WorldWideScience

Sample records for area socioeconomic variations

  1. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas.

  2. Socioeconomic Variations in Use of Prescription Medicines for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels K;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine socioeconomic variations in the use of prescription medicines among elderly subjects with COPD. METHODS: Data from the Danish national administrative registers were used. The study population included 1,365 individuals >60 y old residing...... or personal wealth. CONCLUSIONS: There were no systematic socioeconomic differences in the use of relevant prescription medicines in elderly subjects diagnosed with COPD in hospital settings in Copenhagen. However, our findings indicate a gap between guideline recommendations and observed use of long...

  3. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  4. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  5. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  6. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  7. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

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    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  8. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

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    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income, physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites, human (e.g., education, and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism

  9. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  10. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

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    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  11. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  12. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike;

    2013-01-01

    parishes. Results were compared with the Townsend index and a possible modifying effect of population density was investigated. Sensitivity of the index was investigated with multilevel survival analyses evaluating the association between all-cause mortality and DANDEX, the Townsend Index, individual...... of socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation). A clear gradient in standardised mortality ratios was seen across quintiles of both index components. Modifying effects were seen when stratifying the index components by population density. In a frailty model, DANDEX accounted for 76% of the between...

  13. State variations in women's socioeconomic status and use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

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    Esther O Lamidi

    Full Text Available According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country.I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria.Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910, I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models.The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use.Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.

  14. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    1999-01-01

    A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based stud

  15. Assessment of Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Floods in the Bâsca Chiojdului Catchment Area

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    REMUS PRĂVĂLIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological risk phenomena such as floods are among the most costly natural disasters worldwide, effects consisting of socioeconomic damages and deaths. The Bâsca Chiojdului catchment area, by its morphometric and hydrographic peculiarities, is prone to generate these hydrological risk phenomena, so there is a high vulnerability in the socioeconomic elements. This paper is focused on the identification of the main socioeconomic elements vulnerable to hydrological risk phenomena such as floods, based on the assessment of their manifestation potential. Thus, following the delimitation of areas with the highest flood occurrence potential (susceptibility to floods, major socioeconomic factors existing in the basin, considering human settlements (constructions, transport infrastructure, and agricultural areas (the most important category, were superimposed. Results showed a high vulnerability for all three exposed socioeconomic elements especially in valley sectors, of which household structures were the most vulnerable, given both their importance and the high number of areas highly exposed to floods (approximately 2,500 houses and outbuildings, out of a total of about 10,250, intersect the most susceptible area to floods in the study area.

  16. Time-Use in the Older Population: Variation by Socio-economic Status and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hurd; Susann Rohwedder

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on time-use from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large general-purpose survey that is representative of the U.S. population age 51 and over. The data stand out for its rich set of covariates which are used to present variation in time-use by health and socio-economic status. The HRS interviews about 20,000 persons about a wide array of topics, covering economic status, physical and mental health, family relations and support, labor market status and retir...

  17. On the Laws and Causes of Socio-economic Territorial Differentiation in Minority Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei; Dong Suocheng

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of applying quantitative and qualitative approaches as well as GIS technology,this paper established an index system to make a comprehensive evaluation on socioeconomic development of minority areas in China.The result showed that socio-economic development in minority area presents a series of characteristics that the north is high and the south is low,center-margin pattern is obvious and the areas with middle and lower development indices are distributed centrally and continuously.However,the causes of the socioeconomic characteristics mainly include natural conditions,economic development basic,population cultural quality,regional combination and development conditions of mineral and energy resources,informal institutional factors and distribution of major traffic lines..

  18. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative

  19. Do Relationships Between Environmental Attributes and Recreational Walking Vary According to Area-Level Socioeconomic Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Natasha J. Howard; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Daniel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1...

  20. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

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    Dawson Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

  1. Variation in Socio-Economic Burden for Caring of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Oman: Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Fahdi, Samiya; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver's variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1)…

  2. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Anyoha; F. N. Nnadi; J. Chikaire; J. A. Echetama; C. O. Utazi; R. A. Ihenacho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomi...

  3. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  4. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  5. Performance of Coral Reef Management within Marine Protected Areas: Integrating Ecological, Socioeconomic, Technological, and Institutional Dimensions

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    Roni Bawole

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics and approaches that contributed to the successful of coral reef management (CRM efforts.  One such characteristic occurred in most case  studies was the importance of integrating ecological, socio-economic, technological use, and  institutional dimensions during all processes. Based on a multi-dimensional analysis,  the sustainability of CRM was 56.34% cumulatively, indicating a moderate level of management. This study  further suggested the importance to improve  technology and institution to achieve an effective CRM since both dimensions have  contributed only 38.80% and 49.26% respectively.  Stakeholder involvement was also central to the success of networking development within the management of Cenderawasih Bay National Park, specifically in facilitating the integration of ecological, socioeconomic, political will, and local cultural objectives in achieving an optimum planning objectives. Compilations of baselin information (both scientific and local knowledge were important to evaluate the effectiveness of all processes and for adaptive management to increase its potential in the management strategies. Balancing the integration of all management dimensions (ecology, socio-economic, technology, and institution in the whole processes with specific attributes in each case, would lead to an adaptive management for the implementation of conservation and management process.Keywords: coral  reef, management performance,  integrated dimensions, marine protected areas.

  6. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

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    Ibáñez Berta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1 determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2 estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3 evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability. A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV, Empirical Bayes (EB statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness.

  7. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

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    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  8. The experience of living with stroke in low urban and rural socioeconomic areas of South Africa

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    M. Maleka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of stroke on stroke survivors are profound and affecttheir quality of life. The aim of this study was to establish the experience of peopleliving with stroke in low socioeconomic urban and rural areas of South Africa.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data.Participants were identified from stroke registers and recruited from PHC clinicsin Soweto, Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Participants had to have had a stroke,be above the age of 18 and had lived in the community six months to a year followingtheir stroke. The researcher or research assistant conducted the interviews ofparticipants who had had strokes as well as their caregivers in the home language of the participants. The interviewswere audio taped, transcribed and translated into English. A thematic content analysis was done.Thirty two participants were interviewed, 13 from Soweto, Gauteng, and 19 from rural Limpopo provinces. Theresults suggest that the sudden, overwhelming transformation as a result of a stroke forms a background for loss ofcommunity mobility, social isolation, role reversal within the family and community, loss of role within the family andcommunity, loss of meaningful activities of daily living, loss of hope and threat to livelihood amongst stroke survivorsliving in low socioeconomic areas of South Africa.An overwhelming picture of despondency was found, with few positive stories told in both settings. The themesidentified from the interviews reflected the experience and issues that a patient with stroke has to deal with in lowsocioeconomic areas of South Africa.

  9. Variations in the Availability and Quality of Early Childhood Education and Care by Socioeconomic Status of Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, Dan; Cleveland, Gordon; Hattie, John; Tayler, Collette

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This article provides Australian evidence of the availability and quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in low-socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods. There is less availability of ECEC in low-SES areas in Australia, and these programs provide a lower average quality of care than in more advantaged…

  10. Spatial, socio-economic and demographic variation of childlessness in India: A special reference to reproductive health and marital breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Praween Agrawal; Sutapa Agrawal; Sayeed Unisa

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective India observe double burden of fertility – childlessness along with high fertility, which brings it close to a developed country. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. We explored spatial variation of childlessness women in India along with several socio-economic and demographic correlates. Further we examined maternal and reproductive health problems among childless women and linkages between marital breakdown (divorce) and childlessness,...

  11. To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk Jacques

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

  12. A Review on Socioeconomic Status of Sichuan Frontier Areas in the Modern Writings of the Foreigners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In the 32nd year of the Guangxu period in the Qing dynasty ( 1906 ) , a position of“minister for managing frontier affairs” ( bianwu dachen) of Sichuan and Yunnan was set up .It was responsible for managing Dajianlu ting ( present day Kangding ) , that area belonging to all the tusi ( native officials) within the region , and the Kang district in Tibet.In 1912, the area was changed into jinglueshi of Sichuan Frontier .In 1914 , it was regarded as a Special District of the Sichuan Fron-tier, and in 1939, it was incorporated into Xikang province .Therefore , the “Sichuan Frontier” was an important “special district” in modern south-west China.This article, by relying on both Chi-nese and foreign documents , tries to explore the socioeconomic status of the Sichuan frontier in modern times as presented in the writings of the foreigners through the discussion four aspects: the tea trade, currency issue , Wula system of labor and socioeconomic life .

  13. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, K.A.; Nicholls, N.; MacDonald, S; Dundas, R; Douglas, G.V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined urban–rural and socioeconomic differences in adolescent toothbrushing. Methods: The data were modelled using logistic multilevel modelling and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method of estimation. Twice-a-day toothbrushing was regressed upon age, family affluence, family structure, school type, area-level deprivation and rurality, for boys and girls separately. Results: Boys’ toothbrushing was associated with area-level deprivation but not rurality. Varian...

  14. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

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    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  15. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I M J; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was...

  16. Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Madjid Atek; Pierre Traissac; Jalila El Ati; Youcef Laid; Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri; Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay; Nadia Mézimèche; Souha Bougatef; Chiraz Béji; Leila Boutekdjiret; Yves Martin-Prével; Hassiba Lebcir; Agnès Gartner; Patrick Kolsteren; Francis Delpeuch

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n...

  17. Ethnic Variations of Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Preacademic Skills in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…

  18. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  19. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  20. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Leke, R. J.; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomple...

  1. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  4. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  5. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  6. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewska Marta; Otto Marius

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees) and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In...

  7. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  8. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  9. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Anyoha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.

  10. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  11. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  12. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development - a Case Study of Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ye; Wang, Fang-min

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example, by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan's rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level. We conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan's rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008. The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high, and the equalization phenomenon o...

  13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  14. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  15. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Marta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In the Ruhr area there are 104 spoil tips of different origins (mine tips, slag heaps, rubbish dumps, sizes and shapes (from conical heaps, through table mountains shaped tips and intentionally shaped for landscape tips, to major tips and state of preservation. The research has shown that it is possible to use the majority of these spoil tips in the Ruhr area (87 of them as leisure facilities as they have been changed into green areas, parks, playgrounds, locations for sports activities and tourist attractions after their restoration. Furthermore, they are mostly accessible free of charge and may serve a wide range of people – from locals to visitors, from children to senior citizens etc., regardless of their income. As such they may mitigate the socio-economic polarisation tendencies in the region.

  16. Spatial analysis of the regional variation of hypertensive disease mortality and its socio-economic correlates in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Yong; Kwak, Jin-Mi; Seo, Eun-Won; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents a cross-sectional study based on the cause of death statistics in 2011 extracted from all 229 local governments in South Korea. The standardised hypertensive disease mortality rate (SHDMR) was defined by age- and sex-adjusted mortality by hypertensive diseases distinguished by International Classification of Disease- 10 (ICD-10). Variables taken into account were the number of doctors per 100,000 persons, the proportion with higher education (including university students and high school graduates), the number of recipients of basic livelihood support per 100,000 persons, the annual national health insurance premium per capita and the proportion of persons classified as high-risk drinkers. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were applied to identify the potential associations. The statistical analysis was conducted with SAS ver. 9.3, while ArcGIS ver. 10.0 was utilised for the spatial analysis. The OLS results showed that the number of basic livelihood recipients per 100,000 persons had a significant positive association with the SHDMR, and the proportion with higher education had a significant negative one. GWR coefficients varied depending on region investigated and some regional variables had various directions. GWR showed higher adjusted R2 than that of OLS. It was found that the SHDMR was affected by socio-economic status, but as the effects observed were not consistent in all regions of the country, the development of health policies will need to consider the potential for regional variation.

  17. Study of Pixel Area Variations in Fully Depleted Thick CCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V.; O' Connor, P.; Kotov, A.I.; Frank, J.; Kubanek, P.; Prouza, M.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2010-06-30

    Future wide field astronomical surveys, like Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), require photometric precision on the percent level. The accuracy of sensor calibration procedures should match these requirements. Pixel size variations found in CCDs from different manufacturers are the source of systematic errors in the flat field calibration procedure. To achieve the calibration accuracy required to meet the most demanding science goals this effect should be taken into account. The study of pixel area variations was performed for fully depleted, thick CCDs produced in a technology study for LSST. These are n-channel, 100 {micro}m thick devices. We find pixel size variations in both row and column directions. The size variation magnitude is smaller in the row direction. In addition, diffusion is found to smooth out electron density variations. It is shown that the characteristic diffusion width can be extracted from the flat field data. Results on pixel area variations and diffusion, data features, analysis technique and modeling technique are presented and discussed.

  18. Socio-Economic Analysis of the Operational Impacts of Shiroro Hydropower Generation in the Lowland Areas of Middle River Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the socio-economic analysis of the operational impacts of Shiroro hydroelectric power generation dam in the lowland areas of middle river Niger in Nigeria. The paper observed that more than thirty years since the conception and impoundment of water at Kanji over river Niger a number of action or inaction capable of altering the socio-economic profile of the riparian communities around the lowland areas of middle river Niger in Nigeria have taken place. The study therefore designed and administered a close-ended pre-coded instrument to conduct a survey of the dam affected communities located in the study area. The data harvested were analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The result obtained shows that the economic engagements of the riparian communities have been distorted. This is noticeable especially on both fish biodiversity and ecosystem with a resultant loss of fish-species. There is a dismal fall in productivity of small holder farmers and fishermen occasioned by avoidable flooding. In the same vein Strategic social and economic infrastructure have deteriorated and thus slowed down the socio and economic development in the area. In this connection a number of policy measures to mitigate the negative effect of hydropower production were suggested.

  19. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  20. Not only climate change: mobility, vulnerability and socio-economic transformations in environmentally fragile areas in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    This paper argues that migration is better defined as an adaptive response to socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental transformations, in most instances closely linked to the need to diversify income sources and reduce dependency on natural resources. Drawing on case studies in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania, it describes how environmental change at the local level interacts with other factors to shape migration patterns, and how such patterns in turn affect the livelihoods and resilience of individuals, households and communities in areas experiencing the impacts of climate change in the form of desertification, soil degradation, disrupted rainfall patterns and changes in temperature.

  1. Socio-economic Status of Women Influences of Domestic Violence:A Sociological Analysis at Urban Area in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rabi Ullah; Shahanaz Parvin

    2015-01-01

    From the early stages women are confined at some definite work, position and role which generally differ to men in society. Their status is seen as below than men in patriarchal social structure like Bangladesh. Today the situation is more or less remaining same to some extent in their family roles and responsibilities that causes to domestic violence. The article mainly focuses on the socio-economic status of women and different forms of domestic violence at urban area in Dhaka city. The stu...

  2. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  3. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  4. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  5. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km2 road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%

  6. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km2 road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%. (author)

  7. An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionOver the last few decades, urban marginalization has been a major challenge in the metropolitan and large cities. After various experiences of forcible contact, what is recommended by international organizations is an empowerment approach which focuses on the empowerment of squatters instead of financial support. In this study, Ahar squatters were identified and investigated in 4 neighborhoods. Using Cochran formula, 320 samples were chosen randomly and their economic, social, physical and spatial characteristics of neighborhoods were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS software. Besides, using SWOT approach and identifying problems, strategies of Empowerment in different dimensions was presented. Results showed that Shileboran and Nirugah neighborhoods have more problems regarding socio-economic and physical status, whereas Chalabverdi neighborhood has better situation than other neighborhoods. Ownership issue, poor housing conditions, access problems and poor sewage system were serious problems for residents of these neighborhoods. 2- Theoretical basesIn the second decades of 1980s, empowerment strategies along with improvement in informal habitat settings are recommended to overlook the poor economic condition of families and also the inability to use the collective power. Therefore, a great leap was created in modern approach which is based on the improvement of local communities and macro policies. The entity of the empowerment approach is based on the reduction of poverty and in human-oriented sustainable development it is based on the citizen participation.3– DiscussionThe problem of informal settlements in Ahar city because of its geographical location as a city in northeast of Azerbaijan province and its situation in the middle of bundles of small and big villages has been accelerated to the extent that solving the problem has been a real challenge. Investigation of the situation of

  8. Spatial analysis of the regional variation of hypertensive disease mortality and its socio-economic correlates in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Yong Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cross-sectional study based on the cause of death statistics in 2011 extracted from all 229 local governments in South Korea. The standardised hypertensive disease mortality rate (SHDMR was defined by age- and sex-adjusted mortality by hypertensive diseases distinguished by International Classification of Disease- 10 (ICD-10. Variables taken into account were the number of doctors per 100,000 persons, the proportion with higher education (including university students and high school graduates, the number of recipients of basic livelihood support per 100,000 persons, the annual national health insurance premium per capita and the proportion of persons classified as high-risk drinkers. Ordinary least square (OLS regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR were applied to identify the potential associations. The statistical analysis was conducted with SAS ver. 9.3, while ArcGIS ver. 10.0 was utilised for the spatial analysis. The OLS results showed that the number of basic livelihood recipients per 100,000 persons had a significant positive association with the SHDMR, and the proportion with higher education had a significant negative one. GWR coefficients varied depending on region investigated and some regional variables had various directions. GWR showed higher adjusted R2 than that of OLS. It was found that the SHDMR was affected by socio-economic status, but as the effects observed were not consistent in all regions of the country, the development of health policies will need to consider the potential for regional variation.

  9. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strohmeyer Marianne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs in relation to household socioeconomic status for children in two small Amazonian urban communities of Peru; Yurimaguas, Department of Loreto and Moyobamba, Department of San Martin, Peru. Methods Cross-sectional study design included household interviews. Caregivers of 780 children aged 6–72 months in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers, and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self-reported symptoms were classified into illnesses based on the IMCI algorithm (Integrated Management of Childhood Ilness. Wealth was used as a proxy indicator for the economic status. Wealth values were generated by Principal Component Analysis using household assets and characteristics. Results Significantly more caregivers from the least poor stratum consulted health professionals for cough/cold (p Conclusion The poorest seek less care from health professionals for non-severe illnesses as well as for severe illnesses; and treatment with antibiotics is lacking for illnesses where it would be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.

  10. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Forest Dwellers' Participation in Reforestation and Development of Forest Areas (The Case Study of West Mazandaran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Faham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the links between forest dwellers’ participation in reforestation and development of forest areas in west Mazandaran of Iran and a set of socio-economic variables. The statistical population includes all forest dwellers living in villages, which locate in the west Mazandaran in Iran and had been covered by local forestry cooperative. A sample of 110 forest dwellers were selected by the use of proportional random sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect data. For determining the validity of questionnaire, the content validity was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure reliability of the index measuring level of participation in reforestation and development of forest areas that its extent was 0.86 and showed that mentioned variable had high reliability. The data were analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics such as extent of mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings revealed that age, level of literacy, level of participation in extension-education courses, using level of communication channels and information resources, level of forest dependency, social participation, social solidarity, economic and social motivations are positively and significantly (p<0.01 correlated with level of forest dwellers' participation in reforestation and development of forest areas. Household size is positively and significantly (p<0.05 correlated with level of forest dwellers' participation in reforestation and development of forest areas. The result of multiple regression showed that variables of level of participation in extension-education courses, age, household size, level of economic motivation, social solidarity and level of literacy could explain 51.4% of the variation in the level of forest dwellers' participation in reforestation and development of forest areas.

