogens and the host immune system, the pathogens developed sophisticated strategies for evading the host defense, so-called immune evasion. In particular, molecular structures of pathogens during the interaction with dendritic cells via activating and inhibitory receptors can change intracellular signal transduction, resulting in block of maturation of dendritic cells. Immature dendritic cells become tolerogenic and cause differentiation of Tregs from the conventional T-cell CD4+. Microbial molecules can also react directly with Tregs through innate immune receptors. Costimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin increases the expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, which increases the suppressive activity of Treg cells. From all evasion mechanisms, the induction of immunosuppression by Treg through IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-β appears most effective. This results in the suppression of inflammation and of adaptive immune responses against pathogens, optimizing the conditions for the survival of bacteria and viruses.

  15. Marine protected area networks: assessing whether the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Grorud-Colvert

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts are increasingly affecting the world's oceans. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs provide an option for increasing the ecological and economic benefits often provided by single MPAs. It is vital to empirically assess the effects of MPA networks and to prioritize the monitoring data necessary to explain those effects. We summarize the types of MPA networks based on their intended management outcomes and illustrate a framework for evaluating whether a connectivity network is providing an outcome greater than the sum of individual MPA effects. We use an analysis of an MPA network in Hawai'i to compare networked MPAs to non-networked MPAs to demonstrate results consistent with a network effect. We assert that planning processes for MPA networks should identify their intended outcomes while also employing coupled field monitoring-simulation modeling approaches, a powerful way to prioritize the most relevant monitoring data for empirically assessing MPA network performance.

  16. Survival Strategies and Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifekwem Nkiruka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in the sustainable development of countries. They help in employment generation, industrial production increase, and export, social enrichment as well as political stability. This study investigates the survival strategies and sustainability of SMEs using selected small businesses in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos State. It examines the type of growth strategies that SMEs adopt, ascertains what influences their survival strategies as well as the challenges that hinder their growth. Fifty (50 SMEs were randomly sampled. Their owners and managers were interviewed using questionnaires. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient statistics. Our findings reveal that there is a statistically significant relationship between survival strategies and SMEs’ sustainability. The major implication of the findings is that maintaining small but committed and motivated employees is critical in guaranteeing the survival of the SMEs in a volatile economy. The study recommends that there be a need for orientation and educational programmes to change the mindset of business owners to enable them to graduate from sole atomistic proprietor devoid of modern scientific business practice and effective succession to corporate status with an apparatus of modern business management practices and corporate vision. Finally, the study further suggests some imperatives for policy makers concerned with promoting small businesses’ growth and sustainability in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

  17. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  18. Potash resources in part of Los Medanos area of Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    Los Medanos area of eastern Eddy and western Lea Counties, New Mexico, is being considered for possible siting of a repository Facility for experimental studies of nuclear-waste emplacement in salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The potential repository site encompasses about 29 square miles (75 square kilometres) of sandy terrain near the center of Los Medanos. The site is underlain by evaporite and red bed formations having an aggregate thickness of 4,462 feet (1,360 metres). The Salado Formation, which is the main salt-bearing unit of the area, lies at a depth of 1,000 feet (305 metres). The formation is almost 1,970 feet (600 metres) of rock salt with prominent interbeds of anhydrite, polyhalite, glauberite, some widely spaced seams of fine-grained clastic rocks, and a few potash deposits containing sylvite and langbeinite. The potash deposits occur in salt beds 517-871 feet (158-265 metres) below the top of the formation. The lower half of the formation includes some salt beds which may be used for the experimental emplacement of nuclear wastes. Most, if not nearly all, of the potential repository site is underlain by potash deposits that contain sylvite and langbeinite. The deposits grade 12-13 percent K2O as sylvite and 3-11 percent K2O as langbeinite, and must be regarded as having economic potential for potassium minerals. There is considerable uncertainty concerning the full extent and total range in quality of the ores in the deposit, and subsurface investigation will be required to assess their potential.

  19. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compete with each other; second since they are located in Bohai Sea (North China, they have to compete with other cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas (South China. In this paper, our aim is to build models to provide best price strategies for these two cities. Based on the two-sided market theory and the geographical position, this paper builds two competitive theory models. Through the analyzing of the equilibrium, we get two main results: (1 according to different service area, the cities (Dalian and Tianjin should have different price; (2 the two-sided market characters have an impact on their strategies.

  20. Public space in the housing estates of Poznan metropolitan area: design strategy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article was prepared on the basis of research conducted at the Faculty of Architecture at Poznan University of Technology. It constitutes an introduction to the subject of regeneration of housing areas in the Poznan Municipal Area in order to familiarize the reader with the method of socio-spatial analysis in relation to public space in housing estates.

  1. Object-Based Change Detection in Urban Areas: The Effects of Segmentation Strategy, Scale, and Feature Space on Unsupervised Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-based change detection (OBCD has recently been receiving increasing attention as a result of rapid improvements in the resolution of remote sensing data. However, some OBCD issues relating to the segmentation of high-resolution images remain to be explored. For example, segmentation units derived using different segmentation strategies, segmentation scales, feature space, and change detection methods have rarely been assessed. In this study, we have tested four common unsupervised change detection methods using different segmentation strategies and a series of segmentation scale parameters on two WorldView-2 images of urban areas. We have also evaluated the effect of adding extra textural and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI information instead of using only spectral information. Our results indicated that change detection methods performed better at a medium scale than at a fine scale where close to the pixel size. Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD always outperformed the other methods tested, at the same confidence level. The overall accuracy appeared to benefit from using a two-date segmentation strategy rather than single-date segmentation. Adding textural and NDVI information appeared to reduce detection accuracy, but the magnitude of this reduction was not consistent across the different unsupervised methods and segmentation strategies. We conclude that a two-date segmentation strategy is useful for change detection in high-resolution imagery, but that the optimization of thresholds is critical for unsupervised change detection methods. Advanced methods need be explored that can take advantage of additional textural or other parameters.

  2. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce foamed polyurethane nanocomposite (RU 2566149» refers to production of constructional materials, in particular to polymer composites, that includes polymer and inorganic additive. Constructional materials based on foamed polyurethane is of great interest for many areas of industrial and power engineering as well as for shipbuilding, airplane engineering and car industry; this interest is due to the fact that such materials possess high heat-insulating properties, considerable chemical resistance respect to environment (atmosphere and sometimes water as well as good soundinsulating characteristics. The use of the materials makes it possible to provide an efficient thermal protection required in structures. The method to produce foamed polyurethane nanocomposite includes preliminary mechanical activation of the modifier with the following introduction of it into hydroxyl-containing polyester under ultrasound in the quantity of 0,5–3,0% respect to the weight of the produced nanocomposite, mixing and introduction of hardening agent. The invention «The method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for high-strength concrete (RU 2563264» refers to construction and building materials industry, in particular to the methods of production of complex nanodispersed additives. In this method the suspension with solid phase concentration 3% is produced by means of ultrasound dispersion when frequency of the ultrasound is 35 kHz. The suspension contains 65–70 mas.% of mineral element – metakaolin, 30–35 mas.% of super plasticizer C-3 in the form of dry substance and water. The technical result is the decreased particle size, decreased time of ultrasound impact and simpler additive production technology. The specialists may be also interested in

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF TROLLEYBUS PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN GDYNIA AS PART OF A SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GRZELEC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many EU cities, trolleybuses are experiencing a period of revitalization. New lines, state-of-the-art designs, the use of auxiliary propulsion batteries, ecological values and other factors offer great opportunities for this kind of public transport as an effective tool to shape transport policy in accordance with the principles of sustainable mobility. Gdynia is one of three cities in Poland with a trolleybus public transport subsystem. Since the beginning of political and economic transformation, Gdynia’s authority consistently implements measures aimed at balancing urban mobility, above all by improving the quality of public transport services and creating conditions for the development of alternatives forms of transport to private car travel. The experience of the development of trolleybuses in Gdynia as an element of sustainable mobility, the nature of this means of transport in both economic and operation terms, the implementation of original technological solutions in the trolleybuses’ construction and the impact on decision-making by marketing research are the areas of interest in this paper.

  4. Strategy Planning of Technology Development for High Speed Railways : Electrical Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Rim, G. H.; Ha, H. D.; Park, K. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kang, D. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    At the beginning of 1996, Government has set up the Technology Development Program for High Speed Railways as a national project. Accordingly, the detailed action planning has been established with the collaboration works between Ministry of Construction and Transport and Ministry of Commerce and Trade. On the other hand, the current technology status of domestic manufacturer and many related organizations in Korea only reveals the lack of capabilities in producing the high speed trains. Without the technology transfer programs from the advanced foreign manufacturer (GEC-Alsthom), the domestic manufacturers could not produce HSR. Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute has steered the study to integrate the domestic engineering and technology units specialized in the diversified areas by formulating the feasible collaboration structure between KERI and many organizations on the technology basis. The long term action planning both with the strategic guide and on the technology basis shall be the key function to upgrade the current technology status feasibly for development of the advanced high speed train of 350 km/h. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  5. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Scoping Summary Report - Part B Preliminary Technical Analysis Appendix A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes in general terms the nature of the voltage instability problem facing the Puget Sound area. The following two chapters cover the technical aspects of the problem. It deals with load growth, the root cause of the problem. Also addressed is the capacity of the current power system and the criteria for future system planning. It also explains the technical results of transmission system modeling which confirm the system's vulnerability to voltage instability, the principal symptom of the problem. The results of the scoping process in each of the four measure categories are presented. Included are lists of all options identified, a discussion of the screening criteria, and descriptions of the measures that survived the screening process and are proposed for further evaluation in Phase 2. We discuss the evaluation methodology which will be used to refine the analyses. The next steps in the planning process are outlined. It also describes the short term operational agreements that will assure continued reliable service until a long term solution is in place. 8 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the frame of the research «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicate» new nanocomposite materials based on polyvinylchloride elastron with organomodified montmorillonite and combinations of it with non-halogen fire flame retardant have been developed. The experiment shows that carbamide-containing organoclay is the efficient filler of polyvinylchloride elastron. The receipts and production method for new polymer nanocomposites based on PVC elastron and organomodified montmorillonite have been designed. The paper provides information on the methods to obtain nanodimensional natural fillers; principles for choosing organomodifiers and their influence on the quality of nanodimensional flaked silicate fillers; application efficiency of organoclays when modifying properties of polymer materials. All that makes the results of the research to be very useful for specialists engaged into the area of filler manufacture, creation and processing of polymer composite material and designing products of them. Specialists can use published materials in their scientific and practical activities.

  7. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Obtaining and research of physical and chemical properties of nanosized system nickel–copper» experimentally proved model of synthesis of nanosized powders of system nickel–copper based on the method of reduction of metal salts from water solution has been offered; optimal conditions for obtaining radiographic pure powders have been determined. The paper also deals with conditions for obtaining and phase composition of mixed nickel and copper hydroxides including those which are stable when stored in wet conditions. The copper hydroxide stabilization method has been proposed. The practical value of performed investigation «Research of electron structure functionalized carbon nanotubes by spectographic methods with synchronous radiation» is that it developed one of the areas of physical chemistry: complex research of electron structure of carbon nanotubes including functionalized ones was carried out by the method of experimental (spectographic with synchrotron radiation of different energies and theoretical methods; the general methods of the modern applied plasmonics aimed at identification of characteristics of defects formation in carbon nanosystems of low dimension have been developed.

  8. Every teacher an English teacher? Literacy strategy teaching and research in the content area of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Thomas

    Recent statements from teachers of English and literacy (NCTE, 2007) have voiced the failure of schools to help minority students and ELLs close the literacy achievement gap and the responsibility of all teachers to help with this endeavor. Central to this effort in secondary schools are the content area teachers, as their subjects constitute the bulk of school day instruction. While there have been small studies and field reports of what content teachers are or are not teaching in the way of literacy instruction (Fisher and Ivey, 2005; Verplaste, 1996, 1998; Vacca and Vacca 1989), researchers have not had success measuring the literacy practices of content area teachers in a broad-based study. This study focuses specifically on what many researchers in both the content literacy and ESL fields have emphasized for promoting literacy in the classroom---teaching metacognitive strategies. Twelve metacognitive functions derived from a literacy strategies handbook are employed as a means to ascertain strategy usage within the lessons whether specifically known content strategies are named or not. The initial analysis is performed on over 100 lesson plans hosted at four prominent university science education sites, all within a five year period (2003-7). In addition to the lesson plan analysis, a review of 100 articles taken from five on-line science education journals reveal what the science education field addresses this issue. Findings suggest that while 80% of science teachers include some type of strategic teaching and learning in their lessons, only about 20% of science teachers explicitly utilize strategies as listed in content literacy manuals and promoted by literacy and ESL experts. Rather, most science teachers implicitly include these strategies within their lessons and/or promote their own subject-specific strategies in content teaching. Analysis of science education research and publications shows that there is a focus on literacy and specifically strategic

  9. Mercury pollution in the Chongqing part of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its remediation and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen-ning; LIU Xin-an; LU Ting; HUANG Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of P. R. China merits special attention. We investigated into the current situation in the Chongqing part of the Reservoir area, identified the pollution sources and proposed some suggestions for the remediation and prevention of mercury pollution in this area. Atmospheric mercury in Chongqing was mainly from coal burning and releases of mercury-containing products such as various types of lights and fever thermometers. Urban drainage in Chongqing and Changshou, and runoffs from the high mercury background area in the lower reaches of the Wujiang River contributed most of the mercury in the water of the Yangtze River. A majority of the blame should be laid on mercury and gold mining in the Wujiang valley. We suggested foresting sloping lands to relieve soil erosion and prevent mercury-bearing soil from running into rivers, educational activities to discourage use of mercury-containing products and improved infrastructure to collect mercury-containing wastes for reducing mercury releases, more facilities for treating wastewater and solid waste to accommodate increased requirements of discharge, and growing selected perennial plants in mercury-contaminated land to absorb the mercury in soil. We also suggested concerted operation of a dedicated water-quality monitoring system, reinforced legislation and an effective administrative mechanism to ensure lasting efforts are invested in curbing mercury releases and restoring mercury contaminated land and water in the Reservoir area.

  10. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  11. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials bring a great efficiency to construction, housing and communal services and joint spheres of economy. The invention «The method to produce photocatalytically active nanocrystal titanium dioxide of anatase modification (RU 2551677» refers to the methods for production of nanocrystal titanium dioxide which can be used to provide air and water photocatalytic treatment and disinfection, to create photoelectric energy converters, new composite and catalytic materials. The technical result of the new method is the reduced time consumption for hydrolysis reaction; formation of crystal structure of anatase directly as an outcome of crystallization from solution under the temperature not exceeding boiling temperature under atmosphere pressure without application of additional thermal treatment of the sediment. The invention «The method to produce ceramic composite material based on aluminium and zirconium oxide (RU 2549945» refers to manufacture of ceramic constructional and functional materials. The technical result is the production of ceramics with increased crack-resistance coefficient. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce mixture for composite cellular concrete (RU 2543847, nanostructured welding wire (RU 2538228, nanofiber polymer material (RU 2543377, the method to produce metal nanopowders with increased stored energy (RU 2535109, the method to produce nonwoven nanocomposite material (RU 2533553, the method to produce nanodispersed nanopowders and the equipment for it (RU 2533580, the method to produce nanostructured coatings with shape memory on steel (RU 2535432, the method to apply nanodiamond material with combined electromechanical treatment (RU 2530432, the method to produce soot containing fullerenes and nanotubes from gaseous carbon matter (RU 2531291, polymer copper-containing composite and the

  12. Theses in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: novelties and practical application. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The authors of the research «Nanomodified composite binder for special construction mortars» study how microsize hydrosilicates of barium influence on the hardening time of composite binder. The content of nonsolvent in the barium hydrosilicates synthesis was varied from 60 to 100% from stoichiometric and the content of the additive in the composite binder –from 5 to 40%. The variation of the hardening time has the complex characteristics. Thus introduction of 5% of barium hydrosilicates obtained by precipitation with the use of 100% nonsolvent reduces hardening process insignificantly. If the number of them is increased the rate of hardening is higher. That can be explained in the following way: barium hydrosilicates are the artificially synthesized analogues of the cement stone hydratation products. As their number increases, the distance between separate particles decreases. Therefore synthesized products of hydratation of cement stone interact with silicic acid which is a part of the additive, and the nuclei of calcium hydrosilicates – crystallization centers – form. These conditions favour the acceleration of cement hydratation and increase of hydratation products. That leads to acceleration of crystallizaion process of calcium hydrosilicate and thus to acceleration of hardening time. The specialists may be also interested in the following research: «Foam concrete with nanostructured modifier», «The development of new types of functional materials based on hybride compounds of titanium dioxide with cellulose», «Synthesis and properties of nanosilica stabilized by ligands», «The influence of hydrate forms of nanosized titanium dioxide produced with sol-gel method on electrorheological and photocatalytical properties of systems based on it», «Deformation and thermal behaviour of structure

  13. Problems and Guidelines of Strategy Implementation in Basic Educational Institutions under the Supervision of KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasiwan Tonkanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study problems of strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 ; and 2 propose the guidelines for strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The study was carried out in 2 phases. In phase 1, it focused on the study and analysis of the strategic implementation problems and phase 2 studied the best practice schools. The informants for the interview in phase 1 comprised 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools. They were selected by the use of purposive sampling technique. The population in the study of the strategic implementation problems in basic educational institutions in phase 1 consisted of 543 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from 181 schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 in academic year 2014. The study samples were 217 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The samples were selected by the use of stratified sampling technique. The informants of the phase 2 study were 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized best practice schools obtained from purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection consisted of 2 sets of questionnaires. The Set 1 questionnaire was the 5-point Likert scale on the levels of the problems in implementation with item discrimination at 0.60 – 1.00 and reliability of the whole questionnaire at .9359. The questionnaire contained 3 parts with 65 items. The Set 2 questionnaire comprised 2 parts with 10 items regarding

  14. Narrative review of current context of malaria and management strategies in Uganda (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Liow, Eric; Rasool, Nabeela

    2015-12-01

    In accordance with international targets, the Uganda National Malaria Control Strategic Plan established specific targets to be achieved by 2010. For children under five, this included increasing the number of children sleeping under mosquito nets and those receiving a first-line antimalarial to 85%, and decreasing case fatality to 2%. This narrative review offers contextual information relevant to malaria management in Uganda since the advent of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as first-line antimalarial treatment in 2004. A comprehensive search using key words and phrases was conducted using the web search engines Google and Google Scholar, as well as the databases of PubMed, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, OvidSP (MEDLINE), PSYC Info, Springer Link, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. A total of 147 relevant international and Ugandan literature sources meeting the inclusion criteria were included. This review provides an insightful understanding on six topic areas: global and local priorities, malarial pathology, disease burden, malaria control, treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria, and role of the health system in accessing antimalarial medicines. Plasmodium falciparum remains the most common cause of malaria in Uganda, with children under five being most vulnerable due to their underdeveloped immunity. While international efforts to scale up malaria control measures have resulted in considerable decline in malaria incidence and mortality in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa, this benefit has yet to be substantiated for Uganda. At the local level, key initiatives have included implementation of a new antimalarial drug policy in 2004 and strengthening of government health systems and programs. Examples of such programs include removal of user fees, training of frontline health workers, providing free ACT from government systems and subsidized ACT from licensed private

  15. Research of Application of Passive Natural Ventilated Strategies of High-Density Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeXuan Song; ShaoYu Liu; SiJie Liu

    2014-01-01

    High⁃density development is becoming an inevitable tendency in Chinese urbanization. In this study, the application of natural ventilation in high⁃density urban development is discussed. Based on the domestic and foreign study on natural ventilation, indoor and outdoor natural ventilated strategies, and the application on natural ventilation in underground space development are analyzed. From the study, the relationship between passive and active ventilated technologies is interpreted into what is described to be synergistic, complementary and additive.

  16. Strategy and organizational performance in automotive companies of Ecuador central area sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tatiana Valle Alvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to approach the study of organizational strategy and the profitability in the companies of the companies that represent the automotive sector of the Central Zone of Ecuador for the years 2013 to 2015. Based on the generic typology proposed by Miles and Snow regarding the strategy and the study of profitability, measured by ROI and EBITDA, seven companies have been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated, identifying initially characteristics around five factors: market, efficiency, innovation and structure, which were the base to differentiate strategic archetypes in the companies, that identify them as: Prospective, Analyzer or Defensive. There was no evidence of obvious cases of Reactive companies in the studied population. The main results of the research show through descriptive analysis that the characterization of the companies Prospective and Analyzer, identified in most of the studied companies, is linked to higher levels of profitability, even close to those reported by the industry, than in those that have applied a Defensive character strategy, with comparatively  lower ROI and EBITDA performance.

  17. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «Raw material mixture for high strength fiber concrete (RU 2569140» refers to the industry of building materials and can be used for production of concrete units in civil, industrial and road construction including ones with the use of nanotechnologies. The technical result of the invention is that it increases bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance of fiber concrete, decreases the consumption of silica-containing component introduced into raw material mixture to increase the corrosion resistance of the basalt fiber. The invention «The device to form nanostructured shape memory coatings on the surface of the hollow details (RU 2569871» refers to engineering and metallurgy. The device contains technological unit for ion purification of the surface of the treated detail by creating glow discharge in vacuum chamber. The source of metal ion implantation is installed at the frame of vacuum chamber and is connected with control block. On the lid of vacuum chamber there is a device round the upper end of the tube with the detail. The device is for surface plastic deformation of the applied coating to obtain nanostructured shape memory layer. All that increases strength characteristics, coating reliability as well as convertible deformation and wear resistance. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for high strength concrete (RU 2563264; the method to produce graphene nanocomposite and tungsten carbide (RU 2570691; the method of ultrasound final polishing for details from constructional and tool steels and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2530678; the method to produce nanodispersed powders and the equipment for its implementation (RU 2533580; the

  18. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate (RU 2561616» refers to the technologies for production of body of carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate. The flow of actuation gas is formed in the reaction chamber. The flow contains carrying gas, gas hydrocarbon and predecessor of catalyst for synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In some cases, when implementing invention, the flow of inert gas is directed to the surface of the base plate. This gas flow shades the zone of synthesis of carbon nanotubes from air when its pressure exceeds the pressure of actuation gas flow. The method provides the body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the base plates with big surface: up to several square metres. The invention «Composition of mixture for asphaltic concrete (RU 2561435» refers to the construction production in highway industry and can be applied in manufacture of asphaltic concrete including nanotechnologies. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to modify carbon nanomaterials (RU 2548083; nanofiber polymer material (RU 2543377; the method to produce nanosuspensions for manufacture of polymer nanocomposite (RU 2500695; the method to strengthen metal products to obtain nanostructured surface layers (RU 2527511; the method to form heat-resistant nanocomposite coating on the surface of the products made of heat-resistant nickel alloys (RU 2549813; the method to apply nanodiamond material by means of combined electromechanical treatment (RU 2530432; the method to produce soot with content of fullerens and nanotubes made of gas carbon raw material (RU 2531291; the method to produce powders of zinc oxide with surface modification for usage in construction sealing materials (RU

  19. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method of production of mixture for composite honeycomb concrete (RU 2543847» refers to the field of construction materials and can be used to produce non-autoclave composite honeycomb concrete of the natural hardening. This method consists of the following stages: supply of composition elements into mixer, mixing of the elements to obtain homogenous mass, introduction of dry cellulating mixture into obtained composition and further joint mixing; then obtained composition is provided with zeolite additive which is produced by means of preliminary mixing of one- or multilayer nanotubes in water with atomizer in sprayed form with further mixing with zeolite in the cyclic action mixer, the preliminary prepared dry cellulating mixture is also added. The technical result is a production of homogenous dry mixture, decrease of volume weight, increase of strength and frost resistance of non-autoclave honeycomb concrete manufactured from the specified dry mixture. The invention «Nanostructured wood and mineral composite material (RU 2542025» refers to the production of construction materials and can be used in manufacture of wood and mineral slabs and finishing materials in civil and industrial engineering. The technical result is increased strength and water-resistance. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: epoxy composition for high-strength, alcali-resistant structures (RU 2536141; nanocomposite material based on mineral binders (RU 2538410; the method to produce nanopowders of zinc oxide with surface modification for the use in building sealing material (RU 2505379; a composition for conglutination of metal products (RU 2526991; the method for production of nanodispersed powders (RU 2537678; the method of synthesis

  20. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  1. Local potential evolutions during proton exchange membrane fuel cell operation with dead-ended anode - Part II: Aging mitigation strategies based on water management and nitrogen crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbou, S.; Dillet, J.; Maranzana, G.; Didierjean, S.; Lottin, O.

    2017-02-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operate with dead-ended anode in order to reduce system cost and complexity when compared with hydrogen re-circulation systems. In the first part of this work, we showed that localized fuel starvation events may occur, because of water and nitrogen accumulation in the anode side, which could be particularly damaging to the cell performance. To prevent these degradations, the anode compartment must be purged which may lead to an overall system efficiency decrease because of significant hydrogen waste. In the second part, we present several purge strategies in order to minimize both hydrogen waste and membrane-electrode assembly degradations during dead-ended anode operation. A linear segmented cell with reference electrodes was used to monitor simultaneously the current density distribution along the gas channel and the time evolution of local anode and cathode potentials. To asses MEA damages, Platinum ElectroChemical Surface Area (ECSA) and cell performance were periodically measured. The results showed that dead-end mode operation with an anode plate maintained at a temperature 5 °C hotter than the cathode plate limits water accumulation in the anode side, reducing significantly purge frequency (and thus hydrogen losses) as well as MEA damages. As nitrogen contribution to hydrogen starvation is predominant in this thermal configuration, we also tested a microleakage solution to discharge continuously most the nitrogen accumulating in the anode side while ensuring low hydrogen losses and minimum ECSA losses provided the right microleakage flow rate is chosen.

  2. Household Livelihood Strategies and Dependence on Agriculture in the Mountainous Settlements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingde Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which farmers in the Three Gorges Reservoir area remain highly dependent on agriculture despite rapid urbanization and industrialization. The study focuses on the factors that determine a household’s choice of livelihood strategy, with a particular focus on the production of and dependence on agricultural products. Using a sustainable livelihoods approach and survey data from farmers in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China, the study provides a descriptive statistical analysis and ordinal logistic regression model that shows that close to 56% of households exhibit a low dependence on agriculture. The following variables had a significant influence on livelihood strategy: the maximum years of education of any household member; the age of the household head; the number of laborers in a household; household location; and formal and informal social networks. Regardless of whether the household had children, house value and fixed assets had no significant influence on livelihood strategy. According to the analysis results, we put forward the suggestions that government departments increase investment in infrastructure and make loan policies more favorable for farmers so as to encourage rural able-person to use their social networks to actively establish businesses at migrant destinations.

  3. Technology management and participatory approach with agroecological rice for local scale. Part II - Impacts assessment of the strategy and action plan in Madruga municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah González Viera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Land policies to increase the rice production have as purpose to promote the mechanization, to increase the yield for farm area, to enlarge the crop area and to achieve the self-sufficiency in the production or to reduce the imports of this cereal. Other important aspects are the costs of rice crop and their impact in the productive revenues besides the great dependence of the grain on the part of the poor countries; where their potentiality resides in the production to small scale in irrigated ecosystem like a sustainable base for the diversification of the rural economy. For such a reason, this work was developed with the objective of establishing a strategy of sustainable development for the popular rice crop that was based on the technological management with focus agroecologic and participatory focus. Their application conceived on-farm research by means of variety trials simultaneously to a costs studies of three technologies adopted by the producers and during the process, three qualification cycles were made being achieved increasing of rice crop yield in 14 %.

  4. The internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2011-07-01

    Within the last decade the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. It consists of several hundred companies, including manufacturers and providers of plant components and entire plants as well as service providers, operators, etc. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of biogas plants in Germany. They are centered around the many potentials of biogas plants, among them the biogas plants' capability to support sustainable development processes, especially in rural areas. The major challenge in realizing such aims partly springs from the several unwelcome side effects which accompany the fast and steady growth of biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. The presented PhD project shows the actions and significance of family farms in Germany in order to successfully master the complex challenge of using the operation of biogas plants for multilayered sustainable development processes in rural areas. The internal sphere of influence family farms use to do so comprises of inter alia deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources as well as sustaining self-determined innovativeness. Furthermore it includes making use of a farm's ability to self-regulate. In this way the surveyed family farms pursue strategies which reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has been observed as a current repeasantization worldwide. The PhD project is methodologically based on holistic approaches using a sample of family farm case studies. (orig.)

  5. Strategy of protected areas development in purposes of using and keeping bioresources and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Features and condition of existing system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are presented in this paper. Their specific environmental problems are defined. Strong sides and weaknesses of functioning and management of objects of special protection are provided. For approbation of a complex of methods of steady exploitation of this territory modeling objects of special protection are allocated and the economic assessment is carried out them. Potential recipients of benefits from use of bioresources and ecosystem services on modeling objects arerevealed. Theterritories possessing a reservefor increasein use of their resources and services are presented. Offers on strategy of development of a control system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are developed. Development strategy of control system ofespecially protected natural territories is consisting of someinstitutional decisions. This acceptance of federal-regional agreement about management control;creating of regional rules, which regulatethe usage of natural resources in especially protected natural territories; application of an integrated approach to the use of territories, which provide the bases to increase recreation and tourist industry; transfer buffer zone territories to biosphere reservation.

  6. Literacy Coaching: Middle School Academic Achievement and Teacher Perceptions Regarding Content Area Literacy Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anjell H.; Neill, Patricia; Faust, Phyllis B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in perceptions of content area teachers receiving literacy coaching and teachers receiving no literacy coaching regarding implementation of literacy instruction. It also examined student achievement on standardized tests relative to literacy coaching. A survey measured teachers' perceptions regarding their…

  7. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    focus on both the most relevant exposure pathways and on the areas most difficult to decontaminate. The IC/UC may also elect to utilize an...a layer of pavement or cement over 137Cs gamma emanation that may have become fixed in place by sorbing onto the street and sidewalks . This may be

  8. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... must reach the Coast Guard on or before September 15, 2010. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments... designed to protect sensitive environmental areas in the event of an oil or chemical spill in navigable... could be ordered to wait until the current has subsided and the boom removed to allow for safe...

  9. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  10. IMPORTANCE OF SHALLOW AREAS OF THE UPPER PART OF THE KANIV RESERVOIR IN THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS ICHTHYOFAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gurbyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the relative number of fish juveniles on biotopes of the upper part of the Kanev reservoir in the aspect of evaluation of these areas in general propagation of ichthyofauna. Methodology. The work is based on data of fish juvenile surveys conducted in the Kaniv reservoir during 2011—2013. Data collection and processing were performed according to generally accepted methods. Fish juveniles were caught using a beach seine made of mill gauze № 7, length 10 m, height 1 m. Relative number of fish juveniles on different sites has been calculated based on the areas of fish nursing biotopes under assumption of the constancy of catchability coefficients. Shannon-Weaver diversity index was used for comparing species diversity of the commercial ichthyofauna of different sites. Findings. The majority of the studied littoral sites of the upper part of the Kaniv reservoir were characterized by sufficiently high indices of biodiversity ― Shannon index values varied within 2,07—3,24 bit./ind. Twenty six species were recorded in the composition of the fish juvenile communities that was 80 % of total number of species in the reservoir. It was found that despite a decrease of the relative number of the juveniles of valuable commercial species compared to previous years, the upper part of the reservoir remains the major site for recruitment of commercial fish stock ― 70 % of bream (Abramis brama, tench (Tinca tinca, pike (Esox lucius, roach (Rutilus rutilus and wels (Vimba vimba of the Kaniv reservoir are reproduced here. Taking into account the especial value of the upper part in formation of the spawning fund of the reservoir, any hydroenhancement works here should be limited exclusively by navigable channel. Originality. For the first time we quantitatively evaluated (in spatial aspect the number of fish fauna recruitment in the Kanev reservoir under current state of spawning areas. Practical value. Results of the work will be

  11. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 2. An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, D.B.; Tippens, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. The aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-meters underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/1) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/1. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/1. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5/sup 0/ to 83.0/sup 0/C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0/sup 0/ to 83.0/sup 0/C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35/sup 0/C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150/sup 0/C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers.

  12. Increasing access to cataract surgery in a rural area--a support strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, R; Uppal, Y; Misra, A; Taneja, D K; Gupta, V K; Ingle, G K

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to elicit the reasons for not undergoing cataract surgery from those having cataract, aged 50 years and above, in a village community and, develop, implement and assess a support strategy for getting cataract surgery done. The leading reasons identified were monetary constraints (18.8%), transport difficulty (17.4%), lack of awareness about cataract in the eyes (17.4%) and lack of escort (14.5%). Based on the identified reasons, patients were transported in groups to a government eye hospital for free surgery after completion of required pre operative formalities at the village health center itself. Out of 65 eligible individuals, 66.2% underwent surgery. The success of the approach was evident by perceived improvement in vision in 88.4% operated patients, occurrence of only few minor complications and a satisfactory hospital experience being reported by all.

  13. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J

    2008-12-01

    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning.

  14. Present Conditions and Strategies of Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection in Sichuan Ethnic Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunxia

    2013-01-01

    The intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is the most typical cultural re-source with ethnic characteristics . Its scientific protection and effective usage can not only help to transmit and develop the intangible cultural herit-age of ethnic minorities , but also can transform the ethnic minorities ’ cultural resources into advanta-geous resources , thus, promoting economic devel-opment in ethnic minority autonomous areas .For a long time, the ethnic minority autonomous areas have paid considerable attention to the protection of ethnic intangible cultural heritage ; explored vari-ous effective protective measures; and built up an effective model for protecting ethnic intangible cul-tural heritage guaranteed by the ethnic autonomous law.

  15. Strategy of specification of management areas: rice grain yield as related to soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known nowadays that soil variability can influence crop yields. Therefore, to determine specific areas of soil management, we studied the Pearson and spatial correlations of rice grain yield with organic matter content and pH of an Oxisol (Typic Acrustox under no- tillage, in the 2009/10 growing season, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the Brazilian Cerrado (longitude 51º24' 21'' W, latitude 20º20' 56'' S. The upland rice cultivar IAC 202 was used as test plant. A geostatistical grid was installed for soil and plant data collection, with 120 sampling points in an area of 3.0 ha with a homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. The properties rice grain yield and organic matter content, pH and potential acidity and aluminum content were analyzed in the 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers. Spatially, two specific areas of agricultural land management were discriminated, differing in the value of organic matter and rice grain yield, respectively with fertilization at variable rates in the second zone, a substantial increase in agricultural productivity can be obtained. The organic matter content was confirmed as a good indicator of soil quality, when spatially correlated with rice grain yield.

  16. The Analysis of Land Use Based on CORINE Land Cover in the Romanian Part of the Tisa Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN MOLDOVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%, coniferous forests (6.22%, mixed forests (3.46% and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%. The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50% are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.

  17. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  18. [Visions and strategies in the European research area. "Technology for the Information Society"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillessen, F

    2002-01-01

    A new generation of EU research is expected to take life at the end of 2002. One of the new elements of the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), which is essential for the realisation of the European Research Area (ERA), will be the use of new instruments for funding research, such as Integrated Projects (IP) and Networks of Excellence (NoE). Integrated Projects will contribute to strengthening European competitiveness and solve major societal problems, by mobilising a critical mass of research and development resources and skills existing in Europe. Networks of Excellence will contribute to strengthening European scientific and technological excellence though a better integration of research capacities across Europe.

  19. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  20. Attrition of Knowledge Workforce in Healthcare in Northern parts of India – Health Information Technology as a Plausible Retention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Bhattacharya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a global shortage of skilled health workers due to attrition, countries are struggling to build and maintain optimum knowledge workforce in healthcare for delivering quality healthcare services. Forces that affect healthcare professionals’ turnover needs to be addressed before a competent uniformly adoptable strategy could be proposed for mitigating the problem. In this study we investigate the effects of the socio–demographic characteristics on attrition of healthcare knowledge workforce in northern parts of India that have a wide gradient of rural and urban belt, taking into account both public and private healthcare organizations. For this purpose healthcare professional attrition tracking survey (HATS was designed. The data has been collected from a random sample of 807 respondents consisting of doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrators to explore the relationships between various factors acting as antecedents in affecting the job satisfaction, commitment and intention of a healthcare professional to stay in the job. Structured questionnaires were utilized as the data collection tools. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and path analysis were carried out using multiple regression and correlation to propose a model that best explains the theoretical assumption of factors leading to attrition. Six factors of attrition namely compensation and perks, work life balance, sense of accomplishment, work load, need for automation and technology improvement, substandard nature of work have been identified as the main factors with a data reliability of 0.809%. It has also been identified that the intention to shift is a major decision maker that affects attrition and in turn affected by job satisfaction dimensions. Based on the survey response and analysis, a highly possible strategy of utilizing information technology implementation for increasing worker motivation, job satisfaction and commitment to reduce attrition has been

  1. Reduction Expansion Synthesis as Strategy to Control Nitrogen Doping Level and Surface Area in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES method utilizing graphite oxide (GO and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET. The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.

  2. Strategies for navigating large areas: a GIS spatial ecology analysis of the bearded saki monkey, Chiropotes sagulatus, in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Mullett, Amanda; Norconk, Marilyn A

    2014-06-01

    Animals with long day paths and large home ranges expend a considerable amount of energy on travel. Studies have shown that in the interest of reducing energy expenditure, animals selectively navigate the landscape using a variety of strategies. However, these studies have generally focused on terrestrial animals. Here we present data on an exceedingly mobile arboreal animal, bearded saki monkeys, in a topographically variable landscape in Suriname. Using ArcMap and Google Earth, we explore two potential navigation strategies: the nonrandom use of travel areas and the use of ridges in slope navigation. Over a year of data collection, bearded sakis were found to use relatively long travel paths daily, use some areas more intensely than others for travel, and when travel paths were converted to strings of points, 40.3% and 63.9% of the points were located on (50 m from the main ridgeline) or near (100 m from the main ridgeline) ridge tops, respectively. Thus in a habitat of high relief we found support for intensive use of ridge tops or slopes close to ridge tops by bearded sakis. Selective habitat use may be related to surveying tree crowns for fruit by large, fast moving groups of bearded sakis or monitoring the presence of potential predators.

  3. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  4. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  5. Soil sampling strategies for site assessments in petroleum-contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geonha; Chowdhury, Saikat; Lin, Yen-Min; Lu, Chih-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Environmental site assessments are frequently executed for monitoring and remediation performance evaluation purposes, especially in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-contaminated areas, such as gas stations. As a key issue, reproducibility of the assessment results must be ensured, especially if attempts are made to compare results between different institutions. Although it is widely known that uncertainties associated with soil sampling are much higher than those with chemical analyses, field guides or protocols to deal with these uncertainties are not stipulated in detail in the relevant regulations, causing serious errors and distortion of the reliability of environmental site assessments. In this research, uncertainties associated with soil sampling and sample reduction for chemical analysis were quantified using laboratory-scale experiments and the theory of sampling. The research results showed that the TPH mass assessed by sampling tends to be overestimated and sampling errors are high, especially for the low range of TPH concentrations. Homogenization of soil was found to be an efficient method to suppress uncertainty, but high-resolution sampling could be an essential way to minimize this.

  6. Green infrastructure practices – strategies how to sustain life in metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Infrastructure is ‘an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ [1, p. 12]. It contributes to long term strategic development goals for data and information management. The research paper was introduced with the aim to protect green areas in urban environment by improving biodiversity, leisure and recreation, tidal and fluvial flood risk management, grey water treatment and quality of life. Planning and design of green system should provide appropriate responses to the distinctive local circumstances. Green spaces encourage social interactions, form new places to practise sport and contribute to public health and fitness, as well as have indirect benefits for a range of environmental services. The research hypothesis is that Green Infrastructure is a framework for conservation and development and we need to design Green Infrastructure systems strategically to connect across urban, suburban, rural and wilderness landscapes and incorporate green space elements and functions at the state, regional, community, neighbourhood and site scales [2]. Analysis and design of emerging Green Infrastructure system take a holistic view which links related physical, environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of local communities.

  7. AQUACULTURE AS A MEXICAN STRATEGY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mártir Mendoza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYAquaculture is one of the worldwide economic activities which has grown in the last 30 years at an annual rate of 9-10.0 %. Poultry, pork, lamb and beef meat production have increased only at an annual rate of 3.0 % in the same period, and in the last five years has decreased due to aviar fever and other viral difficulties. While aquaculture growth takes place in far away countries as China near by countries as Costa Rica, Honduras, Brazil and Chile keeps the same tendency. As far as Mexico´s aquaculture is concerned, it has grown steadily, missing, even its way out. On the one hand fish catches do not grow since the middle of the 80´s when fish production reached 1.5 million tones. On the other hand aquaculture in fresh waters and in sea waters are almost staging due to the loss of authority and governmental management capacity to make decisions. The recently elected federal government which will take office next December 1st, has on its hands the opportunity to favor aquaculture production and doing so, to develop Mexican coastal and rural areas.

  8. The physician/hospital joint venture: developing a win/win strategy for success. Part III: Structuring and negotiating the deal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A S

    1987-08-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this third part of the series, the author examines the elements essential to structure a successful joint venture and key issues that need to be addressed during the negotiation process.

  9. Strategi pencapaian pelanggan pitalebar bergerak di daerah perdesaan tahun 2019 [The strategy of mobile broadband subscriber achievement in rural areas in 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah Indonesia memiliki target untuk memberikan akses internet kepada seluruh rakyat Indonesia, termasuk di daerah perdesaan. Daerah perdesaan bagi penyelenggara telekomunikasi kurang memberikan keuntungan karena jumlah pelanggan tidak sebanding dengan biaya investasi yang dikeluarkan. Survei dalam penelitian ini dilakukan di empat desa yaitu Cangkringan, Hambalang, Purwosari dan Kondasatu untuk mengetahui hubungan kondisi masyarakat dengan internet. Hasil survei menunjukkan penggunaan handphone adalah 18,14% untuk telepon, 16,88% untuk SMS dan hanya 3,80% untuk internet. Analisis deskriptif dari data tersebut adalah masyarakat di desa masih belum menggunakan layanan internet secara optimal. Alasannya adalah keterbatasan infrastruktur dan belum ada kesadaran masyarakat. Sudut pandang operator telekomunikasi, mastel Indonesia dan BRTI diperoleh melalui Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Triangulasi data survei dan hasil FGD menghasilkan strategi yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah dan swasta melalui pengembangan ekosistem untuk masyarakat perdesaan. Selain itu, pemerintah dapat memberikan intervensi melalui optimasi penggunaan Biaya Hak Penggunaan Frekuensi untuk pengembangan mobile broadband dan melalui skema dana Universal Service Obligation (USO.*****Indonesian government has a target to provide internet access to all Indonesian people, including in rural areas. For telecommunication provider, rural areas is less profitable because of the number of customers are not comparable with the investment cost incurred. This study was conducted by doing survey in four villages namely Cangkringan, Hambalang, Purwasari, and Kondasatu to determine the condition of the people associated with the development of the internet. The results of the survey showed that 18.14% people use the mobile phone for voice communication, 16.88% for SMS, and only 3.80% for using internet. Villagers have not used the internet service optimally yet. The reason is lack of

  10. Instrumentation and measurement strategy for the NOAA SENEX aircraft campaign as part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Carsten; Trainer, Michael; de Gouw, Joost A.; Parrish, David D.; Fahey, David W.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Brock, Charles A.; Roberts, James M.; Brown, Steven S.; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Lack, Daniel; Law, Daniel; Hübler, Gerhard; Pollack, Iliana; Sjostedt, Steven; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Liao, Jin; Holloway, John; Peischl, Jeff; Nowak, John B.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Min, Kyung-Eun; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Graus, Martin G.; Richardson, Mathew; Markovic, Milos Z.; Wagner, Nick L.; Welti, André; Veres, Patrick R.; Edwards, Peter; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Gordon, Timothy; Dube, William P.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Brioude, Jerome; Ahmadov, Ravan; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Lin, Jack J.; Nenes, Athanasios; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Lee, Ben H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Thornton, Joel A.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kaiser, Jennifer; Mao, Jingqiu; Hatch, Courtney D.

    2016-07-01

    Natural emissions of ozone-and-aerosol-precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are high in the southeastern US. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the southeastern US and summertime photochemistry is rapid. The NOAA-led SENEX (Southeast Nexus) aircraft campaign was one of the major components of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) and was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. Here we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign. The aircraft, its capabilities and standard measurements are described. The instrument payload is summarized including detection limits, accuracy, precision and time resolutions for all gas-and-aerosol phase instruments. The inter-comparisons of compounds measured with multiple instruments on the NOAA WP-3D are presented and were all within the stated uncertainties, except two of the three NO2 measurements. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the southeastern US as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction (Marcellus, Fayetteville and Haynesville shale). We present one example flight on 16 June 2013, which was a daytime flight over the Atlanta region, where several crosswind transects of plumes from the city and nearby point sources, such as power plants, paper mills and landfills, were flown. The area around Atlanta has large biogenic isoprene emissions, which provided an excellent case for studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. In this example flight, chemistry in and outside the Atlanta plumes was observed for several hours after emission. The analysis of this flight showcases the strategies implemented to answer some of the main SENEX science questions.

  11. The Care of Corporal Punishment: Conceptions of Early Childhood Discipline Strategies among Parents and Grandparents in a Poor and Urban Area in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates conceptions of early childhood discipline strategies discussed in focus groups with parents and grandparents in a poor urban area in Tanzania. A grounded theory analysis suggested a model that included four discipline strategies related to corporal punishment: to beat with care, to treat like an egg, as if beating a snake…

  12. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwat Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP. Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case description The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC/information, education and communication (IEC, and strengthening of the health system (surveillance, monitoring and evaluation and epidemic detection system. After a slow first year with non-satisfying scores for the performance indicators, the MM-MP truly engaged in its intervention activities in 2006 and kept its performance up until the end of 2009. A total of 69,994 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were distributed and more than 15,000 nets re-impregnated. In high-risk areas, this was complemented with residual spraying of insecticides. Over 10,000 people were screened with active case detection in outbreak and high-risk areas. Additional notification points were established and the national health system was strengthened. Discussion and evaluation In the current paper, the MM-MP is evaluated both on account of the targets established within the programme and on account of its impact on the malaria situation in Suriname. Malaria vector populations, monitored in sentinel sites, collapsed after 2006 and concurrently the number of national malaria cases decreased from 8,618 in 2005 to 1,509 in 2009. Malaria transmission risk shifted from the stabile village communities to the mobile gold mining communities, especially those along the French Guiana border. Conclusions The novel strategies for malaria control introduced in Suriname within the MM-MP have led to a significant decrease in the national malaria burden. The challenge is to further reduce malaria using the available strategies as

  13. Tourism Areas, backc - back country areas- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'backc - back...

  14. The Role of Groundwater and Reservoir Interaction in Salinity Distribution in a Saline Area in the Northeastern Part of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeboonruang, U.

    2012-12-01

    Salinity is a process by which the concentration of soluble salt in soil and water increases. Human activities can, however, disrupt this natural equilibrium by changing the distribution of salt in the environment. Reservoirs have played a number of crucial roles in the development of human civilization. The main purposes of reservoirs are to prevent floods, to supply water for domestic consumption, to generate electricity, and to irrigate farmlands. Despite various benefits, reservoirs could bring about adverse environmental and social impacts. Infiltration or leakage from man-made reservoirs or dams could cause the change of the groundwater level, thus forcing the deposited salt onto the soil surface and/or waterways. Until now, it is nevertheless unclear as to how the operation and maintenance of reservoirs could impact in a saline soil area physically, environmentally, and/or socially. The purpose of this research is therefore to assess the impacts of reservoirs on groundwater and salinity levels in a saline soil area in the northeastern part of Thailand. Saline soil can be found in many regions of Thailand, particularly in the northeast of Thailand where the Maha Sarakham Foundation, which is composed of imbedded salt rock layers, is the main source of salinity in the region. The salinity accumulation on the surface soil is influenced by the brackish groundwater upward flow and evaporation processes. The study area is located in Nakhon Panom Province in the northeastern part of Thailand along the Great Mekong River and has a total area of approximately 1,300 km2. The yearly evaporation rate in this region is as high as the annual evaporation rate. A reservoir was constructed in the low-lying floodplain area of the Nam Kam basin and started operation since a few years ago. The reservoir is located right in the middle of the floodplain where flood always occurs every rainy season. Groundwater levels are measured and groundwater samples are collected for p

  15. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅲ—The strategies and practices of National Science Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Xiwen; LIU; Lin; LI; Yan; ZENG; Li-Ping; KU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper describes the strategies and practices of National Science Library(NSL),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS)in promoting open access(OA)and developing OA resources.Design/methodology/approach:Multi-facet frameworks are devised to guide the development of OA strategies and practices.Key OA initiatives are briefly described along the main aspects of the strategies as they contribute to implementation of the OA strategies.Findings:NSL defined its role as the Chief OA Officer for CAS and a key OA promoter for China.Accordingly,NSL has engaged in multiple fronts of promoting OA,including development of OA strategies for CAS,establishment of itself as an OA knowledge&promotion center,development of the CAS IR system,and support for OA publishing by CAS authors.Research limitations:OA is still evolving,so are the strategies and practices as many actions are experimental and explorative in nature.Open books,open data,and open educational resources are yet to be covered.Comparative studies are needed,so is the evidence-based impact analysis.Practical implications:Institutions can adopt,adapt,or compare with examples and lessons learned are described here.Originality/value:The multi-faceted frameworks,working principles,and lessons learned are based on NSL’s practices which can be valuable to the overall OA development.

  16. Peri-urban areas and food-energy-water nexus sustainability and resilience strategies in the age of climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Magoni, Marcello; Menoni, Scira

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the nexus among food, energy and water in peri-urban areas, demonstrating how relevant this nexus is for environmental sustainability. In particular it examines the effective management of the nexus in the face of the risks and trade-offs of mitigation policies, and as a mean to create resilience to climate change. The book delineates strategies and actions necessary to develop and protect our natural resources and improve the functionality of the nexus, such as: integrated management of the major resources that characterize the metabolism of a city, stronger coordination among stakeholders who often weight differently the services that are relevant to their individual concerns, integration of efforts towards environmental protection, adaptation to and prevention of climate change and disaster risks mitigation.

  17. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  18. Strategies for the fusion of satellite fire radiative power with burned area data for fire radiative energy derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Luigi; Roy, David P.

    2009-10-01

    Instantaneous estimates of the power released by a fire (Fire Radiative Power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. Integrating FRP in time provides an estimate of the total energy released (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE), which can be converted into burned biomass estimates needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. While straightforward in theory, the integration of FRP in time and space is affected by temporal and spatial undersampling imposed by the satellite sensing and orbit geometry, clouds, and active fire product omission errors. Combination of active fire FRP estimates with independently derived burned area maps provides the potential for improved and spatially explicit estimates of FRE and biomass burned. In the present work, strategies for the temporal interpolation of FRP data and for the spatial extrapolation of FRE across the burn are proposed and, as a study case, applied to an extensive grassland fire that burned for 40 days in northern Australia. The fusion of FRP estimates derived from MODIS Terra and Aqua active fire detections with the MODIS burned area product is considered, although other polar orbiting and geostationary satellite fire products could be used. Intercomparison of FRE estimated over the MODIS mapped burned area using Terra, Aqua, and Terra-Aqua combined FRP data highlights the sensitivity of FRE estimation to satellite sampling. Despite this sensitivity, FRE biomass burned estimates derived from MODIS burned area and Terra and Aqua FRP data are within 30% of regional literature estimates, suggesting that this fusion approach is a fruitful avenue for future research and validation.

  19. PRICING POLICY AND MARKETING STRATEGIES AS A PART OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF RETAILS STORES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Gburová; Róbert Štefko; Radovan Baèík

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with price and marketing pricing strategies of retail chain stores in the Slovak Republic. The aim of this paper is to highlight the perception of the impact of economic recession in the retail chain stores. To determine the most used marketing pricing strategies has been used analysis of variance ANOVA. The global finance crisis does not have influence to selection and implementation of pricing strategy, which is used by branches of chain stores marketing management of in are...

  20. Marketing Strategies Preferred by South Carolina One-Stop Career Center Area Directors to Attract Dislocated Workers under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eugene F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the marketing strategies South Carolina One-Stop Career Centers Area Directors felt provided the best opportunity for dislocated workers to learn about their services. Two theories emerged: the Service Marketing Theory and the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Theory. Of the 36 area directors cited for this study,…

  1. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI (Sweden); Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Autority, STUK (Finland); Andersson, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  2. Is the U.S. National Security Strategy Balanced? An Assessment of the Role of Domestic Issues as Part of the National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-10

    Budget Office, 82. 16Nye, 220-222. 17 Edward M. Earle, " Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: The Economic Foundations of Military Power...34 Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: the Economic Foundations of Military Power." Makers of Modern Strategy. Princeton; NJ: Princeton

  3. A complex systems approach to evaluate HIV prevention in metropolitan areas: preliminary implications for combination intervention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D L Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complex systems models of adaptive HIV

  4. Strategies in the processing and analysis of continuous gravity record in active volcanic areas: the case of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hinderer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to describe new strategies in the processing and analysis of continuous gravity records collected in active volcanic areas and to assess how permanent gravity stations can improve the geophysical monitoring of a volcano. The experience of 15 years in continuous gravity monitoring on Mt. Vesuvius is discussed. Several geodynamic phenomena can produce temporal gravity changes. An eruption, for instance, is associated with the ascent of magma producing changes in the density distribution at depth, and leading to ground deformation and gravity changes The amplitude of such gravity variations is often quite small, in the order of 10-102 nms-2, so their detection requires high quality data and a rigorous procedure to isolate from the records those weak gravity signals coming from different sources. Ideally we need gravity signals free of all effects which are not of volcanic origin. Therefore solid Earth tide, ocean and atmospheric loading, instrumental drift or any kind of disturbances other than due to the volcano dynamics have to be removed. The state of the art on the modelling of the solid Earth tide is reviewed. The atmospheric dynamics is one of the main sources precluding the detection of small gravity signals. The most advanced methods to reduce the atmospheric effects on gravity are presented. As the variations of the calibration factors can prevent the repeatability of high-precision measurements, new approaches to model the instrumental response of mechanical gravimeters are proposed too. Moreover, a strategy for an accurate modelling of the instrumental drift and to distinguish it from longterm gravity changes is suggested.

  5. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part I: The first step: developing the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A B

    1987-02-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," will examine the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this first article, the author emphasizes the organization's need to develop a strategic plan that includes a program for attracting physicians. It also points out the need for sensitivity to physicians' concerns and provides examples of successes and failures.

  6. Reduction of the Residual Porosity in Parts Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Using Skywriting and High Focus Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancisidor, A. M.; Garciandia, F.; Sebastian, M. San; Álvarez, P.; Díaz, J.; Unanue, I.