  11. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  12. Area variation in recreational cycling in Melbourne: a compositional or contextual effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); K. Giskes (Katrina); A.M. Kavanagh; L.E. Thornton; L.R. Thomas (Lorraine); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); G. Turrell

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine whether compositional and/or contextual area characteristics are associated with area socioeconomic inequalities and between-area differences in recreational cycling. Setting: The city of Melbourne, Australia. Participants: 2349 men and women residing in 50 areas (5

  13. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...... of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...

  14. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  15. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  16. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION AND HUMAN HEALTH: A SOCIOECONOMIC STUDY IN SOME SELECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Jaim, W. M. H.; Hossain, Mahabub

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a case of mass poisoning in Bangladesh. In order to examine the nature and extent of the problem, household survey was conducted in both arsenic contaminated and non-contaminated areas. The selected arsenic `hot spots' were Faridpur and Lakshimpur while the arsenic free area was Gazipur. One village from each of the three locations was purposively selected and the number of households considered as samples was 250. The analysis showed that severity of a...

  17. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, CJ; Chan, A; Kircher, L; Cundiff, AJ; Gardner, N.; Hrovat, Y; Scholz, A.; Kendall, BE; Airamé, S.

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group...

  18. Socioeconomic status, area remoteness, and survival from childhood leukemia: results from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros; Dessypris, Nick; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Skalkidis, Ilias; Baka, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Athanassiadou, Fani; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Frangandrea, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Petridou, Eleni T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present nationwide Greek study is to assess whether survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is modified by socioeconomic status (SES) and area remoteness. Detailed precoded information derived from a personal interview conducted by specially trained health personnel with the child guardians was available for 883 ALL and 111 AML incident childhood cases registered in the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies during the period 1996-2010. Parental socioprofessional category was recorded on the basis of ISCO68 and ISCO88 codes; the exact traveling distance between residence and the treating hospital was ad hoc calculated. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mutually adjusted associations between survival and potential predictors. Children from a lower parental socioprofessional category experienced 40% worse survival (P=0.02) independent of age, sex, and ALL subtype, whereas those whose parents were married had better outcomes (rate ratio: 0.47, P=0.01). Urbanization of residence at diagnosis or 'residence to treating hospital' distance was not nominally associated with survival from ALL. By contrast, no noteworthy associations implicating SES were found for AML survival, probably because of the burden of the disease and small numbers. Lower SES indicators and a single-parenthood family milieu seem to be independently associated with unfavorable outcomes from childhood ALL. Area remoteness might not be a significant outcome predictor during recent years, following considerable improvements in the motorway infrastructures and care delivery patterns. This study may provide a valuable snapshot capturing the impact of socioeconomic covariates before the burst of the Greek financial crisis. PMID:23238585

  19. Spatial variations of levoglucosan in four European study areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hoek, Gerard; Wang, Meng; Eeftens, Marloes; Cyrys, Josef; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; De Nazelle, Audrey; Keuken, Menno; Visschedijk, Antoon; Nystad, Wenche; Akhlaghi, Helgah Makarem; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2015-02-01

    Relatively little is known about long term effects of wood smoke on population health. A wood combustion marker - levoglucosan - was measured using a standardized sampling and measurement method in four European study areas (Oslo, The Netherlands, Munich/Augsburg, Catalonia) to assess within and between study area spatial variation. Levoglucosan was analyzed in addition to: PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen oxides (NOx), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), hopanes, steranes and elemental composition. Measurements were conducted at street, urban and regional background sites. Three two-week samples were taken per site and the annual average concentrations of pollutants were calculated using continuous measurements at one background reference site. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to explain the spatial variation of levoglucosan. Much larger within than between study area contrast in levoglucosan concentration was found. Spatial variation patterns differed from other measured pollutants: PM2.5, NOx and EC. Levoglucosan had the highest spatial correlation with ΣPAH (r=0.65) and the lowest with traffic markers - NOx, Σhopanes/steranes (r=-0.22). Levoglucosan concentrations in the cold (heating) period were between 3 and 20 times higher compared to the warm period. The contribution of wood-smoke calculated based on levoglucosan measurements and previous European emission data to OC and PM2.5 mass was 13 to 28% and 3 to 9% respectively in the full year. Larger contributions were calculated for the cold period. The median model R(2) of the LUR models was 60%. The LUR models included population and natural land related variables. In conclusion, substantial spatial variability was found in levoglucosan concentrations within study areas. Wood smoke contributed substantially to especially wintertime PM2.5 OC and mass. The low to moderate correlation with PM2.5 mass and traffic markers offers the potential to

  20. The Influence of the Home Learning Environment on Preschool Children's Informal Mathematical Development: Variation by Age and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    DeFlorio, Lydia Laurene

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) generally enter kindergarten with significantly less mathematical knowledge than children from families of middle SES. Research reveals that this discrepancy is present, although to a lesser degree, at age three years, the age many children enter preschool for the first time (Starkey & Klein, 2008). This mixed-methods correlational study explores relationships between elements of the home learning environment and...

  1. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations. PMID:27582180

  2. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  3. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  4. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  5. Concern and practice among men about HIV/AIDS in low socioeconomic income areas of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Ghosh, Jayati

    2007-03-01

    The HIV prevalence rate in Malawi, currently estimated to be 15%, is among the highest in the world. There is a growing realization that in order to understand the underlying causes and devise more effective prevention strategies focus should be placed on economic, political, social, and cultural forces as well as perceptions of individual risk to HIV/AIDS. During 2003 we conducted field work in Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi, to examine perceptions of individuals as to their risk to HIV infection using the structured interviews and the focus group discussions with men from five areas of Lilongwe. The discussion in this paper focuses on the perception of risk to HIV infection among men in low socioeconomic income areas that we interviewed. Our findings indicate that while knowledge about HIV/AIDS and the best ways in which one can protect oneself from getting HIV is very high, people continue to engage in at-risk behaviors without using the necessary protection. Many of the men in our sample indicated that they were indeed at risk of getting infected with HIV. In spite of this, some of the respondents in both the structured interviews and the focus group discussions pointed out that some people had began taking measures to protect themselves, such as using condoms with nonregular partners, women leaving their husbands where cheating was obvious, and, for men, reducing the number of extra-marital sexual relations.

  6. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  7. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  8. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  9. Area variation in recreational cycling in Melbourne: a compositional or contextual effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Carlijn; Giskes, Katrina; Kavanagh, A M; Thornton, L.E.; Thomas, Lorraine; van Lenthe, Frank; Mackenbach, Johan,; Turrell, G.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine whether compositional and/or contextual area characteristics are associated with area socioeconomic inequalities and between-area differences in recreational cycling. Setting: The city of Melbourne, Australia. Participants: 2349 men and women residing in 50 areas (58.7% response rate). Main outcome measure: Cycling for recreational purposes (at least once a month vs never). Design: In a cross-sectional survey participants reported their frequency of recreatio...

  10. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  11. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  12. Utilization of preventive maternal and child public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of individual and small-area socioeconomic disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uptake of programmatic maternal and childhood preventive interventions continue to be sub-optimal in sub-Saharan Africa with wide variations within and across the countries. There is evidence suggestive of socioeconomic inequities in access to and coverage of preventive health intervention. In the context of maternal and child health (MCH) in sub-Saharan Africa, women and children among the poor are more disadvantaged in terms of access to life saving preven...

  13. Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyaambo Cosmas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]. Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1] and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0] areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most

  14. [Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from Shanghai urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-bo; Liu, Min; Ou, Dong-ni; Gao, Lei; Wang, Li-li; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal variation and function-area difference of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust from Shanghai centre area were studied, and the probable reasons were also discussed. The result showed that the accumulation level of PAHs varied significantly from winter to summer, namely, and the concentrations of total PAHs and the homologues in winter were higher than that in summer. Total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng x g(-1), with a mean value of 20,648 ng x g(-1), whereas they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng x g(-1) in summer, with an average of 14098 ng x g(-1). The individual PAHs composition ranged from 50 (acenaphthylene) to 3162 (indeno (1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in winter, and 3 (acenaphthene) to 1485 (indeno(1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in summer. The results exhibited that the levels showed a great rise from summer to winter. The difference of PAHs concentrations in road dust from functional areas were also obvious, that is, in winter, PAHs concentrations in road dust at industrial area (ID), commercial area (CO) and traffic area (TR) were much higher than those in other areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 31 163, 24 932 and 18 815 ng x g(-1) resepectively, while city park (CP) and public lawn (PL) had the lowest level (7885, 8036 ng x g(-1)). In summer, the lowest concentration (7942 ng x g(-1)) appeared in CP, however, TR, ID and CO were the most polluted areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 14,528, 14,247 and 11,523 ng x g(-1), respectively. The concentration of PAH homologues raised gradually with the ring number or molecular weight. Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from urban area correlated with both their sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:18290438

  15. Influences on the variation in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between general practices: practice, patient or socioeconomic factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitford, David L; Griffin, Simon J; Prevost, A. Toby

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is known to vary between countries, districts and general practices. The influence of early detection and screening on the variation of prevalence between general practices has not previously been investigated. AIM: To test the hypothesis that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is associated with awareness of and screening for diabetes within general practices and to explore other factors that may explain the variation in prevalence between practic...

  16. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrie Lars

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS. Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania. Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1 Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2 The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3 The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4 The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth

  17. Food insecurity and socioeconomic, food and nutrition profile of schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí

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    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.

  18. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Forest Dwellers' Participation in Reforestation and Development of Forest Areas (The Case Study of West Mazandaran, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Faham; A. Rezvanfar; T. Shamekhi

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the links between forest dwellers participation in reforestation and development of forest areas in west Mazandaran of Iran and a set of socio-economic variables. The statistical population includes all forest dwellers living in villages, which locate in the west Mazandaran in Iran and had been covered by local forestry cooperative. A sample of 110 forest dwellers were selected by the use of proportional random sampling method. A questionnaire...

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bonney; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Lawrence Bott; Stephen E J Andersen; Peter Caputi; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI obje...

  20. Strategic Analysis of Sustainable Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Areas in the Samara Region of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Pankratova, Larisa E.; Zotova, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a growing gap of rural territorial entities in socioeconomic development, and on the other hand, due to their significance in such prominent aspects for the country as food security, maintaining the existing land, industrial, ecological, demographic and human potential. The…

  1. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian chil

  2. Analysis on Variation Trend of Rainfall in Xingtai Area in Recent 48 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the variation trend of rainfall in Xingtai area of Hebei Province in recent 48 years. [Method] According to the annual and seasonal rainfall data in Xingtai, Nangong, Shahe and Neiqiu during 1963-2010, by using the interannual variation rainfall line chart, trend chart and climatic variability, the variation trend of rainfall in Xingtai area in recent 48 years was analyzed. [Result] The annual rainfall in Xingtai area during 1963-2010 presented yearly decrease trend...

  3. Socio-economic variation in price minimizing behaviors: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  4. The impact of the 2008-2009 economic recession on acute myocardial infarction occurrences in various socioeconomic areas of Raritan bay Region, New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial stress is one important risk factor for myocardial infarction. Aim: The study was to assess the impact of the 2008-2009 economic recession on myocardial infarction occurrences in different socioeconomic areas of Raritan Bay region, New Jersey. Materials and Methods: The patients, who were treated for acute myocardial infarction from January 2006 to June 2012, were grouped based on the average incomes of their residence districts in the Raritan Bay region. The Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to assess the correlation between the monthly occurrences of myocardial infarction and Dow Jones stock averages, as well as the correlation between the myocardial infarction occurrences and NJ State unemployment rates. Results: Among 1,491 cases that were identified, 990 cases resided in areas with income below the state average and 477 were from areas above the average. After the onset of the recession, the myocardial infarction occurrences trended up in the low-income area group but not in the high-income area group; and this increasing trend is correlated with the rise in NJ State unemployment rates but not with the changes in stock averages. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that unemployment contributed to an increased risk of myocardial infarction among the residents in low socioeconomic areas after the 2008-2009 economic recession.

  5. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien Hagedoorn

    Full Text Available Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in lung cancer mortality.

  6. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  7. Variation of radon levels in U.S. homes correlated with house characteristics, location, and socio-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are analyzed on measurements of Rn levels in numerous U.S. homes, accompanied by responses to questionnaires. Substantial (but far from complete) bias reduction was accomplished using questionnaire responses, leaving 37,000 measurements in living areas and 33,000 in basements for the analysis. Variables studied included: level with respect to ground where measurement was made, room type, age of house, recent weatherization actions, draftiness, location (urban, suburban, rural), air pollution, market value of house, annual household income, educational attainment of head of household, cigarette smoking, whether the house is rented or owner occupied, and geographic section of U.S. Geometric mean Rn levels were determined for each response to questionnaire items (correlations) and for each pair of responses (cross correlations). Many interesting correlations and cross correlations were found, and their explanation and consequences are discussed

  8. Spatial variations of levoglucosan in four European study areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hoek, Gerard; Wang, Meng; Eeftens, Marloes; Cyrys, Josef; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; De Nazelle, Audrey; Keuken, Menno; Visschedijk, Antoon; Nystad, Wenche; Akhlaghi, Helgah Makarem; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about long term effects of wood smoke on population health. A wood combustion marker - levoglucosan - was measured using a standardized sampling and measurement method in four European study areas (Oslo, The Netherlands, Munich/Augsburg, Catalonia) to assess within and bet

  9. Socioeconomic Variation in the Effect of Economic Conditions on Marriage and Nonmarital Fertility in the United States: Evidence From the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Hastings, Orestes P

    2015-12-01

    The United States has become increasingly characterized by stark class divides in family structure. Poor women are less likely to marry than their more affluent counterparts but are far more likely to have a birth outside of marriage. Recent theoretical and qualitative work at the intersection of demography and cultural sociology suggests that these patterns are generated because poor women have high, nearly unattainable, economic standards for marriage but make a much weaker connection between economic standing and fertility decisions. We use the events of the Great Recession, leveraging variation in the severity of the crisis between years and across states, to examine how exposure to worse state-level economic conditions is related to poor women's likelihood of marriage and of having a nonmarital birth between 2008 and 2012. In accord with theory, we find that women of low socioeconomic status (SES) exposed to worse economic conditions are indeed somewhat less likely to marry. However, we also find that unmarried low-SES women exposed to worse economic conditions significantly reduce their fertility; economic standing is not disconnected from nonmarital fertility. Our results suggest that economic concerns were connected to fertility decisions for low-SES unmarried women during the Great Recession. PMID:26450754

  10. Socioeconomic Variation in the Effect of Economic Conditions on Marriage and Nonmarital Fertility in the United States: Evidence From the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Hastings, Orestes P

    2015-12-01

    The United States has become increasingly characterized by stark class divides in family structure. Poor women are less likely to marry than their more affluent counterparts but are far more likely to have a birth outside of marriage. Recent theoretical and qualitative work at the intersection of demography and cultural sociology suggests that these patterns are generated because poor women have high, nearly unattainable, economic standards for marriage but make a much weaker connection between economic standing and fertility decisions. We use the events of the Great Recession, leveraging variation in the severity of the crisis between years and across states, to examine how exposure to worse state-level economic conditions is related to poor women's likelihood of marriage and of having a nonmarital birth between 2008 and 2012. In accord with theory, we find that women of low socioeconomic status (SES) exposed to worse economic conditions are indeed somewhat less likely to marry. However, we also find that unmarried low-SES women exposed to worse economic conditions significantly reduce their fertility; economic standing is not disconnected from nonmarital fertility. Our results suggest that economic concerns were connected to fertility decisions for low-SES unmarried women during the Great Recession.

  11. Racial disparities in individual breast cancer outcomes by hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status and healthcare resources

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Waterbor, John W.; Altekruse, Sean F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of area-level socio-economic status and healthcare access in addition to tumor hormone-receptor subtype on individual breast cancer stage, treatment, and mortality among Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic US adults. Analysis was based on 456,217 breast cancer patients in the SEER database from 2000 to 2010. Multilevel and multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to account for...

  12. Long-term variations in sunspot magnetic field - area relation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagovitsyn, Yury A; Osipova, Aleksandra A

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of sunspot magnetic field strengths (H) from the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and area (S) of sunspots from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of Pulkovo Observatory, we investigate the changes in the relation between H and S over the period of about two solar cycles (1994-2013). The data were fitted by H = A + B log S, where A = (778+/-46) and B = (778+/-25). We show that the correlation between H and S varies with the phase of solar cycle, and $A$ coefficient decreases significantly after year 2001, while B coefficient does not change significantly. Furthermore, our data confirm the presence of two distinct populations in distribution of sunspots (small sunspots with weaker field strength and large sunspots with stronger field). We show that relative contribution of each component to the distribution of sunspots by their area changes with the phase of solar cycle and on longer-then-cycle periods. We interpret these changes as a signature of a long-term (centennial) v...

  13. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  14. Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient 'enablement' is a term closely aligned with 'empowerment' and its measurement in a general practice consultation has been operationalised in the widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI, a patient-rated measure of consultation outcome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that influence enablement, particularly the effect of socio-economic deprivation. The aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing patient enablement in GP consultations in areas of high and low deprivation. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 3,044 patients attending 26 GPs (16 in areas of high socio-economic deprivation and 10 in low deprivation areas, in the west of Scotland. Patient expectation (confidence that the doctor would be able to help was recorded prior to the consultation. PEI, GP empathy (measured by the CARE Measure, and a range of other measures and variables were recorded after the consultation. Data analysis employed multi-level modelling and multivariate analyses with the PEI as the dependant variable. Results Although numerous variables showed a univariate association with patient enablement, only four factors were independently predictive after multilevel multivariate analysis; patients with multimorbidity of 3 or more long-term conditions (reflecting poor chronic general health, and those consulting about a long-standing problem had reduced enablement scores in both affluent and deprived areas. In deprived areas, emotional distress (GHQ-caseness had an additional negative effect on enablement. Perceived GP empathy had a positive effect on enablement in both affluent and deprived areas. Maximal patient enablement was never found with low empathy. Conclusions Although other factors influence patient enablement, the patients' perceptions of the doctors' empathy is of key importance in patient enablement in general practice consultations in both high and low deprivation settings.

  15. A variational formulation for a level set representation of multiphase flow and area preserving curvature flow

    OpenAIRE

    Esodoglu, Selim; Smereka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Variational descriptions for various multiphase level set formulations involving curvature flow are discussed. A representation of $n$ phases using $n−1$ level set functions is introduced having the advantage that constraints preventing overlaps or vacuum are not needed. The representation is then used in conjunction with our variational formulation to deduce a novel level set based algorithm for multiphase flow. In addition, a similar variational formulation is applied to area preserving cur...