    Residual porosity is observed in Inconel 718 samples manufactured by SLM within the optimum process window regardless the process parameters whose origin has been directly related to the starting and finishing of the laser scanning tracks. This porosity is concentrated preferentially in overlaps of fields (stripes and chessboard strategies) and borders. Location of pores has been demonstrated on long stripes, where laser stops only at borders, not in the hatch. It has been concluded that porosity is due to a high interaction time of the laser with powder which increases the energy in those points. Two different strategies have been validated to reduce this effect and thus diminish porosity. These strategies are the skywriting function, where the laser is switched off during the accelerating and decelerating portions and to increase the focus offset. The defocusing strategy is not as effective as the skywriting reducing the residual porosity.

  7. 42 CFR Appendix B to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Dental Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... area. (b) Migratory workers and their families may be included in an area's population using the following formula: Effective migrant contribution to population=(fraction of year migrants are present in area)×(average daily number of migrants during portion of year that migrants are present). 3....

  8. 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia--Briefs of the 3rd Conference on Conservative Land in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zurong

    2001-01-01

    @@ The author had the opportunity to attend the 3rd Conference on the Conservative Land in East Asia in Seoul, Korea in September 1999, whose theme was " 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia". As the majority of protected areas in China is located in mountain areas,since the government announced prohibition of any commercial wood cutting, all mountains have become sort of protected areas in a certain degree. The following is a brief introduction on the major issues discussed at the conference.

  9. Municipal strategies for introducing housing on industrial estates as part of compact-city policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals Altes, W.K.; Tambach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting mixed-use development is part of policies aimed at enhancing urban quality. Until recently, however, industry and housing have rarely been found together in the same development as there is a long tradition of keeping these functions separate. As part of a compact-city policy, Dutch local

  10. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  11. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part II: Analysis of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.; Hewson, Mariana G.

    Presented is an analysis of a concept teaching technique that was developed according to a theoretical perspective which emphasizes the importance of a student's existing knowledge in influencing that person's subsequent learning. Significant differences between an experimental group which was exposed to this instructional strategy, and the…

  12. Impact of sampling time deviations on the prediction of the area under the curve using regression limited sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarem, Sarem; Nekka, Fahima; Ahmed, Iman Saad; Litalien, Catherine; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The regression limited sampling strategy approach (R-LSS), which is based on a small number of blood samples drawn at selected time points, has been used as an alternative method for the estimation of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). However, deviations from planned sampling times may affect the performance of R-LSS, influencing related therapeutic decisions and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sampling time deviation (STD) scenarios on the estimation of AUC by the R-LSS using a simulation approach. Three types of scenarios were considered going from the simplest case of fixed deviations, to random deviations and then to a more realistic case where deviations of mixed nature can occur. In addition, the sensitivity of the R-LSS to STD in each involved sampling point was evaluated. A significant impact of STD on the performance of R-LSS was demonstrated. The tolerance of R-LSS to STD was found to depend not only on the number of sampling points but more importantly on the duration of the sampling process. Sensitivity analysis showed that sampling points at which rapid concentration changes occur were relatively more critical for AUC prediction by R-LSS. As a practical approach, nomograms were proposed, where the expected predictive performance of R-LSS was provided as a function of STD information. The investigation of STD impact on the predictive performance of R-LSS is a critical element and should be routinely performed to guide R-LSS selection and use.

  13. 50 CFR Table 20 to Part 679 - Seabird Avoidance Gear Requirements for Vessels, based on Area, Gear, and Vessel Type. (See § 679...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seabird Avoidance Gear Requirements for Vessels, based on Area, Gear, and Vessel Type. (See § 679.24(e) for complete seabird avoidance program...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 20 Table 20 to Part 679—Seabird...

  14. Damping control strategies of inter-area low-frequency oscillation for DFIG-based wind farms integrated into a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Shengquan; Ji, Haiting

    2014-01-01

    on the power system stabilizer (PSS) control method. Transient simulation on different damping gain coefficients are conducted for justification. Following the OTEF mechanism analysis, an additional fuzzy damping control strategy with the active/reactive power loop is proposed by identifying the oscillation......This study investigates the inter-area low-frequency damping control strategies of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farm through oscillation transient energy function (OTEF) analysis. Based on the OTEF descent expressions, the feasibility of damping the inter-area low...... phase and the severity to prevent different damping gain coefficients from affecting the presented PSS damping control method. Transient and dynamic simulation results and comparisons showed that both additional control strategies with the active and reactive power loops of the DFIG-based wind farm can...

  15. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  16. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers.

  17. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  18. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅱ——Challenges and responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Yan; ZENG; Lin; LI; Xiwen; LIU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper aims to provide a systematic analysis of challenges and responses of the imminent open access-based environment so as to enable sound development of open access(OA)resource strategies.Design/methodology/approach:A systematic and evidence-based analysis is used to discover,identify,and contextualize the factors that relate or interact.A challenge metric for the overall context and additional frameworks or alternative lists is used for the detailed analysis.Findings:Research libraries are facing a reality conflict between the traditional library solution and the OA solution.New resource strategies are needed but have to be based on an open knowledge infrastructure and a systematic analysis of factors and alternatives.Support for OA publishing is becoming a major task and complicated capabilities involved call for libraries to play a central role.Hybrid collection development should be in place to take full advantages of the open world while ensuring reliable and trusted retrieval,reuse,and preservation.Research limitations:The research covers main developments in US and European countries mostly in scientific fields and for scholarly papers.Practical implications:There are already evidences for sound OA resource policies.With the imminent dominance of OA resources,research libraries should and can set up their OA resource strategies.Originality/value:The paper suggests a factor metric as an analysis framework,presents rationale lists and policies to support OA publishing,and proposes a hybrid collection strategy to plan for collection development,retrieval,and preservation.

  19. Hydrocarbons in waters and bottom sediments of coastal areas in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface layer of water and bottom sediments are presented. The data were compared to the distribution of the total organic carbon, particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya bays, as well as in the Greater Sochi area. The intense transformation processes of organic compounds within the water mass and water-bottom interface have resulted in the prevalence of natural components in the alkane composition of the bottom sediments in the areas of the Black Sea considered. The riverine and marine water mixing zone acts as a geochemical barrier preventing the supply of the bulk of river-transferred pollutants to the open sea areas.

  20. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  1. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  2. When the struggle against dejection becomes a part of everyday life: a qualitative study of coping strategies in older abused people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmoe A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrid Sandmoe, Solveig HaugeFaculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life.Methods: A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis.Results: Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience.Conclusion: Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience.Keywords: elder abuse, older parents, coping

  3. Influences of deposition strategies and oblique angle on properties of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled part by direct laser fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlin; Deng, Dewei; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-06-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) developed from laser cladding and rapid prototyping technique has been widely used to fabricate thin-walled parts exhibiting more functions without expending weight and size. Oblique thin-walled parts accompanied with inhomogeneous mechanical properties are common in application. In the present study, a series of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled parts are successfully produced by DLF, in addition, deposition strategies, microstructure, and mechanical property of the oblique thin-walled parts are investigated. The results show that parallel deposition way is more valuable to fabricate oblique thin-walled part than oblique deposition way, because of the more remarkable properties. The hardness of high side initially increases until the distance to the substrate reaches about 25 mm, and then decreases with the increase of the deposition height. Oblique angle has a positive effect on the tensile property but a negative effect on microstructure, hardness and elongation due to the more tempering time. The maximum average ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are presented 744.3 MPa and 13.5% when the angle between tensile loading direction and horizontal direction is 45° and 90°, respectively.

  4. Final report on numerical simulation of processes of hot sheet bending in the frame of the project EUREKA-FASP (EU353). Vol. 1. Part 1 : Sheet bending by line heating processes. Part 2 : Sheet bending by line heating and area heating processes. Part 3 : Studies on the sheet material characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmigiani, B.; Daneri, A.; Toselli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-11-01

    This work is the final report of the activity developed in the frame of the european project EUREKA-FASP (EU353) concerning the numerical simulation of the processes of the hot shaping or bending of large sheets, of interest of the ship-buildings, by the use of ABAQUS code in its implicit version (ABAQUS/S). The work has been subdivided in 6 parts according to different considered aspects and made choices. Substantially, two different types of sheet heating processes have been considered, that is `Line Heating` and `Area Heating` processes, while two aims have been pursued: (1) to single out the best strategies in order to simulate the shaping of large sheets in a suitable way, corresponding to the experience, adopting thermo-structural computation codes, as ABAQUS; (2) to verify and suggest, in some cases, orientations and indications for the design of an automate machine managed by an expert system (one of the aims of FASP project) for the heating of large sheets, able to provide the required shaping or bending of these sheets.

  5. The Strategy of De-Internationalization of the SMES of the Footwear in the Area Metropolitana de Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. VARGAS-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the exogenous and endogenous factors that determine the strategy of de-internationalization of SMEs in the sector of the footwear in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (ZMG. A model is proposed that explains the adoption of the strategy of de-internationalization from studies of comparative case in SMEs in the footwear sector of the ZMG. In-depth interviews were applied to managers and staff involved during the time that the company was exporting. Analysis points out that lack of strategic planning and the instability in the foreign currency exchange rate are major factors that determine the strategy of de-internationalization in SMEs in the ZMG. Also, it is evident that the strategic imbalance during the de-internationalization strategy is not considered as a failure, but rather as an opportunity to redirect it and thus grow in the local market

  6. Human arachnoid granulations Part I: a technique for quantifying area and distribution on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman David W

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are herniations of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses on the surface of the brain. Previous morphological studies of AGs have been limited in scope and only one has mentioned surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic distribution of AGs on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex. Methods En face images were taken of the superior surface of 35 formalin-fixed human brains. AGs were manually identified using Adobe Photoshop, with a pixel location containing an AG defined as 'positive'. A set of 25 standard fiducial points was marked on each hemisphere for a total of 50 points on each image. The points were connected on each hemisphere to create a segmented image. A standard template was created for each hemisphere by calculating the average position of the 25 fiducial points from all brains. Each segmented image was mapped to the standard template using a linear transformation. A topographic distribution map was produced by calculating the proportion of AG positive images at each pixel in the standard template. The AG surface area was calculated for each hemisphere and for the total brain superior surface. To adjust for different brain sizes, the proportional involvement of AGs was calculated by dividing the AG area by the total area. Results The total brain average surface area of AGs was 78.53 ± 13.13 mm2 (n = 35 and average AG proportional involvement was 57.71 × 10-4 ± 7.65 × 10-4. Regression analysis confirmed the reproducibility of AG identification between independent researchers with r2 = 0.97. The surface AGs were localized in the parasagittal planes that coincide with the region of the lateral lacunae. Conclusion The data obtained on the spatial distribution and en face surface area of AGs will be used in an in vitro model of CSF outflow. With an increase in the number of samples, this analysis technique can be used

  7. Conservation-minded development strategies in urban areas, illustrated by the Ruhr conservation area. Oekologisch orientierte Entwicklungsstrategien in Verdichtungsgebieten am Beispiel des Naturschutzprogramms Ruhrgebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, E. (Kommunalverband Ruhrgebiet, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The report shows and values a two years existing landscape and nature conservation project in the greatest european industrial area - the Ruhr- and Emscherzone in West Germany. The most important aim is the recultivation of former industrial sites. Going out from a regional analysis of the environmental capacity and the current pressure on the environment, local measures under planning points of view are realised. After two years working the participated administrations have to state, that a lot of separate measures are realised. But very much work is to do in the future, if to improve basicly the oecological situation in the Emscher-area. (orig.).

  8. Solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB) commercialization report: options and strategies. Part A. Volume II. Technical report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The national and regional perspectives for SHACOB are presented. An overview is given of the participants in SHACOB commercialization. Economic, institutional, legal, and other barriers constraining commercialization are discussed. Various analytical models are examined which project the future extent of SHACOB use or market penetration and future SHACOB to US energy supplies under alternative government policies. The results for the baseline case (no further government action, of several market penetration models are presented. Possible ways to overcome each of the barriers are presented. Qualitative analyses are given for the various incentives. Each incentive is examined to assess its impact on barriers to SHACOB commercialization and its impact on various income and interest groups. Individual incentives are compared and combined into alternative policy strategies and options. (MHR)

  9. Landscape pattern and its restoration for coal mine subsidence area in southern part of Tangshan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; ZHANG Tie-min; BIAN Lu-feng; BO Li-jie; CUI Jian-yu; HU Lin

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the ecosystem damage and environment pollution resulted from coal resources exploitation, based on remote sensing image, the landscape pattern was quantitatively analyzed with GIS and landscape pattern analysis software FRAGSTATS by utilizing multiform landscape pattern indexes, such as patch area,patch circumference, patch number, fractal dimension, fragmentation index, connectivity index and so on. Resuits indicate that the restored landscape type occupies the control status and accounts for the majority of the whole area, and needs to be further restored and adjusted because of its internal body with smaller patches,lower fractal dimension and better connectivity. The landscape type without restoration has destroyed the ecology and beauty of the whole landscape. In addition, some suggestive instructions for restoring various kinds of patches are put forward according to the quantitative analysis.

  10. Calcareous microfossil biostratigraphy of the uppermost cenozoic formations distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea (Part 1). Niigata area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tokiyuki; Takayama, Toshiaki; Kato, Michio; Kudo, Tetsuro

    1987-05-01

    Eleven calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were established in the Quaternary sequences at six sites drilled in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during DSDP-IPOD Leg 94. Correlation of these biohorizons with the magnetostratigraphy was established and ages of all datums were estimated. As the results, the applicability to the Japan Sea sedimentary basin was confirmed. The Nishiyama and Haizume formations distributed in the Oginome area, near the type locality of the Hashizume Formation in Niigata district were surveyed as the representative formation of the uppermost Cenozoic formation distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea; and five calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were recognized. Based on the above results of DSDP-IPOD, the middle Nishiyama through the Hashizume formations were Peistocene in age and could be correlated with interval between the Olduvai and Jaramillo events of the magnetostratigraphy. This age assignment agreed neither with magnetostratigraphic interpretations nor with fission track datings which were obtained in the Oguni area 25 km south of the present area. (23 refs, 11 figs)

  11. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - III. Seismic Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The seismic potential of any regional seismogenic area is analyzed in terms of the "open physical system" inflow - outflow energy balance model (Thanassoulas, 2008, Part - I). Following the magnitude determination method presented by Thanassoulas, (2008, Part - II) any region of any arbitrary area extent is assumed as being a potential seismogenic region. Consequently, the capability for the generation of a maximum magnitude future EQ at each virtual seismogenic region is investigated all over Greece at certain times. The later results are used to compile maps of the seismic potential / maximum expected EQ magnitude for Greece at 5 year's intervals ranging from 1970 to 2000. The comparison of these seismic potential maps / maximum expected EQ magnitude to the corresponding seismicity (M>6R) for each corresponding 5 years period reveals their tight interrelation. Therefore, the calculated seismic potential / maximum expected EQ magnitude, due to its drastic change in time in any seismogenic region, is a dynami...

  12. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Dresel, P. Evan; McKinley, James P.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Um, Wooyong; Resch, Charles T.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Petersen, Scott W.

    2011-01-04

    At the Hanford Site, chromate was used throughout the 100 Areas (100-B, 100-C, 100-D/DR, 100-F, 100-H, and 100 K) as a corrosion inhibitor in reactor cooling water. Chromate was delivered in rail cars, tanker trucks, barrels, and local pipelines as dichromate granular solid or stock solution. In many occasions, chromate was inevitably discharged to surface or near-surface ground through spills during handling, pipeline leaks, or during disposal to cribs. The composition of the liquids that were discharged is not known and it is quite possible that Cr(VI) fate and transport in the contaminated sediments would be a function of the chemical composition of the waste fluids. The major objectives of this investigation which was limited in scope by the financial resources available, were to 1) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100-D Area spill sites; 2) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of macroscopic leaching studies, and microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone that can be used for developing options for environmental remediation. The information gathered from this research effort will help to further improve our understanding of Cr(VI) behavior in the vadose zone and will also help in accelerating the 100 Area Columbia River Corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of column experiments were conducted with contaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns. Column experiments used the field size fraction of the sediment samples and a simulated Hanford Site groundwater solution. Periodic stop flow events were applied to

  13. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 3: Special reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report (Part 3: Special reports) is the third in a series of four reporting the results of the eNERGIA project. The first report presents the eight countries examined in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The second report deals mainly with selected renewable energy technologies, which are discussed from different perspectives. The fourth report provides a summary of the whole project. The present report summarises the SWOT analyses of the Nordic countries and the eNERGIA workshops, and presents case studies of good practice. (Author) refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  14. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an agricultural area of Sherburne County, Minnesota, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, James F.; Fong, Alison L.; Hanson, Paul E.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The quality of shallow ground water in a 75-mi2 agricultural area of the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer in central Minnesota is described as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program - a national-scale assessment of the quality of water resources within large study units in various hydrologic settings. Data were collected during 1998 from 29 wells completed in the aquifer, which predominantly consists of surficial glacial sand and gravel sediments.

  15. Energetic strategies for the sustainable development of the isolated areas of Amazon; Strategies energetiques pour le developpement soutenable des regions isolees de l'Amazonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lascio, M.A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Genie Electrique

    1999-05-01

    This article analyzes the economic and energetic situation of the 35 % Amazonian inhabitants that live in remote and isolated sites, inside the Amazon forest. Generally, deforestation begins in those places and rapidly occurs the destruction of local ecosystems. The poverty is everywhere and the energy supply is insufficient or nonexistent. The electric energy is generated with diesel, but its acquisition consumes all available income.The man is not adapted to the environment, and destroys the forest to increase profit and comfort, but without protection the soil fragility causes poverty. To conclude some case studies are presented. Finally, it is proposed an energy strategy to protect the environment, through an an economic development, based on the use of renewable energy. (author)

  16. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries: Part Ⅰ—The coming main streamlization of open access resources?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Lin; LI; Xiwen; LIU; Yan; ZENG

    2011-01-01

    Open access(OA)resources are becoming a main part of scholarly information.The paper summarizes the fast growth of OA journals and OA repositories,the outstanding OA journal impact increase,the rise of mega-OA journals like PLoS ONE,the overwhelming support of research communities to open access of publicly funded research,and the quick building up of OA support structures.These forces work together to push scholarly communications toward a turning point where OA resources occupy a major and increasing share of scholarly research resources and when management of OA resources becomes a strategic,yet unfamiliar,and potentially disruptive task for research libraries.This paper is composed of two parts.The first part will focus on the development of OA resources,while the second part will analyze the challenges in management of OA resources and develop an OA resource strategy exemplified by some of NSL’s initiatives.

  17. Life style and health status of the aged in a rural area Part 1. Actual status by age

    OpenAIRE

    大原, 啓志; 堀川, 俊一; 久繁,哲徳; 畑田,一憲; 鈴木,順一郎; 吉田, 健男; 井谷, 徹; 太田, 武夫; 青山,英康; 大平, 昌彦

    1986-01-01

    We investigated changes in life styles and health problems among the aged population in a rural area by means of a questionnaire differentiated as to age. Responses were obtained from 1,545 (92.5%) out of 1,671 people 65 years of age or over living in Ohgata Town, Kochi Prefecture, in March of 1982. Two hundred people in hospitals or nursing homes were excluded from the survey. Among the aged of Ohgata, 1.6% and 9.0% were living in hospitals or nursing homes, respectively. Those in the hospit...

  18. Life style and health status of the aged in a rural areaPart 2. Actual status by family type

    OpenAIRE

    大原, 啓志; 堀川, 俊一; 久繁,哲徳; 畑田,一憲; 鈴木,順一郎; 吉田, 健男; 井谷, 徹; 太田, 武夫; 青山,英康; 大平, 昌彦

    1986-01-01

    Problems in life styles and health status according to family type and the presence or lack of a spouse among the aged in a rural area were investigated. The subjects were all residents of 65 or over who lived at home in Ohgata Town, Kochi Prefecture, in March of 1982. Responses to the questionnaire survey were obtained from 1,545 (92.5%) out of 1,671. The subjects were divided into three groups of family type, that is, "single", "couple" and "other", and into two groups by marital status, th...

  19. A choreography for 1000 windmills. Wind turbines need a rural area story. Part 2; Een choreografie voor 1000 molens. Windmolens hebben landschappelijk verhaal nodig. Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddes, Y. (et al)

    2010-10-15

    A report of an study on a strategy to install onshore wind power capacity in the Netherlands. Three local workshops were held (for the Wadden Sea, the IJsselmeer area and the southwestern delta) to answer the question how a landscaping target for the installation of approximately 1,000 new onshore wind turbines could look like. [Dutch] Een verslag van een verkenning naar een plaatsingsstrategie voor het benodigde vermogen wind-op-land. In drie regionale werkbijeenkomsten (voor de Waddenkust, het IJsselmeergebied en de zuidwestelijke delta) is de vraag gesteld hoe een landschappelijk streefbeeld voor de plaatsing van ongeveer 1000 nieuwe windturbines op land er uit zou kunnen zien.

  20. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  1. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  2. Use of Monte Carlo simulations in the assessment of calibration strategies-Part I: an introduction to Monte Carlo mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    An introduction to the use of the mathematical technique of Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate least squares regression calibration is described. Monte Carlo techniques involve the repeated sampling of data from a population that may be derived from real (experimental) data, but is more conveniently generated by a computer using a model of the analytical system and a randomization process to produce a large database. Datasets are selected from this population and fed into the calibration algorithms under test, thus providing a facile way of producing a sufficiently large number of assessments of the algorithm to enable a statically valid appraisal of the calibration process to be made. This communication provides a description of the technique that forms the basis of the results presented in Parts II and III of this series, which follow in this issue, and also highlights the issues arising from the use of small data populations in bioanalysis.

  3. Conditions of gully development within piedmont areas with examples from the western part of the Getic Piedmont, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boengiu, Sandu; Vladut, Alina; Marinescu, Emil

    2012-04-01

    Features of gully morphometry and associated relief characteristics emphasize that gully develop under a wide variety of rock conditions, rainfall regimes, geomorphic predisposition, and human influence. Consequently, many slopes within piedmont areas, in this case, the Getic Piedmont, are characterized by dense gully systems, as there occur excessive clearing, inappropriate land use, compaction of the soil caused by grazing, on the general background of a favourable climate. Both rainfall and runoff factors must be considered in assessing a water erosion problem. The erosional slope development within the Getic Piedmont was evaluated based on maps and field studies in the last 15 years, which emphasized that about 20% of the total surface of the piedmont is affected by gully erosion. The results show that the factors leading to the strong gully erosion in this area include - the widely distributed friable rocks, the unique geomorphologic configuration, the strong and time-concentrated rainfall, the alternance of drought-humid periods that prepares the ground for the development of fissures in soils, the drought that influence the growth and recovery of vegetation, and the intense human activities. Gully erosion is one of the most visible forms of soil erosion, which affects its productivity, provides considerable material transport- torrential transports, debris flow, restricts land use, and threatens local communities.

  4. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 3. Estimating Surface Area Exposure by Deuterium Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX), collision cross section (CCS) measurement, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) techniques were utilized to develop and compare three methods for estimating the relative surface area exposure of separate peptide chains within bovine insulin ions. Electrosprayed [M - 3H]3- and [M - 5H]5- insulin ions produced a single conformer type with respective collision cross sections of 528 ± 5 Å2 and 808 ± 2 Å2. [M - 4H]4- ions were comprised of more compact (Ω = 676 ± 3 Å2) and diffuse (i.e., more elongated, Ω = 779 ± 3 Å2) ion conformer types. Ions were subjected to HDX in the drift tube using D2O as the reagent gas. Collision-induced dissociation was used to fragment mobility-selected, isotopically labeled [M - 4H]4- and [M - 5H]5- ions into the protein subchains. Deuterium uptake levels of each chain can be explained by limited inter-chain isotopic scrambling upon collisional activation. Using nominal ion structures from MDS and a hydrogen accessibility model, the deuterium uptake for each chain was correlated to its exposed surface area. In separate experiments, the per-residue deuterium content for the protonated and deprotonated ions of the synthetic peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK were compared. The differences in deuterium content indicated the regional HDX accessibility for cations versus anions. Using ions of similar conformational type, this comparison highlights the complementary nature of HDX data obtained from positive- and negative-ion analysis.

  5. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  6. [REAL AND UNREAL BACKLASHES OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITY FOR THE HEALTH OF POPULATION RESIDING NEAR AREAS OF FALL OF BEING SEPARATED PARTS OF CARRIER ROCKETS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, N A; Valtseva, E A; Kharlamova, E N; Kulikova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the ongoing debate about the consequences of the rocket-space activities for the health of people residing near areas offall ofseparatingfrom parts of rockets. Some scientists (Kolyado IB et al., 2001, 2013; Shoikhet YN et al., 2005, 2008; Skrebtsova NV 2005, 2006, Sidorov PI et al., 2007) argue that the main cause of morbidity is the effect of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). However, environmentalists find it only in areas offalling fragments of separated parts of carrier rockets. Presented in the article data were obtained as a result of perennial epidemiological and hygienic research. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the content of chemical substances in water soil andfood, nutritional status and health risk near areas of the district of falling 310 and 326. There were studied conditions of work and the health of military personnel at the sites of storage of propellant components. The relationship between revealed diseases and UDMH was not established, but there was their causality due to the influence of environmental factors characteristic of territories and living conditions. In the settlements near the area of falling district 310 the share of extremely anxious persons was shown to be 1.8 times higher than in controls, which is caused by cases of falling fragments stages of carrier rockets in the territory of settlements.

  7. Locating hybrid individuals in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area using a spatially targeted sampling strategy and faecal DNA genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer R; Lucash, Chris; Schutte, Leslie; Waits, Lisette P

    2007-05-01

    Hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans) continues to threaten the recovery of endangered red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina and requires the development of new strategies to detect and remove coyotes and hybrids. Here, we combine a spatially targeted faecal collection strategy with a previously published reference genotype data filtering method and a genetic test for coyote ancestry to screen portions of the red wolf experimental population area for the presence of nonred wolf canids. We also test the accuracy of our maximum-likelihood assignment test for identifying hybrid individuals using eight microsatellite loci instead of the original 18 loci and compare its performance to the Bayesian approach implemented in newhybrids. We obtained faecal DNA genotypes for 89 samples, 73 of which were matched to 23 known individuals. The performance of two sampling strategies - comprehensive sweep and opportunistic spot-check was evaluated. The opportunistic spot-check sampling strategy required less effort than the comprehensive sweep sampling strategy but identified fewer individuals. Six hybrids or coyotes were detected and five of these individuals were subsequently captured and removed from the population. The accuracy and power of the genetic test for coyote ancestry is decreased when using eight loci; however, nonred wolf canids are identified with high frequency. This combination of molecular and traditional field-based approaches has great potential for addressing the challenge of hybridization in other species and ecosystems.

  8. A prospective study of ocular toxicity in patients receiving ethambutol as a part of directly observed treatment strategy therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: India is among the largest countries to implement the revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP. This program provides intermittent regimens to the patients, where the doses of isoniazid and ethambutol are more as compared to the daily regimen, which is a cause of concern, particularly with regard to the ocular toxicity of ethambutol. The present study was undertaken to explore the ocular toxicity in the patients registered under the program. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective single center cohort study of 64 patients of categories I and II, coming to the RNTCP-Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS center at a tertiary care referral hospital. The detailed history, best corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, and color vision test were carried out in all patients at the start of treatment and then at the first and second month of treatment. Results: Loss in visual acuity from the baseline was noted at the second month follow up in 12 (9.4% eyes (P = 0.001, visual field defects were seen in eight (6.3% eyes (P = 0.0412, and optic disc abnormalities were observed in six (4.7% (P = 0.013 eyes. Color vision abnormalities were noted in 16 (12.6% eyes (P = 0.003, four eyes showed impairment in red-green color perception, and the others showed impairment in blue-yellow color perception as well. Patients with ocular symptoms were advised to stop ethambutol and they showed improvement in visual acuity after follow up of one to two months. The overall outcome of treatment was not affected by discontinuation of ethambutol in these patients. Conclusion: Ethambutol when taken according to program could cause ocular toxicity. The early recognition of ocular symptoms is important to prevent unnecessary delay in diagnosis and probable irreversible visual loss.