  16. Racial disparities in individual breast cancer outcomes by hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status and healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Waterbor, John W; Altekruse, Sean F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of area-level socio-economic status and healthcare access in addition to tumor hormone-receptor subtype on individual breast cancer stage, treatment, and mortality among Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic US adults. Analysis was based on 456,217 breast cancer patients in the SEER database from 2000 to 2010. Multilevel and multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to account for clustering by SEER registry of diagnosis. NH-Black women had greater area-level access to healthcare resources compared with women of other races. For instance, the average numbers of oncology hospitals per million population in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 8.1, 7.7, and 5.0 respectively; average numbers of medical doctors per million in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 100.7, 854.0, and 866.3 respectively; and average number of Ob/Gyn in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women was 155.6, 127.4, and 127.3, respectively (all p values <0.001). Regardless, NH-Black women (HR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.36-1.43) and Hispanic women (HR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03-1.08) had significantly higher breast cancer mortality compared with NH-White women even after adjusting for hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status, and area-level healthcare access. In addition, lower county-level socio-economic status and healthcare access measures were significantly and independently associated with stage at presentation, surgery, and radiation treatment as well as mortality after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and HR subtype. Although breast cancer HR subtype is a strong, important, and consistent predictor of breast cancer outcomes, we still observed significant and independent influences of area-level SES and HCA on breast cancer outcomes that deserve further study and may be critical to eliminating breast cancer outcome

  17. Socioeconomic position and variations in coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study of 1,287 40- and 50-year-old men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socioeconomic position and coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40- and 50-year-old Danes, participation rate 69%, n=7,125. The study included 1,287 persons who reported functional...... clinicians who advise and support patients in their response to musculoskeletal pain to be aware of socioeconomic differences in coping strategies. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic factors and coping should be further investigated....

  18. Basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and degree of risk for the presence and maintenance of malaria in a low-transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Hetierre Abreu Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:This study aimed to evaluate basic sanitation and socioeconomic indicators, reported cases of malaria, and risk of contracting malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, State of Pará.METHODS:Data on basic sanitation and socioeconomic dimensions were taken from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE] 2010 census. Epidemiological malaria information was taken from the Epidemiological Malaria Surveillance Information System [ Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Malária (SIVEP/Malaria], between 2003 and 2013 of the Ministry of Health and from the SIVEP/Malaria forms of the municipality's Endemic Diseases Unit for 2,013 cases.RESULTS:Our data do not confirm the correlation among indicators of basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and water supply with malaria cases. Of the 1,557 cases evaluated, most were caused by Plasmodium vivax , with rare cases of Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections. There were 756 notifications in 2003. The number of reported cases was sharply reduced between 2006 and 2012, but a 142-case outbreak occurred in 2013. Ananindeua municipality's Annual Parasite Index indicated low risk in 2003 and no risk in other years, and the 2,013 cases were predominantly male individuals aged ≥40 years.CONCLUSIONS:Our data confirm the non-endemicity of malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, as the Annual Parasite Indices described for the years 2004-2013 classify it as a risk-free area. However, the 2013 outbreak indicates the need to strengthen prevention, surveillance, and control activities to reduce the risk of new outbreaks and consequent economic and social impacts on the population.

  19. Impact of environmental factor variation on desertification: an example from the Shule River Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Xiangyun; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Hongqi

    2003-07-01

    Variation of environmental factors plays an important roll in the process of desertification. In this paper, taking Shule River as an example, the variation and correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the main environmental factors" changes and its relation to the state of desertification. The results obtained indicate that the variations of factors including meteorological factors and human active factors are obvious. Since 80"s the annual precipitation and annual number of sandstorm days have been declining in a fluctuating state. The population and the area of cultivated land have been increasing. The correlation analysis shows that there exist positive correlations between desertification and population and area of cultivated land. The correlation between area of desertification and annual wind speed, annual number of sandstorm days is significant. In Shule River area, desertification state has more obvious relation with human active factor, comparing with meteorological factors.

  20. Coalfield health effects: Variation in health across former coalfield areas in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Terashima, M.; Curtis, S.; Shucksmith, J.; Carlebach, S. [University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Regions affected by deindustrialisation are often characterised by unfavourable local health profiles. This was the situation in coalfield areas in England, where the scale and suddenness of the job losses in the 1980s and 1990s left these communities experiencing difficult socioeconomic conditions, and associated poor health status. Using data from the Health Survey for England, this paper examines whether poorer health outcomes still characterise coalfield areas today. Findings confirm a 'coalfield health effect' related to limiting long-term illness. With regards to self reported general health and mental health outcomes, results are less clear. The population health profile of coalfield communities is not homogeneous, with some coalfield communities faring worse than others, indicating more localised health issues.

  1. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  2. An Analysis of Certain Interpersonal Aspects of the Home and School in Low Socioeconomic Areas Relating to Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    This article summarizes an investigation of factors manifested by 6th grade students in four Detroit metropolitan area schools who achieved on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills at levels significantly above and below the average. The study sample consisted of 80 students with scores divided equally above and below the average. Instruments measured…

  3. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cirrhosis mortality in an urban area of Southern Europe: a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dalmau-Bueno; A. García-Altés; M. Marí-Dell'olmo; K. Pérez; A. Espelt; A.E. Kunst; C. Borrell

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyse inequalities in cirrhosis mortality at individual and area levels, using data from Barcelona for two time periods. Methods Deaths from cirrhosis in Barcelona of men and women aged 25-74 years during the periods 1992-97 and 1998-2004 were included

  4. IR signature study of aircraft engine for variation in nozzle exit area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Nidhi; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-01-01

    In general, jet engines operate with choked nozzle during take-off, climb and cruise, whereas unchoking occurs while landing and taxiing (when engine is not running at full power). Appropriate thrust in an aircraft in all stages of the flight, i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing is achieved through variation in the nozzle exit area. This paper describes the effect on thrust and IR radiance of a turbojet engine due to variation in the exit area of a just choked converging nozzle (Me = 1). The variations in the nozzle exit area result in either choking or unchoking of a just choked converging nozzle. Results for the change in nozzle exit area are analyzed in terms of thrust, mass flow rate and specific fuel consumption. The solid angle subtended (Ω) by the exhaust system is estimated analytically, for the variation in nozzle exit area (Ane), as it affects the visibility of the hot engine parts from the rear aspect. For constant design point thrust, IR radiance is studied from the boresight (ϕ = 0°, directly from the rear side) for various percentage changes in nozzle exit area (%ΔAne), in the 1.9-2.9 μm and 3-5 μm bands.

  5. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  6. Plant- and arthropod diversity of vegetable gardens along a socio-economic gradient within the Tlokwe Municipal Area / Nicola Botha

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Globally urbanization has increased to such an extent that more than half of the human population currently resides in cities. In the years to come, urban expansion will especially take place in developing countries through efforts to improve economic growth and poverty alleviation. This may have a negative effect on native biodiversity within and surrounding urban environments. However, residential areas with a high proportion of gardens form a significantly large part of urban environments ...

  7. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Streichert Laura C; Rehm Colin D; Moudon Anne V; Hurvitz Philip M; Drewnowski Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  8. Conservation for development : a literature study of the socioeconomic effects of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) are considered a suitable strategy to combine nature conservation and poverty alleviation in southern Africa, usually through ecotourism. There have, however, been critical voices questioning whether this is actually succeeding. Many researchers claim that the conservation and tourism efforts are leaving the local communities at greater risks of impoverishment rather than helping them. This study consults previous research to examine this issue through...

  9. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  10. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  11. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863

  12. Individual variation changes dispersal distance and area requirements of a checkerspot butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leone M; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2016-01-01

    Individual variation in movement can have important consequences for spatial population dynamics. For instance, individual variation increases leptokurtosis in dispersal distance, such that more individuals move very short and very long distances relative to a homogeneous population. We quantified individual variation in movement of the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas phaeton) to investigate its importance for two conservation-related metrics: the expected dispersal distance and the critical minimum patch size, or the smallest area within which a population can persist based on loss due to emigration. All movement parameters showed among-individual variation, with the greatest variation in move lengths and time spent resting. Correlations in among-individual movement parameters indicated that some butterflies were generally more mobile than others. We incorporated empirically estimated movement and demographic parameters into two individual-based models (IBMs), one with homogeneity in movement among individuals, and one with heterogeneity in movement. As expected, individual variation in movement increased the leptokurtosis of lifetime movement distance; the maximum difference in distance moved was substantial (-850 m vs. -5800 m) and is likely of significance for conservation. Individual variation also affected the critical minimum patch size, but the difference (-0.7 ha vs. -0.5 ha) is unlikely to be ecologically significant. Notably, populations with individual variation had higher growth rates in small patches and lower growth rates in large patches, a logical consequence of increased leptokurtosis. Individual variation in movement is fairly straightforward to quantify using mixed effects models and is important for spatial population dynamics, thus we encourage its inclusion in studies of other systems.

  13. LAND USE CHANGE AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FORCES UNDER STRESS OF PROJECT IN OLD RESERVOIR AREA --Case Study of Linshui Reservoir Area of Dahonghe Reservoir in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jin-gan; HUANG Xue-qin; QU Ming; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti

    2005-01-01

    The old reservoir areas built in 1950s-1970s left behind many socio-economic problems, because of the administrative backward migration and little migration fund, and all these problems would be tied to land. Based on interviewing with peasant households, combining land use survey and socio-economic statistical index, this paper analyzed land use change and its corresponding driving forces in Linshui reservoir area of Dahonghe Reservoir. Results showed that land use change in the reservoir area was mainly embodied on low-lying land submergence and migration requisition land. The former changed the land use patterns, and the latter mainly reconstructed original land property and made land over-fragmented. Cultivated land per capita was 0.041ha in this area, below the cordon of cultivated land per capita enacted by FAO. Currently, there were still 30.25% of peasant households being short of grain in trimester of one year, and there were 35.27% of people living under the poverty line. The conditions of eco-environment in Linshui Reservoir Area were worse, and healthy and sub-healthy eco-environment accounted for less proportion, composed of green belt around the reservoir area and paddy field ecosystem, and economic forest and orchard ecosystem, respectively. The stress of the reservoir project was macroscopic background to analyze the driving factors of land use change, and real underlying diving factor of the land use change in the area was the change of cultural landscape under the stress of reservoir project. The rapid increase of population was the key factor to induce the change of man-land relationship in the reservoir area, the low level of rural economy was the crucial factor to decide how migrants input for production, and the belief of migrants, influencing the land use patterns in a certain extent, was the inducing factor to keep land use stable. The low-lying submergence and infrastructure construction accompanied the reservoir project were leading

  14. Source area and seasonal Sr-87/Sr-86 variations in rivers of the Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Santos; Sondag, Francis; Cochonneau, Gérard; Lagane, C.; Brunet, P.; Hattingh, K.; Chaves, J. G. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a detailed study of dissolved Sr isotopes in the Solimoes and Beni-Madeira Rivers of the Amazon basin. This study developed data collected over 8years indicating large spatial and temporal variations in dissolved Sr isotopes among the rivers of the Amazon basin. The large Sr-87/Sr-86 variations were found to be correlated with the geology of the source areas of the suspended sediments. The Beni-Madeira River displays a high average Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio and large Sr-87/Sr...

  15. Modelling multiple hospital outcomes: the impact of small area and primary care practice variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Appropriate management of care – for example, avoiding unnecessary attendances at, or admissions to, hospital emergency units when they could be handled in primary care – is an important part of health strategy. However, some variations in these outcomes could be due to genuine variations in health need. This paper proposes a new method of explaining variations in hospital utilisation across small areas and the general practices (GPs responsible for patient primary care. By controlling for the influence of true need on such variations, one may identify remaining sources of excess emergency attendances and admissions, both at area and practice level, that may be related to the quality, resourcing or organisation of care. The present paper accordingly develops a methodology that recognises the interplay between population mix factors (health need and primary care factors (e.g. referral thresholds, that allows for unobserved influences on hospitalisation usage, and that also reflects interdependence between hospital outcomes. A case study considers relativities in attendance and admission rates at a North London hospital involving 149 small areas and 53 GP practices. Results: A fixed effects model shows variations in attendances and admissions are significantly related (positively to area and practice need, and nursing home patients, and related (negatively to primary care access and distance of patient homes from the hospital. Modelling the impact of known factors alone is not sufficient to produce a satisfactory fit to the observations, and random effects at area and practice level are needed to improve fit and account for overdispersion. Conclusion: The case study finds variation in attendance and admission rates across areas and practices after controlling for need, and remaining differences between practices may be attributable to referral behaviour unrelated to need, or to staffing, resourcing, and access issues. In

  16. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  17. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure......This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...

  18. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  19. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age 44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications.

  20. Variation of b value with hypocentral depth in Beijing area: Implications for earthquake nucleation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ailan; XU Xiwei; HU Ping; ZHOU Yongsheng; CHEN Guihua; GAN Weijun

    2005-01-01

    We relocated 2098 earthquakes that occurred in Beijing area between 1980 and 2000 using a double-difference (DD) earthquake location algorithm, and obtained the high-precision relative locations of 1825 events. b values versus depth were investigated with the relocated hypocenters. The results show that the b values decrease with the increasing hypocentral depth systematically. A dramatic variation in b is observed around the depth of 8 km. It indicates that there are more smaller earthquakes at shallow depth (0-8 km), while more larger earthquakes at greater depth (8-25 km). The physical mechanism behind this phenomenon can be explained by the variations in material heterogeneity and lithostatic stress condition. Large earthquakes are more likely to nucleate at greater depth with more homogenous material and higher lithostatic stress. On the basis of the results, we suggest that future strong earthquakes in Beijing area tend to occur below the depth of 8 km.

  1. Investigating the spatial variability in incidence of coronary heart disease in the Gazel cohort: the impact of area socioeconomic position and mediating role of risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Silhol, Romain; Zins, Marie; Chauvin, Pierre; Chaix, Basile

    2011-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the relationships between contextual socioeconomic characteristics and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in France. Several authors have suggested that CHD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, overweight, tobacco consumption) may partly mediate associations between socioeconomic environmental variables and CHD. Studies have assessed the overall mediating role of CHD risk factors, but have never investigat...

  2. RAPD Variation of Garlic Clones in the Center of Origin and the Westernmost Area of Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    ETOH, Takeomi; Watanabe, Hideki; Iwai, Sumio

    2001-01-01

    RAPD variation of 30 garlic clones collected in the primary center of origin, Central Asia, was compared with that of 30 garlic clones collected in the westernmost area of distribution, the Iberian Peninsula. Central Asian garlic clones were complete-bolting type, and some of them were fertile clones. On the other hand, Iberian garlic clones showed incomplete-bolting type, and all of them were sterile clones. Basing on the genetic similarity, a dendrogram among those garlic clones by RAPD was...

  3. MONITORING OF GLACIER VOLUME VARIATION FROM MULTI-SOURCE DATA OVER GELADANDONG AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zhang; Wu, H; Jin, S.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research on monitoring of glacier volume variation over the Geladandong area in Qinghai-Tibet plateau between 2000 and 2007 by integrating Landsat5 TM images, multi-source Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data from NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). Landsat TM images acquired in 2000 and 2007 respectively are used to extract glacial area of the two dates. SRTM DEM and the national 1:50 000 DEM a...

  4. Analysis of variations in hospital use by Medicare patients in PSRO areas, 1974-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R; Lubitz, J; Gurnick, M; Newton, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of the use of short-stay hospitals in PSRO areas by Medicare enrollees aged 65 and over for the period 1974 through 1977 revealed that discharge rates increased, average length of stay (ALOS) decreased, and days-of-care rates remained relatively constant in nearly all of the PSRO areas. The data show large variations in hospital use in PSRO areas within States and HEW regions, and suggest that factors within the area are critical determinants of hospital utilization. This study presents important implications for PSRO program policy for it suggests that factors other than physician and hospital behavior should also be considered when setting objectives for reducing misutilization and improving the quality of health care. PMID:10309054

  5. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.;

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...... concerns over the potential effects of future climate change and habitat loss on biodiversity.......,000 plant species across the New World. We assess prominent hypothesised range-size controls, finding that plant range sizes are codetermined by habitat area and long- and short-term climate stability. Strong short- and long-term climate instability in large parts of North America, including past...... glaciations, are associated with broad-ranged species. In contrast, small habitat areas and a stable climate characterise areas with high concentrations of small-ranged species in the Andes, Central America and the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region. The joint roles of area and climate stability strengthen...

  6. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  7. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird

  8. Development of social variation in reproductive schedules: a study from an English urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is striking social variation in the timing of the onset of childbearing in contemporary England, with the mean age at first motherhood about 8 years earlier in the most deprived compared to the least deprived neighbourhoods. However, relatively little is known about how these social differences in reproductive schedule develop in childhood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the development of differences in reproductive schedules, using a cross-sectional survey over 1000 school students aged 9-15 in the metropolitan borough of North Tyneside. Students from more deprived neighbourhoods had earlier ideal ages for parenthood than those from more affluent ones, and these differences were fully apparent by age 11. We found evidence consistent with three mechanisms playing a role in maintaining the socioeconomic gradient. These were: vertical intergenerational transmission (students whose own parents were younger at their birth wanted children younger; oblique intergenerational transmission (students in neighbourhoods where parents were younger in general wanted children earlier; and low parental investment (students who did not feel emotionally supported by their own parents wanted children at a younger age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results shed some light on the proximate factors which may be involved in maintaining early childbearing in disadvantaged communities. They help understand why educational initiatives aimed at adolescents tend to have no effect, whereas improving the well-being of poor families with young children may do so. Our results also suggest that there will be considerable intergenerational inertia in the response of reproductive schedules to changing socioecological conditions.

  9. Long-term temporal variations in the areas of sunspot groups

    CERN Document Server

    Javaraiah, J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we analyzed the combined Greenwich and Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot group data during the period 1874-2011 and studied variations in the annual numbers of small, large and big sunspot groups. Here that analysis is extended and studied variations in the mean maximum sizes (the mean values of maximum areas) of the aforementioned three classes of sunspot groups and also their combination. It is found that there is no significant correlation between the mean maximum size of any class of sunspot groups and the International Sunspot Number (Rz), probably due to in a given time interval small sunspot groups/sunspots outnumber the large ones. A pattern of an approximate 9-year period cycle is seen in the variations of the mean maximum sizes of the large and the big sunspot groups during a solar cycle. On long-time scales it is found that there exists a strong 130 or more years cycle in the variation of the mean size of the small sunspot groups, whereas there is a hint on the existence of a...

  10. Variation of Area-to-Mass-Ratio of HAMR Space Debris Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Früh, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected space debris population has been detected in 2004 Schildknecht et al. (2003, 2004) with the unique properties of a very high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) Schildknecht et al. (2005a). Ever since it has been tried to investigate the dynamical properties of those objects further. The orbits of those objects are heavily perturbed by the effect of direct radiation pressure. Unknown attitude motion complicates orbit prediction. The area-to-mass ratio of the objects seems to be not stable over time. Only sparse optical data is available for those objects in drift orbits. The current work uses optical observations of five HAMR objects, observed over several years and investigates the variation of their area-to-mass ratio and orbital parameters. A normalized orbit determination setup has been established and validated with two low and two of the high ratio objects, to ensure, that comparable orbits over longer time spans are determined even with sparse optical data.

  11. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon and carbon dioxide is highlighted which indicates that carbon dioxide acts as the carrier gas for radon in this area. Two geochemical anomaly zones of soil gas were found in the area wherein all the studied gases exhibited anomalies or high values, related to the faults and earthquakes.

  12. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Gunnell, David J; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2008-01-01

    . The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN), median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: The overall incidence...

  13. Invariant Measures with Bounded Variation Densities for Piecewise Area Preserving Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiwei

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the properties of absolutely continuous invariant probability measures (ACIPs) for piecewise area preserving maps (PAPs) on $\\mathbb{R}^d$. This class of maps unifies piecewise isometries (PWIs) and piecewise hyperbolic maps where Lebesgue measure is locally preserved. In particular for PWIs, we use a functional approach to explore the relationship between topological transitivity and uniqueness of ACIPs, especially those measures with bounded variation densities. Our results "partially" answer one of the fundamental questions posed in \\cite{Goetz03} - determine all invariant non-atomic probability Borel measures in piecewise rotations. When reducing to interval exchange transformations (IETs), we demonstrate that for non-uniquely ergodic IETs with two or more ACIPs, these ACIPs have very irregular densities (namely of unbounded variation and discontinuous everywhere) and intermingle with each other.

  14. Seasonal and Interannual Variation in Energy Balance in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Near surface energy budget changes have been proved to be induced by the land cover conversion through changing the surface physical properties, which can further impact the regional climate change. This study applies the DLS model to simulate the land cover under the business as usual (BAU scenario and then analyses the seasonal and interannual variation of energy balance in the semiarid grassland area of China based on the simulated land cover with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a growing trend under the BAU scenario. Downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation will all have small-scale increase with time going by, while the surface net radiation will decrease from 2030 to 2050. However, there is obvious seasonal variation. Summer has the highest downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation, followed by spring and autumn. The lowest are in winter. As for the net surface radiation, there is obvious decrease in southeast of study area due to returning cropland to grassland. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and relieving the effects of land cover change on climate change at the semiarid grassland area.

  15. Investigation of Precipitation Variations over Wet and Dry Areas from Observation and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Trammell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our observational study revealed that the precipitation increased over the wet area and decreased over the dry area during the past two decades. Here, we further investigate whether the current atmospheric models can quantitatively capture the characteristics of precipitation from the observation. The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS model is used to examine the historic simulation of the precipitation, in which the historic greenhouse gases and aerosols are included in the radiative forcing. The consistency between the historic GISS simulation and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP precipitation suggests that the model can qualitatively capture the temporal trends of precipitation over the wet and dry areas. However, the precipitation trends are weaker in the model than in the observation. The observed trends of precipitation do not appear in the control simulation with the fixed concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, which suggests that the global warming due to anthropogenic forcing can influence the temporal variations of precipitation over the wet and dry areas. Diagnostic studies of other variables from the model further suggest that enhanced rising air can increase the precipitation over the wet area.

  16. Determination of the chromospheric quiet network element area index and its variation between 2008 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jagdev Singh; Ravindra Belur; Selvendran Raju; Kumaravel Pichaimani; Muthu Priyal; Thambaje Gopalan Priya; Amareswari Kotikalapudi

    2012-01-01

    In general,it is believed that plages and sunspots are the main contributors to solar irradiance.There are small-scale structures on the Sun with intermediate magnetic fields that could also contribute to solar irradiance,but it has not yet been quantified how many of these small scale structures contribute and how much this varies over the solar cycle.We used Ca Ⅱ K images obtained from the telescope at the Kodaikanal observatory.We report a method to separate the network elements from the background structure and plage regions,and compute the changes in the network element area index during the minimum phase of the solar cycle and part of the ascending phase of cycle 24.The measured area occupied by the network elements is about 30% and the plages cover less than 1% of the solar disk during the observation period from February 2008 to 2011.During the extended period of minimum activity,it is observed that the network element area index decreases by about 7% compared to the area occupied by the network elements in 2008.A long term study of the network element area index is required to understand the variations over the solar cycle.

  17. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

    2015-02-01

    Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

  18. Spatio-temporal variations of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Lisbon area by moss monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mosses as biomonitors of heavy metal deposition has been extensively applied in numerous studies in the last three decades. This type of organisms acquires almost their nutrients from the atmosphere, by dry or wet deposition. In Portugal, the first biomonitoring survey using mosses was done in 1992, which covered all national area. A new study is presently being implemented, where samples are collected in the same sampling points of the previous ones, so a comparison can be made between the results of the two campaigns. This work presents the results obtained for the Lisbon region. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme, or whenever unavailable, Scleropodium touretii were collected in 27 sites in this area, and the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after geostatistical estimation of the metal concentration in the moss. The spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (author)

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological variation of waterbird habitats in Dongtan area of Chongming Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xuezhong; ZHANG Liquan

    2012-01-01

    Based on Landsat TM images,we explored the pattern of variation of suitable waterbird habitats from 1990 to 2008 in the Dongtan area of Chongming Island at the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth.By applying our highly accurate indicator model (R=0.999,P<0.01),we quantified the variations of fluctuation intensity for local waterbird habitats during 1990-2008,and for the main waterbird groups (Anatidae,Charadriidae,Ardeidae and Laridae) from 2006 to 2008,to evaluate the impact of habitat quantity change on the waterbird habitat status and the population dynamics of the different waterbird groups.The results show that the aquaculture ponds (AP) and the Scirpus mariqueter zone (SMZ) underwent drastic habitat changes during certain periods (AP:1997-2000,2000-2003,2005-2008; SMZ:1997-2000),and the fluctuation intensity differed among habitat types in the order AP>SMZ>TSH (total suitable habitat)>BSA (bare mud flat and shallow water area).The abandonment of tracts of aquaculture ponds in Dongtan in mid-2006 brought about an intensive population fluctuation,caused by rapidly changing habitat with the population expanding to adjacent areas.At present,Anatidae and Ardeidae are threatened in the Dongtan area with declining populations because of their very "picky" habitat requirements (i.e.,high reliance on AP).The Charadriidae experienced enormous population declines in the late 1990s,however,they have since recovered to normal levels as habitat change has stabilized.Our findings suggest that the current challenges for habitat management are the protection and stabilization of AP and SMZ habitats.

  20. Geostatistical analysis of variations in soil salinity in a typical irrigation area in Xinjiang, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamattursun Eziz; Mihrigul Anwar; XinGuo Li

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity is tremendously important for a variety of agronomic and environmental concerns in arid irrigation areas. This paper reviews the characteristics and spatial and temporal variations of soil salinization in the Ili River Irrigation Area by applying a geostatistical approach. Results showed that: (1) the soil salinity varied widely, with maximum value of 28.10 g/kg and minimum value of 0.10 g/kg, and was distributed mainly at the surface soil layer. Anions were mainly SO42− and Cl−, while cations were mainly Na+and Ca2+; (2) the abundance of salinity of the root zone soil layer for different land use types was in the following order: grassland > cropland > forestland. The abundance of salinity of root zone soil layers for different periods was in the following order: March > June > Sep-tember; (3) the spherical model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0–3 cm and 3–20 cm soil layers in March and June, and the 3–20 cm soil layer in September, while the exponential model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0–3 cm soil layer in September. Relatively strong spatial and temporal structure existed for soil salinity due to lower nugget effects; and (4) the maps of kriged soil salinity showed that higher soil salinity was distributed in the central parts of the study area and lower soil salinity was distributed in the marginal parts. Soil salinity tended to increase from the marginal parts to the central parts across the study area. Applying the kriging method is very helpful in detecting the problematic areas and is a good tool for soil resources management. Managing efforts on the appropriate use of soil and water resources in such areas is very important for sustainable agriculture, and more attention should be paid to these areas to prevent future problems.

  1. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport.

  2. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  3. Mapping Spatial and Temporal Variations of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Peng; WU Wen-bin; TANG Hua-jun; ZHOU Qing-bo; ZOU Jin-qiu; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Leaf area index(LAI)is an important parameter in a number of models related to ecosystem functioning,carbon budgets,climate,hydrology,and crop growth simulation.Mapping and monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of LAI are necessary for understanding crop growth and development at regional level.In this study.the relationships between LAI of winter wheat and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices(SVIs)were analyzed by using the curve estimation procedure in North China Plain.The series of LAI maps retrieved by the best regression model were used to assess the spatial and temporal Variations of winter wheat LAI.The results indicated that the general relationships between LAI and SVIs were curvilinear,and that the exponential model gave a better fit than the linear model or other nonlinear models for most SVIs.The best regression model was constructed using an exponential model between surface-reflectance-derived difference vegetation index(DVI)and LAI,with the adjusted R2(0.82)and the RMSE(0.77).The TM LAI maps retrieved from DVILAI model showed the significant spatial and temporal variations.The mean TMLAI value(30m)for winter wheat of the study area increased from 1.29(March 7,2004)to 3.43(April 8,2004),with standard deviations of 0.22 and 1.17,respectively.In conclusion,spectral vegetation indices from multi-temporal Landsat TM images can be used to produce fine-resolution LAI maps for winter wheat in North China Plain.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological variation of waterbird habitats in Dongtan area of Chongming Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuezhong; Zhang, Liquan

    2012-05-01

    Based on Landsat TM images, we explored the pattern of variation of suitable waterbird habitats from 1990 to 2008 in the Dongtan area of Chongming Island at the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. By applying our highly accurate indicator model ( R=0.999, Paquaculture ponds (AP) and the Scirpus mariqueter zone (SMZ) underwent drastic habitat changes during certain periods (AP: 1997-2000, 2000-2003, 2005-2008; SMZ: 1997-2000), and the fluctuation intensity differed among habitat types in the order AP>SMZ>TSH (total suitable habitat)>BSA (bare mud flat and shallow water area). The abandonment of tracts of aquaculture ponds in Dongtan in mid-2006 brought about an intensive population fluctuation, caused by rapidly changing habitat with the population expanding to adjacent areas. At present, Anatidae and Ardeidae are threatened in the Dongtan area with declining populations because of their very "picky" habitat requirements (i.e., high reliance on AP). The Charadriidae experienced enormous population declines in the late 1990s, however, they have since recovered to normal levels as habitat change has stabilized. Our findings suggest that the current challenges for habitat management are the protection and stabilization of AP and SMZ habitats.

  5. InSAR Assessment of Ground Deformations in Shoreline Urban Areas Associated to Hydraulic Head Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, J.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring ground deformations in highly dense populated shoreline and lowlands areas such as Montreal is crucial for the sustainable development of urban infrastructures. Montreal already undergoes house foundations damages with a density of 8 repairs per square kilometer, especially over clay deposits such as in the Plateau neighborhood with a density of 89 repairs/km2. Using Radarsat-2 C-Band SAR interferometry, we observe a 3-5 mm ground LOS displacement variation temporally out-phased by three months relative to the 2 meter subartesian aquifer hydraulic head and river level variations, over a 60 km2 zone located in the central part of the Montreal Island in eastern Canada, from 2008 to 2010. Using ascending and descending SAR acquisition mode we extract the vertical component of the LOS velocities and observe secular displacements relative to a unconfined aquifer. These displacements are 2 mm/year subsidence on the minor topographic high, associated with evapotranspiration. We also observe ground water recharge and ~1 mm/year uplift downhill related to ground water discharge from deep regional aquifer enhanced with a faults system and shallow local aquifer arising from transmissivity. Displacements observed during this two year study are small but they are significant if integrated over the average lifetime of a house. We conclude that hydraulic head is related to the observed ground deformation in most of the areas of Montreal. Moreover, wetter climate conditions forecast for this area will definitely increase the aquifer dynamics; thus, more ground deformations are foreseen and have to be considered in future infrastructure design standards.

  6. Area and Personal Exposure Levels to Formaldehyde and Its Variation among Undergraduate Students during Gross Anatomy Laboratory Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Pensri Watchalayann; Adul Tapyai; Kajorn Lakchayapakorn

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde emitted from the cadavers in Gross Anatomy Laboratory may fluctuate leading to a variation in exposure level of the participants during practice. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of formaldehyde levels and to determine the relationship between area and personal exposure concentration. Formaldehyde levels were measured in six sampling areas repeatedly during three types of study sessions; thoracic, abdominal, and brain and nerve study session. The highest formaldehyde le...

  7. Analysis on the Variation Characteristics of Temperature and Precipitation in Benxi Area under the Background of Climate Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the variation characteristics of temperature and precipitation in Benxi area under the background of climate warming.[Method] Based on the monthly mean temperature and precipitation data of four routine meteorological stations in Benxi area from 1953 to 2010,by using linear tendency rate,linear regression equation,wavelet analysis,Mann-Kendall detection and so on,the variation characteristics of temperature and precipitation under the background of climate warming in ...

  8. Television viewing and other screen-based entertainment in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators and area deprivation: The Scottish Health Survey 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Mishra, Gita; Hamer, Mark; Marmot, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sedentary behaviour (sitting) is detrimental to health, independently of participation in physical activity. Socioeconomic position (SEP) is known to relate strongly to physical activity participation but we know very little about how SEP relates to sedentary behaviour. This study aimed to assess the relationships between SEP, neighbourhood deprivation and an index of sedentary time. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 79...

  9. A Coons Patch Spanning a Finite Number of Curves Tested for Variationally Minimizing Its Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In surface modeling a surface frequently encountered is a Coons patch that is defined only for a boundary composed of four analytical curves. In this paper we extend the range of applicability of a Coons patch by telling how to write it for a boundary composed of an arbitrary number of boundary curves. We partition the curves in a clear and natural way into four groups and then join all the curves in each group into one analytic curve by using representations of the unit step function including one that is fully analytic. Having a well-parameterized surface, we do some calculations on it that are motivated by differential geometry but give a better optimized and possibly more smooth surface. For this, we use an ansatz consisting of the original surface plus a variational parameter multiplying the numerator part of its mean curvature function and minimize with the respect to it the rms mean curvature and decrease the area of the surface we generate. We do a complete numerical implementation for a boundary composed of five straight lines, that can model a string breaking, and get about 0.82 percent decrease of the area. Given the demonstrated ability of our optimization algorithm to reduce area by as much as 23 percent for a spanning surface not close of being a minimal surface, this much smaller fractional decrease suggests that the Coons patch we have been able to write is already close of being a minimal surface.

  10. Variation of the temperature and humidity among urban areas of Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Santana de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of urban climate, have been in recent years, focus of quarrels and object of research in the entire world a time that the intense urbanization is a current event that provides conditions of modern life, but no always healthful. The present study it intends to identify and to compare variations of temperature and humidity of air among areas of the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, being used given referring to the month of September of 2006, collected in automatic climatologicals stations installed one in the Central area, one in the Quarter Jardim Cuiabá and another one in the Coxipó, places with deferential characteristics of use of the ground and occupation. For the accomplishment of the statistical analyses program SPSS 13.0 was used, statistical software and the Excel program will be Windows for compilation of the graphs. It was carried through a test of distribution of frequency as well as descriptive statisticians (average, medium, fashion, shunting line standard, variance and curtose. It was observed that Quarter Jardim Cuiabá presented lower hourly temperature in relation to the other areas, reaching a difference of 1.8 oC.

  11. Seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyun-Gu; Choi, Minkyu; Sunwoo, Young

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in both rural (Ansung) and urban (Seoul) areas in Korea from July, 1999 to May, 2000. The chemicals measured in this study include heptachlor, chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and endosulfan. Endosulfan and α-HCH, with values of a few 100s to 1000s of pg m -3, were found to have higher concentrations than other compounds in both areas. Most OCPs showed higher concentrations in Ansung, with many potential sources, such as contaminated surfaces, relative to Seoul. The maximum and minimum concentrations of OCPs at both sites occurred in summer and winter, respectively. It can be partly explained by the variation of temperature. The correlation between atmospheric concentration and temperature was observed using Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots. The CC plots for most OCPs in both areas showed good linearity and steep slopes. It is hence inferred that their atmospheric concentrations might be mostly affected by re-volatilization from surfaces of local surroundings at the sampling sites.

  12. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  13. Olive tree phenology and climate variations in the Mediterranean area over the last two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Fabio; Garcia-Mozo, H.; Dhiab, A. Ben; Galán, C.; Msallem, M.; Fornaciari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The flowering characteristics of plant species of economic interest and the influence of climate on them are of great importance considering the implications for fruit setting and the final harvest: Olive is one of the typical species of the Mediterranean habitat. We have investigated the timing of olive full flowering during the anthesis period and flowering intensity over a period of 20 years (1990-2009), in three major cultivation areas of the Mediterranean basin: Italy, Spain and Tunisia. The importance of these characteristics from a bioclimatic point of view is considered. The biological behaviour was studied to determine its main relationships with temperature and water availability, considering also the different sub-periods and the bio-climatic variations during the study period. The flowering dates and pollen emissions show different behaviours for the Spanish monitoring area in comparison with the other two olive cultivation areas. In the Italian and Tunisian areas, the flowering period over the last decade has become earlier by about 5 and 7 days, respectively, in comparison to the previous decade. Moreover, pollen emissions have decreased in Perugia (Italy) and Zarzis (Tunisia) over the period of 2000-2009, while in Cordoba (Spain), they showed their highest values from 2005 to 2009. The climate analysis has shown an increase in temperature, which results in an increase in the growing degree days for the growth of the olive flower structures, particularly in the more northern areas monitored. Although the olive tree is a parsimonious water consumer that is well adapted to xeric conditions, the increase in the potential evapotranspiration index over the last decade in the Italian and Tunisian olive areas might create problems for olive groves without irrigation, with a negative influence on the flowering intensity. Overall, in all of these Mediterranean monitoring areas, the summer water deficit is an increasingly more important parameter in comparison

  14. Variations in duodenal cross-sectional area during the interdigestive migrating motility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, H; Kraglund, K; Djurhuus, J C

    1990-07-01

    A probe for measurement of intestinal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to elucidate variations of human gut CA during the interdigestive migrating motility complex (MMC). A balloon was inflated by saline at a pressure of 1 kPa, and variations of balloon CA (BCSA) were measured by means of the field-gradient principle. Duodenal phasic activity was measured by perfused side holes proximal to, distal to, and inside the balloon. In vitro characterization of probe performance showed that static measurement of BCSA was very accurate regardless of the configuration of the balloon. However, during dynamic measurements, BCSA was valid only for slow variations in BCSA due to resistance in the evacuation and inflation system. Eight duodenal MMCs were recorded. BCSA increased consistently from the start of phase I to the end of phase II from 72 (45-100) to 136 (87-154) mm2. During late phase II, a large BCSA increase was recorded. A positive correlation between the phasic activity level in phases I and II of MMC and maximal BCSA in duodenum was demonstrated (proximal P less than 0.01; distal P less than 0.05). BCSA during phase III was small but could not be estimated accurately because steady-state conditions were not obtained. The large BCSA in late phase II suggests a relaxation of the duodenal wall secondary to a decrease in smooth muscle tone. The results add evidence to previous findings of a low-resistance or large-capacitance situation in late phase II, observed as a large pancreaticobiliary excretion into the duodenum and an increased flow of duodenal contents. PMID:2372063

  15. Study of FBAR response with variation in active area of membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Gurpreet Singh; Singh, Tarandip; Prasad, Mahanth

    2016-04-01

    In most of the communication devices such as filter, duplexer and oscillator, the need of acoustic resonator is the key part because of their small size and high performances. The design of a resonator based on three layers: (1) Bottom metal electrode such as Pt, Mo, Al and Au etc. (2) Piezoelectric layer such as ZnO, AlN and PZT etc. and (3) Top metal electrode. In this paper, the effects of active area on resonance frequency and impedance response of FBAR device have been studied. The FBAR devices having different membrane sizes, 150×150 µm2, 300×300 µm2, 450×450 µm2 and 600×600 µm2 were designed and simulated using COMSOL software Tool. The variation in resonance frequencies are found to be 2.62-2.65 GHz. Based on simulation results, one of the membrane having size, 300×300 µm2 has been fabricated for FBAR device.