  9. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  10. RIESGO PROFESIONAL DEL ANESTESIÓLOGO y DEL PERSONAL QUE TRABAJA EN EL AREA QUIRÚRGICA. I PARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PRIMERA PARTE (Este artículo se publica en tres partes, correspondientes a los números 10, 11 Y 12 de la revista

    1. INTRODUCCION. - HISTORIA Y PLANTEAMIENTO DEL PROBLEMA

    Todo oficio o profesión lleva implícito un riesgo inherente a la naturaleza misma de la profesión y el ambiente donde ésta se ejerce. Así el personal que labora en las salas de cirugía en general y el anestesiólogo en particular no podían escapar a esta regla general. Podemos definir la Enfermedad Profesional como el riesgo a enfermarse en el ejercicio de alguna especialidad o profesión con la patología sui generis (1. Aunque hace alrededor de veinte años se creía que los anestésicos inhalatorios no se metabolizaban, la preocupación por los riesgos inherentes a su toxicidad ha existido casi desde su descubrimiento. Ya en 1893 Hewit (2 notó que la descomposición del cloroformo en ácido clorhídrico y fosgeno por acción del gas de iluminación producía tos, irritación orofaringea y cefalea. En 1903 (2 encontró que el éter cloroformo e hidrato de cloral aumentaba la mortalidad producida por el antrax de los cerdos. En 1922 en Editorial de (3 Anesthesiology se reconoce el efecto deletéreo posible por la exposición repetida de los anestésicos. En 1929 Hirsh y Kappus en Alemania (3 hicieron los primeros estudios para conocer la concentración de los anestésicos en el aire de las salas y las primeras encuestas en las que encontraron incidencia de cefaleas y fatiga. En 1944 Ostergren demostró que el óxido nitroso, el cloroformo, el tric1oroetileno y el éter producían paro en la mitosis en metafase (2. Smith y Moya en 1965 llamaron la atención sobre el peligro de teratogenicidad de los anestésicos cuando se usan en mujeres embarazadas...

  11. Caregivers with greatest supporting need based on the relationship between personality, overload and coping strategies related to caregivers of dependent patients from the hospitable area Virgen Macarena of Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Angustias Navarro Arquelladas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Find a relationship between personality, the overhead of caregivers and the coping strategies that develop these to meet the care, allowing us to detect carers need greater supportMaterial and Methods: There has been realized a descriptive study in which there have taken part 23 carer of major dependent persons admitted to the Hospitable Area "Virgen Macarena" of Seville. Demographic and clinical variables have been collected through: general interview, Revised Eysenck Questionnaire of Personality, brief version (EPQ-RA, Coping Strategies Inventory, Zarit Scale Overload.Outcomes: The majority of caregivers are women (86.96% with an average age of 54.9 years old, with studies of basic education. Among them, 56.52% suffer from some kind of disease and 92.86% of these caregivers have no help. Statistical significance was found for extraversion, neuroticism, pretention-conformity, overload and coping strategies. Conclusions: Caregivers, with high scores on the extroversion scale, perform a proper handling of the situation, while those who obtained higher scores on the neuroticism scale, performed improper handling of the situation.

  12. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale.

  13. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  14. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area, Part I: Meteorological simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Byun, Daewon W.

    To predict atmospheric conditions in an urban environment, the land surface processes must be accurately described through the use of detailed land use (LU) and land cover (LC) data. Use of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 25-category data, currently in the Fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5), with the Noah land surface model (LSM) and MRF (medium-range forecast) planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes resulted in the over-prediction of daytime temperatures in the Houston downtown area due to the inaccurate representation as a completely impervious surface. This bias could be corrected with the addition of canopy water in the urban areas from the evapotranspiration effects of urban vegetation. A more fundamental approach would be to utilize an LULC dataset that represents land surface features accurately. The Texas Forest Service (TFS) LULC dataset established with the LANDSAT satellite imagery correctly represents the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area as mixtures of urban, residential, grass, and forest LULC types. This paper describes how the Noah LSM and PBL schemes in the MM5 were modified to accommodate the TFS-LULC data. Comparisons with various meteorological measurements show that the MM5 simulation made with the high resolution LULC data improves the boundary layer mixing conditions and local wind patterns in the Houston Ship Channel, which is a critically important anthropogenic emission area affecting the HGB air pollution problems. In particular, when the synoptic flows are weak, the improved LULC data simulates the asymmetrically elongated Houston heat island convergence zone influencing the location of the afternoon Gulf of Mexico sea-breeze front and the Galveston Bay breeze flows. This paper is part I of a two-part study and focuses on the meteorological simulation. In part II, effects of using the different meteorological inputs on air quality simulations are discussed.

  15. A description of a knowledge broker role implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating three knowledge translation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mara Linda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A knowledge broker (KB is a popular knowledge translation and exchange (KTE strategy emerging in Canada to promote interaction between researchers and end users, as well as to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. A KB provides a link between research producers and end users by developing a mutual understanding of goals and cultures, collaborates with end users to identify issues and problems for which solutions are required, and facilitates the identification, access, assessment, interpretation, and translation of research evidence into local policy and practice. Knowledge-brokering can be carried out by individuals, groups and/or organizations, as well as entire countries. In each case, the KB is linked with a group of end users and focuses on promoting the integration of the best available evidence into policy and practice-related decisions. Methods A KB intervention comprised one of three KTE interventions evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Results KB activities were classified into the following categories: initial and ongoing needs assessments; scanning the horizon; knowledge management; KTE; network development, maintenance, and facilitation; facilitation of individual capacity development in evidence informed decision making; and g facilitation of and support for organizational change. Conclusion As the KB role developed during this study, central themes that emerged as particularly important included relationship development, ongoing support, customized approaches, and opportunities for individual and organizational capacity development. The novelty of the KB role in public health provides a unique opportunity to assess the need for and reaction to the role and its associated activities. Future research should include studies to evaluate the effectiveness of KBs in different settings and among different health care professionals, and to explore the optimal preparation and training of KBs

  16. 2014 iAREA campaign on aerosol in Spitsbergen - Part 1: Study of physical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisok, J.; Markowicz, K. M.; Ritter, C.; Makuch, P.; Petelski, T.; Chilinski, M.; Kaminski, J. W.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Rozwadowska, A.; Jefimow, M.; Markuszewski, P.; Neuber, R.; Pakszys, P.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Struzewska, J.; Zielinski, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties during iAREA2014 campaign that took place on Svalbard between 15th of Mar and 4th of May 2014. With respect to field area, the experiment consisted of two sites: Ny-Ålesund (78°55‧N, 11°56‧E) and Longyearbyen (78°13‧N, 15°33‧E) with further integration of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station in Hornsund (77°00‧N, 15°33‧E). The subject of this study is to investigate the in-situ, passive and active remote sensing observations as well as numerical simulations to describe the temporal variability of aerosol single-scattering properties during spring season on Spitsbergen. The retrieval of the data indicates several event days with enhanced single-scattering properties due to the existence of sulphate and additional sea-salt load in the atmosphere which is possibly caused by relatively high wind speed. Optical results were confirmed by numerical simulations made by the GEM-AQ model and by chemical observations that indicated up to 45% contribution of the sea-salt to a PM10 total aerosol mass concentration. An agreement between the in-situ optical and microphysical properties was found, namely: the positive correlation between aerosol scattering coefficient measured by the nephelometer and effective radius obtained from laser aerosol spectrometer as well as negative correlation between aerosol scattering coefficient and the Ångstrom exponent indicated that slightly larger particles dominated during special events. The in-situ surface observations do not show any significant enhancement of the absorption coefficient as well as the black carbon concentration which might occur during spring. All of extensive single-scattering properties indicate a diurnal cycle in Longyearbyen, where 21:00-5:00 data stays at the background level, however increasing during the day by the factor of 3-4. It is considered to be highly connected with local emissions originating

  17. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  18. Imported chikungunya cases in an area newly colonised by Aedes albopictus : mathematical assessment of the best public health strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sochacki, Thomas; Jourdain, Frédéric; Perrin, Yvon; Noel, Harold; Paty, Marie-Claire; de Valk, Henriette; Septfons, Alexandra; Simard, Frédéric; Fontenille, Didier; Roche, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We aimed to identify the optimal strategy that should be used by public health authorities against transmission of chikungunya virus in mainland France. The theoretical model we developed, which mimics the current surveillance system, predicted that without vector control (VC), the probability of local transmission after introduction of viraemic patients was around 2%, and the number of autochthonous cases between five and 15 persons per hectare, depending on the numbe...

  19. Exclusive contracts in the hospital setting: a two-edged sword: part 2: pros and cons, avoidance strategies, and negotiating tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Robert M

    2007-06-01

    Hospitals routinely enter into contracts with radiology groups for the right to be the exclusive providers of radiologic services at the facilities in exchange for the groups' agreeing to provide and manage all aspects of those services within the hospitals. These exclusive contracts generally result in radiology departments and associated equipment being closed off to physicians who are not part of the contracting groups. Although exclusive contracts offer obvious benefits to the physicians who receive them and obvious disadvantages for those who are excluded, they also present pitfalls for physicians in the chosen group. Part 1 of this article discussed the legal issues raised by exclusive contracts. Part 2 weighs the practical advantages and disadvantages of exclusive contracts for physicians covered and not covered by such contracts and strategies for avoiding them, as well as provisions that can be included in medical staff bylaws to protect physicians from the automatic termination of privileges when a hospital enters into or terminates an exclusive contract. The remainder of the article provides tips on specific provisions of exclusive contracts that should be included or avoided.

  20. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (μ) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a μ of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing μ to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  1. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2 ; Precipitation Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridland, Ann M.; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Ten 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3-D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on 23-24 January 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, colocated UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rainwater contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (mu) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes but lower RWCs. Two-moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and, thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision-coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a mu of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing mu to have values greater than 0 may improve excessive size sorting in two-moment schemes. Underpredicted stratiform rain rates are associated with underpredicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. A limited domain size also prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region like the one observed from developing in CRMs, although LAMs also fail to produce such a region.

  2. The use of mechanisms and modes of toxic action in integrated testing strategies: the report and recommendations of a workshop held as part of the European Union OSIRIS Integrated Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J Arie; Benigni, Romualdo; Hewitt, Mark; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; van de Meent, Dik; Cronin, Mark T D

    2009-11-01

    This report on The Potential of Mode of Action (MoA) Information Derived from Non-testing and Screening Methodologies to Support Informed Hazard Assessment, resulted from a workshop organised within OSIRIS (Optimised Strategies for Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals through Integration of Non-test and Test Information), a project partly funded by the EU Commission within the Sixth Framework Programme. The workshop was held in Liverpool, UK, on 30 October 2008, with 35 attendees. The goal of the OSIRIS project is to develop integrated testing strategies (ITS) fit for use in the REACH system, that would enable a significant increase in the use of non-testing information for regulatory decision making, and thus minimise the need for animal testing. One way to improve the evaluation of chemicals may be through categorisation by way of mechanisms or modes of toxic action. Defining such groups can enhance read-across possibilities and priority settings for certain toxic modes or chemical structures responsible for these toxic modes. Overall, this may result in a reduction of in vivo testing on organisms, through combining available data on mode of action and a focus on the potentially most-toxic groups. In this report, the possibilities of a mechanistic approach to assist in and guide ITS are explored, and the differences between human health and environmental areas are summarised.

  3. Sustainable Development of Rural Areas in the EU and China: A Common Strategy for Architectural Design, Research Practice and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Cattaneo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research project to develop a set of goals and strategies aimed at policymakers, stakeholders, researchers, designers and/or some other groups of citizens’ communities whose development actions are undertaken in a specific rural context. The aim of the project was to move beyond the knowledge of the articulated architectural and social evolution of the rural areas in both the EU and China, looking at the local and global challenges, at the need for continuous adaptation and at the experiences of resilience that the countryside faces today. The paper shows, through two-pronged methods, such as semantic analysis and a meta-project design, that a common strategy can be set to support actions for the development of rural areas both in China and the EU. In doing so, this study has defined a strategy system tool that is a type of interactive and generative key-checklist that can be used by stakeholders in specific contexts, becoming a reading tool, a set of design guidelines or a decision facilitator support system. The results achieved have been tested through design application in two meta-projects that confirm the validity of the whole research framework with the aim of promoting a sustainable development and enhancement of places and rural communities.

  4. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  5. Integrated exploration strategy for locating areas capable of high gas rate cavity completion in coalbed methane reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klawitter, A.L.; Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    In 1993, the San Juan Basin accounted for approximately 605 Bcf of the 740 Bcf of all coalbed gas produced in the United States. The San Juan {open_quotes}cavitation fairway{close_quotes} in which production occurs in open-hole cavity completions, is responsible for over 60% of all U.S. coalbed methane production. Perhaps most striking is the fact that over 17,000 wells had penetrated the Fruitland formation in the San Juan Basin prior to recognition of the coalbed methan potential. To understand the dynamic cavity fairway reservoir in the San Juan Basin, an exploration rationale for coalbed methan was developed that permits a sequential reduction in total basin exploration area based on four primary exploration criteria. One of the most significant criterion is the existence of thick, thermally mature, friable coals. A second criterion is the existence of fully gas-charged coals. Evaluation of this criterion requires reservoir geochemical data to delineate zones of meteoric influx where breaching has occurred. A third criterion is the presence of adequate reservoir permeability. Natural fracturing in coals is due to cleating and tectonic processes. Because of the general relationship between coal cleating and coal rank, coal cleating intensity can be estimated by analysis of regional coal rank maps. The final criterion is determining whether natural fractures are open or closed. To make this determination, remote sensing imagery interpretation is supported by ancillary data compiled from regional tectonic studies. Application of these four criteria to the San Juan Basin in a heuristic, stepwise process resulted in an overall 94% reduction in total basin exploration area. Application of the first criterion reduced the total basin exploration area by 80%. Application of the second criterion further winnows this area by an addition 9%. Application of the third criterion reduces the exploration area to 6% of the total original exploration area.

  6. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  7. Fontes de f?sforo, desenvolvimento inicial e fra??es fosfatadas na parte a?rea do curau? (Ananas erectifolius L. B. Smith).

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tainah Manuela Benlolo

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes de f?sforo (P) no desenvolvimento inicial e na distribui??o das fra??es fosfatadas na parte a?rea do curau?. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e doze repeti??es. Os tratamentos constitu?ram da avalia??o da resposta do curau? ao fornecimento de 250 mg dm-3 de P, testando-se cinco fontes de P (superfosfato triplo, termofosfato magnesiano, fosfato reativo de Arad, fosfato de Arax? e ?cido f...

  8. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - II. Maximum expected magnitude determination

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The (any) seismogenic area in the lithosphere is considered as an open physical system. Following its energy balance analysis earlier presented (Part - I, Thanassoulas, 2008), the specific case when the seismogenic area is under normal (input energy equals released energy) seismogenic conditions is studied. In this case the cumulative seismic energy release is a linear time function. Starting from this linear function a method is postulated for the determination of the maximum expected magnitude of a future earthquake. The proposed method has been tested "a posteriori" on real EQs from the Greek territory, USA and data obtained from the seismological literature. The obtained results validate the methodology while an analysis is presented that justifies the obtained high degree of accuracy compared to the corresponding calculated EQ magnitudes with seismological methods.

  9. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  10. DATOURWAY: Transnational Strategy for the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Danube Area with Special Regard to Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Stancu; Amelia Cazacu

    2014-01-01

    The article is a synthesis of the DATOURWAY project which is a part of South Est Europe Program (2009-2012) and represents “an outstanding example of transnational cooperation” between partners from seven countries, from which six countries are touched by the Danube River. The cooperation within the project was committed to the development of tourism along and on the middle and south-eastern section of river Danube, while paying particular attention to the protection and enhancement of the na...

  11. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  12. Part-Load Performance Prediction and Operation Strategy Design of Organic Rankine Cycles with a Medium Cycle Used for Recovering Waste Heat from Gaseous Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is regarded as a suitable way to recover waste heat from gaseous fuel internal combustion engines. As waste heat recovery systems (WHRS have always been designed based on rated working conditions, while engines often work under part-load conditions, it is quite significant to analyze the part-load performance and corresponding operation strategy of ORC systems. This paper presents a dynamic model of ORC with a medium cycle used for a large gaseous fuel engine and analyzes the effect of adjustable parameters on the system performance, giving effective control directions under various conditions. The results indicate that the intermediary fluid mass flow rate has nearly no effect on the output power and thermal efficiency of the ORC, while the mass flow rate of working fluid has a great effect on them. In order to get a better system performance under different working conditions, the system should be operated with the working fluid mass flow rate as large as possible, but with a slight degree of superheating. Then, with the control of constant superheat degree at the end of the heating process, the performance of the combined system that consists of ORC and the engine at steady state under seven typical working conditions is also analyzed. The results indicate that the energy-saving effect of WHRS becomes worse and worse as the working condition decreases. Especially at 40% working condition the WHRS nearly has no energy-saving effect anymore.

  13. Intranasal Pharmacokinetic Data for Triptans Such as Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan Can Render Area Under the Curve (AUC) Predictions for the Oral Route: Strategy Development and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R.; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic sampling strategy may be useful for predicting the area under the curve (AUC) for triptans and may have clinical utility as a prospective tool for prediction. Using appropriate intranasal pharmacokinetic data, a Cmax vs. AUC relationship was established by linear regression......), mean negative error (MNE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (r), and the goodness of the AUC fold prediction were used to evaluate the two triptans. Also, data from the mean concentration profiles at time points of 1 hour (sumatriptan) and 3 hours (zolmitriptan) were used...

  14. Tectonic structure of Dokdo and adjacent area in the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea using geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Jeong, E.; Park, C.; Kwon, B.; Park, G.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    The northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea is composed of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), seamounts (the Anyongbok Seamount, the Simheungtaek and the Isabu Tablemounts), and a deep pathway (Korea Gap). To understand tectonic structure and geophysical characteristics of Dokdo and adjacent area, We analysed geophysical potential data of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), and NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute of Korea) around the Dokdo volcanic body except Ulleung Do because of empty data of its large island. Also, we eliminate the effect of water and sediments from the free-air gravity data to process 3D Moho depth inversion. 3D tectonic structure modelling of the study area was developed using Moho depth inversion result and sediment thickness data of NGDC(National Geophysical Data Center). The free-air gravity anomalies of the study area generally reflect bathymetric effects. Although the Dokdo seamounts have a similar topographic size, the decrease of free-air anomaly toward Isabu suggest that Isabu is oldest among the seaounts and have high degree of isostatic compensation. High Bouguer anomalies in the central part of the Ulleung Basin gradually decreases toward the Oki Bank. This feature suggests that the crust/mantle boundary is shallow in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The complex magnetic pattern of Dokdo suggests that it might have erupted several times during its formation. The magnetic anomaly amplitude of Isabu is much smaller than that of Dokdo. Such low magnetic anomalies are attributed to a secondary change caused by the metamorphism or weathering of ferromagnetic minerals of the seamount during a long period of time after its formation. Analytic signals show high anomalous zones over volcanoes. Also, there are high analytic signal values in Korea Gap indicating magmatic intrusion in thick sediments. The power spectrum analysis

  15. Mapping of risk prone areas of kala-azar (Visceral leishmaniasis in parts of Bihar state, India: an RS and GIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sudhakar, T. Srinivas, A. Palit, S.K. Karc, S.K. Battacharya

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The kala-azar fever (Visceral leishmaniasis is continuing unabated inIndia for over a century, now being largely confined to the eastern part of India mainly in Bihar stateand to some extent in its bordering states like West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. Two study sites namelyPatepur block in Vaishali district with high endemicity in northern part and Lohardagga block inLohardagga district with absolute non-endemicity in southern part of Bihar were selected for thestudy with the following objectives : (i to study the macro-ecosystem in relation to distribution ofvector —Phlebotomus argentipes; (ii to identify/map the risk prone areas or villages in a block forquick remedial measures; and (iii to make use of satellite remote sensing and GIS to demonstratethe utility for rapid assessment of landuse/landcover and their relation with the incidence of kalaazarleading to the mapping of risk prone areas.Methods: Indian Remote Sensing (IRS-1D LISS III satellite data for the periods of March andNovember 2000 were analysed in Silicon graphic image processing system using ERDAS software.False color composites (FCC were generated and landuse/landcover was assessed using Maximumlikelihood supervised classification techniques based on ground truth training sets. During the studythe GIS functions are used to quantify the remotely sensed landscape proportions of 5 km2 buffersurrounding each known group of villages of high occurrence of sandflies in endemic and nonendemicstudy sites. Instead of traditional ground based survey methods to vector surveillance, thepresent study used a combination of remote sensing (RS and geographical information system (GISapproach to develop landscape predictors of sandfly abundance—an indicator of human vector contactand as a measure of risk prone areas.Results: Statistical analysis using the remotely sensed landscape variables showed that rural villagessurrounded by higher proportion of transitional

  16. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  17. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy

  18. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  19. Successful outcome of an integrated strategy for the reduction of schistosomiasis transmission in an endemically complex area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhu Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the major public health problems in the People’s Republic of China (and elsewhere, seriously threatening health as well as social and economic development. An integrated control strategy, emphasising transmission control but also aimed at reducing greenhouse gases, was carried out in Jiangling county, Hubei province from 2007 to 2009. Three villages were chosen for a pilot study involving removal of cattle from neighbouring, snail-infested grasslands, improving sanitation and construction of units for household biogas production in addition to routine control measures. Both prevalence and intensity of infection in the snails in the neighbourhood were greatly reduced after two years of implementation, while the prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans in the three villages had been reduced by 29%, 34% and 24%, respectively. The removal of cattle and construction of biogas production units had an additional positive effect in that the annual, average emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 were reduced by an estimated 7.8 and 80.2 tons, respectively.

  20. Isotopes and groundwater management strategies under semi-arid area: case of the Souss upstream basin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouragba, L; Mudry, J; Bouchaou, L; Hsissou, Y; Krimissa, M; Tagma, T; Michelot, J L

    2011-07-01

    This study concerns the Souss upstream basin. The objective is to investigate the characteristics of surface water and groundwater, to assess the impact of artificial recharge as reinforcement of the natural replenishment and assess the renewal of groundwater under semi-arid area. Two major water types are observed: (i) surface waters and upstream springs (least mineralized) and (ii) all groundwater samples (prevailing calcium and magnesium bicarbonate water type). Water isotopes show a low evaporation of precipitations during infiltration. Impoverishment in heavy isotopes is the characteristic of mountain rainfalls, or of a climate colder and wetter than present. Carbon-14 activities (34-94 pmc) indicate a long residence time. The artificial recharge is low compared to the reservoir volume, due to which the renewal rate is also low.

  1. The impact on the landscape, environment and society of new productive chains in a mountain area: strategies, analysis and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rainis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zootechnical farms enhance the preservation and valorization of the environmental value of the surroundings in marginal areas, such as the mountains of Friuli Venezia Giulia. An important tool for relaunching mountain animal husbandry can be the promotion of an appropriate policy to maintain and develop local food chains, supporting typical products, tightly related to the peculiarity of the agro-ecosystem. The aim of the chain Carne della Montagna Friulana-Carne di Qualità is to create a cooperation among primary producers, transformation companies, sellers and research institutes, in order to develop innovative pathways throughout the production of meat in Carnia (UD. The project was designed in 2007/08 but it was operative from 2010, with a first batch of animals. The stakeholders subscribed a chain agreement, adopting production guidelines and a commercial trademark. Since the meat is not yet ready, the present paper is, in part, an analysis of the preliminary modification of the operative context and, in part, a previsional examination of the possible effect of the activation of this production chain on the area. The results investigated economic, social, landscape, technical and technological (related to food safety elements. It can be observed, by an introductive evaluation, that this productive circuit may valorize the resources of this mountain area and can enhance zootechnics in mountain areas. The guidelines allow a vertical integration throughout the production path, coordinating all the operators. This type of production can be considered a niche product, related to the territory, with the maximum guarantee for the consumers. The environmental worthiness is the recovering and the improving of these marginal, agricultural areas. Actually, an overall evaluation can be done only from the summer of 2011, when data such as the organoleptic and qualitative characteristics, selling prices, level of appreciation by the customers and

  2. The role of anthropogenic water reservoirs within the landscapes of mining areas – a case study from the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruchiewicz Ewelina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A few thousand anthropogenic water reservoirs can be found in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basis (USCB located in southern Poland. In this paper the role of such anthropogenic lakes in the landscape of the western part of the USCB was presented and illustrated with the example of Knurów, a mining city, and its immediate surrounding area. The study of landscape changes in this area was carried out on the basis of archival and contemporary cartographic materials, historical sources, and interviews with inhabitants and direct field observations. It was found that the origin of the majority of the water reservoirs is related to hard coal, clay and sand mining. They were created primarily as a result of filling subsidence basins and post-mining excavations with water, as well as being the result of the construction of various hydro-technical facilities (settling ponds, fire protection water reservoirs, etc. In the study area the anthropogenic water reservoirs are of different sizes, shapes and durability and play different roles in the environment. Between 1884 and 2001 their number increased 25-fold, while at the same time their total surface area increased more than 8-fold. The role of the newly created water reservoirs in the landscape primarily involves the transformation of the existing terrestrial ecosystems into wetland ecosystems. The agro-forestry landscape of the late 19th century was transformed into a typically anthropogenic landscape with a dominant share of water reservoirs, settlement ponds and mining waste heaps. The most common species of plants around the water reservoirs are Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton natans, Lemna sp., Acorus calamus, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alisma plantago-aquatica and Glyceria aquatica. The most valuable elements of the flora include Trapa natans and Ruppia maritima, species recognized in Poland as threatened

  3. Microfacies, sedimentary environment and diagenesis of the upper part of Dalan and Kangan Formations in the Kuh-e Surmeh area, Folded Zagros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhossein Adabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Dallan and Kangan formations (Permian-Triassic, are located in the Kuh-e Surmeh area in folded Zagros Basin with a thickness of 325 m overlying by Nar evaporite member and underlying by Dashtak Formation. Dominant lithology of these formations are limestone and dolomite. Our purpose in this study is to identify microfacieses, sedimentary environment and diagenetic proceses. To overcome this aim, thin sections petrographic studies, leaded to identify 12 microfacieses related to 4 facieses belt: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine. The observed microfacies patterns indicate a ramp carbonate platform as depositional environment. Based on petrographic studies, the important diagenetic processes in these formations consist of: micritization, dolomitization, cementation, stilolitization and chemical and physical compactions. Burial diagenesis is dominated diagenetic event. The observed porosities in this section are primary and secondary such as fenestral, vuggy, fracture, moldic, interparticle, intraparticle and channel

  4. Possible impacts of the natural gas three-part tariff on the great industrial consumers over 500.000 m{sup 3}/month at the COMGAS distribution area; Possiveis impactos da tarifa trinomial de gas natural nos grandes consumidores industriais acima de 500.000 m{sup 3}/mes na area de concessao da COMGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: phsantana@fem.unicamp.br; jannuzzi@fem.uncamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The problem of saturation in the natural gas distribution pipelines in Brazil is not urgent, but it's possible to notice the need of reinforcements in some extensions. Price regulation does not consider this problem yet, but it's already predicted the adoption of a three-part tariff considering a contracted capacity for some industrial consumers - industries that buy more than 500.000 m3/month in the COMGAS distribution area. Some industries, like potteries and glass makers, would probably not suffer strong impacts with the implementation of this three-part tariff, since the majority of their manufacturing processes are continuous. Others sectors would probably have negative impacts with the contracted capacity, like pulp and paper, metallurgy and textile industries. The way that industry will manage the contracted capacity is still unknown. Some possibilities are: considering natural gas as one of the variables in the productions' decision; having a 'Back-up' system when the consumption surpass the contracted capacity; switch fuels when total consumption is above 500.000 m{sup 3}/month, so that the company does not fit in the three-part tariff. The three-part tariff has not been published yet, but it's already necessary a sign to the market that this will occur in the near future, so that the companies involved can already create a strategy for the use of natural gas. This signal is already predicted in the Technical Paper number X of CSPE. (author)

  5. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  6. Insights to the internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2012-12-15

    Within the last decade, the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of local biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. They are centered on the potential of biogas plants for supporting rural sustainable development processes. On the other side, the national biogas praxis is accompanied by several unwelcome and partly severe side effects. This contrast has given rise to research on how to master the complex challenge of operating biogas plants as part of overall sustainable development processes in rural Germany. The research presented in this article is mainly based on the extended case study method. It gives insight into the respective actions and significance of family farms that proactively use and develop their internal sphere of influence. These farms do so by embracing deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources, as well as sustaining continuous innovativeness. Furthermore, they make use of a farm's capacity for self-regulation. The strategies of the surveyed family farms reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has currently been observed as a worldwide repeasantization. Given Germany's rapid decline of family farms over the past several decades, the future role of the farms in mastering the complex challenge of supporting overall sustainable development processes, e.g., with biogas plants as a technical link, is uncertain. Making use of current repeasantization processes for expanding the sustainable use of biogas plants is an approach which, to date, seems to be hardly noticed and considerably underestimated. (orig.)