  16. Digitized archive of the Kodaikanal images: Representative results of solar cycle variation from sunspot area determination

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, B; Amareswari, K; Priyal, M; Nazia, A A; Banerjee, D

    2012-01-01

    Photographic images are valuable data resources for studying long term changes in the solar magnetic field and its influence on the Earth's climate and weather. We digitized more than 100 years of white light images stored in photographic plates and films that are available at Kodaikanal observatory starting from 1904. The digitized images were calibrated for relative plate density and aligned in such a way that the solar north is in upward direction. A semi-automated sunspot detection technique was used to identify the sunspots on the digitized images. In addition to describing the calibration procedure and availability of the data, we here present preliminary results on the sunspot area measurements and their variation with time. The results show that the white-light images have a uniform spatial resolution throughout the 90 years of observations. However, the contrast of the images decreases from 1968 onwards. The images are circular and do not show any major geometrical distortions. The measured monthly a...

  17. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

  18. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  19. Urban-Rural Gradients of Ecosystem Services and the Linkages with Socioeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The principle of urban-rural gradients can reveal the spatial variations of ecosystem services and socioeconomic dimensions. The interrelations between ecosystem services and socioeconomics have scarcely been considered in the context of urban-rural areas. We investigated the spatial gradients and the mutual linkages of several ecosystem services and socioeconomic variables in the urban-rural areas of Leipzig, Germany, and Kunming, China. The results showed some regularities in the spatial patterns of ecosystem services and socioeconomic dimensions in both study areas. Habitat quality and f-evapotranspiration of Leipzig and habitat quality of Kunming demonstrated apparent increasing trends along all gradient patterns. However, the other ecosystem services presented divergent spatial variabilities in different gradient patterns. Road density, urban fabric and population density showed identical declining trends in both case study areas. Differently, household size, housing area as well as unemployment rate in Leipzig presented inconsistent spatial dynamics with considerable fluctuations. With regard to the gradient interrelations, road density, urban fabric and population density were strongly correlated with most ecosystem services in both case study areas. In contrast, the gradients of household size, housing area and unemployment rate of Leipzig showed inconsistent correlations with the ecosystem services gradients. Our study provides evidence to the argument that typical patterns of ecosystem service gradients do not exist in different urban-rural areas.

  20. Monitoring crop leaf area index time variation from higher resolution remotely sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaf area index (LAI) is significant for research on global climate change and ecological environment. China HJ-1 satellite has a revisit cycle of four days, providing CCD data (HJ-1 CCD) with a resolution of 30 m. However, the HJ-1 CCD is incapable of obtaining observations at multiple angles. This is problematic because single angle observations provide insufficient data for determining the LAI. This article proposes a new method for determining LAI using HJ-1 CCD data. The proposed method uses background knowledge of dynamic land surface processes that are extracted from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI 1-km resolution data. To process the uncertainties that arise from using two data sources with different spatial resolutions, the proposed method is implemented in a dynamitic Bayesian network scheme by integrating a LAI dynamic process model and a canopy reflectance model with remotely sensed data. Validation results showed that the determination coefficient between estimated and measured LAI was 0.791, and the RMSE was 0.61. This method can enhance the accuracy of the retrieval results while retaining the time series variation characteristics of the vegetation LAI. The results suggest that this algorithm can be widely applied to determining high-resolution leaf area indices using data from China HJ-1 satellite even if information from single angle observations are insufficient for quantitative application

  1. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  2. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), low educational level (p=0.05), and lower income (p=0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  3. Anopheline Diversity: Morphological and Molecular Variation of An. subpictus in Rural and Urban Areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Paul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic survey (March 2012- Feb 2013of Anopheline population in rural(Mogra and urban(Dumdum areas of West Bengal has been conducted to know the present population load of Anopheles subpictus. A reliminary attempt has been made to assess the potential morphological (wing as well as molecular variation of Anopheles subpictus by using ITS-2 sequence primer. A considerable sequence variation is observed between the rural and urban population of West Bengal.

  4. Individual identification and genetic variation of lions (Panthera leo from two protected areas in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talatu Tende

    Full Text Available This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR spanned through a period of five years (2008 -2012, whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012. We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST  = 0.17 with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS  = 0.49, KLNP FIS  = 0.38. The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild.

  5. Exploring Neighborhood Influences on Small-Area Variations in Intimate Partner Violence Risk: A Bayesian Random-Effects Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses spatial data of cases of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW to examine neighborhood-level influences on small-area variations in IPVAW risk in a police district of the city of Valencia (Spain. To analyze area variations in IPVAW risk and its association with neighborhood-level explanatory variables we use a Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach, as well as disease mapping methods to represent risk probabilities in each area. Analyses show that IPVAW cases are more likely in areas of high immigrant concentration, high public disorder and crime, and high physical disorder. Results also show a spatial component indicating remaining variability attributable to spatially structured random effects. Bayesian spatial modeling offers a new perspective to identify IPVAW high and low risk areas, and provides a new avenue for the design of better-informed prevention and intervention strategies.

  6. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice. PMID:26388172

  7. Who can afford health care? Evaluating the socio-economic conditions and the ability to contribute to health care in a post-conflict area in DR Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. METHODOLOGY: Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. FINDINGS: The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%; 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27 and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10. Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care.

  8. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  9. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average amplitude of intragroup variations). Thus, we showed for the first time that at high latitudes increase in the level of

  10. Paleosecular variation record of geomagnetic full vector during late Miocene, from the Nayarit area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva Valdivia, Luis M.; Elguera, Jose Rosas; Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia; Cervantes, Miguel Angel; Morales, Juan

    2002-11-01

    We have sampled a sequence of 45 late Miocene consecutive lava flows in the Tepic area (Nayarit State, Mexico). The age of the volcanic units lies between 8 and 9 million years (Ma) according to available radiometric data. All samples were stepwise demagnetized, partly with alternating field (AF), partly thermally with very similar results. Most of the rocks exhibited well-defined one component remanent magnetisation with high unblocking temperatures (mostly above 525 °C) and high median destructive fields (MDF) (40-50 mT). Rock-magnetic experiments combined with microscopy show that, in most cases, the main magnetic mineral is Ti-poor titanomagnetite associated with exsoluted ilmenite. Continuous susceptibility measurements with temperature and hysteresis experiments yield in most cases nearly reversible curves with Curie points close to that of magnetite and pseudo-single-domain characteristics. Characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) isolated after the first steps of demagnetisation are all normal polarity. According to the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) directions, paleosecular variation was abnormally lower than the one observed in general during Miocene. Considering our paleomagnetic results together with available radiometric data, it seems that the volcanic units have been emplaced during a very short time span of about 0.08 million years. The mean paleomagnetic directions obtained from this study do not differ significantly from that expected for the middle Miocene. Thirty-one samples from eight individual flows yielded acceptable paleointensity estimates. The site mean paleointensities range from 27.8±0.9 to 42.0±7.9 μT. The virtual dipole moments (VDM) range from 5.9 to 9.5×10 22 Am 2. This corresponds to a mean value of 7.6±1.4×10 22 Am 2, which is higher than the average VDM value for late Miocene. Altogether our data suggest the existence of relatively high geomagnetic field strength undergoing low fluctuations. These

  11. A hybrid variational ensemble data assimilation for the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gustafsson; J. Bojarova; O. Vignes

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid variational ensemble data assimilation has been developed on top of the HIRLAM variational data assimilation. It provides the possibility of applying a flow-dependent background error covariance model during the data assimilation at the same time as full rank characteristics of the variational data assimilation are preserved. The hybrid formulation is based on an augmentation of the assimilation control variable with localised weights to be assigned to a set of ense...

  12. Estimation of water dam area variations by means of multitemporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Vassilev, Vasil; Borisova, Denitsa; Tsvetkova, Nadya

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade one of the resources, which is considered to be scarce, having in mind the growing population in global scale is the fresh water. Thus the need for careful planning and use of this resource is more then evident. In order to mitigate the effects of drought and potable water needs water dams are constructed. But together with benefits they provide there is serious flooding risk they pose for the area where they reside. In this research we proposed and tested an approach for water dam area delineation based solely on remotely sensed data. We proved that processing diachronic multispectral optical data from freely available sources and additional ones, such as topographic maps, in-situ data, data from national agencies, etc. we managed to obtain relevant information concerning current and past status of water dam Topolnitsa. The proposed method includes following steps - mulspectral data processing up to reflectance; calculation of widely used water related indices, namely NDWI and MNDWI; creation of mask layer implementing linear spectral unmixing for water area; and finally estimation of the area of the water table and calculation of the volume of the water body. In our previous work testing the pertinence of each spectral band (as well as of a few band ratios) to calculate the turbidity index (results not shown here), the red band was chosen. The best fit of the red band to characterize the turbidity of Danube Delta waters is not truly surprising. Using similar technology as for processing of HR EO data combined with visual interpretation for VHR data and airborne images Remote Sensing Application Center - ReSAC has developed a database for the standing water bodies in Bulgaria. The work continues over 10 years already and as a result more than 11 000 objects are mapped. For each water body a historical record is established on its variation in size during the years based on images available. Those records are organized in GIS database and can be

  13. Diurnal Variations of Summer Precipitation in the Beijing Area and the Possible Effect of Topography and Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Shuiqing; LI Weijing; Deliang CHEN; Jee-Hoon JEONG; GUO Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the diurnal variations of summer precipitation in the Beijing area by using subdaily precipitation and wind observations. A combined effect of topography and urbanization on the characteristics of diurnal variations was suggested. It was shown that stations located in the plain area exhibited typical night rain peaks, whereas those in the mountainous area exhibited clear afternoon peaks of precipitation diurnal variations. The precipitation peaks were associated with wind fields around the Beijing area, which were found to be highly modulated by mountain-valley circulation and urban-country circulation.The lower-tropospheric wind exhibited a clear diurnal shift in its direction from north at 0800 LST to south at 2000 LST, which reflected mountain-valley circulation. The transitions from valley to mountain wind and the opposite generally happened after sunset and sunrise, respectively, and both occurred earlier for the stations located closer to mountains. By comparing the diurnal variations of precipitation at stations in a northeast suburb, an urban area, and a southwest suburb, it was revealed that the northeast suburb group had the highest normalized rainfall frequency, but the southwest group had the lowest from late afternoon to late evening. On the contrary, in the early morning from about 0200 to 1000 LST, the southwest group and urban group had the highest normalized rainfall frequency. This pattern might originate from the combined effects of mountain-valley topography and urbanization.

  14. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  15. Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang En Wee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods: The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES and rental flats (low SES in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as Results: Participation was 61.4% (558/909. Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397 of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161 of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = –1.41, SD = 0.58, p Conclusion: Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in pregnancy outcome associated with Down syndrome: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Judith L S; Draper, Elizabeth S; Lotto, Robyn R; Berry, Laura E; Smith, Lucy K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy associated with Down syndrome (DS) compared with other congenital anomalies screened for during pregnancy. Design and setting Retrospective population-based registry study (East Midlands & South Yorkshire in England). Participants All registered cases of DS and nine selected congenital anomalies with poor prognostic outcome (the UK Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme (FASP)9) with an end of pregnancy date between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007. Main outcome measures: Poisson regression models were used to explore outcome measures, including socioeconomic variation in rates of anomaly; antenatal detection; pregnancy outcome; live birth incidence and neonatal mortality. Deprivation was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 at super output area level. Results There were 1151 cases of DS and 1572 cases of the nine severe anomalies combined. The overall rate of antenatal detection was 57% for DS, which decreased with increasing deprivation (rate ratio comparing the most deprived tenth with the least deprived: 0.76 (0.60 to 0.97)). Antenatal detection rates were considerably higher for FASP9 anomalies (86%), with no evidence of a trend with deprivation (0.99 95% CI (0.84 to 1.17)). The termination of pregnancy rate following antenatal diagnosis was higher for DS (86%) than the FASP9 anomalies (70%). Both groups showed wide socioeconomic variation in the termination of pregnancy rate (rate ratio: DS: 0.76 (0.58 to 0.99); FASP9 anomalies: 0.80 (0.65 to 0.97)). Consequently, socioeconomic inequalities in live birth and neonatal mortality rates associated with these anomalies arise that were not observed in utero. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in the antenatal detection of DS, and subsequent termination rates are much higher for DS than other anomalies. Termination rates for all anomalies are lower in more deprived areas leading to wide socioeconomic inequalities in

  18. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  19. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface air temperature variations over the Antarctic and its surrounding area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙骅; 卞林根; 贾朋群

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution, temporal variations trend and oscillation for the surface air temperature variations during 1957-1993 in the Antarctic and its surrounding area were analyzed. The results show that the short-time climate change in the Antarctic is complex both temporally and spatially. The Antarctic is by no means the strongest responding region to the global greenhouse effect. There is a distinguished difference in the trends of the temperature changes for the Antarctic and global mean, which could not be explained simply by the global greenhouse effect.

  20. Socioeconomic Status During Lifetime and Cognitive Impairment No-Dementia in Late Life: The Population-Based Aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the In Chianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics, occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders. Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2) was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI =1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates, high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up. PMID:21297261

  1. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  2. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  3. On the variations of InSAR-ICA altitudes in a mountain area of the Sele Valley (South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ballatore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ERS-1/ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data are processed by InSAR-ICA technique and the altitude
    variations are calculated for the period June-December 1995. For the same period and the same ERS-
    1/ERS-2 SAR data, the nominal surface deformations are calculated by the standard DInSAR (Differential Interferometric
    SAR method, considered without any atmospheric correction. The results of the two different processing
    techniques are qualitatively compared with the previous geological and hydrological observations of the
    area under study. It is shown how the InSAR-ICA altitude variations are in better agreement with the expected
    characterization of this region. Although these variations cannot be considered quantitative precise surface deformations
    at present, this finding is interpreted in terms of usefulness and reliability of InSAR-ICA altitude estimations.

  4. Diurnal variation in the concentration of air ions of different mobility classes in a rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrrak, Urmas; Salm, Jaan; Tammet, Hannes

    2003-10-01

    Analyzed data consist of 8900 hourly average mobility distributions measured in the mobility range of 0.00041-3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 (diameter range 0.36-79 nm) at Tahkuse Observatory, Estonia, in 1993-1994. The average diurnal variation in the concentration of cluster ions is typical for continental stations: the maximum in the early morning hours and the minimum in the afternoon. This is explained by variations in radon concentration. The diurnal variation for big cluster ions (0.5-1.3 cm2 V-1 s-1) differs from that for small cluster ions (1.3-3.14 cm2 V-1 s-1). The size distribution of intermediate and light large ions in the range of 1.6-22 nm is strongly affected by nucleation bursts of nanometer particles. On the burst days, the maximum concentration of intermediate ions (1.6-7.4 nm) is about the noontime and that of light large ions (7.4-22 nm) about 2 hours later. The concentration of heavy large ions (charged Aitken particles of diameters of 22-79 nm) is enhanced in the afternoon and this is explained by the bursts of nanometer particles and the subsequent growth of particles by condensation and coagulation. If the burst days are excluded, then in the warm season the concentration of Aitken particles increases during night. In the cold season, the diurnal variation is different and all the classes of aerosol ions (2.1-79 nm) show similar variation with the minimum at 0600 LT and the maximum in the afternoon; exceptions are the rare nucleation burst days.

  5. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio define y desarrolla un conjunto de indicadores que permite medir la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades de pescadores artesanales que operan el régimen de Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB en la región de Coquimbo (Chile. Los resultados del estudio señalan que el desempeño socioeconómico de estas AMERB medido mediante indicador sintético global es regular. También, que las AMERB en una escala de 0 a 1 muestran un resultado más favorable en el aspecto institucional (0,54, seguido por el aspecto social (0,49 y finalmente por el aspecto económico (0,30. Así, el desarrollo institucional y la situación social son actualmente "buenos" a diferencia de la situación económica que es actualmente "regular o mala". A nivel global, la situación socioeconómica de las organizaciones de Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué y Totoral es "buena", mientras que para las demás organizaciones es regular o mala. Respecto a las causas del desempeño socioeconómico de las AMERB, el estudio señala que el componente más relevante es económico. En efecto, el ingreso per capita aparece altamente correlacionado con el éxito, seguido por la antigüedad de la AMERB, y el que ésta pertenezca a una zona de influencia urbana. Finalmente, las especies objetivo no son determinantes en el éxito socioeconómico, y contrario a lo que se podría suponer, las AMERB que disponen del recurso loco (Concholepas concholepas obtienen en promedio un peor resultado comparado con las organizaciones que explotan otras especies.The present study defines and develops a set of indicators able to measure the socioeconomic situation of artisanal fishing communities operating under a regime of Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (AMERB, in Spanish in the Coquimbo region (Chile. The results of the study indicate that the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs, as measured with a global

  6. Contribution of Topography and Incident Solar Radiation to Variation of Soil and Plant Litter at an Area with Heterogeneous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cito Nettesheim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural processes that determine soil and plant litter properties are controlled by multiple factors. However, little attention has been given to distinguishing the effects of environmental factors from the effects of spatial structure of the area on the distribution of soil and litter properties in tropical ecosystems covering heterogeneous topographies. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of soil and litter variation in a tropical area that intercepts different levels of solar radiation throughout the year since its topography has slopes predominantly facing opposing geographic directions. Soil data (pH, C, N, P, H+Al, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Na, sand, and silt and plant litter data (N, K, Ca, P, and Mg were gathered together with the geographic coordinates (to model the spatial structure of 40 sampling units established at two sites composed of slopes predominantly facing northwest and southeast (20 units each. Soil and litter chemical properties varied more among slopes within similar geographic orientations than between the slopes facing opposing directions. Both the incident solar radiation and the spatial structure of the area were relevant in explaining the patterns detected in variation of soil and plant litter. Individual contributions of incident solar radiation to explain the variation in the properties evaluated suggested that this and other environmental factors may play a particularly relevant role in determining soil and plant litter distribution in tropical areas with heterogeneous topography. Furthermore, this study corroborates that the spatial structure of the area also plays an important role in the distribution of soil and litter within this type of landscape, which appears to be consistent with the action of water movement mechanisms in such areas.

  7. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an agen

  8. The development and optimisation of a primary care-based whole system complex intervention (CARE Plus) for patients with multimorbidity living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Rosaleen; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Higgins, Maria; Guthrie, Bruce; Watt, Graham; Wyke, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop and optimise a primary care-based complex intervention (CARE Plus) to enhance the quality of life of patients with multimorbidity in the deprived areas. Methods Six co-design discussion groups involving 32 participants were held separately with multimorbid patients from the deprived areas, voluntary organisations, general practitioners and practice nurses working in the deprived areas. This was followed by piloting in two practices and further optimisation based on interviews with 11 general practitioners, 2 practice nurses and 6 participating multimorbid patients. Results Participants endorsed the need for longer consultations, relational continuity and a holistic approach. All felt that training and support of the health care staff was important. Most participants welcomed the idea of additional self-management support, though some practitioners were dubious about whether patients would use it. The pilot study led to changes including a revised care plan, the inclusion of mindfulness-based stress reduction techniques in the support of practitioners and patients, and the stream-lining of the written self-management support material for patients. Discussion We have co-designed and optimised an augmented primary care intervention involving a whole-system approach to enhance quality of life in multimorbid patients living in the deprived areas. CARE Plus will next be tested in a phase 2 cluster randomised controlled trial. PMID:27068113

  9. A Pilot Socioeconomic Survey of the Impact Area of Energy-Related Industries Proposed for Monongalia County, West Virginia. Circular 118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout-Wiegand, Nancy; And Others

    The major objective of this pilot survey was to pretest questions for use in the development and design of a larger, more definitive survey of residents of rural communities in Appalachia, planned for the spring of 1981, and to obtain preliminary descriptive data about the area's residents. Telephone interviews covered respondents' family…

  10. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  11. [Measurement of the wound cavity area by means of PC based planimetry. The method and observer variations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J; Dahlin, J

    1993-03-01

    A method for wound area measurement is presented. A wound cavity was cut in a chine of pork. A thin PVC plastic film was applied closely to the entire wound cavity surface and a line was drawn close to the cutaneous border with a marker pen. The film was then placed on a system of coordinates and coordinates were determined and entered into a PC-programme which calculated the area. No significant intra-or inter-observer variation appeared on analyses of variance between five observers each of whom performed three consecutive measurements (p > 0.2). Thus, employment of the method for clinical purposes seems feasible.

  12. Annual precipitation fields secular variation over global land areas for 1948-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The secular variation over the global land annual precipitation (GLAP) fields for 1948-2000 is investigated. Evidence suggests that the GLAP abruptly reduced around 1978 and experienced a decrease of 0.54 mm/a, on average. Fuzzy clustering is used to group the annual precipitation over commonly-used 36 latitudes belts into six belts for examining its secular variation. The results show that, except northern high-latitudes (60°-90°N) where it is slightly increased, the precipitation is decreased, especially in 35°N-35°S, and the diminution is the maximum of 0.98 mm/a at tropics. Moreover, identification of 1948-2000 flood/drought years on a global basis is made, showing noticeable interdecadal variations. During the years of warm (cold) events the precipitation decreases (increases) by 15.4 mm (14.4 mm) per year, on average. It can be assumed that global warming and frequent ENSO occurrences from the end of the 1970s maybe serve as the root cause of the diminution.

  13. Temporal and vertical variation of hydraulic head in aquifers in the Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Colleen A.; Tenbus, Fredrick J.

    1998-01-01

    Water-level data and interpretations from previous hydrogeological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, were compared to determine similarities and differences among the aquifers. Because the sediments that comprise the shallow aquifers are discontinuous, the shallow ground-water-flow systems are local rather than extensive across the Edgewood Area. Hydrogeologic cross sections, hydrographs of water levels, and vertical gradients calculated from previous studies in the Canal Creek area, Graces Quarters, the O-Field area, Carroll Island, and the J-Field area, over periods of record ranging from 1 to 10 years during 1986-97, were used to determine recharge and discharge areas, connections between aquifers, and hydrologic responses of aquifers to natural and anthropogenic stress. Each of the aquifers in the study areas exhibited variation of hydraulic head that was attributed to seasonal changes in recharge. Upward hydraulic gradients and seasonal reversals of vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifers indicate the potential for local ground-water discharge from most of the aquifers that were studied in the Edgewood Area. Hydraulic head in individual aquifers in Graces Quarters and Carroll Island responded to offsite pumping during part of the period of record. Hydraulic head in most of the confined aquifers responded to tidal loading effects from nearby estuaries.

  14. Diurnal variation of phytoplankton community in a high frequency area of HABs: Daya Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Song, Xingyu; Huang, Liangmin; Zhong, Yu; Shen, Pingping; Qin, Geng

    2011-07-01

    Phytoplankton community was investigated in the cage culture area of Daya Bay during a diurnal cycle. Two rainfalls occurred during the course of the experiment and decreased the surface seawater salinity in the aquaculture area. A total of 38 species were identified, of which the dominant species included Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Skeletonema costatum. Water stratification obstructed the vertical migration of dinoflagellates. Statistical analysis indicated that Synechococcus showed negative relationship with silicate and ammonia, which indicated that Synechococcus adapted to grow at oligotrophic environment. Phytoplankton community structure implied the risk of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in the aquaculture area of Daya Bay.

  15. The Relationship between Dental Caries and Some Socio-economic Factors in 35- 44 Years Old Adults in Some Urban Areas of Sistan & Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Abdolazimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the oral health, systematic analysis of oral health condition and related factors should be conducted. This study aimed to evaluate dental caries and some related factors in 35-44 years old men & women in five urban areas of Sistan and Baluchestan in 2009-2010. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 550 people were chosen by random stratified clustering in five different urban areas of the province. All participants were examined and the DMFT index was determined. Demographic and social information and their oral health behaviors were registered in a questionnaire which was composed of 11 questions. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17 and descriptive statistic methods. Results: Statistical analysis showed that average of DMFT was 10.05 ± 7.186. DMFT in females (11.43 ± 7.5 was more than males (8.68 ± 6.6 significantly (P 0.05 Conclusion: Results of this study could be used by public health managers to plan and evaluate public health in the future. With an emphasis on improving high risk patients’ situation, appropriate interventions can be designed to achieve good results in the short and long term

  16. Geostatistical analysis of variations in soil salinity in atypical irrigation area in Xinjiang, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity is tremendously important for a variety of agronomic andenvironmental concerns in arid irrigation areas. This paper reviews the characteristics and spatial and temporal variationsof soil salinization in the Ili River Irrigation Area by applying a geostatistical approach. Results showed that: (1) the soilsalinity varied widely, with maximum value of 28.10 g/kg and minimum value of 0.10 g/kg, and was distributed mainly atthe surface soil layer. Anions were mainly SO42- and Cl-, while cations were mainly Na+ and Ca2+; (2) the abundance ofsalinity of the root zone soil layer for different land use types was in the following order: grassland 〉 cropland 〉 forestland.The abundance of salinity of root zone soil layers for different periods was in the following order: March 〉 June 〉 September;(3) the spherical model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0-3 cm and 3-20 cmsoil layers in March and June, and the 3-20 cm soil layer in September, while the exponential model was the most suitablevariogram model to describe the salinity of the 0-3 cm soil layer in September. Relatively strong spatial and temporalstructure existed for soil salinity due to lower nugget effects; and (4) the maps of kriged soil salinity showed that higher soilsalinity was distributed in the central parts of the study area and lower soil salinity was distributed in the marginal parts.Soil salinity tended to increase from the marginal parts to the central parts across the study area. Applying the krigingmethod is very helpful in detecting the problematic areas and is a good tool for soil resources management. Managingefforts on the appropriate use of soil and water resources in such areas is very important for sustainable agriculture, andmore attention should be paid to these areas to prevent future problems.

  17. Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

    2005-08-01

    The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

  18. Characterising the interspecific variations and convergence of gut microbiota in Anseriformes herbivores at wintering areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhan; Deng, Ye; Cao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms in vertebrate guts have been recognized as important symbionts influencing host life. However, it remains unclear about the gut microbiota in long-distance migratory Anseriformes herbivores, which could be functionally important for these wetland-dependent animals. We collected faeces of the greater white-fronted goose (GWFG), bean goose (BG) and swan goose (SG) from Shengjin Lake (SJL) and Poyang Lake (PYL) in the Yangtze River Floodplain, China. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA V4 region was employed to depict the composition and structure of geese gut microbiota during wintering period. The dominant bacterial phyla across all samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, but significant variations were detected among different goose species and sampling sites, in terms of α diversity, community structures and microbial interactions. We found a significant correlation between diet and the microbial community structure in GWFG-SJL samples. These results demonstrated that host species and diet are potential drivers of goose gut microbiota assemblies. Despite these variations, functions of geese gut microbiota were similar, with great abundances of potential genes involved in nutrient metabolism. This preliminary study would be valuable for future, exhaustive investigations of geese gut microbiota and their interactions with host. PMID:27600170

  19. Anatomical variations in wood among four native species of Leguminosae grown in arid areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shu-min; Jiang Ze-hui; Ren Hai-qing; Ikuo Furukawa

    2007-01-01

    Morphological features and anatomical variations are described and illustrated in detail for four native species of Leguminosae grown in arid sandy regions in China, which are Hedysarum scoparium Fisch.et Mey., Caragana korshiskii Kom., Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. and Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. ex Kom.) Cheng f. All species showed similar morphological features:distinct growth ring boundaries, ring to semi-ring-porosity, simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pitting, nonseptate fibers,paratracheal confluent axial parenchyma, helical thickenings and heterocellular rays. However, the vessel arrangement and their quantitative features were different. A. mongolicus had smaller vessel diameters and larger vessel frequency, while the values in the other three species were similar, but bigger than those in A. mongolicus. The variation of vessel lengths and fiber lengths along a horizontal direction showed an irregular tendency. There were significant differences in both fiber lengths and vessel element lengths among trees and within trees, except for A. mongolicus. The relationships between anatomical features of secondary xylem and the adaptability of these species to desert environments are also discussed.

  20. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junying; Da, Liangjun; Song, Kun; Li, Bai-Lian

    2008-03-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai.

  1. Process variations in surface nano geometries manufacture on large area substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido;

    2014-01-01

    The need of transporting, treating and measuring increasingly smaller biomedical samples has pushed the integration of a far reaching number of nanofeatures over large substrates size in respect to the conventional processes working area windows. Dimensional stability of nano fabrication processes...

  2. Spatial-temporal variation of groundwater and land subsidence evolution in Beijing area

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, K.; Luo, Y; Chen, B; Guo, M.; Guo, G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, R

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is the main recharge source of groundwater in the plain of Beijing, China. Rapid expansion of urbanization has resulted in increased built-up area and decreased amount of effective recharge of precipitation to groundwater, indirectly leading to the long-term over-exploitation of groundwater, and induced regional land subsidence. Based on the combination of meteorological data, groundwater level data, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR; specifically...

  3. Variation in the area of islets of langerhans in sodium cyclamate treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the effects of sodium cyclamate on islets of langerhans in rats pancreas. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Duration of study: Anatomy Department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from March to May 2014. Material and Methods: Twenty male and twenty female Sprauge dawley rats weighing 175-205 gms were used in the experiment. Half male and half female rats were randomly divided in two groups (control group C and experimental group E, n=20 animals in each group). Group C served as control group in which rats were given normal diet. Group E served as experimental group and was given sodium cyclamate 60mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for two months. Animals were dissected. Pancreas was examined and weighed. Slides were made after processing the organ for histological study. Area of islets of langerhans was calculated by image j software. Results were analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: The mean weight of pancreas in control and experimental group was 0.75 gm (SD ± 0.094) and 0.805 gm (SD ± 0.068) respectively. It was significantly higher (p = 0.043) in experimental group. The area of islet of langerhans in control and experimental group was 15285.40 µm2 (IQR: 9881.08 - 23001.35) and 33213.50 µm2 (IQR: 21258.05-45879.18) respectively. There was an increase in area in experimental group (p = 0.014). Conclusion: Sodium cyclamate affects the histomorphology of endocrine pancreas by increasing the area of islets of langerhans in treated group. (author)

  4. Evaluation of High Level Environmental Background Radiation Areas and its Variation in Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man-made sources combined. Materials and Methods In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. For dosimetry, a gamma radiation dosimeter was used. Measurements were performed in more than 90 points in five districts with HLEBR around and near hot springs. Results In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. To estimate the cosmic ray contribution, dose measurements were performed on the sea surface one km off the sea shore. Conclusion The observed differences over locations and measured doses between this study and the others revealed the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and necessitate performing the periodic studies in these areas. Moreover, cytogenetic and immunologic researches for studying the long term effects of these high level environmental radiations on the residents of these HLEBRAs are necessary.

  5. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  6. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    needle to shoot area ratio, woody to total area ratio and element-clumping index for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands. NDVI modelled LAI was used to evaluate the LAI product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the comparison indicated that MODIS LAI was neither correlated to LAI in Laxemar nor in Forsmark. MODIS LAI also was larger than NDVI modelled LAI and it showed large variations at both sites. It is therefore not recommended to use the MODIS LAI product for future LAI estimations in these small investigation areas

  7. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    needle to shoot area ratio, woody to total area ratio and element-clumping index for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands. NDVI modelled LAI was used to evaluate the LAI product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the comparison indicated that MODIS LAI was neither correlated to LAI in Laxemar nor in Forsmark. MODIS LAI also was larger than NDVI modelled LAI and it showed large variations at both sites. It is therefore not recommended to use the MODIS LAI product for future LAI estimations in these small investigation areas.

  8. Dramatic variations in emergent wetland area in China's largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Chen, Jiyu

    2016-10-01

    Freshwater wetlands are important ecosystems experiencing rapid degradation around the world. As much as 64% of world's wetland area has been lost since 1900; the situation is even more serious in Asia, where land reclamation and anthropogenic modifications of rivers are increasing the rate of wetland disappearance. In this study, we provide a first complete estimation of daily Emergent Wetland Area (EWA) in Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, from 1955 to 2012. A wavelet analysis indicates a strong periodicity in the monthly EWA time series with two oscillations having a period of 12 and 60-72 months, respectively. A dramatic increase in mean annual EWA is detected since 2003, when the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) was completed, mainly due to the seasonal drying of 1078 km2 of wetlands in October. It is found that the timing of wetland emergence during the dry season has been anticipated of one month, from November to October, since the establishment of TGD. It is argued that a significant increase in wetland exposure and an observable shift in the seasonal timing of flooding and drying will seriously degrade the wetland system and threaten the endangered migratory birds that inhabit it unless effective countermeasures are implemented.

  9. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E; Bell, Bethany A; Hibbert, James D; Barnes, Timothy L; Liese, Angela D

    2013-12-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called "food deserts" have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50-65% sensitivity, and 60-64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88-91% concordance, 80-86% sensitivity and 78-82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access.

  10. Geographical variations in the correlates of blood donor turnout rates: An investigation of Canadian metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbold K Bruce

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other countries, Canada's population is aging, and the implications of this demographic change need to be better understood from the perspective of blood supply. Analysis of donor data will help to identify systematic patterns of donation and its correlates. Data Geo-coded blood donor and donor clinic data are provided by Canadian Blood Services. Blood donor data is provided for the fiscal year 2006-2007 indicating the total number of donors for each Canadian postal code, excluding the province of Québec. Potential correlates of blood donation are selected based on social and economic characteristics, as well as descriptors of city size and geographical location in the urban hierarchy measures of accessibility, and capacity of donor clinics. Methods Data is aggregated to n = 3,746 census tracts in 40 Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA across the country. The number of donors per population in a census tract is regressed against the set of potential donation correlates. Autocorrelation is tested for and results adjusted to provide parsimonious models. Results A number of factors are found to influence donation across the country, including the proportion of younger residents, English ability, proportion of people with immigrant status, higher education, and a population-based measure of accessibility. Conclusion While a number of correlates of blood donation are observed across Canada, important contextual effects across metropolitan areas are highlighted. The paper concludes by looking at policy options that are aimed toward further understanding donor behaviour.

  11. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Mao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located.

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Abundance of Seabirds in Areas of Mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco Joaquim Olinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture has emerged as a complementary income for small fishermen along the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, causing significant alterations in the coastal landscape and creating a new substratum seabirds. From March 1998 to February 1999, 48 censuses were carried out at four sample times, registering an average annual occurrence of 4448.7 birds, distributed among five seabird species. Laridae dominated in diversity and abundance, contributing with 98.1% of the birds recorded. The number of birds per float varied depending on the time of day and season of the year, showing an average of 2.09/1. Seabirds use the mariculture area as a place to rest, to clean their feathers and to overnight.

  13. Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Precipitation in the Area of Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehbajraktarević, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals are natural components of the environment but they have become a matter of great concern because of the continuous increase in the concentrations of these metals in our environment. Atmospheric deposition is considered a major source of toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb and several others in the ecosystem. The increasing use of rainwater as an alternative household water source has led to the increased interest in the monitoring of rainwater quality. The heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Hg in samples of atmospheric precipitation was determined in order to assess possible contamination of rainwater. The samples were collected continuously during three seasons (winter, spring and summer in the period from December 2009 to June 2010. The sampling was conducted at two sites of the Sarajevo Canton: Bjelave (urban area and Ivan Sedlo (rural area. The results showed that heavy metal contents (except copper and cadmium were higher in samples from Bjelave. The results showed levels of metals in all samples as: 0.52 – 19.08 μg L-1 (Cu, 0.007 – 2.55 μg L,-1 (Ni, 0.006 – 0.26 μg L-1 (Cr, 0.02 – 3.86 μg L-1 (Cd, 0.13 – 21.59 μg L-1 (Mn and 0.02 – 4.02 μg L-1 (Hg. The mean metal concentrations were below WHO’s limits for good quality drinking water. For most investigated metals, the highest content was obtained in precipitation sampled during spring/summer.

  14. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure. PMID:26480030

  15. Seasonal variation and principle of cyanobacterial biomass and forms in the water source area of Chaohu City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangen; Ke, Fan; Li, Wenchao; Feng, Muhua; Shang, Lixia; Fan, Fan; He, Yanzhao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variations in cyanobacterial biomass and the forms of its dominant population ( M. aeruginosa) and their correlation with environmental factors in the water source area of Chaohu City, China from December 2011 to October 2012. The results show that species belonging to the phylum Cyanophyta occupied the maximum proportion of phytoplankton biomass, and that the dominant population in the water source area of Chaohu City was M. aeruginosa. The variation in cyanobacterial biomass from March to August 2012 was well fitted to the logistic growth model. The growth rate of cyanobacteria was the highest in June, and the biomass of cyanobacteria reached a maximum in August. From February to March 2012, the main form of M. aeruginosa was the single-cell form; M. aeruginosa colonies began to appear from April, and blooms appeared on the water surface in May. The maximum diameter of the colonies was recorded in July, and then gradually decreased from August. The diameter range of M. aeruginosa colonies was 18.37-237.77 μm, and most of the colonies were distributed in the range 20-200 μm, comprising 95.5% of the total number of samples. Temperature and photosynthetically active radiation may be the most important factors that influenced the annual variation in M. aeruginosa biomass and forms. The suitable temperature for cyanobacterial growth was in the range of 15-30°C. In natural water bodies, photosynthetically active radiation had a significant positive influence on the colonial diameter of M. aeruginosa ( P <0.01).