  7. Self-care symptom-management strategies Amongst women living with HIV /AIDS in an urban area in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisana J. Majeke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available People living with HIV and AIDS experience a number of symptoms such as fatigue, nausea and vomiting, fever and anxiety during the various stages of the illness. This has a negative effect on their quality of life. Women are the most commonly infected group and are at greater risk of acquiring HIV than men. In addition to their vulnerability, women have other responsibilities in society and expectations from society to fulfil. Women’s health-seeking and health practice behaviours are often hindered by a number of factors, including family responsibilities, poverty and fear.

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study aimed at exploring the self-care symptommanagement strategies used by women living with HIV and AIDS in an urban area in KwaZulu-Natal in 2006.

    Eleven participants were selected through a purposive sampling method until saturation was reached. Individuals were assessed in depth, using the symptom-management strategy interview.Qualitative content analysis was used to examine the transcribed interviews, using a deductive approach based on the categories of self-care symptom-management strategies.

    Various physical and psychological symptoms and a number of self-care symptom-management strategies were reported by the participants and these included taking medication and seeking help.

    The study makes recommendations on how to improve women’s ability to employ a self-care strategy in managing their HIV- and AIDS-related symptoms.

    Opsomming

    Mense wat met MIV en Vigs leef, ervaar verskeie simptome in die verskillende stadiums van die siekte, soos moegheid, naarheid en braking, koors en angstigheid. Dit het ’n negatiewe effek op hul lewensgehalte. Vroue is die groep wat die meeste besmet word, en staan ’n groter risiko om MIV op te doen as mans. Benewens hul vatbaarheid, het vroue ook ander verantwoordelikhede en verwagtinge om in die samelewing te vervul. Vroue se

  8. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China——Take Xinlong County of GanziTibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaGuitan

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken area. Howeve,they were isotated for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The Feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Stchuan Province as an example.

  9. The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 2: Clinical Implications for Chronic Pain, Substance Misuse, and Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Marina A; Vythilingam, Meena

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly utilized in the management of chronic pain since 1982. This second review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for chronic pain, substance use disorder, tobacco use disorder, and insomnia frequently co-occurring after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 72 relevant systematic reviews and clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. The Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of recommendation (SOR) for each clinical condition. Mindfulness-based interventions effectively and durably reduce pain intensity, improve functional status, pain-related psychological consequences, quality of life (SOR B). They can also be utilized as an adjunctive intervention aimed at improving health-related quality of life in individuals with substance use disorders interested in self-management strategies (SOR B). Mindfulness training for smokers used adjunctively with pharmacotherapy shows efficacy in maintaining abstinence comparable to that of the current standard of care (SOR B). Future large, well-designed randomized clinical trials using active controls in service members and veterans with co-occurring pain and psychological health conditions are necessary to provide more precise clinical guidance.

  10. The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 1: Clinical Implications for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Marina A; Vythilingam, Meena

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly utilized in the management of mental health conditions. This first review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for mental health conditions frequently seen after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 52 systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were included. The Strength of Recommendation (SOR) Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of evidence for each clinical condition. Adjunctive mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective for decreasing symptom severity during current depressive episode, and for reducing relapse rate in recovered patients during maintenance phase of depression management (SOR moderate [SOR B]). Adjunctive mindfulness-based stress reduction is effective for improving symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and mindfulness in veterans with combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (SOR B). Currently, there is no sufficient data to recommend MBIs for generalized anxiety disorder (SOR B). MBIs are safe, portable, cost-effective, and can be recommended as an adjunct to standard care or self-management strategy for major depressive disorder and PTSD. Future large, well-designed randomized clinical trials in service members and veterans can help plan for the anticipated increase in demand for behavioral health services.

  11. A facile and green strategy for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis extract and their biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godipurge, S S; Yallappa, S; Biradar, Naveen J; Biradar, J S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gajanan; Jagadish, K; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    A facile and green strategy is reported here to synthesize gold (Au), silver (Ag) and gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through bio-reduction reactions of aqueous corresponding metal precursors mediated by extracts of aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents, under microwave irradiation. UV-vis spectrophotometer, XRD, FT-IR, FESEM/TEM, TGA and EDAX analysis were used to characterize the obtained NPs. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance peak observed at λmax=∼550, 450 and 500nm for Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs respectively. XRD pattern revealed that fcc structure, while FT-IR spectra signify the presence of phytochemicals adsorbed on NPs. Such a biofunctionalized NPs were characterized by their weight loss, 30% due to thermal degradation of plant phytochemicals observed in TG analysis. The spherical shape of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs (∼10-50nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images. EDAX analysis confirms the expected elemental composition. Moreover, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, though it is more pronounced for Au-Ag alloy NPs, which is due to the combining effect of phytochemicals, Au and Ag metals. Thus, the biosynthesized NPs could be applied as effective growth inhibitors for various biomedical applications.

  12. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  13. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Ličko Lešće, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach.

  14. The Yenshanian—type Twin Granite Belts in Intracontinental Compression—subduction Environments in the Northern Part of East Qinlin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志宏; 胡受奚; 等

    1990-01-01

    Calc-alkaline granites (excluding A-and M-type) could be divided into two petrogenic series,I,e,the syntexis series and the transformation series according to their genetic mechanisms.In the light of this classification we found that granites of these two series often aligne in paired zones parallel to contemporaneous B-type or intracontinental compression-subduction zones within ascended slabs,re-sulting in a regular zonal pattern together with subduction zones.Thus,they are defined as twin granite belts.According to the spatial relations between the granite belts and the subduction zones,the twin granite belts could be classified as A, AB and B-type .The zonation of granites of the two series in the northern part of the East Qinlin area could be cited as a typical example of A-type twin granite belts related to the Yenshanian intracontinenta compression-subduction movement in the area.In this paper the tectonic settings and petrogenic features of the twin granites belts in East Qinlin are systematically described,and a tectonic model for granitic magma genesis in intracontinental compression-subduction environments has been proposed.In this model the forma-tion of A-type twin granite belts is closely connected with tectonic movements in terms of the prince-ple,rule and dynamics of material differentiation in the lithosphere.

  15. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition of organic carbon in coastal and water areas of the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, V. V.; Soier, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports on new data focusing on organic carbon contained in aeolian material and precipitation falling on coastal and water areas of the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov. Atmospheric deposition was sampled in 2006-2014. The particulate organic carbon content varied from 4 to 27% in aeolian dust samples. The concentration of the organic carbon dissolved in rainwater was from 1.6 to 4.3 mg C/L, and from 0.9 to 16.6 mg C/L in snow. The particulate organic carbon content varied from 2 to 43% in snow. Intensity of aeolian dust settling decreased from 178 to 33 mg/m2 per day with distance from a source of dust; in contrast, the relative content of organic matter increased. In a spring-summer season the aeolian organic carbon fluxes varied from 12 to 18 mg C/m2 per day in Rostov-on-Don, from 28 to 48 mg C/m2 per day on the Gulf of Taganrog coast, and from 20 to 80 mg C/m2 per day in the water area of the Gulf of Taganrog.

  16. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and a potential mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2013-11-01

    This paper addresses the contribution of urban land use change to near-surface air temperature during the summer extreme heat events of the early twenty-first century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area. This study uses the Weather Research Forecasting model with a single urban canopy model and the newest actual urban cover datasets. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60 °C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95 °C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34 %. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs, an effective way of reducing urban heat island, which can reduce the urban mean temperature by approximately 0.51 °C and counter approximately 80 % of the heat wave results from urban sprawl during the last 20 years.

  17. Effect of Niagara power project on ground-water flow in the upper part of the Lockport Dolomite, Niagara Falls area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Niagara River Power Project near Niagara Falls, N.Y., has created recharge and discharge areas that have modified the direction of groundwater flow east and northeast of the falls. Before construction of the power project in 1962, the configuration of the potentiometric surface in the upper part of the Silurian Lockport Dolomite generally paralleled the buried upper surface of the bedrock. Ground water in the central and east parts of the city of Niagara Falls flowed south and southwestward toward the upper Niagara River (above the falls), and ground water in the western part flowed westward into Niagara River gorge. The power project consists of two hydroelectric powerplants separated by a forebay canal that receives water from the upper Niagara River through two 4-mi-long, parallel, buried conduits. During periods of nonpeak power demand, some water in the forebay canal is pumped to a storage reservoir for later release to generate electricity during peak-demand periods. Since the power project began operation in 1962, groundwater within 0.5 mi of the buried conduits has seeped into the drain system that surrounds the conduits, then flows both south from the forebay canal and north from the Niagara River toward the Falls Street tunnel--a former sewer that crosses the conduits 0.65 mi north of the upper Niagara River. Approximately 6 million gallons of ground water a day leaks into the Falls Street tunnel, which carries it 2.3 mi westward to the Niagara River gorge below the falls. Daily water-level fluctuations in the forebay canal affect water levels in the drain system that surrounds the conduits, and this , in turn, affects the potentiometric surface in the Lockport Dolomite within 0.5 mi of the conduits. The drains transmit changes in pressure head near the forebay canal southward at least as far as the Falls Street tunnel area and possibly to the upper Niagara River. Some water in the pumped-storage reservoir recharges ground water in the Lockport

  18. Geostatistical analysis of space variation in underground water various quality parameters in Kłodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Kłodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial variation in the different quality parameters of underground water in the water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011-2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e., contents of: iron, manganese, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, total organic carbon, pH redox potential and temperature, were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial variation in the parameters was analyzed on the basis of data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) were obtained (gained) from 3 new piezometers, made in other locations in the relevant area. A depth of these piezometers amounts to 9-10 m. Data derived from 14 wells (2011) and 14 wells + 3 piezometers (2012) were subjected to spatial analyses using geostatistical methods. The evaluation of basic statistics of the quality parameters, including their histograms of distributions, scatter diagrams and correlation coefficient values r were presented. The directional semivariogram function γ(h) and the ordinary (block) kriging procedure were used to build the 3D geostatistical model. The geostatistical parameters of the theoretical models of directional semivariograms of the water quality parameters under study, calculated along the wells depth (taking into account the terrain elevation), were used in the ordinary (block) kriging estimation. The obtained results of estimation, i.e., block diagrams allowed us to determine the levels of increased values of estimated averages Z* of underground water quality parameters.

  19. Stabilization of endangered part of structures by building dry brunt brick buttressing, critical case study of plane wall in DKG-North Area, Mohenjo daro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, J. M.; Park, J.

    2013-07-01

    'World Heritage Sites' are places or buildings of outstanding universal value recognized as constituting a world heritage 'for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate'. The concept of World Heritage is at the core of the World Heritage Convention, adopted by Heritage List as a means of identifying, protecting, conserving and presenting those parts of the world's natural and cultural heritage that are of sufficient 'outstanding universal value' to be the responsibility of the international community as a whole. By joining the Convention, nation states are pledged to safeguard the WH S by protecting their national heritage. UNESCO in 1972, to which 160 nations have now been adhered. The Convention came into force in 1975 and established a Site in their territory as part of a universally agreed policy for World. Moenjodaro site covering an area of 555 Acres out of which only 10 % of it has been excavated by exposing 50 Kilometer standing walls. The wall of the main street of DK G Area, Mohen jo Daro partially deformed, due to the torque effects this is studied here on a lateral cross wall in the chief house. Furthermore, the resulting behaviour of the bucking wall demonstrates the significant loadbearing capacity of the structure under service conditions and its high sensitivity to imposed changes of the geometry. Although the tensile stresses exceeded the flexural strength at the vertices and the length of the wall, hence both the geometry and condition of this area are critical for the safety of the wall. The results of this study can improve the assessment and thus help in the preservation of many important structures of the metropolitan city. Here the hydrous characteristic of the brick is studied as a general phenomenon, it is observed that the remains of the sites located in Sindh suffered a lot mostly due to age, human neglect variations of atmospheric condition, severe temperature and natural disasters. The main

  20. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  1. Tourism Areas, back ski 3 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 3 -...

  2. Tourism Areas, Back ski 2 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Back ski 2 -...

  3. Tourism Areas, back ski 4 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 4 -...

  4. Tourism Areas, D plan for alpine - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'D plan for...

  5. Tourism Areas, back ski 1- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 1-...

  6. Tourism Areas, C plan for alpine - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'C plan for...

  7. Tourism Areas, B plan for Nordic - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'B plan for...

  8. Tourism Areas, back ski use- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski use-...

  9. Comparison of Elementary Educational Facility Allocation Patterns and Planning Strategies in Rural Areas:Case Studies of Central and Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Min; Shao; Lin; Li; Wei; Qian; Fang

    2016-01-01

    Elementary educational facilities are one of the essential public service facilities in rural China. Based on case studies of two countylevel cities in central and eastern China, this paper explores issues regarding a rational allocation of elementary educational facilities in rural areas, including different allocation patterns and effects, and rural residents’ views on elementary educational facilities, as well as their preference when choosing schools. This paper, on the basis of empirical studies, concludes that relevant policies and planning strategies should be adjusted in accordance with the general trends of rural population being decreasing continuously and the student pool concentrating toward towns, so as to achieve an efficient and fair allocation of elementary educational facilities.

  10. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies through Indigenous Knowledge System: Aspect on Agro-Crop Production in the Flood Prone Areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the climate change adaptation strategies for agro crop production and assesses the financial suitability through indigenous knowledge in flood prone areas of Bangladesh. However, for this purpose two types of experiments have conducted with selected eight agro crop species. Firstly, the seven treatments have been experimented in a Tub (an earthen pot. In this case, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum is more beneficial among these seven treatments and average benefit-cost ratio of this treatment was 3.54. Thereafter, the seven treatments also have been experimenting in Tukri (a bamboo basket. Likewise, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum is more beneficial in the second experiment and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 3.52 because the soil and the cow dung mixture have been used as a potting medium. On the contrary, Long coriander (Eryngium foetidum is more beneficial and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 4.74 after using the soil and water hyacinth mixture as a potting medium. According to indigenous knowledge, these results could be developed from different climate change adaptation strategies in farming system for production of common agro crops as well as their financial suitability by the flood affected people of Bangladesh to harness the effect of climate change.

  11. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  12. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  13. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  14. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  15. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  16. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 1: Deep Convective Updraft Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, A. C.; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Collis, Scott M.; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Snow reflectivity can exceed 40 dBZ in a two-moment scheme when a constant bulk density of 100 kg m-3 is used. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to area rather than volume should somewhat alleviate this problem. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations. This is associated with large amounts of liquid water above the freezing level in updraft cores. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of large rainwater contents lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. Strong simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some showing supercell characteristics. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 meters to 100 meters weakens strong updrafts, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may partly be a product of interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and large-scale environmental biases that promote different convective modes and strengths than observed.

  17. Study area boundary derived from 1:1,000,000-scale hydrographic areas and flow systems for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the amalgamation of the hydrographic area (HA) boundaries and polygons for the GBCAAS study area. The study area consists of 165 HAs based on...

  18. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  19. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part I. distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide-related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Huggins, D.; Welker, G.; Dias, J.R.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Murowchick, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticide-related compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 ??g/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency of detection of PAHs increased with increasing urbanization of the residential watersheds. Four- and five-ring PAH compounds predominated the PAH composition (73-100%), especially fluoranthene and pyrene. The PAH composition profiles along with the diagnostic isomer ratios [e.g., anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene), 0.16 ?? 0.03; fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), 0.55 ?? 0.01)] indicate that pyrogenic sources (i.e., coal-tar-related operations or materials and traffic-related particles) may be common PAH contributors to these residential streams. Historical-use organochlorine insecticides and their degradates dominated the occurrences of pesticide-related compounds, with chlordane and dieldrin detected in over or nearly 50% of the samples. The occurrence of these historical organic compounds was associated with past urban applications, which may continue to be nonpoint sources replenishing local streams. Concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW; two or three rings) and high molecular weight (HMW; four to six rings) PAHs covaried along individual streams but showed dissimilar distribution patterns between the streams, while the historical pesticide-related compounds generally increased in concentration downstream. Correlations were noted

  20. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  1. A Study to ascertain the Optimum Yield from Groundwater Source in the Eastern Part of Kolkata Municipal Corporation Area in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing stress on fresh water resources due to ever-rising demands and profligateuses as well as growing population and industrial establishment of Kolkata is an issue ofgreat concern. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative estimate of the availablegroundwater resources in the eastern part of Kolkata for efficient utilization andmanagement of groundwater resources. The methodology involved the investigation,drilling, lowering, collection and analysis of main well and observation wells data andgroundwater quality as well. Based upon the study of lithological logs as also the electricallog, the sub-surface deposition of the assembly pipes have been determined. The resultsindicate that the aquifers are composite and composed of sands and overlying silts/claybeds. Long term Tests pumping indicate that the main well may be capable of a long termdischarge rate of 120 m3/hr restricted at 120 m and 156.65 m. The aquifer parametersfrom the study area are estimated from the analysis of short and long durations pumpingtest data. For the alluvial aquifer, transmissivity of 1491 m2/d, hydraulic conductivity of49.7 m/d and storage coefficient of 0.0064 are recommended found by using differentmethods. Long duration pumping tests have indicated that the maximum drawdown inwater table by 4.89 m may be achievable by radius of influence about 682 m. After theclosure of pumping operation, recuperation test was also carried out in the main wells aswell as also from observation wells. Recovery test was monitored for 20 hrs after closureof pumping. Slope of the residual drawdown from t/t’ indicated aquifer transmissivity of1322 m2/d and therefore hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial sand aquifer is 44 m/dhaving an aquifer thickness of 30 m. The physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis ofgroundwater of two pumping wells were tested and the results showed the groundwatermust be disinfected before supplying to the consumers.

  2. Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959–99 – Part 1: Determination of length, area, and volume changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Haeberli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Storglaciären, located in the Kebnekaise massif in northern Sweden, has a long history of glaciological research. Early photo documentations date back to the late 19th century. Measurements of front position variations and distributed mass balance have been carried out since 1910 and 1945/46, respectively. In addition to these in-situ measurements, aerial photographs have been taken at decadal intervals since the beginning of the mass balance monitoring program and were used to produce topographic glacier maps. Inaccuracies in the maps were a challenge to early attempts to derive glacier volume changes and resulted in major differences when compared to the direct glaciological mass balances. In this study, we reanalyzed dia-positives of the original aerial photographs of 1959, -69, -80, -90 and -99 based on consistent photogrammetric processing. From the resulting digital elevation models and orthophotos, changes in length, area, and volume of Storglaciären were computed between the survey years, including an assessment of related errors. Between 1959 and 1999, Storglaciären lost an ice volume of 19×106 m3, which corresponds to a cumulative ice thickness loss of 5.69 m and a mean annual loss of 0.14 m. This ice loss resulted largely from a strong volume loss during the period 1959–80 and was partly compensated during the period 1980–99. As a consequence, the glacier shows a strong retreat in the 1960s, a slowing in the 1970s, and pseudo-stationary conditions in the 1980s and 1990s.

  3. 2014 iAREA campaign on aerosol in Spitsbergen - Part 2: Optical properties from Raman-lidar and in-situ observations at Ny-Ålesund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C.; Neuber, R.; Schulz, Alexander; Markowicz, K. M.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Lisok, J.; Makuch, P.; Pakszys, P.; Markuszewski, P.; Rozwadowska, A.; Petelski, T.; Zielinski, T.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Gausa, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work multi wavelength Raman lidar data from Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen have been analysed for the spring 2014 Arctic haze season, as part of the iAREA campaign. Typical values and probability distributions for aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarisation, the lidar ratio and the color ratio for 4 different altitude intervals within the troposphere are given. These quantities and their dependencies are analysed and the frequency of altitude-dependent observed aerosol events are given. A comparison with ground-based size distribution and chemical composition is performed. Hence the aim of this paper is to provide typical and statistically meaningful properties of Arctic aerosol, which may be used in climate models or to constrain the radiative forcing. We have found that the 2014 season was only moderately polluted with Arctic haze and that sea salt and sulphate were the most dominant aerosol species. Moreover the drying of an aerosol layer after cloud disintegration has been observed. Hardly any clear temporal evolution over the 4 week data set on Arctic haze is obvious with the exception of the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio, which significantly decreased below 2 km altitude by end April. In altitudes between 2 and 5 km the haze season lasted longer and the aerosol properties were generally more homogeneous than closer to the surface. Above 5 km only few particles were found. The variability of the lidar ratio is discussed. It was found that knowledge of the aerosol's size and shape does not determine the lidar ratio. Contrary to shape and lidar ratio, there is a clear correlation between size and backscatter: larger particles show a higher backscatter coefficient.

  4. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED; (ii the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED; (iii the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA; and (iv the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED. The updated checklist (December 2010 of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718, less in the WMED (328 and CMED (267 and least in the Adriatic (171. Of these, 535 species (56% are established in at least one area.Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(subtropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED.Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  5. Mapeo de ingeniería geológica en parte sur del área metropolitana de San Salvador Engineering geology mapping in the southern part of the metropolitan area of San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Chávez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de mapas geológicos clásicos que agrupan los estratos por edad u origen, dificulta la interpretación y uso para diseños de ingeniería civil o planificación urbana, para las personas sin conocimientos profundos en geología. Debido a esto se ha llevado a cabo mapeo de ingeniería geológica en sector sur del Área Metropolitana de San Salvador, haciendo uso de la metodología de bandas. El objetivo de la metodología es que la información geológica, peligrosidad geológica y recomendaciones geotécnicas puedan representarse y agruparse dependiendo de las características intrínsecas de cada zona. Esta información puede ser fácilmente interpretada por los planificadores urbanos, constructores privados y agencias gubernamentales. La debilidad en la recopilación e investigación de información geológica y geotécnica en El Salvador, son unas de las razones de la problemática que experimenta la región, indicando la importancia de mejorar el manejo del riesgo, así como la mecánica de suelos y de rocasThe use of classic geologic maps, where geological layers are grouped according to their age or origin, makes difficult the interpretation and use for civil engineer design or urban planning to people without deep knowledge in geology. Due to this reason engineering geological mapping has been carried out in the southern part of the Metro- politan Area of San Salvador using the stripe method. The objective of the methodology is that geological information, geological hazards and geotechnical recommendations as well, can be represented and grouped depending on the intrinsic characteristics of each zone. This information can be easily interpreted for urban planners, private builders and government agencies. The weakness in the compilation and research of geological and geotechnical information in El Salvador, are some of the reasons for the current problems that experiment the region, indicating the importance of improving risk

  6. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  7. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  8. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  9. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan Kansas City area, USA: Part II. Whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J; Ingersoll, C G; Kemble, N E; Dias, J R; Murowchick, J B; Welker, G; Huggins, D

    2010-10-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  10. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  11. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Rawluk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris, Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW with or without natural barriers on (i amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP, (ii watering location (OSW or stream, and (iii animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT, OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR, and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR. Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002, 2 (p = 0.1116, and 3 (p < 0.0001 at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the Souris site spent more time in the RP in Period 1 (p < 0.0001 and less time in Period 2 (p = 0.0002 compared to cattle in 3NOBARR. Cattle did use the OSW, but not exclusively, as watering at the stream was still observed. The observed inconsistency in the effectiveness of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well

  12. A Novel Strategy to Increase Identification of African-Born People With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sharon; Johnson, Matthew; Harris, Aaron M.; Kaufman, Gary I.; Freedman, David; Quinn, Michael T.; Kim, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most research on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States is limited to Asian populations, despite an equally high prevalence among African immigrants. The purpose of this study was to determine testing and detection rates of HBV infection among African-born people residing in the Chicago metropolitan area. Methods A hepatitis education and prevention program was developed in collaboration with academic, clinical, and community partners for immigrant and refugee populations at risk for HBV infection. Community health workers implemented chain referral sampling, a novel strategy for recruiting hard-to-reach participants, targeting African-born participants. Participants were tested in both clinical and nonclinical settings. To assess infection status, blood samples were obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), core antibody, and surface antibody testing. Demographic information was collected on age, sex, health insurance status, country of origin, and years residing in the United States. Participants were notified of testing results, and HBsAg-positive participants were referred for follow-up medical care. Results Of 1,000 African-born people who received education, 445 (45%) agreed to participate in HBV screening. There were 386 (87%) participants tested in clinical and 59 (13%) tested in nonclinical sites. Compared with participants who were tested in clinical settings, participants tested in nonclinical settings were older, were less likely to have health insurance, and had lived in the United States longer (P Somalia (11%), or Ethiopia (10%). There were 35 (8%) HBsAg-positive people, 37% had evidence of past infection, and 29% were immune. Conclusions Chain referral sampling identified many at-risk African-born people with chronic HBV infection. The large proportion of HBsAg-positive people in this sample reinforces the need for health promotion programs that are culturally appropriate and community-driven. PMID:27584874

  13. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  14. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  15. Water Districts, Part of Service Delivery Strategy that DCA requires, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Districts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is described...

  16. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  17. Supporting the development of interpersonal skills in nursing, in an undergraduate mental health curriculum: reaching the parts other strategies do not reach through action learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Anna; McNay, Lisa; Dewar, Belinda; McCaig, Marie

    2014-09-01

    The centrality of therapeutic relationships is considered to be the cornerstone of effective mental health nursing practice. Strategies that support the development of these skills and the emotional aspects of learning need to be developed. Action learning is one such strategy. This article reports on a qualitative research study on the introduction of Action Learning Sets (ALS) into a Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programme. This teaching and learning methodology was chosen to support the emotional aspects of learning and mental health nursing skills. Four themes were identified: developing skills of listening and questioning in 'real time', enhanced self-awareness, being with someone in the moment--there is no rehearsal and doing things differently in practice. Students and lecturers found the experience positive and advocate for other Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programmes to consider the use of ALS within the curriculum.