  16. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  17. Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Hastie, Nicholas D; Wright, Alan F; Porteous, David J; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-05-01

    Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.

  18. Modelling urban δ13C variations in the Greater Toronto Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, S.; Vogel, F. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, Q.; Moran, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Even in urbanized regions, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources and are influenced by atmospheric transport across borders. As policies are introduced to reduce the emission of CO2, there is a need for independent verification of emissions reporting. In this work, we aim to use carbon isotope (13CO2 and 12CO2) simulations in combination with atmospheric measurements to distinguish between CO2 sources in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. This is being done by developing an urban δ13C framework based on existing CO2 emission data and forward modelling using a chemistry transport model, CHIMERE. The framework is designed to use region specific δ13C signatures of the dominant CO2 sources together with a CO2 inventory at a fine spatial and temporal resolution; the product is compared against highly accurate 13CO2 and 12CO2 ambient data. The strength of this framework is its potential to estimate both locally produced and regionally transported CO­2. Locally, anthropogenic CO­2 in urban areas is often derived from natural gas combustion (for heating) and gasoline/diesel combustion (for transportation); the isotopic signatures of these processes are significantly different (approximately d13CVPDB = -40 ‰ and -26 ‰ respectively) and can be used to infer their relative contributions. Furthermore, the contribution of transported CO2 can also be estimated as nearby regions often rely on other sources of heating (e.g. coal combustion), which has a very different signature (approximately d13CVPDB = -23 ‰). We present an analysis of the GTA in contrast to Paris, France where atmospheric observations are also available and 13CO2 has been studied. Utilizing our δ13C framework and differences in sectoral isotopic signatures, we quantify the relative contribution of CO2 sources on the overall measured concentration and assess the ability of this framework as a tool for tracing the evolution of sector

  19. Governance and Socioeconomic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, A; Šenfelde, M

    2012-01-01

    There are wide discussions on the causes of the differences in the economic performance. Recent studies have stressed out the crucial role of institutions – formal and informal constraints that shape human interaction. The aim of this article is to evaluate the influence of governance – traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised –on the socioeconomic development. To measure the level of governance we used World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators and such indi...

  20. Diurnal Variation of Soil Heat Flux at an Antarctic Local Area during Warmer Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil heat flux (G is one term in the energy balance equation, and it can be particularly important in regions with arid, bare, or thinly vegetated soil surfaces. However, in remote areas such as the Antarctic, this measurement is not routinely performed. The analysis of observational data collected by the ETA Project at the Brazilian Antarctic Station from December 2013 to March 2014 showed that, for the total daily energy flux, the surface soil flux heats the deeper soil layers during December and January and G acts as a heat source to the outer soil layers during February and March. With regard to daytime energy flux, G acts as a source of heat to the deeper layers. During the night-time, the soil is a heat source to the shallower soil layers and represents at least 29% of the net night-time radiation. A relatively simple method—the objective hysteresis method (OHM—was successfully applied to determine the surface soil heat flux using net radiation observations. A priori, the OHM coefficients obtained in this study may only be used for short-time parameterizations and for filling data gaps at this specific site.

  1. Serotype variation among infectious bronchitis viral isolates taken from several areas of Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by virus belongs to the family of Coronaviridae. The virus consist of many serotypes with low level of cross-protectivity among serotypes. Field data showed that the outbreaks of IB were frequently reported in chicken flocks, although vaccinations against the disease have been practiced. Hence, the study on serotype relationship among isolates of the viruses is essentially required. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize IB viruses from chicken flocks in some areas of Java. Isolation of the virus was carried out in nine-day old embrionated chicken eggs and identified by means of agar gel precipitation (AGP tests against standard antisera to IB virus. The serotypes of the IB viral isolates were determined by cross-neutralization tests in nine day old embryonated chicken eggs using r value derived from homologous and heterologous serum titres as criteria. This study obtained 12 IB viral isolates which were identified on the basis of the ability to cause lesions in chicken embryos and positive to agar gel presipitation test against standard positive antiserum to the virus. Based on the cross-neutralization tests in embryonated chicken eggs, isolate I.9 was formed to have relationship closed to Mass-41 serotype, while I.2, I. 3, and I.7 isolates were closely to the serotype of Con-46. Virus isolates (I.5, I.14, I.24, and I.25 were decided to have no serotype relationships to either Mass-41 or Con-46 serotype. Since the I.5, I.14, I.24 and I.25 isolates were not neutralized by antisera against the previous identified local infectious bronchitis viral isolates, and that were considered to be distinct serotype to the previously identified local IB viral isolates.

  2. Gene expression variation between distinct areas of breast cancer measured from paraffin-embedded tissue cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugger Mathias

    2008-11-01

    than cores derived from IDC or DCIS of the same block or from different blocks of the same patient. Conclusion We have developed optimized protocols for RNA isolation from histologically distinct areas. RNA prepared from FFPE tissue cores is suitable for gene expression measurement by quantitative PCR. Distinct molecular scores could be determined from different cores of the same tumor specimen.

  3. Creating small area measures of urban deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Longley, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the scale and pace of urban change have been associated with fine-scale fragmentation of the lifestyles of urban populations. One manifestation of this is that households of diverse means and circumstances may be found living in proximity to one another, particularly in urban areas. In this paper we argue that in these changed circumstances conventional deprivation indicators fail adequately to detect within and between small area variations in socioeconomic and environmental...

  4. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  5. Time variations of gaseous and reactive mercury in the industrial area of Puertollano (south-central Spain). Temporal cycles with marked variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Esbrí, Jose Maria; Higueras, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Puertollano (48,086 inhabitants) is the largest industrial city in the Castilla-La Mancha region (South-Central Spain). The city is located some 250 km South of Madrid; it was an important coal mining site during the last century and today it is the location of one of the most important Spanish oil refineries and the only refinery located away from the coast. Nowadays the area (which mainly includes the Ojailen valley) has a large open pit coal mine (Encasur), two power plants (Eon and Elcogas) and a petrochemical complex (Repsol) located S and SE from the town. These industries give rise to a complex scenario in terms of mercury emissions to the atmosphere: Repsol, Elcogas and Eon act as discrete sources, while coal mine and dumps acts as a general, diffuse source. The mercury contents in Puertollano town and the related industrial area were characterized during 2010 and 2011 by acquiring stationary data of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM), Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM), meteorological parameters and other atmospheric contaminants (NO, NO2, SO2, benzene, toluene, xylene, ozone and PM10). In addition, several Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) mobile surveys were carried out covering the Ojailen valley. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in the whole valley was in the range 0-24 ng m-3 in all surveys, while higher levels were found near to the coal mine and in the vicinity of a coal power plant that employs clean technology (Elcogas). Tekran data showed low GEM levels during 2010-2011 (1.81 ng m-3 on average), while lower GEM levels were measured during autumn and summer, and maximum levels in spring (7.32 ng m-3 on average). RGM measurements were 0.0088 ng m-3, i.e., significantly lower than background levels in the USA and Europe (0.04 ng m-3). Concentrations of these mercury species' were higher during summer (0.0117 ng m-3). Multiple regression analysis was carried out and good relationships between GEM levels, meteorological parameters and other pollutants were identified

  6. Time variations of gaseous and reactive mercury in the industrial area of Puertollano (south-central Spain). Temporal cycles with marked variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Esbrí, Jose Maria; Higueras, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Puertollano (48,086 inhabitants) is the largest industrial city in the Castilla-La Mancha region (South-Central Spain). The city is located some 250 km South of Madrid; it was an important coal mining site during the last century and today it is the location of one of the most important Spanish oil refineries and the only refinery located away from the coast. Nowadays the area (which mainly includes the Ojailen valley) has a large open pit coal mine (Encasur), two power plants (Eon and Elcogas) and a petrochemical complex (Repsol) located S and SE from the town. These industries give rise to a complex scenario in terms of mercury emissions to the atmosphere: Repsol, Elcogas and Eon act as discrete sources, while coal mine and dumps acts as a general, diffuse source. The mercury contents in Puertollano town and the related industrial area were characterized during 2010 and 2011 by acquiring stationary data of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM), Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM), meteorological parameters and other atmospheric contaminants (NO, NO2, SO2, benzene, toluene, xylene, ozone and PM10). In addition, several Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) mobile surveys were carried out covering the Ojailen valley. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in the whole valley was in the range 0-24 ng m-3 in all surveys, while higher levels were found near to the coal mine and in the vicinity of a coal power plant that employs clean technology (Elcogas). Tekran data showed low GEM levels during 2010-2011 (1.81 ng m-3 on average), while lower GEM levels were measured during autumn and summer, and maximum levels in spring (7.32 ng m-3 on average). RGM measurements were 0.0088 ng m-3, i.e., significantly lower than background levels in the USA and Europe (0.04 ng m-3). Concentrations of these mercury species' were higher during summer (0.0117 ng m-3). Multiple regression analysis was carried out and good relationships between GEM levels, meteorological parameters and other pollutants were

  7. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  8. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  9. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries. PMID:18269370

  10. A hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation scheme with systematic error correction for limited-area ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Paolo; Storto, Andrea; Dobricic, Srdjan; Russo, Aniello; Lewis, Craig; Onken, Reiner; Coelho, Emanuel

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation scheme to estimate the vertical and horizontal parts of the background error covariance matrix for an ocean variational data assimilation system is presented and tested in a limited-area ocean model implemented in the western Mediterranean Sea. An extensive data set collected during the Recognized Environmental Picture Experiments conducted in June 2014 by the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation has been used for assimilation and validation. The hybrid scheme is used to both correct the systematic error introduced in the system from the external forcing (initialisation, lateral and surface open boundary conditions) and model parameterisation, and improve the representation of small-scale errors in the background error covariance matrix. An ensemble system is run offline for further use in the hybrid scheme, generated through perturbation of assimilated observations. Results of four different experiments have been compared. The reference experiment uses the classical stationary formulation of the background error covariance matrix and has no systematic error correction. The other three experiments account for, or not, systematic error correction and hybrid background error covariance matrix combining the static and the ensemble-derived errors of the day. Results show that the hybrid scheme when used in conjunction with the systematic error correction reduces the mean absolute error of temperature and salinity misfit by 55 and 42 % respectively, versus statistics arising from standard climatological covariances without systematic error correction.

  11. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosol of the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled in the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. From these results, it has been tried to identify emission sources of the studied hydrocarbons. (Author). 10 refs

  12. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SOIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field, which is reclamation area filled bycoal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine, Liaoning Province, the Northeast China. The soil samples aretaken at different locations, including three kinds of covering soil, three different depths of soil layers and four differentcovering ages of covering soil. The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is studied. The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year; the determinant reasonwhy the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30em depth layer and surface is fertilizer and manure apphcation; the metal elements mainly come from external environment; there is no metal pollution comingfrom mother material (coal mining wastes) in plough layer of covering soil.

  13. SPATIAL—TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SPIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJun-bao; LIUJing-shuang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field,which is reclamation area filled by coal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine,Liaoning Province,the Northeast China.The soil samples are taken at different locations,including three kinds of covering soil,three different depths of soil layers and four different covering ages of covering soil.The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is stud-ied.The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year,the determinant reason why the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30cm depth layer and surface is fertiliz-er and manure application;the metal elements mainly come from external environment;there is no metal pollution coming from mother material (coal mining wastes)in plough layer of covering soil.

  14. Variation with thermal cycling in microstructure and area specific resistance of a ferritic stainless steel having rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Myoung Youp; Mumm, Daniel R.; Song, Jiunn

    2013-03-01

    Crofer22 APU specimens were prepared by grinding with grit 120 and 400 SiC grinding papers, and were then thermally cycled. The variation in oxidation behavior with thermal cycling was then investigated. Observation of microstructures, measurement of area-specific resistance (ASR), analysis of the atomic percentages of the elements by EDX, and XRD analysis were performed. XRD patterns showed that the (Cr, Mn)3O4 spinel phase grew on the surface of the Crofer22 APU samples ground using grit 120. For the samples ground with grit 400, ASR increased as the number of thermal cycles ( n) increased. Plots of ln (ASR/T) vs. 1/ T for the samples ground with grit 400 after n = 4, 20, and 40 exhibited good linearity, and the apparent activation energies were between 73.4 kJ/mole and 82.5 kJ/mole.

  15. Seasonal Variations of Polarization Diversity Gain in a Vegetated Area considering High Elevation Angles and a Nomadic User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kvicera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of the polarization diversity gain are addressed for a nomadic user in a vegetated area taking high elevation angles and nongeostationary satellites into consideration. Corresponding experimental data were obtained at a frequency of 2.0 GHz at Stromovka Park in Prague, the Czech Republic, within the full in-leaf and out-of-leaf periods of 2013 and 2014, respectively. By detecting copolarized and cross-polarized components of the transmitted left- and right-handed circularly polarized signals, the corresponding diversity gain was obtained for multiple-input single-output (MISO, single-input multiple-output (SIMO, and combined MISO/SIMO cases. It was found that tree defoliation results in a significant decrease of the polarization diversity gain achieved for low time percentages in particular scenarios.

  16. Seasonal variation of ozone and black carbon observed at Paknajol, an urban area in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Duchi, Rocco; Das Shrestha, Sunil; Pietro Verza, Gian; Landi, Tony Christian; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Busetto, Maurizio; Agrillo, Giacomo; Biancofiore, Fabio; Di Carlo, Piero; Panday, Arnico; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayan foothills, considered as one of the global "hot spots" for what concerns air pollution, is currently facing severe air quality problems due to rapid urbanization processes, dramatic land use changes, socioeconomic transformation and high population growth. In this work, we present the first full year (February 2013 - February 2014) analysis of simultaneous measurements of two short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P), i.e. ozone (O3) and equivalent black carbon (BC), and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol (27°43'4'' N, 85°18'32'' E, 1380 m a.s.l.), in the city center of Kathmandu. These observations were carried out in the framework of the SusKat-ABC (A Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Cloud) campaign in Nepal. The diurnal behavior of BC and aerosol number concentration indicated that local pollution sources represent the major contribution to air pollution in this city. In addition to photochemistry, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamic plays an important role in determining O3 variability, as suggested by the analysis of seasonal changes of the diurnal cycles and the correlation with meteorological parameters and aerosol properties. Especially during pre-monsoon, high values of O3 were observed during the afternoon/evening. This could be related to mixing and entrainment processes between upper residual layers and the PBL. During this season, the high O3 appeared well related to the impact of major open vegetation fires occurring in Nepal. On a synoptic-scale perspective, westerly and regional atmospheric circulations appeared to be especially conducive for the occurrence of the high BC and O3 values. The very high values of the SLCF/P, detected during the whole measurement period, indicated persisting adverse air quality conditions, dangerous for the health of over 3 million residents of the Kathmandu Valley, and the environment. Consequently, all of this information may

  17. Comparison of Surface and Column Variations of CO2 Over Urban Areas for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan; Browell, Edward

    2015-01-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. This campaign includes, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). Each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface (0 - 1 km) and column-averaged (0 - 3.5 km) CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four geographically different urban areas are used to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the different urban atmospheric emission environments. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs are used to identify the source of CO2 variations in the urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-microns and 2.05-microns measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we investigate the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to the urban surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  18. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  19. Responses of desertification to variations in wind activity over the past five decades in arid and semiarid areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XunMing; LI JiJun; DONG GuangRong; XIA DunSheng

    2008-01-01

    There have been significant variations in wind activity over the past five decades in arid and semiarid areas in China. High wind activity occurred from the 1960s to the 1970s, but wind activity has de-creased continuously from the 1980s to the present; as a result, the potential sand transport during the latter period was only 20%-50% of the values during the 1960s and 1970s. Phases of high wind activ-ity were highly consistent with the trends in desertification over the past five decades in arid and semiarid areas in China, but spring precipitation was also a significant factor: rapid desertification during the 1960s and 1970s was due to high wind activity, generally combining with low spring pre-cipitation; subsequent rehabilitation since the 1980s has resulted from the combined effects of low wind activity and higher spring precipitation. Therefore, although modern desertification and rehabili-tation processes are being more or less affected by human activities, both processes appear to be more strongly controlled by climate change.

  20. Exploring variations in upper ocean structure for the last 2Ma of the Nansha area by means of calcareous nannofossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A great number of calcareous nannofossils have been found in the deep-sea sediments of 2.32 Ma at ODP Site 1143 located in the Nansha area, the southern South China Sea. The number of coccoliths varies from about 0.5 × 106 up to almost 53 × 106 coccoliths/g sediment, with an average of 16 × 106 coccoliths/g sediment. The accumulation rate of total coccoliths varies from 1 × 106 to 278 × 106coccoliths/cm2 ka. The nannofossil assemblages are usually dominated by a Iower-photic species-Florisphaera profunda, of which the average percentage is about 70% in all samples. The absolute abundance and the accumulation rate of nannofossils as well as the per centage of F. profunda display significant oscillations on two different time scales. One is the fluc tuation coincident with the glacial-interglacial cycle, and the other is the long-term changes on a time scale longer than 100 ka. Six evolutionary stages of calcareous nannofossils could be divided for the last 2.32 Ma, from which we can reconstruct the changes in the depth of nutricline of the Nansha area. In this paper, the possible mechanism resulting in these variations is also discussed.

  1. Distribution of Dissolved Inorganic Arsenic and Its Seasonal Variations in the Coastal Area of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yan; REN Jingling; LI Dandan; LIU Sumei; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the coastal area of the Changjiang Estuary on four cruises from August 2002 to May 2003.The seasonal variations of dissolved inorganic arsenic (DIAs) distributions were analyzed.The results showed that the distributions of DIAs were mainly influenced by the terrestrial input and the intrusion of the Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW).The concentration of the total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs) decreased consecutively from winter to summer, while it increased in autumn.The distributions of TDIAs showed some relationships with salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM).The relationships between DIAs speciation (including arsenite [As(Ⅲ)] and arsenate [As(Ⅴ)]),biological activity and the availabilities of the phosphate were investigated in the study area for the cruise August 2002.The ratio of As (Ⅲ)/TDIAs increased with the decrease of phosphate concentrations.In the bottom water, the As( Ⅲ )/TDIAs ratio decreased with the increasing of N/P.The concentration of TDIAs decreased 28.7% approximately after the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HAB) because of the uptake of arsenate by algae.Further study is needed about the arsenic source/sink relationships in their vertical or horizontal profiles and the uptake mechanism during the occurrence of harmful algal blooms.

  2. Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous

  3. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  4. : Socioeconomic position and depression persistence.

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    International audience Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. int...