  18. Geothermal investigation in Idaho. Part 14. Geochemical and isotopic investigations of thermal water occurrences of the Boise Front Area, Ada County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, A.L.; Muller, A.B.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    A limited chemical and isotopic investigation was undertaken and geological, geophysical, and hydrological data in the literature were reviewed to evaluate the geothermal potential of the Boise area. 68 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs. (ACR)

  19. Irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater, Humboldt, and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and Carson Lake, West-Central Nevada, 1988-90 : Part II effects on wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the affects of irrigation induced contaminants on fish, wildlife, and human health near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. In 1988, the U.S....

  20. Water information bulletin No. 30: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 11. Geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations of the Nampa-Caldwell and adjacent areas, southwestern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C. (ed.)

    1981-12-01

    The area under study included approximately 925 sq km (357 sq mi) of the Nampa-Caldwell portion of Canyon County, an area within the central portion of the western Snake River Plain immediately west of Boise, Idaho. Geologic mapping, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, including detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, were run to acquire needed data. In addition, existing magnetotelluric and reflection seismic data were purchased and reinterpreted in light of newly acquired data.

  1. Broadcast Approach and Oblivious Cooperative Strategies for the Wireless Relay Channel - Part II: Block-Markov Decode-and-Forward (BMDF)

    CERN Document Server

    Braginskiy, Evgeniy; Shamai, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    This is the second in a two part series of papers on incorporation of the broadcast approach into oblivious protocols for the relay channel where the source and the relay are collocated. Part I described the broadcast approach and its benefits in terms of achievable rates when used with the sequential decode- and-forward (SDF) scheme. Part II investigates yet another oblivious scheme, the Block-Markov decode- and-forward (BMDF) under the single and two-layered transmissions. For the single layer, previously reported results are enhanced and a conjecture regarding the optimal correlation coefficient between the source and the relay's transmission is established. For the discrete multi-layer transmission of two or more layers, it is shown that perfect cooperation (2x1 MISO) rates are attained even with low collocation gains at the expense of a longer delay, improving upon those achievable by the SDF.

  2. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  3. Nonceramic insulators for the transmission power lines. Part II: Application that it requires of a careful selection; Aisladores no ceramicos para las areas de transmision. Parte II: Aplicacion que requiere de una seleccion cuidadosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro Chavez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this second part is mentioned the possible mechanisms of degradation that can appear in nonceramic insulators in order to identify them during the inspections that are made in the field throughout their useful life. Some techniques of evaluation of accelerated aging, as well as important aspects that must be considered for the selection of the insulation in the case of a particular application, are presented. [Spanish] En esta segunda parte se mencionan los posibles mecanismos de degradacion que pueden presentarse en los aisladores no ceramicos a fin de identificarlos durante las inspecciones que se realicen en campo a lo largo de su vida util. Se exponen algunas tecnicas de evaluacion de envejecimiento acelerado, asi como aspectos importantes que deben considerarse para la seleccion del aislamiento en el caso de una aplicacion particular.

  4. Progress and strategy of the seismic exploration in foothill area%山前带地震勘探技术进展与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂桥; 于世焕

    2012-01-01

    Seismic exploration techniques are the bottleneck of hydrocarbon exploration in the complex foothill structural belt. The complex surface and underground geologic conditions bring great challenge for seismic exploration, which mainly displays low S/N of seismic data,large variation in lateral velocity is not suitable to utilize seismic imaging methods, and the complicated underground structures in piedmont zone are difficult to interpret. In order to solve the problems for the seismic exploration in foothill area, we proposed some strategies: ① deepening the understanding of complicated wavefield from piedmont zone; ②model based designing geometry such as wideline large array 2D, wide-azimuth high-fold 3D;③ to further improve shooting and receiving effects ④probing de-noising methods for the particular noise (scattering wave and non-longitude non-linear coherent noise, et al) existing in foothill area; ⑤jointly applying multi-methods to improve static correction effect;⑥studying and applying reverse time migration, and focusing on velocity model building technique for low S/N seismic data;⑦prospectively studying new techniques including undulating surface anisotropy reverse time migration and full waveform inversion and so on. Meanwhile, we suggest carrying out strict QC during the whole seismic acquisition,processing and interpretation,constantly improving the application result of single technique,continuously optimize the ap- plication workflow of the seismic techniques, emphasis on the integration of seismic technology, and improve the seismic exploration effect by integrated geophysical prospecting means with the guidance of geology.%地震勘探技术是制约复杂山前构造带油气勘探的瓶颈技术.山前带复杂的表层及地下地质条件,给地震勘探带来了极大挑战,主要表现在地震资料信噪比低;横向速度变化大,地震成像方法不适用;山前带地下复杂构造的准确解释困难.建议采取的

  5. Education for Philippine Pacification: How the U.S. Used Education as Part of its Counterinsurgency Strategy in the Philippines from 1898 to 1909

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    citizens. This bill may therefore be considered as the Magna Carta of the Indians of our country.”44 Christianization was another part of the...... actual experience they may learn the duties of the citizen.”243 Philippine policy makers viewed municipal governments as a chance for daily instruction

  6. A minimum extinction area control strategy to suppress commutation failure in HVDC transmission system%高压直流输电系统抑制换相失败的最小关断面积控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭忠; 李少华; 李泰; 荆雪记; 周金萍; 苏匀; 赵静; 郭宏光

    2015-01-01

    According to commutation process of inverter, the mechanism of commutation failure is analyzed. Two methods to distinguish commutation failure in HVDC transmission system are compared, which are minimum extinction angle distinguishing and minimum extinction area distinguishing. A minimum extinction area control strategy is presented to improve ability of suppressing commutation failure in inverter station. Taking Lingfeng DC project as research object, a control and protection model based on PSCAD/EMTDC is built, and control experiment with minimum extinction angle control strategy and extinction area control strategy is done. The simulation results show that minimum extinction area control strategy is more effective than minimum extinction angle control strategy in suppressing commutation failure, and commutation failure can not be avoided if AC voltage dropped seriously.%根据逆变器的换相过程,分析了换相失败机理。比较了两种高压直流输电系统换相失败判别方法:最小关断角判别和最小关断面积判别;为了提高逆变站抑制换相失败的能力,提出了最小关断面积控制策略。以林枫直流为研究对象,在PSCAD/EMTDC中建立了相应的控制保护模型,对最小关断角控制策略和最小关断面积控制策略进行对比实验。仿真结果表明最小关断面积控制策略抑制换相失败的效果优于最小关断角控制;交流电压跌落幅度过大,换相失败无法避免。

  7. Issues in Learner Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑英

    2004-01-01

    There is an urgent need in China that learning strategy and strategy training be given the attenion and status that it deserves.Strategy training can help students make effcetive use of multiple strategies.Studying good language learners has proved a useful way of investigating how strategies affect language learning.The first approach to strategy training suggested by Cohen is targets isolated strategies by including explicit modeling and explanation of the benefits of applying a specific strategy,extensive functional practice with the strategy.The second approach outlined by Oxford is to raise students' awareness as to the purpose and rationale of strategy use.The third approach by Cohen is to help students to complete language learning tasks through planning,monitoring,problem solving and evaluation.Teachers play an important part in strategy training.

  8. 阻碍英语听力理解的因素及对策(一)%Factors and Strategies in Listening (Part One)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书菁

    2005-01-01

    Listening is one of the five basic skills of students in English. The listening level of the students affects their study deeply.But there are some barriers to listening comprehension. They directly affects the improvement of the students' listening levels. The main cause is that the students have not mastered strategies removing those listening barriers. So it is very important to erase those barriers and master some strategies in the process of listening comprehension.%听力是学生英语五项基本技能(听、说、读、写、译)之一.学生听力水平的高低对学生的学习有着很大的影响.但是在学生的英语听力理解方面存在着许多阻碍因素,直接影响学生听力水平的提高.主要原因是学生没有掌握解决那些听力阻碍的策略.因此,在听力教学过程中,解决这些障碍和掌握一些相应的对策与技能是重要的.本文就如何解决学生在听力理解上的障碍和培养学生的听力技能做一些简单的阐述.

  9. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Primary Medical Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that tourists are present). (iii) Migratory workers and their families may be included in an area's population, using the following formula: Effective migrant contribution to population=(fraction of year... with a weight of 0.25, using the following formula: Effective tourist contribution to...

  10. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies.

  11. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-15

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and

  12. SYSTEM-COGNITIVE MODEL OF FORECASTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIVERSIFIED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS. PART I. COGNITIVE STRUCTURING AND FORMALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, in accordance with the methodology of the Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis, we examine the implementation of the 1st and 2nd stages of ASC-analysis: cognitive structuring and formalization of the subject area. At the stage of cognitive structurization of subject area, researchers decide what to consider as the object of modeling, the factors affecting it and the results of their actions. In accordance with the results of the cognitive structurization, we prepare the initial database for the study (training sample or case-based reasoning. At the stage of formalization of the subject area, the base of the original data is being normalized, i.e., we develop classification and description: the scale and graduations and with their use the base of the source data is being encoded. The result is a database of events (eventological database and the training sample. The stage of cognitive structuring and preparation of the source data is not formalized and the formalization of the subject area is fully automated and performed directly with the use of the universal cognitive analytical system named "Eidos", which is a software Toolkit for ASC-analysis. Stages of cognitive structurization and formalization of the subject area of ASC-analysis are the first steps of data conversion into information and into knowledge. Subsequent steps: the synthesis and verification of system-cognitive model, the decision of problems of identification, forecasting and decision making, as well as studies of the modeled object by studying its model will be considered in future articles

  13. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  14. Groundwater demand management at local scale in rural areas of India: a strategy to ensure water well sustainability based on aquifer diffusivity and community participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Himanshu; Vijay Shankar, P. S.; Deolankar, S. B.; Shah, Mihir

    Watershed development programmes provide an opportunity for sustainable management strategies, although currently, they remain largely `supply-side' mechanisms of water resources development. Hydrogeological conditions, community participation and status of groundwater usage are important in evolving strategies on `demand-side' groundwater management. Neemkheda aquifer is a typical low-storage, low-hydraulic conductivity aquifer from a watershed in the dryland regions of Madhya Pradesh State of central India. A shallow unconfined aquifer, it consists of an upper coarse, calcareous sandstone unit underlain by a fine-grained sandstone unit. A `well commune' of seven wells is poised to test the concept of joint groundwater management, wherein wells are mechanisms of tapping a common water source, the Neemkheda aquifer. The strategy for systematic groundwater management in the Neemkheda well commune is based upon the relationship between Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S), i.e. aquifer diffusivity, and its variation within the aquifer. Wells within a high diffusivity domain tend to dewater more quickly than wells within a low diffusivity domain. A well-use schedule during the dry season, based upon aquifer diffusivity forms the basis of the groundwater management concept. The distribution of local aquifer diffusivities governs the relationship between local and regional aquifer depletion times and forms the basis of the groundwater management exercise being proposed for the Neemkheda aquifer. Los programas de desarrollo de una cuenca hídrica son una oportunidad para el uso de estrategias de gestión sostenible, aunque hoy en día estas siguen siendo principalmente mecanismos para el desarrollo de recursos hídricos con énfasis en la ``oferta''. Las condiciones hidrogeológicas, la participación comunitaria y la condición de utilización del agua subterránea, son importantes en el desarrollo de estrategias para la gestión del agua subterránea, desde

  15. Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain: An Systematic Overview Update as Part of the ICON§ Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anita R.; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey; Khan, Mahweesh; Santaguida, P. Lina; Carlesso, Lisa C.; MacDermid, Joy C.; Walton, David M.; Kenardy, Justin; Söderlund, Anne; Verhagen, Arianne; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched (2006-2012). Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality-of-life and patient satisfaction were retrieved. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias using AMSTAR tool and extracted data. The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel to provide critical review. Main Results: We retrieved 30 reviews (5-9 AMSTAR score) reporting on 75 RCTs with the following moderate GRADE evidence. For acute whiplash associated disorder (WAD), an education video in emergency rooms (1RCT, 405participants] favoured pain reduction at long-term follow-up thus helping 1 in 23 people [Standard Mean Difference: -0.44(95%CI: -0.66 to -0.23)). Use of a soft collar (2RCTs, 1278participants) was not beneficial in the long-term. For chronic neck pain, a mind-body intervention (2RCTs, 1 meta-analysis, 191participants) improved short-term pain/function in 1 of 4 or 6 participants. In workers, 2-minutes of daily scapula-thoracic endurance training (1RCT, 127participants) over 10 weeks was beneficial in 1 of 4 participants. A number of psychosocial interventions, workplace interventions, collar use and self-management educational strategies were not beneficial. Reviewers' Conclusions: Moderate evidence exists for quantifying beneficial and non-beneficial effects of a limited number of interventions for acute WAD and chronic neck pain. Larger trials with more rigorous controls need to target promising interventions PMID:24133554

  16. The seismogenic area in the lithosphere considered as an "Open Physical System". Its implications on some seismological aspects. Part - I. Accelerated deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    The seismogenic area in the lithosphere is considered as an open physical system. The mathematical analysis of its inflow - outflow energy balance reveals the presence of specific energy flow physical models. The later comply with what has been observed by seismologists as "accelerated deformation" and "seismic quiescence". These physical models are represented by low-order cumulative seismic energy release analytical polynomial functions in time. The time derivatives of these functions, analytically calculated, provide a more sharp indication for the time of occurrence of a future large EQ. Examples from the application of this approach on real large EQs from the Greek territory are presented. Moreover, this methodology can be used for the determination of: the maximum expected magnitude of a future large EQ of a specific seismically activated seismogenic area and the compilation of seismic potential regional maps. The later will be presented in details in articles to follow soon.

  17. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter IV. Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on rangelands, pasture, and/or feedlots. The limited...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the areas were

  18. Wave and tidal level analysis, maritime climate change, navigation's strategy and impact on the costal defences - Study case of São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Areas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredini, P.; Pezzoli, A.; Cristofori, E. I.; Dovetta, A.; Arasaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Area concentrates around of 40% of Brazilian GNP, Santos Harbour is the America South Atlantic Hub Port and São Sebastião Oil Maritime Terminal is the most important oil and gas facility of PETROBRAS, the Brazilian National Petroleum Company. Santos Harbour had in the last decade increased rapidly the container handling rate, being the first in Latin America. In the last decade important oil and gas reserves were discovered in the Santos Oceanic Basin and São Paulo Coastline received a big demand for supplier ships harbours for the petroleum industry. Santos Metropolitan Region is one of the most important of Brazilian Coastline, also considering the turism. For that great economic growth scenario it is very important to have the main maritime hydrodynamics forcing processes, wave climate and tidal levels, well known, considering the sea hazards influence in ship operations. Since the hindcast just represents the deep water wave climate, to make time-series of the waves parameters in coastal waters, for evaluation of sea hazards and ship operations, it is necessary to take into acount the variations of those parameters in shallow waters with coastal instrumental data. Analysis of long term wave data-base (1957-2002) generated by a comparison between wave's data modeled by a "deep water model" (ERA40-ECMWF) and measured wave's data in the years 1982-1984 by a coastal buoy in Santos littoral (São Paulo State, Brazil) was made. Calibration coefficients according to angular sectors of wave's direction were obtained by the comparison of the instrument data with the modeled ones, and applied to the original scenarios. Validation checking procedures with instrumental measurements of storm surges made in other years than 1982-1984 shows high level of confidence. The analysis of the wave climate change on the extreme storm surge wave's conditions, selecting cases of Hs > 3,0 m, using that virtual data-base shows an increase in the Hs

  19. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 12. Stable isotopic evaluation of thermal water occurrences in the Weiser and Little Salmon River drainage basins and adjacent areas, west-central Idaho with attendant gravity and magnetic data on the Weiser area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.; Bideganeta, K.; Palmer, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Fifteen thermal springs, two thermal wells, and eight cold springs in the Weiser and Little Salmon river drainages were sampled for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis during the fall of 1981. The straight-line fit of delta D and delta /sup 18/O versus latitude and longitude observed in the data is what would be expected if the recharge areas for the thermal and non-thermal waters were in close proximity to their respective discharge points. The discrete values of delta D and delta /sup 18/O for each thermal discharge suggest that none of the sampled thermal systems have common sources. The depleted deuterium and oxygen-18 contents of most thermal relative to non-thermal waters sampled suggests that the thermal waters might be Pleistocene age precipitation. The isotopic data suggest little or no evidence for mixing of thermal and non-thermal water for the sampled discharges. Thermal waters from Weiser, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, and White Licks hot springs show enrichment in oxygen-18 suggesting that these waters have been at elevated temperatures relative to other sampled thermal discharges in the area. Gravity and magnetic data gathered by the Idaho State University Geology Department in the Weiser Hot Springs area suggest that southeastward plunging synclinal-anticlinal couples, which underlie the hot springs, are cut south of the springs by a northeast trending boundary fault.

  20. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  1. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation. Part IV: results in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Bøtker-Rasmussen; Kristensen, Jørgen Kvist

    2002-01-01

    (beta)e(t/tau(beta) where P(t) is pressure at time t, P(equ) is equilibrium pressure after dilation, P(alpha) and P(beta) are pressure decay, and tau(alpha) and tau(beta) are time constants. The pressure response was highly affected by the location of the measurement, with the maximum values of the pressure components...... in the high pressure zone and significantly lower values in the prostatic part of the urethra. The variation in pressure thus concurs closely with the density of the striated rhabdosphincter. No significant correlation between age and the pressure components could be demonstrated, whereas the velocity...

  2. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment.

  3. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowski, Tomasz; Tiukało, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  4. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orczykowski Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  5. Block of P2X7 receptors could partly reverse the delayed neuronal death in area CA1 of the hippocampus after transient global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Guo, Zhili; Liu, Xiaofeng; Ouyang, Qing; He, Cheng; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Yuan, Hongbin; Xiang, Zhenghua

    2013-12-01

    Transient global ischemia (which closely resembles clinical situations such as cardiac arrest, near drowning or severe systemic hypotension during surgical procedures), often induces delayed neuronal death in the brain, especially in the hippocampal CA1 region. The mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is not fully understood. In this study, we have shown that the P2X7 receptor antagonist, BBG, reduced delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region after I/R injury; P2X7 receptor expression levels increased before delayed neuronal death after I/R injury; inhibition of the P2X7 receptor reduced I/R-induced microglial microvesicle-like components, IL-1β expression, P38 phosphorylation, and glial activation in hippocampal CA1 region after I/R injury. These results indicate that antagonism of the P2X7 receptor and signaling pathways of microglial MV shedding, such as src-protein tyrosine kinase, P38 MAP kinase and A-SMase, might be a promising therapeutic strategy for clinical treatment of transient global cerebral I/R injury.

  6. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II--sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Nile E; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kunz, James L; Sibley, Paul K; Calhoun, Daniel L; Gilliom, Robert J; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Nowell, Lisa H; Moran, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs, OC pesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants.

  7. The 1-way on-line coupled atmospheric chemistry model system MECO(n – Part 1: The limited-area atmospheric chemistry model COSMO/MESSy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kerkweg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical weather prediction model of the Consortium for Small Scale Modelling (COSMO, maintained by the German weather service (DWD, is connected with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy. This effort is undertaken in preparation of a~new, limited-area atmospheric chemistry model. This model is as consistent as possible, with respect to atmospheric chemistry and related processes, with a previously developed global atmospheric chemistry general circulation model: the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model. The combined system constitutes a new research tool, bridging the global to the meso-γ scale for atmospheric chemistry research. MESSy provides the infrastructure and includes, among others, the process and diagnostic submodels for atmospheric chemistry simulations. Furthermore, MESSy is highly flexible allowing model setups with tailor made complexity, depending on the scientific question. Here, the connection of the MESSy infrastructure to the COSMO model is documented. Previously published prototype submodels for simplified tracer studies are generalised to be plugged-in and used in the global and the limited-area model. They are used to evaluate the tracer transport characteristics of the new COSMO/MESSy model system, an important prerequisite for future atmospheric chemistry applications. A supplementary document with further details on the technical implementation of the MESSy interface into COSMO with a complete list of modifications to the COSMO code is provided.

  8. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  9. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  10. Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, north-east part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Aronica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the analysis of the 1 October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino, with 38 casualties and significant damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 550 million Euro. The main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture conditions and the consequent flash flood in the Giampilieri catchment. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modelling were used to estimate soil moisture conditions, to analyse the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood hydrograph. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, the volume of debris which has gone down into the Giampilieri village was also calculated. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas were produced and analysed.

  11. Compounds with anti-influenza activity: present and future of strategies for the optimal treatment and management of influenza. Part II: Future compounds against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Bragazzi, N L; Panatto, D

    2014-12-01

    In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential for viral replication and propagation. These latter compounds have been developed quite recently. Among the first group, we will focus especially on hemagglutinin, M2 channel and neuraminidase inhibitors. The second group of compounds may pave the way for personalized treatment and influenza management. Combination therapies are also discussed. In recent decades, few antiviral molecules against influenza virus infections have been available; this has conditioned their use during human and animal outbreaks. Indeed, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks, antiviral drugs have usually been administered in mono-therapy and, sometimes, in an uncontrolled manner to farm animals. This has led to the emergence of viral strains displaying resistance, especially to compounds of the amantadane family. For this reason, it is particularly important to develop new antiviral drugs against influenza viruses. Indeed, although vaccination is the most powerful means of mitigating the effects of influenza epidemics, antiviral drugs can be very useful, particularly in delaying the spread of new pandemic viruses, thereby enabling manufacturers to prepare large quantities of pandemic vaccine. In addition, antiviral drugs are particularly valuable in complicated cases of influenza, especially in hospitalized patients. To write this overview, we mined various databases, including Embase, PubChem, DrugBank and Chemical Abstracts Service, and patent repositories.

  12. Zircon U-Pb Ages of Bottom and Top Parts of the Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan Area (West Liaoning Province) and Luanping Area (North Hebei Province) and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Xiaoming; Zhang Yeqing; Yuan Honglin; Hu Zhaochu; Diwu Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    In Lingyuan region of West Liaoning Province, the Zhangjiakou Formation (J3z) and the Yixian Formation (K1y) display an angular unconformity. That is, the Lower Mesozoic strata of the Zhangjiakou Formation are ENE (near E-W) oriented, while the overlying strata of the Yixian Formation exhibit an NNE orientation. The results of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages show the Zhangjiakou Formation formed from about 130 Ma to 132 Ma in Lingyuan and 135 Ma to 136 Ma in Luanping (North Hebei Province), respectively. Three conclusions can be drawn: (1) The Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan is comparable to that in Luanping, with the volcanic rocks of the Zhangjiakou Formation from Lingyuan being younger than those from Luanping. (2) 5-6 Ma difference between the top of the Zhangjiakou Formation and the bottom of the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan proves the angular unconformity between the two formations; and it reflects that the 5-6 Ma interval period is the main period of the transition of tectonic framework in Mesozoic in North Hebei and West Liaoning. In the interval period, the magmatic action went up to high tide in Mesozoic in the northeast of China. Moreover, after the interval period, the "Rehe fauna" developed into "erupted" period. This reflects that the interval period is also an important biological interface in Northern Hebei and Western Liaoning. (3) The Dabeigou Formation in Luanping should correspond to the upper part of the Zhangjiakou Formation, but not to the lower part of the Yixian Formation.

  13. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  14. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  15. Subsurface and seismic investigation of the geopressured-geothermal potential of south Louisiana. Part I: the Abbeville area, September 1, 1978-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, W.R.; Kinsland, G.L.; Duhon, M.P.; Dungan, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The structure investigated is a basin roughly bounded by the Abbeville Dome on the West, the Erath Dome on the Southeast and the Grosse Isle Dome on the Northeast and whose center is located at approximately Section 31 T14S R4E. The geopressured sands investigated are below approximately 12,800 feet (3901 M) in the center of the basin and consist of two groups of rather thin, discontinuous, marly sands. These two groups, rather arbitrarily defined, are termed the upper and lower geopressured sands and the following map types and analyses have been derived from subsurface data of each: structure, temperature, pressure, salinity and net sand maps; and porosity, permeability and methane content analyses. The Reservoir analysis was accomplished by the use of wire line surveys (electric logs) and computer analyses based on standard relationships found in Schlumberger manuals. Seismic analysis proved to be an invaluable tool in establishing the structure of the area.

  16. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the shrubs of Pinus mugo Turra in the green areas of Lublin. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Jaśkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on the shrubs of mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra in the years 1999-2001. Observations were performed on the plants growing in the green areas of Lublin in two sites: a street site (A and a park one (B. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting dwarf mountain pine. The studies on the shrubs of the mountain pine found out the presence of four species of aphids: Cinara pini L., Schizolachnus pineti F., Eulachnus rileyi (Will. and Pineus pini (Ratz.. Among those, only C. pini occurred in both sites in each of the studied years. Weather conditions had an effect on the development of aphid population. A delayed period of vegetation, air temperatures above 30°C as well as stormy rainfalls considerably limited the population of aphids.

  17. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 7. Geochemistry and geologic setting of the thermal waters of the Camas Prairie area, Blaine and Camas Counties, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1976-09-01

    The thermal waters of the east-west trending intermontane basin making up the Camas Prairie area were sampled during the fall of 1973. Average ground water temperature is 15/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/C above mean annual temperature). The thermal waters, chemically similar to thermal waters discharging from granitic rocks elsewhere in Idaho, have high pH, high Na/K and Na/Ca ratios, and high fluoride content. They are low in total dissolved solids (less than 365 mg/l), low in chloride, and exhibit relatively constant chloride/fluoride ratios and silica concentrations. Geochemical thermometers are interpreted to indicate that maximum aquifer temperatures in the Camas Prairie Basin are only about 100/sup 0/C, although higher temperatures were predicted by the quartz equilibrium geochemical thermometer and mixing models. The Magic Hot Springs well, located near the north shore of the Magic Reservoir at Hot Springs Landing, is an exception to these general conclusions. These waters may be circulating to depths approaching 1,800 to 2,500 m along faults or fissures; or may be due to leakage from an aquifer or reservoir heated by a shallow heat source, related perhaps to the Holocene basalt flows south of Magic Reservoir. These waters are nearly neutral in pH, are much higher in dissolved solids, exhibit higher chloride/fluoride, chloride/carbonate plus bicarbonate, and chloride/sulfate ratios, and are, in general, chemically dissimilar to thermal waters elsewhere in the area. Temperatures predicted by geochemical thermometers are thought to indicate that Magic Hot Springs well waters are ascending from an aquifer or reservoir with temperatures from 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Temperatures in this range would be sufficient for application in many industrial processes, including power generation, should sufficient water be available.

  18. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 5. Geochemistry and geologic setting of the thermal waters of the northern Cache Valley area, Franklin County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1976-07-01

    The thermal waters of the north-south trending graben structure known as northern Cache Valley in southeastern Idaho were sampled during the summer and fall of 1973. Geologic and gravity data for the area indicate fault control for nearly all thermal water occurrences. Thermal-water discharges are generally restricted to the course of the Bear River with few known in areas away from the river. Spring deposits in the form of travertine may not be indications of low temperature thermal waters because abundant limestone and dolomite make up the geologic framework. Much gas, believed to consist mostly of carbon dioxide, is being evolved from many of the springs. The hottest water is found near Battle Creek and Squaw hot springs approximately 4 kilometers northwest of the town of Preston. Metoric waters descend along fault planes, fractures, and fissures to depths at which they are heated by increasing rock temperatures (geothermal gradient of 5/sup 0/C per 100 meters). Due to decreased density, the heated waters rise along the same or adjacent fault planes to the surface. The quartz equilibrium geochemical thermometer applied to the thermal water discharges indicates temperatures approaching 150/sup 0/C may be encountered by deep drilling. Mixing models, based on quartz solubility, indicate higher aquifer temperatures than the quartz equilibrium thermometer, but chloride concentration vs. temperature plots are not linear. The sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometer indicates higher temperatures than quartz equilibrium and mixing models. The thermal waters are higher in total dissolved solids (12,000 to 13,000 milligrams per liter) than are known elsewhere in Idaho and represent potential pollution hazards should large scale withdrawal be attempted.

  19. Serum level of Zinc and Copper among pregnant women of Jam area referred to Towhid Hospital,southern part of Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    syead Mojtaba Jafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrients are essential for the healthy growth and development of body organs and they have important roles in the function of immune and skeletal system . During pregnancy, due to the physiological changes for the normal growth of fetal, the need for minerals is significantly increased. The aim of this study was to find the status of serum copper and zinc and their relation to anemia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, cross sectional descriptive study 250 pregnant women (mean age, 27.2±5.5 participated. They attended the medical center (In Jam area, Bushehr, Iran for routine checkups. Blood was collected from them and serum levels of Copper and Zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophothometric method. Hemoglobin and other indexes were measured by Automatic Counter analyzer. Results: the mean serum concentration of copper and Zinc were 126.5±56.7 g/dl and 67.6±18.2 g/dl respectively. Also the percentage of their deficiency was 21.2% and 47.2% respectively. The mean level of hemoglobin in the subjects was 11.9±1.2 and the percentage of anemia (Hb < 11g/dl was 21.6%. There was a significant differences between increases in gestational age and the deficiency of copper and zinc in the participants, which is as the pregnancy progress, the deficiency of Copper reduces (p=0.024 and that of Zinc increases(p=0.036. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the deficiency of Copper, Zinc and the rate of anemia in the pregnant women of Jam area is significantly high and suggests that a proper interventional program should be planned to monitor such women at risk, before their marriage or in prenatal clinics.

  20. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S BORDER AREAS: CROATIA AS A REGIONAL MODEL FOR DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PULIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The newest member joined the European Union (EU with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Although not very successful in public diplomacy, a complex system of coordinated activities that Croatia implemented resulted in strengthening the perception and image of the overall destination brand. This research aims at exploring the Croatian destination branding strategy as a potential model for its closest neighboring country, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. Sharing a common history, borders and people, BIH and Croatia represent a unique comparative case study for regional spill-over development between the EU and non-EU countries. Therefore, this study takes into account what has been done so far on both sides regarding destination branding strategy, thus exploring what lessons could be learned from Croatia and what is the best future regional approach for creating a BIH’s destination brand.

  1. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-07-26

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise.

  2. Innovating Development and Marketing Strategy of Agricultural Products in China's Suburban Mountainous Area%我国近郊山区农产品特色资源开发及营销策略创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 袁士芳

    2014-01-01

    Mountain agricultural resource development and marketing has always been a main restricting factors of farmers' income growth. First,the characteristics of the suburban mountain agricultural products and operation in China and the condition of resource development and marketing are analyzed. On this basis discusses the suburban mountain agricultural resource,traffic,market,policy,and the problems of labor resources,etc. Research shows that,through the agricultural products processing,creative development,experiential marketing, network marketing for agricultural products and urban stores operating characteristic such as resource development and marketing strategy innovation,not only can improve the added value of agricultural products, increase farmers' income,can also drive the local economic development,make the suburban mountainous area agriculture is an important part of modern agriculture development in our country.%山区农产品资源开发和营销一直是制约我国农户收入增长的主要因素。首先对我国近郊山区农产品生产和经营的特点、资源开发和营销状况进行了分析。在此基础上探讨了近郊山区农产品资源、交通、市场、政策及劳动力资源等方面存在的问题。研究表明,通过农产品加工、创意农产品开发、农产品体验式营销、网络营销及都市直营店经营等特色资源开发及营销策略创新,不仅可以提高农产品的附加值,增加农民收入,还可以带动地方经济发展,使近郊山区农业成为我国现代农业发展的重要组成部分。

  3. Worldwide glacier monitoring as part of policy-related climate observation: development and strategy of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.; Zemp, M.

    2011-12-01

    Internationally coordinated observation of long-term glacier fluctuations as a key indication of global climate changes has a long tradition, starting already in 1894. With the development of the Global Climate Observing System in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, glaciers and ice caps became an Essential Climate Variable within the Global Terrestrial Observing System. A corresponding Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was indeed established as a pilot project to this program. The basic principles followed by GTN-G and similar networks are to be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community and the public. Following recommendations by the International Council for Sciences, a contribution should be made to free and unrestricted international sharing of high-quality, long-term and standardized data and information products. A tiered strategy was adopted in order to bridge the gap between detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage through satellite remote sensing. Efforts were also made to ensure continuity of long-term measurement series by combining traditional approaches with modern, future-oriented technologies. Today, the GTN-G is jointly run by three operational bodies in glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service, the US National Snow and Ice Data Center, and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space initiative. With an online service, GTN-G provides fast access to regularly updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. Currently, this includes global information from 100,000 glaciers mainly based on aerial photographs and outlines from 95,000 glaciers mainly based on satellite images, length change series from 1,800 glaciers, mass balance series from 250 glaciers, information on special events (e.g., hazards, surges, calving instabilities) from 130 glaciers, as well as 13,000 photographs from some 500

  4. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part II. Treatment-related late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Taylor, R.E. [Radiotherapy Dept., Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarzello, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Padua General Hospital (Italy); Gnekow, A.K. [Children' s Hospital Augsburg (Germany); Dieckmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, General Hospital Vienna (Austria)

    2003-09-01

    such as neurocognitive and endocrinological outcome are needed in order to clarify the impact of radiation therapy on the risk of late sequelae. Presently, the strategy to postpone radiotherapy in the younger children, especially with NF, is justified to reduce the risk of late effects. These information and the contribution of tumor, surgery and chemotherapy will help to define the role of radiation therapy in the future management of childhood low-grade glioma and whether the use of highly sophisticated and expensive treatment techniques is justifiable. The recently initiated prospective study of the APRO (Pediatric Radiooncology Working Party) on documentation of dose prescription to organs at risk and the network of the GPOH to explore late effects as well as the forthcoming prospective SIOP/GPOH (International Society of Pediatric Oncology/German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology) LGG 2003 trial are addressing these issues. (orig.)

  5. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II—sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Nile E.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Sibley, Paul K.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs,OCpesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants. Sediments are a repository for many contaminants released into surface waters. Because of this, organisms inhabiting sediments may be exposed to a wide range of contaminants (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000; American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] American Society for Testing and Materials International 2012). Contaminants of potential concern in sediments typically include trace elements (metals

  6. Burns and injuries from non-electric-appliance fires in low- and middle-income countries Part II. A strategy for intervention using the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Oen, Irma M M; Swart, Dehran; Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2008-05-01

    A large proportion of burns in developing countries are related to the nature of domestic appliances used for cooking, heating, and lighting. Our overview of the problem elucidated the need for better surveillance with epidemiologic studies, which will more accurately assess the true incidence in vulnerable populations. This paper will create a framework for envisaging new approaches to the problem and begin to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of proposed interventions. We used the Haddon Matrix to accumulate proposed interventions that encompass a pre-event, event, and post-event timeline. We propose an initial strategic outline plan for interventions based on values that are suited to the problem and the setting, are culturally appropriate, and can be employed in a reasonable period of time for a sustained period to ensure success. Recommended action steps include promoting the use of alternative energy sources, encouraging an integrated approach to finding interdisciplinary solutions, devising a better system of kerosene containerization, re-engineering appliance designs, legislating for enforcement of health and safety standards, taking a holistic approach through government inter-departmental collaboration, formally discouraging corruption, encouraging ventilation of cooking or living areas, implementing building codes, educating consumers, and training caregivers and health and emergency workers.

  7. On analysis of partial utility of light areas of buildings lighting parts%建筑采光部分利用采光区域的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文智

    2014-01-01

    Introduces the concepts for the partial and full utilities of of natural lighting areas,adopts the light environment simulation software to calculate and analyze the lighting coefficient of the simulated rooms,researches the relationship between the glazing floor ratio and average light-ing coefficient with different lighting conditions,so it is meaningful for the construction lighting energy-saving evaluation at the design stage.%介绍了部分利用天然采光区域与全部利用天然采光区域的概念,采用光环境模拟软件,对模拟房间内的采光系数进行了计算分析,并研究了不同采光条件下窗地比与平均采光系数之间的关系,对今后设计阶段的建筑采光节能评价有重要意义。

  8. Evaluation of geophysical techniques for the detection of paleochannels in the Oakland area of eastern Nebraska as part of the Eastern Nebraska Water Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Asch, Theodore H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Cannia, James C.; Phillips, Jeffery D.; Lackey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Over the winter and spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a general assessment of the capabilities of several geophysical tools to delineate buried paleochannel aquifers in the glacial terrain of eastern Nebraska. Mapping these paleochannels is an important objective for the Eastern Nebraska Water Resources Assessment group. Previous attempts at mapping these channels included a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over an area near the town of Oakland, Nebraska, in March 2007. This survey had limited success in imaging the paleochannels due to the restricted depth of investigation of the system in the clay-rich till overburden. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other airborne electromagnetic or surface geophysical techniques, including audio-magnetotelluric, time-domain electromagnetic, gravity, and magnetic methods, could be used to image the paleochannels in the clay-rich tills of eastern Nebraska. This report releases the results of testing the ability of selected geophysical techniques to map aquifers in glacial deposits near the town of Oakland, Nebraska.

  9. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  10. A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    insuring national legislations does not cause unnecessary or irrational trade barriers. A qualitative import risk assessment model has been presented by EFSA. The EFSA model estimates the annual risk of importing infected dogs from an endemic area to a specific free country when taking into account...... of eggs excreted in this area, and that this is a better measure of risk than the number of infected dogs crossing the border. An import risk assessment model do not differentiate between dogs with many or few worms, between long or short stays in the free area, whether the worms are egg producing...... as the duration each of these worms remaining lifespan together with the number of days the dog will spend in the non-endemic country. The model also takes into account that the worms undergo a 30 days immature stage before developing into a mature egg producing stage. The model allows for a comparison...

  11. The Cooperation of the Danube Countries within the frames of the Priority Area 11 of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region /EUSDR/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Koev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to underline the importance of the issues, which are object of intervention within Priority 11 of the EUSDR, namely working together to tackle security and organized crime. The author has presented a large scale study on the security issues in European context, reflected in his PhD dissertation. Exploration of the existing EU programming documents and strategic plans for cooperation in the area of security. Through examining the progress of activities and results within the Priority area 11 of the EUSDR, the author outlines the contribution of all Danube countries for the cooperation in security within the Danube region. The paper can attract the attention of academics, stakeholders and NGOs on initiating of projects within the Priority area 11 of EUSDR. The added value of the paper is in finding the interconnection between guaranteeing the security in all its types within the Danube space and the prosperity of the region.

  12. Petrotectonic framework of granulites from northern part of Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: Compressional vis-à-vis transpressional tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushik Das; Sankar Bose; Subrata Karmakar; Supriya Chakraborty

    2012-02-01

    Granulite-facies rocks occurring north-east of the Chilka Lake anothosite (Balugan Massif) show a complex metamorphic and deformation history. The M1–D1 stage is identified only through microscopic study by the presence of S1 internal foliation shown by the M1 assemblage sillimanite–quartz–plagioclase–biotite within garnet porphyroblasts of the aluminous granulites and this fabric is obliterated in outcrop to map-scale by subsequent deformations. S2 fabric was developed at peak metamorphic condition (M2–D2­) and is shown by gneissic banding present in all lithological units. S3 fabric was developed due to D3 deformation and it is tectonically transposed parallel to S2 regionally except at the hinge zone of the F3 folds. The transposed S2/S3 fabric is the regional characteristic structure of the area. The D4 event produced open upright F4 folds, but was weak enough to develop any penetrative foliation in the rocks except few spaced cleavages that developed in the quartzite/garnet–sillimanite gneiss. Petrological data suggest that the M4–D4 stage actually witnessed reactivation of the lower crust by late distinct tectonothermal event. Presence of transposed S2/S3 fabric within the anorthosite arguably suggests that the pluton was emplaced before or during the M3–D3 event. Field-based large-scale structural analyses and microfabric analyses of the granulites reveal that this terrain has been evolved through superposed folding events with two broadly perpendicular compression directions without any conclusive evidence for transpressional tectonics as argued by earlier workers. Tectonothermal history of these granulites spanning in Neoproterozoic time period is dominated by compressional tectonics with associated metamorphism at deep crust.

  13. Management Strategies of Perceived Challenges and Problems of Old People in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ojukwu M.O.; S.I. Woko

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed that over the years, the number of the aged in the world has been on a steady increase. This rising number has great implications for government, researchers, families, youth and the society at large. There is therefore, the proper need for the understanding of the nature problems and challenges as well as the management strategies the aged adopt at this stage of life. The issue of old and preparation for it has been a case of global concern because of the problems associ...

  14. Contact areas of the scaphoid and lunate with the distal radius in neutral and extension: correlation of falling strategies and distal radial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y R; Wu, Y F; Tang, J B; Giddins, G

    2014-05-01

    The functional neutral of wrist movement is about 10° extension yet the distal radius has a volar tilt. This has not previously been explained. Assuming that the contact area between the carpus and the distal radius increased in wrist extension this would also help stabilize the carpus on the distal radius in positions where typically there is greater loading. To test this hypothesis we reconstructed three-dimensional structures of the carpal bones and distal radius using computed tomography scans of 13 normal wrists. The contact areas of the scaphoid with the distal radius were measured and were found progressively increased from flexion 20°, neutral, extension 20°, to extension 40°. The maximal increases in the contact area of the scaphoid and the distal radius was at full wrist extension. No significant changes in the contact areas of the lunate with the distal radius were found between the different positions. The contact characteristics provide greater stability to the carpus on the distal radius, and to help spread forces from impact to the wrist reducing the transmitted peak forces and thus the risk of distal radius and carpal injuries.

  15. Investigacion Educativa: Areas - Politicas - Estrategias y Proyectos del ICOLPE, 2 (Educational Research: Topics, Policies, Strategies, and Projects of the Colombian Institute of Pedagogy, 2),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This booklet defines and establishes guidelines for educational research in Colombia. Sections describe basic philosophy and objectives, types of research, policies for educational investigation, governmental role, and principle areas for educational research. A listing of current and proposed research projects is provided. The final section…

  16. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; ZHANG SiWei

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West", an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation, extensive collaboration in argumen-tation and decision-making, and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China's old industrial district remodeling, the paper offers some suggestions.

  17. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China.

  18. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3 : Area 5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y. Z.; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J.; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J.; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M.; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H.; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman-Rodriguez, M.; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D.; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H. A.; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C.; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D. Y.; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L.; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS int

  19. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3 Area 5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D.; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS int

  20. 高职院校环艺专业校企专兼团队构建策略研究%Vocational Colleges Environmental Art School-Enterprise Full-time and Part-time Team Building Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 孙巍

    2015-01-01

    Vigorously promote school-enterprise cooperation, and fully mobilize the initiative to participate in the team is to achieve long-term stable operation of school-enterprise cooperation is important guarantee. Based school-enterprise cooper-ation in higher vocational college and part way to build a team to expand the analysis and strategy, focusing on analysis of team building motivation, infrastructure, and security for mechanism.%大力推进校企合作,充分调动参与团队的能动性,是实现校企合作长久稳定运行重要保障.本文基于高职院校环艺专业校企合作专兼团队构建方式与策略展开分析,重点剖析团队构建动因、基础及运行保障机制.

  1. SOFT MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rossoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A certain resistance on the part of the responsible controllers for the strategy exists, in using techniques and tools of modeling and simulation. Many find them excessively complicated, already others see them as rigid and mathematical for excessively for the use of strategies in uncertain and turbulent environments. However, some interpretative boarding that take care of, in part exist, the necessities of these borrowers of decision. The objective of this work is to demonstrate of a clear and simple form, some of the most powerful boarding, methodologies and interpretative tools (soft of modeling and simulation in the business-oriented area of strategy. We will define initially, what they are on models, simulation and some aspects to the modeling and simulation in the strategy area. Later we will see some boarding of modeling soft, that they see the modeling process much more of that simply a mechanical process, therefore, as seen for Simon, the human beings rationally are limited and its decisions are influenced by a series of questions of subjective character, related to the way where it is inserted. Keywords: strategy, modeling and simulation, soft systems methodology, cognitive map, systems dynamics.

  2. Signal Control Strategies for Bottleneck Area on Urban Expressway%城市快速路瓶颈区域控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹胜超; 许润民; 张毅; 李志恒

    2012-01-01

    Urban expressways in China have special features. Distance between on-ramp and off-ramp is relatively shorter compared with tins that in developed countries ( normally longer than 1000 m) , off-ramps are usually connected with urban streets and intersections. Thus successful ramp control strategies used in Europe or U.S. may not be suitable in China. First, this paper studies traffic flow characteristics at several representative "bottlenecks" in Beijing urban expressways. Efforts are devoted to improve the capability of traffic simulation platform to simulate detailed traffic behaviours by calibrating simulation model parameters. Efficiencies of different signal control strategies in road network involving on-ramp, off-ramp, adjacent streets and intersections are compared. Results indicate that combing adaptive ramp control with Synchronization signal control strategies is an efficient way to enhance road capacity and alleviate congestions for urban expressways.%中国的城市快速路与发达国家相比有着截然不同的特征.中国城市快速路匝道出入口之间距离相对较短,且城市快速路匝道出口经常与城市道路交叉口相连,因此在欧美成功应用的快速路匝道控制方案不一定适用于中国.本文详细描述了如何在仿真中设置模型参数,使得城市快速路交通流特性仿真结果与实际测量值具有较高的匹配精度.在具体阐述自适应与协同信号控制策略的基础之上,给出了各种方案在匝道入口、出口辅路和出口下游交叉口的具体部署方案.最终仿真结果表明,自适应和协同控制策略能够提高瓶颈区域道路通行能力8% -9%,有效地缓解城市快速路交通拥堵.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  4. The storage strategy of non-geometric information of parts in PDM based on NoSQL%基于NoSQL的PDM零件非几何信息存储策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秀峰; 郭洋

    2015-01-01

    With the application of MBD in the manufacturing industry,a large number of unstructured da-taisstoredinthePDMsystemwhichis hard to process by RDB. A hybrid storage strategy is proposed with RDB to store description information of parts and NoSQL to store non-geometric-information. It uses the structural characteristics of RDB to facilitate the query and statistics,and fully usesthestorage structures of NoSQL to process unstructured data quickly. The experimental results show that this strategy can effectively improve the query speed and reduce the data storage space.%MBD技术在制造业上的应用,使现有PDM系统中存在着大量RDB难以处理的非结构化数据。提出了一种PDM混合数据存储策略,用RDB存储零件的描述信息,而其实际内容则用No-SQL数据库存储。该方案不仅可以利用RDB的结构化特点来方便查询与统计,还能充分利用No-SQL灵活的存储结构较快处理非结构化数据。实验结果表明,该策略可以有效的提升查询速度,降低数据的存储空间。

  5. Promotion of sustainable forms of renewable energy key to poverty eradiction strategies among poor people in rural areas of Kenya. A call for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Githinji, M.M. [Rural Friends Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2004-07-01

    Energy is very essential for sustainable development in rural areas. Electricity supply in Kenya is confined mostly in major urban centres only. Poor people rely on unsustainable forms of energy sources mainly burning of wood for domestic needs such as lighting resulting in serious environmental and health consequences among them, desertification and internal pollution. The latter is a pre-cursor of prevalent asthmatic conditions. There is therefore an urgent and greater need to provide sustainable and affordable forms of renewable energy to poor people in rural areas for household use and to help stimulate development activities in information technology and other light agro-industries. We propose a credit scheme through a revolving fund to enable poor people access solar technology to meet their energy needs. We appeal for support from the international community in this initiative. (orig.)

  6. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  7. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmithals

    Full Text Available North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  8. Strategies for attraction and retention of health workers in remote and difficult-to-access areas of Chhattisgarh, India: Do they work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra Lisam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To address the acute shortages of health workers in underserved, remote, and difficult-to-access areas, the Government of Chhattisgarh and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM launched the Chhattisgarh Rural Medical Corps (CRMC in 2009. CRMC has enabled provisions such as financial incentives, residential accommodation, life insurance, and extra marks during admission at the postgraduate (PG level to eligible doctors for the attraction and retention of health workers, i.e., doctors, staff nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs, and rural medical assistants (RMAs in underserved areas. Objectives: This study aims to understand the CRMC scheme in terms of implementation, challenges, gaps, and outcome in achieving the attraction and retention of health workers in the remote and difficult-to-access areas of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The study adopts a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purposive sampling method was used for the selection of three districts having normal, difficult, and inaccessible areas. Data were collected through key informant (KI interviews with beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of CRMC or district and state government officials, and reviews of document were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: CRMC has made positive outcome as 1319 health workers, including doctors, have joined the service in 2010-11, reducing the vacancy of doctors from 90% to 45%. The scope of CRMC was primarily limited to payment of monthly financial incentives. The fund utilization rate of CRMC has increased (from 27% in 2009-10 to 98% in 2011-12, though there are delays in payment of incentives. The majority of staff lack awareness about CRMC during job applications. The payment of incentives based on facility performance has demotivated staff. Conclusions: Establishment of a performance management system, activating the CRMC cell to make it functional, and wide publicity of CRMC

  9. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West" ,an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation,extensive collaboration in argumentation and decision-making,and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China’s old industrial district remodeling,the paper offers some suggestions.

  10. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    OpenAIRE

    Bousquet, J.; Farrell, J.; Crooks, G.; Hellings, P; Bel, E. H.; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J. Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T.; Joos, G.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact ...

  11. A Study on Hydrogeological Condition and Water Inflow Calculation in Deep Part Baoding Mine Area%宝鼎矿区深部水文地质条件研究及涌水量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏克敏; 赵茂森; 王友长

    2011-01-01

    宝鼎矿区浅部资源行将枯竭,深部开采已迫在眉睫,而预测深部涌水量成为其首要解决的问题.通过对矿区深部水文地质条件研究与矿井充水因素的分析,认为矿区各含水间水力联系差,同一含水层组的不同地段间的含水裂隙的连通性亦差;断层多为高角度压性逆断层,导水性差,富水性弱;矿区上部水平及下部水平的浅埋区的充水水源主要为大气降水和老窑水,而下部水平主要的充水水源为上覆水平的采空区积水和地下水.运用比拟法和地下水动力学对延深的第一接替水平四个区段的较大涌水量和一般涌水量进行了计算,经过比较,采用了比拟法的计算结果:矿井的一般涌水量为2 860.88m3/d,据此提出了切实可行防治水措施,从而为矿井深部建设提供了水文地质依据.%The coal resources in the shallow part Baoding mine area about to exhausted, thus the deep part mining is extremely urgent, while the prediction of deep part water inflow is the first issue to be solved. Through mine area hydrogeological condition study and mine water filling factor analysis, considered that the hydraulic connection between aquifers are rather poor, connectivity of water-bearing fractures in different sectors of a same aquifer (group) is also poor. Faults in the area are mostly high angle compressive reverse faults with poor transmissibility and water yield property. Water filling sources of mine area upper levels and shallow part of lower levels are mainly atmospheric precipitation and gob area water, while main water filling sources of lower levels are gob area water from overlying levels and groundwater. Using analogue method and groundwater dynamics carry out computation for greater and general mine inflows in four sectors of deepening first relayed level. After comparison, results from analogue method are adopted:general mine inflow is 2860.88m3/d. For reason given above, practical water control

  12. Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.

  13. Local and Global Parsing with Functional (FX-bar Theory and SCD Linguistic Strategy (I. Part I. FX-bar Schemes and Theory. Local and Global FX-bar Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys latest developments of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency linguistic strategy, with its basic components: FX-bar theory with local and (two extensions to global structures, the hierarchy graph of SCD marker classes, and improved versions of SCD algorithms for segmentation and parsing of local and global text structures. Briefly, Part I brings theoretical support (predicational feature and semantic diathesis for handing down the predication from syntactic to lexical level, introduces the new local / global FX-bar schemes (graphs for clause-level and discourse-level, the (global extension of dependency graph for SCD marker classes, the problem of (direct and inverse local FX-bar projection of the verbal group (verbal complex, and the FX-bar global projections, with the special case of sub-clausal discourse segments. Part II discusses the implications of the functional generativity concept for local and global markers, with a novel understanding on the taxonomy of text parsing algorithms, specifies the SCD marker classes, both at clause and discourse level, and presents (variants of SCD local and global segmentation / parsing algorithms, along with their latest running results.

  14. Analysis of biomedical industrial development strategy in Shiyan area based on SWOT%基于SWOT对十堰地区生物医药产业发展战略的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富超; 方宝霞; 李鹏; 杨曼; 朱军; 陈琴华

    2010-01-01

    Relying on unique wild Chinese crude drug, animal and plant resources of Wudang Mountain and Shennongjia, biological pharmacy technology and talent advantages, Shiyan area has a definite competitive advantage in the development of biomedicine industry. This paper analyzed the current situation of biomedical industry and put forward corresponding strategies in Shiyan area based on SWOT.%十堰市依托武当山和神农架特有的野生中药材、动植物资源、生物制药技术以及人才优势,在发展生物医药产业方面具有一定的竞争优势.本文运用SWOT方法对十堰地区生物医药产业的发展现状进行分析评价,并提出了相应的对策.

  15. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  16. Strategies for Developing Cultural Economy in Minority Areas%浅析少数民族地区文化经济发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆艳; 穆智

    2014-01-01

    To develop cultural economy fuels the economic growth at county level in minority areas. The cultures in minority areas are di-versified, separated by regions, inherited in mystical ways and shared inside a nation respectively. The ethnic culture affects the economic behavior of minority laborers and the economic objects at county level. It has both positive roles and restriction to the growth of the county economy. The growth of cultural economy in minority areas could be facilitated by developing ethnic culture industry groups, creating cul-tural brands, establishing multi-variety investment agencies, and proactively developing cultural resources.%发展少数民族地区文化经济成为促进少数民族地区县域经济发展的推动力。少数民族地区形成了独具特色的文化,且具有多样性、分布区域性、传承的神秘性以及民族的共同性。少数民族特有的民族文化影响了少数民族劳动者的经济行为、县域经济客体;而对县域经济发展具有双重作用。应大力培育和发展文化产业,加快建立、培育和发展特色民族文化产业集团;不断创建民族文化品牌;积极构建多元化投资机构,吸引投资;积极开发文化资源,大力发展文化产业以促进少数民族地区文化经济发展。

  17. Land resources allocation strategies in an urban area involving uncertainty: a case study of Suzhou, in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shasha; Guan, Xingliang; Zhou, Min; Wang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    A large number of mathematical models have been developed to support land resource allocation decisions and land management needs; however, few of them can address various uncertainties that exist in relation to many factors presented in such decisions (e.g., land resource availabilities, land demands, land-use patterns, and social demands, as well as ecological requirements). In this study, a multi-objective interval-stochastic land resource allocation model (MOISLAM) was developed for tackling uncertainty that presents as discrete intervals and/or probability distributions. The developed model improves upon the existing multi-objective programming and inexact optimization approaches. The MOISLAM not only considers economic factors, but also involves food security and eco-environmental constraints; it can, therefore, effectively reflect various interrelations among different aspects in a land resource management system. Moreover, the model can also help examine the reliability of satisfying (or the risk of violating) system constraints under uncertainty. In this study, the MOISLAM was applied to a real case of long-term urban land resource allocation planning in Suzhou, in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Interval solutions associated with different risk levels of constraint violation were obtained. The results are considered useful for generating a range of decision alternatives under various system conditions, and thus helping decision makers to identify a desirable land resource allocation strategy under uncertainty.

  18. Effective panchromatic sensitization of electrochemical solar cells: strategy and organizational rules for spatial separation of complementary light harvesters on high-area photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Nak Cheon; Son, Ho-Jin; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Lee, Chang Yeon; Jensen, Rebecca A; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2012-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells, especially those comprising molecular chromophores and inorganic titania, have shown promise as an alternative to silicon for photovoltaic light-to-electrical energy conversion. Co-sensitization (the use of two or more chromophores having complementary absorption spectra) has attracted attention as a method for harvesting photons over a broad spectral range. If implemented successfully, then cosensitization can substantially enhance photocurrent densities and light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies. In only a few cases, however, have significant overall improvements been obtained. In most other cases, inefficiencies arise due to unconstructive energy or charge transfer between chromophores or, as we show here, because of modulation of charge-recombination behavior. Spatial isolation of differing chromophores offers a solution. We report a new and versatile method for fabricating two-color photoanodes featuring spatially isolated chromophore types that are selectively positioned in desired zones. Exploiting this methodology, we find that photocurrent densities depend on both the relative and absolute positions of chromophores and on "local" effective electron collection lengths. One version of the two-color photoanode, based on an organic push-pull dye together with a porphyrin dye, yielded high photocurrent densities (J(SC) = 14.6 mA cm(-2)) and double the efficiency of randomly mixed dyes, once the dyes were optimally positioned with respect to each other. We believe that the organizational rules and fabrication strategy will prove transferrable, thereby advancing understanding of panchromatic sensitization as well as yielding higher efficiency devices.

  19. Development of air sampling strategies for monitoring common air pollutants in a mission area at Camp Victoria in Kosovo--stationary vs. personal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfors, Håkan; Hägglund, Lars; Magnusson, Roger; Höjer, Karin

    2009-06-01

    It can be problematic to collect representative samples in the occupational environment of deployed soldiers using personal samplers. In this study, several air sampling strategies were examined to identify the most efficient method for collecting air samples that were representative of the soldiers' exposure profiles at the Swedish KFOR Camp Victoria outside Pristina, Kosovo. Stationary monitoring was performed during two 5-day sampling campaigns, one in summer and one in winter. The acquired data were related to measurements obtained by personal monitoring of three and four subgroups, respectively. Patrolling soldiers, mechanics, and indoor workers were selected to represent groups with different exposure profiles, and the particles, metals associated with particles, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds that they were exposed to were measured. Generally, low concentrations of the analytes were found in both sampling periods, but the variability was greater in the winter campaign. Samples collected by stationary samplers captured most of the variation in the personnel's exposure, according to principal component analysis (PCA). However, the results also indicate that personal exposure to most potential pollutants would be underestimated if a single outdoor station was used to monitor them. Nevertheless, combined data from stations located outdoors and in relevant microenvironments (workshop, office, and guard station) provided substantially better representation. Thus, it may be possible to obtain monitoring data without using personal samplers in these inherently problematic situations.

  20. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  1. Counterfeit Parts Prevention Strategy Guide Product Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-08

    Scott Anderson Seaker scott.anderson@seaker.com Aaron Apruzzese ATK aaron.apruzzese@atk.com Chic Arey NRO areyc@nro.mil Brent Armand Orbital...Sheffield SSL jonathan.sheffield@sslmda.com Andrew Shroyer Ball ashroyer@ball.com Fredic Silverman HSTC fsilverman@hstc.com Rob Singh SSL rob.singh

  2. Development Situation and Strategies on Outdoor Leisure Tourism of Emei Mountain Loop Tour Area%峨眉山旅游环线地区户外休闲旅游的发展现状与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海宾

    2016-01-01

    随着峨眉山建构观光、休闲度假的复合型旅游转型战略,峨眉山旅游环线地区的旅游发展将起到至关重要的作用,文章在峨眉山旅游环线地区户外休闲旅游的发展现状的基础上,从规划、营销、安全保障三方面提出了峨眉山旅游环线地区户外休闲旅游的发展策略。%Tourism development in Emei Mountain loop tour area plays a crucial role in the construction of multi-tourism transition strategy in Emei Mountain of sightseeing, leisure and vacation. Based on the de-velopment status of outdoor leisure tourism in Emei Mountain loop tour area, this paper proposes related de-velopment strategies in terms of planning, marketing and security guarantee.

  3. Walrus parts collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached field diary notes provide documentation of walrus parts collection activities which occurred in the Nome and surrounding area during the periods of May...

  4. On Development Strategy of Combination Newly-developed Area with Media in North Fujian%论闽北新兴发展区域媒体融合发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路善全

    2011-01-01

    The media fusion is not only one kind of technology advancement,is also one kind of medium shape innovation;Is not only the method,is also the goal.The Minbei North Fujian emerging developed area transformation media development way,chooses road of inevitably the medium fusion."Chengdu pattern","the Mudanjiang pattern" provided for the Minbei emerging developed area media fusion development has experienced and uses for reference.The new media time Minbei emerging developed area media fusion development strategy includes:Implements three steps walks the strategy,the carrying out gradation reform;The establishment group politics localization,the strengthened organization guaranteed;Speeds up the construction infrastructure,establishes the multiple simulated markets;Strengthens the talented person troop construction,the promotion public medium accomplishment.%媒体融合既是一种技术进步,也是一种媒介形态创新;既是手段,也为目的。闽北新兴发展区域转变媒体发展方式,必然选择走媒介融合之路。"成都模式"、"牡丹江模式"为闽北新兴发展区域媒体融合发展提供了经验和借鉴。新媒体时代闽北新兴发展区域媒体融合发展策略包括:实施三步走战略,推行渐进性改革;确立集团政治定位,强化组织保证;加快建设基础设施,建立多重模拟市场;加强人才队伍建设,提升公众媒介素养。

  5. Early rheumatoid arthritis in Italy: study of incidence based on a two-level strategy in a sub-area of Florence (Scandicci-Le Signe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Maurizio; Cammelli, Emanuela; Manfredi, Mariangela; Saviola, Gianantonio; Baiardi, Paola; Mannoni, Alessandro

    2008-06-01

    The concept of Early Arthritis represents a new diagnostic-therapeutic strategy in modern rheumatology. Even if many Early Arthritis clinics are starting up, we do not yet know the frequency of this pathology in the Italian population. With the collaboration of 20 general practictioners (GPs) operating in the municipalities of Scandicci, Lastra a Signa and Signa, we assessed the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis and of new cases of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (ERA) in the period from 1.09.2005 to 31.08.2006. The general population over 18 years old in the three municipalities according to the political electoral lists in April 2006 was as follows: Scandicci 42,474 (Males 20,290; Females 22,184), Lastra a Signa 15,368 (M 7,458; F 7,910) and Signa 13,372 (M 6,439; F 6,933). The total number of patients followed by the 20 GPs was 32,521 according to the records of ASL10 Florence. In one year 920 patients were referred by their GPs to a rheumatologist with suspected early undifferentiated arthritis according to Emery's criteria. The patients underwent a rheumatological examination and the rheumatoid factor IgM, hidden rheumatoid factors (IgG and IgA) and IgG antibodies anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinate peptides) with a semiquantitative immuno-enzymatic test ELISA were investigated. In one year we observed 32 new cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis, of which 8 were males and 24 were females. The rate of incidence with respective intervals of confidence of 95% was 0.98 per thousand (0.64-1.32 per thousand). The average age was 47.7 +/- 10.5 in the females and 54.9 +/- 10.3 in the males. The patients had an average history of illness in months of 5.2 +/- 1.3 F versus 4.6 +/- 1.1 M, number of tender joints 6.2 +/- 2.3 F versus 5.3 +/- 2.2 M, number of swollen joints 4.8 +/- 1.4 F versus 4.2 +/- 1.5 M, a global assessment of 64.3 +/- 10 F versus 53 +/- 12 M, ESR (mm/h) 49.2 +/- 11.3 F versus 43.3 +/- 12.5 M, CRP (mg/dl) 2.8 +/- 1.3 F versus 2.3 +/- 1.4 M, DAS28 5.55 +/- 1.2 F

  6. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China-Take Xinlong County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example%实施PPET战略,发展西部民族地区生态旅游

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂兰

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken areas. However,they were isola ted for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as an example.

  7. Geothermal investigations in Idaho, Part 2, An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho - with a section on a reconnaissance audio-magnetotelluric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, Donald B.; Tippens, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression (possibly a graben) in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. They are transected by a prominent system of northwest-trending faults. For discussion purposes, the aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-metres underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/l) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/l. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/l. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5 to 83.0 degrees C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0 to 83.0 degrees C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35 degrees C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150 degrees C. However, a mixed-water geochemical thermometer indicates that temperatures at depth may exceed 180 degrees C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers. The thermal waters

  8. Cities, Towns and Villages, Rural Villages: As part of the Comprehensive Plan - Land Use. The most common use is for the interpretation of land within the Rural Village Zoning Area. These areas also coincide with Priority Funding Areas which the county, state, and federal use to all, Published in 1997, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County GIS Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1997. It is described as...

  9. A new interpretation of the deep-part of Senegal-Mauritanian Basin in the Diourbel-Thies area by integrating seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and borehole data: Implication for petroleum exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Matar; Ngom, Papa Malick; Gorin, Georges; Villeneuve, Michel; Sartori, Mario; Medou, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The Diourbel-Thies area is located in the centre of the onshore part of the Senegal-Mauritanian Basin (SMB). The new interpretation of old petroleum data (2-D seismic lines and drilling data of three oil wells) in the deeppart of this poorly evaluated zone, integrating gravimetric and magnetic data, has allowed the distinction of the Hercynian ante-rift phase (U1) which is distinguished from the syn-rift phase (U2) probably of Permo-Triassic to Middle Jurassic age. The syn-rift phase resulted in a series of compartments or grabens infilling aligned in a North-South direction. Tholeiitic volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is present in the syn-rift phase of the Diourbel-Thies area. The syn-rift deposits and associated volcanics allow us to surmise that the Diourbel basin represents a deeper rift basin. In comparison with other Central Atlantic Margins (CAM), the Diourbel rift basin could be one of the numerous rift basins that formed during the Permo-Triassic age. From a petroleum exploration perspective, the existence of the Diourbel rift basin is attractive because of the presence of structures that are excellent for deep gas exploration.

  10. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN HEALTH AND WELLNESSDI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Pramono

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a tourist destination, the name of Bali is popular having health and wellness tourism area, and in several times was known as one of the best spa destinations. The industry of health and wellness in Bali hasbeen become a part of tourism Department, and it need strategy for development in accordance to face theregional and world competition. This paper tried to describe the development strategy of Bali as a destination of health and Wellness tourism, which covers ten aspects to be need performed. The ten aspects are included; Find Yourself within the Global Marketplace, Position Yourself within the subregion, Identify Your Product and/or Service Offering , Identify Your Target, Prepare to Overcome Potential Barriers, Know What Your Competitors Are Doing, Differentiate Yourself from the Competition, Pursue Opportunities to Partner, Employ a Promotion Strategy.

  11. Epidemiological investigations in regard to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Quebec, Canada. Part 1: biosecurity practices and their geographical distribution in two areas of different swine density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Marie-Ève; Poljak, Zvonimir; Arsenault, Julie; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2012-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a considerable threat to the swine industry and implementing biosecurity measures is essential for the control of its transmission. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe biosecurity practices in production sites located in a moderate density (MD) and a high density (HD) pig area according to production type; (2) to group sites in different patterns according to their biosecurity practices; and (3) to determine the geographical distribution of sites according to biosecurity patterns. Biosecurity practices were selected based on PRRS epidemiology. A questionnaire was completed on 125 breeding sites (MD=54; HD=71) and 120 growing (HD) sites, between 2005 and 2008. Depending on area and production type, the frequency of biosecurity practices used ranged from 0 to 2% for barrier at site entrance, 0 to 19% for use of shower, 25 to 35% for washing truck between loads of pigs, 51 to 57% for absence of rendering or rendering without access to the site, and 26 to 51% for absence of gilt purchase or purchase with quarantine. Better practices pertaining to entrance protocol (i.e. "no-entry" sign, shower, ≥24 h downtime) were reported more frequently on breeding sites in the MD than the HD area (Pbiosecurity than breeding sites. Using a two-step clustering procedure performed separately for breeding and growing sites, two different patterns were obtained for each production type, which corresponded to a high and low level of biosecurity. For breeding sites, a higher biosecurity level was observed at sites located away from other pig sites, set at more than 300 m from the public road, having higher sow inventory, or being part of an integrated production (Pbiosecurity pattern were detected. This study identified some shortcomings regarding biosecurity that should be addressed before implementing any PRRSV regional control. Vicinity of sites with different biosecurity levels also suggests difficulties in

  12. On the Combined Strategy of Religious Culture Tourism Marketing in Changjitu Area%长吉图区域宗教文化旅游营销组合策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉

    2015-01-01

    长吉图区域宗教文化具有一定的旅游资源优势,但由于缺乏整体营销策其知名度不高,无法获得应有的旅游经济效益。本文借鉴传统营销理论,着重从调整旅游产品、采取灵活价格、多重促销等方面,为其设计旅游营销组合策略,以期创造更多的经济效益和社会效益。%The religious culture in Changjitu area has certain advantage in tourist resources , but can’t get the due economic benefits be-cause of lack of marketing strategy and low visibility .Based on the traditional marketing theory , this paper designs combined strategy of tourism marketing from the perspectives of adjustment of tourism products , flexible prices, and multiple promotion in order to create more economic and social benefit .

  13. Towards elimination of hepatitis B and C in European Union and European Economic Area countries: monitoring the World Health Organization's global health sector strategy core indicators and scaling up key interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, Erika F; Hedrich, Dagmar; Mardh, Otilia; Mozalevskis, Antons

    2017-03-02

    The World Health Organization 'Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021' aimed at the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat provides a significant opportunity to increase efforts for tackling the epidemics of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections across Europe. To support the implementation and monitoring of this strategy, core epidemiological and programmatic indicators have been proposed necessitating specific surveys, the systematic collection of programmatic data and the establishment of monitoring across the care pathway. European Union and European Economic Area countries already made progress in recent years implementing primary and secondary prevention measures. Indeed, harm reduction measures among people who inject drugs reach many of those who need them and most countries have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme with high coverage above 95%. However, while a further scaling up of prevention interventions will impact on incidence of new infections, treating those already infected is necessary to achieve reductions in mortality. The epidemiological, demographic and socio-political situation in Europe is complex, and considerable diversity in the programmatic responses to the hepatitis epidemic exists. Comprehension of such issues alongside collaboration between key organisations and countries will underpin any chance of successfully eliminating hepatitis.

  14. Basic strategies and methods of neurosurgery on glioma in danger functional area%功能区胶质瘤手术的基本策略与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆松涛; 李志勇; 方陆雄; 潘军; 欧阳辉; 彭林; 陆云涛; 李伟光

    2013-01-01

    目的 总结危险功能区胶质瘤手术的基本策略和操作方法.方法 回顾性分析67例大脑危险功能区胶质瘤手术的临床资料.结果 31例丘脑胶质瘤、20例脑干胶质瘤、9例松果体区胶质瘤和7例鞍区胶质瘤中,切除肿瘤的手术操作时间平均为1.16h,术后复查MRI T1加权增强扫描显示全切除61例(91%),次全切除6例(9%),术后平均KPS评分大于70分,所有患者均未出现新增的永久性神经功能障碍.结论 在危险功能区胶质瘤手术中遵循“雕刻式”手术策略和膜性结构理念,可以达到最大范围安全切除肿瘤,获得良好手术效果.%Objective To summarize the basic strategies and methods of neurosurgery on glioma in danger functional area.Methods The clinical data of 67 cases of brain glioma surgery in danger functionl area was retrospective analyzed.Results Which of 31 patients with thalamic glioma,20 cases of brain stem glioma,9 cases of gliomas in pineal region and 7 cases of glioma in saddle area were reviewd.The surgery time of resection the tumor is averaged 1.16 hours.Total resection through postoperative review MRI T1-weighted enhancement scanning is showed in 61 cases (91%),subtotal resection in 6 cases (9%),postoperative review in postoperative KPS score is greater than an average of 70 points,all the patients were not present new permanent nerve dysfunction.Conclusions Following "topographic anatomy" operation concept,strategy and membranous structure in the functional area,glioma surgery could achieve maximum safe removal of the tumor,and obtain good operation effect.

  15. COINCO - Strategy 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Lundgaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    a leading player in a globalized world, based on common cultural, social and environmental values. The strategy comprises of a vision and more detailed aims within three different areas: Corridor Cooperation, Innovation and Infrastructure. In this way, the COINCO partners want to establish a political...... at the core of the strategy. New areas of collaboration will have to be identified systematically. Every company, every niversity, every institution has to take the global reality into account and reacting to it. To make COINCO a privileged area of cooperation depends on easy access within the corridor...... InvestitionsBank des Landes Brandenburg   The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a COINCO Strategy 2025 for becoming one of the world's most competitive regions. Behind this strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become...

  16. Marketingová strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Gazdíková, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    The Master´s thesis introduces the marketing strategy of the company Linde Material Handling Česká republika Ltd. The theoretical part explains the theoretical basis, which is concerning given problems. In the practical part is an analysis of marketing micro and macro environment, SWOT analysis and marketing strategy in the marketing mix. The objective of this thesis is the marketing strategy for the next period of operation of the company.

  17. Current Status of Nutrient Management in Hainan Rubber Planting Areas and Improvement Strategies%海南植胶区养分管理现状与改进策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大鹏; 王秀全; 成镜; 何鹏; 韦家少

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer played an extremely important role on developing the rubber planting industry in China. However, after years of rubber planting production, it faced many serious problems in the planting area, such as difficulties in enhancing the unit area yield, soil nutrients decreasing. Based on those mentioned above, fertilization techniques are now urgent to be upgraded. In this paper, the nutrient management situation was reviewed in Hainan, the nutrient management problems of rubber plantation was discussed, on the basis of what the relevant improvement strategies were proposed.%施肥对我国植胶业的发展起了极其重要的作用,然而经过多年的植胶生产,各植胶区已面临单产提升困难、土壤养分大面积下降和施肥技术亟待提升等重大问题。本文对海南植胶区养分管理现状进行综述,探讨海南胶园养分管理的若干问题,并提出改进策略。

  18. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  19. Návrh strategie v oblasti elektromobility v ČR pro konkrétní společnost

    OpenAIRE

    Šlechta, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is to identify and assess the current status of electromobility in the Czech Republic and proposal of partly strategiy and recommendations for company Mercedes-Benz Czech Republic s.r.o. in this area. The theoretical part deals with the definition of the theory of strategic management process, especially the analysis of the external and internal area and methodologies of creation strategy. The practical part describes the characteristics of the Mercedes-Benz Czech Re...

  20. 高龄骨质疏松性肱骨近端三、四部分骨折治疗策略%The treatment strategies of senile osteoporotic fracture proximal humeral three or four parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温喜乐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高龄骨质疏松性肱骨近端三、四部分骨折治疗策略。方法选取2006年1月~2013年1月100例高龄骨质疏松性肱骨近端骨折患者按随机数字表均分为两组。研究组使用人工肱骨头置换术,对照组采用微创PHILOS钢板内固定术,术后常规抗炎和康复治疗等。观察两组患者骨性愈合时间、术后并发症发生情况及肩关节功能评分情况。结果研究组在骨性愈合时间、术后并发症发生情况及肩关节功能评分方面优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论人工肱骨头置换术在治疗高龄骨质疏松性肱骨近端三、四部分骨折方面具有愈合快、术后并发症少、早期功能锻炼的优点,具有较好的疗效。%Objective To evaluate the treatment strategies of senile osteoporotic fracture proximal humeral three or four parts. Methods From January 2006 to January 2013,100 patients were randomly divided into two groups according to random number table (n=50).The research group was treated by humeral head replacement. The control group was treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis philos plate. The bone healing ,postoperative complica-tions,Neer score in the two groups were reviewed and compared. Results The research group had better results in the aseptic necrosis of the bone healing,postoperative complications,neer scores than the control group. There were signifi-cant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Artificial humerus head replacement in the treatment of senile osteoporotic fracture proximal humeral three and part four has quick healing, the advantages of less postopera-tive complications, early functional exercise, have good curative effect.

  1. Geochemistry, petrography, and zircon U-Pb geochronology of Paleozoic metaigneous rocks in the Mount Veta area of east-central Alaska: implications for the evolution of the westernmost part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of new mapping, whole-rock major, minor, and trace-element geochemistry, and petrography for metaigneous rocks from the Mount Veta area in the westernmost part of the allochthonous Yukon–Tanana terrane (YTT) in east-central Alaska. These rocks include tonalitic mylonite gneiss and mafic metaigneous rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex and the Nasina and Fortymile River assemblages. Whole-rock trace-element data from the tonalitic gneiss, whose igneous protolith was dated by SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology at 332.6 ± 5.6 Ma, indicate derivation from tholeiitic arc basalt. Whole-rock analyses of the mafic rocks suggest that greenschist-facies rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex, a mafic metavolcanic rock from the Nasina assemblage, and an amphibolite from the Fortymile River assemblage formed as island-arc tholeiite in a back-arc setting; another Nasina assemblage greenschist has MORB geochemical characteristics, and another mafic metaigneous rock from the Fortymile River assemblage has geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline basalt. Our geochemical results imply derivation in an arc and back-arc spreading region within the allochthonous YTT crustal fragment, as previously proposed for correlative units in other parts of the terrane. We also describe the petrography and geochemistry of a newly discovered tectonic lens of Alpine-type metaharzburgite. The metaharzburgite is interpreted to be a sliver of lithospheric mantle from beneath the Seventymile ocean basin or from sub-continental mantle lithosphere of the allochthonous YTT or the western margin of Laurentia that was tectonically emplaced within crustal rocks during closure of the Seventymile ocean basin and subsequently displaced and fragmented by faults.

  2. Paraphrasing Strategy Instruction in Content Area Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Casey, Kathryn J.

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension is important for academic success and is a skill required for many activities in school and beyond. With the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), many teachers have reported feeling overwhelmed by the expectations that reading and writing skills should be emphasized, taught, and supported in the content…

  3. Comprehension Strategy Training in Content Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Nuria; Alonso-Tapia, Jesus

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of two studies where children were taught to identify textual cues, syntactic and semantic, in order to locate main ideas. The children also built graphic representations of these structures and were taught relevant questions to ask regarding comprehension. Results showed significant improvement, especially with older…

  4. The Current Situation of New Media Reading of University Students in Yangzhou Area and the Promotion Strategies%扬州高校学生新媒体阅读的现状与推广策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继华; 李绮

    2015-01-01

    With the development of new media and their technologies, the new media reading has become a trend. In order to further understand the current situation of new media reading of university students in Yangzhou area, to carry out targeted reading promotion, and to give full play to the role of reading in the growth of students, this paper conducts an investigation on the new media reading status of the students in three representative universities in Yangzhou area, finds some problems existing in the new media reading cognition, reading literacy and skills of university students in Yangzhou area, and based on the analytic research, puts forward some concrete strategies for the reading promotion.%随着新媒体及其技术的发展,新媒体阅读已经成为一种潮流.为进一步了解扬州高校学生新媒体阅读的现状,有针对性地开展阅读推广,发挥阅读在学生成长中的作用,对扬州具有代表性的3所高校的学生新媒体阅读状况进行了调研. 调研发现扬州高校学生在新媒体阅读认知、阅读素养与技能等方面存在着一定问题,进而在分析研究的基础上,提出了具体的阅读推广策略.

  5. Marketingová strategie penzionu

    OpenAIRE

    Fišerová, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with suggestion of marketing strategy for particular business subject. First part concentrates on marketing strategy, marketing of services, marketing mix and tourism together with accommodation sector. In the second part of thesis is effected description of the pension and its marketing mix, internal and external analysis and resulting SWOT analysis. Marketing research is another source for creation suggestion. Final part summarises all pieces of knowledge and pres...

  6. Social Media Cocreation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how social media becomes a part of integrated marketing communications of festival organizations. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the co-creation of festival experiences online by comparing managerial strategies and communicative patterns of three large....... Based on the empirical findings, we propose an analytical framework to improve our understanding of the management of social media communications, offering three distinct value co-creation strategies in a festival context....

  7. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  8. Land Consolidation Strategies in the Context of Rural-Urban Integration in Urban Fringe Areas%城市边缘区城乡统筹的一体化土地整治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正峰; 杨红; 刘静; 吴沅箐

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:分析城乡统筹的一体化土地整治的标准与功能,提出城市边缘区一体化土地整治的策略。研究方法:理论分析法、资料分析法。研究结果:城市边缘区城乡统筹的一体化土地整治策略有:(1)明确土地整治重点方向,确定城乡统筹目标下的土地利用标准;(2)大力推进城乡一体化基础设施建设;(3)重视土地整治项目区生态景观建设;(4)科学评价农村居民点整治潜力,重构农村居民点空间格局;(5)优化工业用地布局,促进产业结构升级;(6)强调公众参与式方法的应用。研究结论:在城市边缘区应开展一体化的土地整治,作为落实统筹城乡战略、解决土地利用问题的有效工具。%The purpose of this study is to analyze the criterions and functions of integrated land consolidation and discuss the land consolidation strategies in the context of rural-urban integration in urban fringe areas. Methods employed include theoretical analysis and material analysis. The results indicate that the land consolidation strategies include forming land use criterions for rural-urban integration, speeding up the infrastructure of rural-urban integration, paying more attention to the ecological landscape of land consolidation project, evaluating the potential and reconstructing the space of rural residential land, optimizing the layout of the industrial land and encouraging the public participation. The study concludes that the land consolidation of rural-urban integration is a necessary and useful tool to solve the problems of land use and implement the strategy of rural-urban integration.

  9. 居住新城交通规划策略——以广州市白云湖为例%Transportation Planning Strategies for New Residential Area: A Case Study in Baiyun Lake, Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 蔡瑞卿

    2011-01-01

    To develop new residential areas at the suburb of mega cities, it is important to establish an effective transportation system for daily commuting travels. Taking Baiyun Lake new residential community in Guangzhou as an example, this paper discusses the transportation characteristics and potential problems facing the new suburban residential area through comparing the Baiyun Lake residential community with the new towns in Hong Kong. Then the paper presents the Baiyun Lake transportation planning indices, and predicts the passenger travel demand. Finally, the paper proposes the transportation planning strategies and action plans for Baiyun Lake area including promoting transit-oriented land use development, improving entrance/exit connecting and interchange system for new roadways, establishing conventional transit system integrated with the urban rail transit network, and developing bicycle and pedestrian system in waterfront area.%构建合理的通勤交通体系对特大城市郊区居住新城的开发至关重要.以广州市白云湖居住新城为例,首先将白云湖地区与香港新市镇进行对比,分析了近郊居住新城的交通特点及面临的问题.然后,提出了白云湖居住新城的交通规划指标体系,并对客流需求进行预测.最后,提出白云湖地区交通规划策略及具体措施,包括以公交为导向优化调整用地布局,完善对新道路出入口衔接与立交系统,构建与城市轨道交通网络衔接的常规公交骨架系统,建立滨水人行道和自行车道网络.

  10. Topological Optimization of Artificial Microstructure Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate...Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies Report Title During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and...Artificial Microstructure Strategies (Yale and Johns Hopkins) During DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate a 3D microstructural

  11. Strategies and Suggestions on Promoting Postal Savings to Serve Hebei Agriculture, Rural Areas and Farmers%进一步推动邮政储蓄服务河北“三农”的对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽斌; 赵蕾

    2012-01-01

    The postal savings in Hebei Province has become an important channel of serving agriculture, rural areas and farmers, by taking the advantages of setting up more rural savings network to do loan business in villages. Compared with other businesses