  5. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9% of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements, the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements. Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence

  6. Spatial Variation of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Estimated Critical Loads for Aquatic Ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; McMurray, J. A.; Clow, D. W.; Saros, J. E.; Blett, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems at high-elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are sensitive to the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Current and historic N deposition has impacted aquatic ecosystems in the GYA and N deposition is increasing in many areas. Anticipated changes in atmospheric emissions may further affect these sensitive ecosystems. Understanding the spatial variation in atmospheric N deposition is needed to develop estimates of air pollution critical loads for aquatic ecosystems in complex terrain. For the GYA, high resolution (400 meter) maps were developed for 1993-2014 to identify areas of high loading of mean annual Total N deposition (wet + dry) and wet deposition of inorganic N (nitrate and ammonium). Total N deposition estimates in the GYA range from ≤ 1.4 to 7.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and show greater variability than inorganic N deposition. Spatially explicit estimates of critical loads of N deposition (CLNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems were developed using a geostatistical approach. CLNdep in the GYA ranges from less than 1.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to over 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and variability is controlled by differences in basin characteristics. The lowest CLNdep estimates occurred in high-elevation basins with steep slopes, sparse vegetation, and exposed bedrock, including areas within GYA Wilderness boundaries. These areas often have high inorganic N deposition (>3 kg N ha-1 yr-1), resulting in CLNdep exceedances greater than 1.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The N deposition maps were used to identify CLNdep exceedances for aquatic ecosystems, and to explore scale dependence and boundary issues related to estimating CLNdep. Based on a NO3- threshold of 1.0 μmol L-1, inorganic N deposition exceeds CLNdep in 12% of the GYA, and Total N deposition is in exceedance for 23% of the GYA. These maps can be used to help identify and protect sensitive ecosystems that may be impacted by excess N deposition in the GYA.

  7. Socioeconomic Impacts of Protection Status on Residents of National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järv Henri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural population ageing and decline is a serious problem throughout Europe resulting in a deterioration of the socioeconomic situation in rural areas. This leads to land abandonment, and consequently the loss of valuable cultural landscapes. Protected areas are no exception and inhabitants also face restrictions arising from the protection status. The aim of this study is to identify the existence, extent and nature of the socioeconomic impacts derived from the protection status on the local population. Population and socioeconomic indicators were compared with the results of in-depth interviews with local stakeholders within 2 Estonian national parks and contextualised with recent social change. It was concluded that protected areas have a considerable socioeconomic impact and in order to preserve cultural landscapes, achieve conservation objectives and contribute to balanced regional development, measures must be taken.

  8. Socioeconomic data base report for Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published as a product of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The objective of this program is to develop terminal waste storage facilities in deep, stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes. Domed salt formations within the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin are among areas under consideration for repository sites. Within this region, the Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in southeastern Mississippi are being evaluated as potential repository sites. This document presents socioeconomic baseline data for an eight-county area (50-mile radius) surrounding the Richton and Cypress Creek Dome sites and most likely to be affected by repository development. Information presented provides part of the technical basis upon which socioeconomic impacts can be assessed and repository sites selected, evaluated, and licensed

  9. Heavy metal concentrations and the variations of foraminifers in the Silivri-Kumbagi area (NW Marmara Sea, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal Yümün, Zeki; Murat Kılıç, Ali; Önce, Melike

    2016-04-01

    In the area between Silivri (İstanbul) and Kumbagi (Tekirdag), NW of Marmara Sea, there is a considerable extent in marine pollution from industrial and settlements wastes, sea transports, and agricultural activities. The most important one of these pollutions is the spread of heavy metals. Our research investigated sediments in order to determine whether heavy minerals affected biota such as recent foraminifers, or not. Our investigation area starts from Marmara Ereglisi, in the east, continues to Tekirdag and Kumbagi, in the west. 10 sea-water samples, 10 sediment-core samples and one 10 m core-drilling sample, taken 250 m off-shore from coast line. As a result of this sampling geochemical analysis of the bottom-mud and water samples were done and the ratio of heavy metals and other contaminants determined. For heavy metal analyses, concentration analysis of 12 heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, and Hg) has been conducted, as ppm, in sediment samples taken from the levels in which foraminifers are collected. Perpendicular (spatial) heavy metal concentration changes have been determined with off-shore drilling samples and horizontal changes (geochronological) have been determined with the help of core samples. Especially, it has been understood that heavy metal concentrations in recent sediments are higher compared to the past. In this research the samples have been taken from each 10 cm. of core and drilling samples to collect the benthic foraminifers. In this context, 15 grams of dry sediment sample taken from each level, have been washed in 125 μm sieves in order to determine its benthic foraminifer content. Benthic foraminifera from these samples have been identified taxonomically and their morphological differentiation has been determined after taking SEM photos. As a result of this study, the foraminifera types of "Adelosinacliarensis, Adelosinamediteranensis, Adelosinapulchella, Ammonia compacta, Ammonia parkinsonia, Ammonia tepida

  10. Mid-Holocene Climate Variations Recorded by Palaeolake in Marginal Area of East Asian Monsoon: A Multi-proxy Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the mid-Holocene in most parts of China was thought to be warmer with higher precipitation,resulting from a strong Asian summer monsoon. However, some recent researches have proposed a mid-Holocene drought interval of millennial-scale in East Asian monsoon margin areas. Thus whether mid-Holocene was dry or humid remains an open issue. Here, Zhuyeze palaeolake, the terminal lake of the Shiyang River Drainage lying in Asian monsoon marginal areas, was selected for reconstructing the details of climate variations during the Holocene, especially mid-Holocene,on the basis ora sedimentological analysis. Qingtu Lake (QTL) section of 6.92m depth was taken from Zhuyeze palaeolake. Multi-proxy analysis of QTL section, including grain size, carbonate, TOC, C/N and δ13C of organic matter, was used to document regional climatic changes during 9-3 cal ka B.P. The record shows a major environmental change at 9.0-7.8 cal ka B.P., attributed to a climate trend towards warmth and humidity. This event was followed by a typical regional drought event which occurred during 7.8-7.5 cal ka B.P. And a warm and humid climate prevailed from 7.5 to 5.0 cal ka B.P., attributed to the warm/humid Holocene Optimum in this region. After that, the climate gradually became drier.Moreover, comparison of the climate record from this paper with the summer insolation at 30°N indicates that the climate pattern reflecting the Asian monsoon changes was caused by insolation change.

  11. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eDing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing (BIPES of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of one year at four main peanut grown areas i.e Liaoning (LN, North East, Shandong (SD, East, Hubei (HB, Central and Guangdong (GD, South provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB and GD were 0.53%, 6.29%, 10.86% and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7-12 months than in 0-6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7-10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by A. niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts.

  12. Environmental and genetic variation in the post-harvest quality of raspberries in subtropical areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Aparecida Castilho Maro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is an economically important berry crop that contains numerous phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. It is known that the chemistry content is affected by processing factors, but limited information is available on the influence of cultural factors or genotype. To clarify this issue, this work aimed to characterize the following raspberry cultivars Polana, Autumn Bliss, Heritage,Batum, Golden Bliss, hybrid Boysenberry and black raspberry from MantiqueiraMountains (Campos do Jordão city, São Paulo State, Cwa climate, mesothermal with dry winter, commonly named tropical de altitude, according to Köppen classification and Alto do Rio Grande (Lavras city, Minas Gerais State,Cwb climate, with dry winter and summer temperate, two areas subtropical in Brazil, and quality attributes. The fruits were used for the following analysis: mass, size, number of drupelets, color, total acidity, soluble solids, total soluble solids / titratable acidity (TSS / TA, moisture and ash. The results revealed strong influence of growing site on fruit quality as well as the existence of variation among cultivars. Fruits produced in Mantiqueira Mountains had larger and higher TSS / TA. On the other hand, the growing raspberries in Alto do Rio Grande provided greater color tone, increased acidity, and low ratio of total soluble solids and total acidity.

  13. Center-to-limb variation of the area covered by magnetic bright points in the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The quiet Sun magnetic fields produce ubiquitous bright points (BPs) that cover a significant fraction of the solar surface. Their contribution to the total solar irradiance (TSI) is so-far unknown. AIMS: To measure the center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the fraction of solar surface covered by quiet Sun magnetic bright points. The fraction is referred to as 'fraction of covered surface', or FCS. METHODS: Counting of the area covered by BPs in G-band images obtained at various heliocentric angles with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma. Through restoration, the images are close to the diffraction limit of the instrument (~0.1 arcsec). RESULTS: The FCS is largest at disk center (~1 %), and then drops down to become 0.2 % at 'mu'= 0.3 (with 'mu' the cosine of the heliocentric angle. The relationship has large scatter, which we evaluate comparing different subfields within our FOVs. We work out a toy-model to describe the observed CLV, which considers the BPs to be depressions in the mean solar ...

  14. Is there a socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, J; Gillespie, P; Owens, L; Avalos, G; Dunne, F P

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between Type 2 diabetes and lower socioeconomic status. This link is less clear in those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We test for a socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of GDM by analysing data on 9,842 pregnant women who were offered testing for GDM in the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy universal screening programme. A bivariate probit model relating GDM prevalence to socioeconomic status was estimated, controlling for variation in screening uptake rates across socioeconomic groups. The estimated increased prevalence of GDM is 8.6% [95% CI 2.7%-12.0%] for women in the lowest socioeconomic group when compared to the highest, suggesting a strong socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of GDM. This gradient is found to be driven by differences in personal, clinical and lifestyle factors across socioeconomic groups. PMID:22838104

  15. Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

  16. Are self reported morbidities deceptive in measuring socio-economic inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: The ambiguity and variability in existing literature on the magnitude of socio-economic inequality in self-reported morbidities makes it difficult to set priorities in health policy. This study examined three critical research questions: first, how far self-reporting affects measuring socio-economic inequalities in case of obstetric morbidities. Second, does using simple bivariate variations mislead in estimating socio-economic differentials in prevalence of obstetric...

  17. Study on the relationship between the lake area variations of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the corresponding climate change in their basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the largest lake area in China, with a total area of existing lakes of 36,900km2, accounting for 52% of the total lake area of China. Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau play critical roles in the water cycle and ecological and environment systems of the Plateau. The global trend of warming up is increasing obviously, which has led to major changes in the climate conditions in China, even in the world. Whereas, when they analyse the relationship they just use the weather station's recording data, without any spatial analysis of the climate data. Here, we will do some researches on the relationship between the 10 selected lakes' area variation and the corresponding climate change in their drainage basin and discuss how the lakes changes in recent 40 years using the climate data processed using the spatial kriging. Thus, the drainage area can be taken into account and a real relationship can be pointed out. In order to study the relationship, Landsat MSS data, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM images, the topographic map have been collected to extract the variation of lake area. The 131 weather stations climate data, including precipitation, temperature, sun shine duration, evaporation are chosen to study the relationship. After extraction of the area of the lakes, a multivariate statistical analysis method was used to test the relationship between the area of the lakes and the global climate change, including the change of the temperature, the precipitation, and other factors. The variation of lakes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is related to the mean temperature, the precipitation and saturation vapour pressure. But the frozen soil may affect the lake area variation to some extent

  18. Composition, abundance and aspects of temporal variation in the distribution of Anopheles species in an area of Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledayane Mayana Costa Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The diverse and complex environmental conditions of the Amazon Basin favor the breeding and development of Anopheles species. This study aimed to describe the composition, abundance and temporal frequency of Anopheles species and to correlate these factors with precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Methods The study was conducted in the District of Coração, State of Amapá, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly during three consecutive nights, from 6:00 PM to 10:00 PM, from December 2010 to November 2011. In addition, four 12-hour collections (i.e., 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM were performed during this period. Results A total of 1,230 Anopheles specimens were collected. In the monthly collections, Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species, followed by An. braziliensis and An. albitarsis s.l., whereas An. darlingi, An. peryassui and An. braziliensis were the most frequent species collected in the 12-hour collections. The greatest number of anophelines was collected in September (the dry season. The highest frequency of anophelines was observed for An. darlingi during September, when there were the least rainfalls of the year, along with lower relative humidity and higher temperatures. There was little variation in the abundance of this species in other months, with the exception of slight increases in February, July and August. Conclusions The major malaria vectors, An. darlingi and An. albitarsis s.l. (likely An. marajoara, were the most abundant species collected in the study area. Consequently, prevention and control measures should be taken to prevent malaria outbreaks in the District of Coração.

  19. Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Evaporation and their Relations with Precipitation, Net Radiation, and Net Carbon Accumulation for the Gediz Basin Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1999-01-01

    A model combining the rate of carbon assimilation with water and energy balance equations has been run using satellite and ancillary data for a period of 60 months (January 1986 to December 1990). Calculations for the Gediz basin area give mean annual evaporation as 395 mm, which is composed of 45% transpiration, 42% soil evaporation and 13% interception. The coefficient of interannual variation of evaporation is found to be 6%, while that for precipitation and net radiation are, respectively, 16% and 2%, illustrating that net radiation has an important effect in modulating interannual variation of evaporation. The mean annual water use efficiency (i.e., the ratio of net carbon accumulation and total evaporation) is ca. 1 g/sq m/mm, and has a coefficient of interannual variation of 5%. A comparison of the mean water use efficiency with field observations suggests that evaporation over the area is utilized well for biomass production. The reference crop evaporation for irrigated areas has annual mean and coefficient of variation as, respectively, 1176 mm and 3%. The total evaporation during three summer months of peak evaporation (June-August) is estimated to be about 575 mm for irrigated crops like maize and cotton. Seasonal variations of the fluxes are presented.

  20. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2008-04-01

    TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave - length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki and TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT, Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA in Portugal, RABT in Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet and DFTanalysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time, frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena, during the seismic activity of the last quarter of 2005, in the area of Greece. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  1. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity of 20th October, in the area of eastern Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2007-04-01

    It is well known that TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave- length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki, TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT.Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA, in Portugal, RABT, Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Stirbu, Irina; Roskam, Albert-Jan R;

    2008-01-01

    intervention. The magnitude of inequalities in self-assessed health also varied substantially among countries, but in a different pattern. CONCLUSIONS: We observed variation across Europe in the magnitude of inequalities in health associated with socioeconomic status. These inequalities might be reduced...... by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care....

  3. Socioeconomic Diversity in Selective Private Colleges: An Organizational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, James C.; Rosinger, Kelly Ochs

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few students in selective colleges come from disadvantaged backgrounds, so the rewards of attending such schools go mainly to those already advantaged from birth. There is substantial variation in those colleges' socioeconomic composition, however. Some selective private institutions proportionately enroll five times as many…

  4. Seasonal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in an artificial sand-binding vegetation area in Shapotou, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuYan Zhou; XuanMing Zhang; XiaoHong Jia; JinQin Ma; YanHong Gao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, seasonal variation characteristics of surface soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) of an artificial vegetation area located in Shapotou for different time periods were studied using the chloroform fumigation method, and the results were compared with those of near-natural vegetation areas and mobile dunes. Results showed that the MBC and MBN levels in the 0-5 cm soil layer were higher in autumn than in summer and spring. As the prolongation of vegetation restoration raised the MBC and MBN levels in summer and autumn, no clear variation was found in spring. However, the MBC and MBN in 5-20 cm had no obvious seasonal variation. During summer and autumn, the variation trend of MBC and MBN in the vertical direction was shown to be 0-5>5-10>10-20 cm in the vegetation area, while for mobile dunes, the MBC and MBN levels increased as the depth increased. The natural vegetation area was shown to possess the highest MBC and MBN levels, and yet mobile dunes have the lowest MBC and MBN levels. MBC and MBN levels in artificial sand-binding vegetation increased with the prolongation of vegetation restoration, indicating that the succession of sand-binding vegetation will result in the ac-cumulation of soil carbon and nitrogen, as well as the restoration of soil fertility.

  5. Socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands: A review of recent empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated

  6. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  7. Protection as care: moral reasoning and moral orientation among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examined moral reasoning among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women based on the care and justice moral orientations reflecting theoretical frameworks developed by Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg, respectively. A major gap in this area of research and theory development has been the lack of examination of moral reasoning in later life. This study addressed this gap by assessing socioeconomically and ethnically diverse older women's reasoning in response to ethical dilemmas showing conflict between autonomy, representative of Kohlberg's justice orientation, and protection, representative of Gilligan's care orientation. The dilemmas used in this study came from adult protective services (APS), the U.S. system that investigates and intervenes in cases of elder abuse and neglect. Subjects were 88 African American, Latina, and Caucasian women age 60 or over from varying socioeconomic status backgrounds who participated in eight focus groups. Overall, participants favored protection over autonomy in responding to the case scenarios. Their reasoning in responding to these dilemmas reflected an ethic of care and responsibility and a recognition of the limitations of autonomy. This reasoning is highly consistent with the care orientation. Variations in the overall ethic of care and responsibility based on ethnicity and SES also are discussed.

  8. Spatial variability of the physical and mineralogical properties of the soil from the areas with variation in landscape shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work it was to use the geostatistics methods to investigate the spatial relationships between the physical and mineralogical properties of an oxisol planted with the sugarcane in an area of slight variations in the landform. The soil was sampled at 10 m regular intervals in the crossing points of a 100 x 100 m grid. At each point, the soil was collected at 0.0-0.2 m, 0.2-0.4 m and 0.4-0.6 m depths for the analyzes of physical properties and at 0.6-0.8 m for the mineralogical analyses. Both the Kt/Kt+Gb ratio and Kt relative crystallization level were higher in the compartment I than in the compartment II. As a consequence, the soil penetration resistance and bulk density were higher in the compartment I, while the macroporosity and Ksat were lower. Therefore, it was concluded that both the identification and mapping of a landform were efficient for understanding the spatial variability of the soil properties. Moreover, variations in the landscape shape promoted the differentiated variability of the physical and mineralogical soil properties: the more variable the landscape, the more variable was the soil properties.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência das formas do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos e suas relações com a mineralogia da argila de um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando a técnica da geoestatística. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 m, 0,2-0,4 m e 0,4-0,6 m para os atributos físicos e 0,6-0,8 m para os atributos mineralógicos. Os valores médios para a densidade do solo e resistência do solo à penetração são maiores no compartimento I onde a relação Ct/Ct+Gb é relativamente maior, indicando a presença de maior teor de caulinita. No compartimento II a condutividade hidráulica e a macroporsidade são maiores, influenciados provavelmente pelo predomínio da

  9. Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence by individual and contextual factors

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Torá-Rocamora; José Miguel Martínez; David Gimeno; Constança Alberti; Josefina Jardí; Rafael Manzanera; Benavides, Fernando G.; George Delclos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine variation in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence (NWRSA) across geographical areas and the degree to which this variation can be explained by individual and/or contextual factors. Methods: All first NWRSA episodes ending in 2007 and 2010 were analyzed. Individual (diagnosis, age, sex) and contextual factors (healthcare resources, socioeconomic factors) were analyzed to assess how much of the geographical variation was explained by these factors. Median N...

  10. Spatial variation of shallow and deep soil moisture in the semi-arid loess hilly area, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L; Wei, W.; Chen, L.; Jia, F.; B. Mo

    2012-01-01

    Soil moisture in deep soil layers is the only relatively stable water resource for introduced vegetation in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the spatial variation of deep soil moisture is significant for vegetation restoration with respect to the topographic conditions. In this study, we focused on analyzing the spatial variations and influencing factors of soil moisture content (SMC) in shallow (0–2 m) and deep (2–8 m) soil layers based on soil moisture observation in...

  11. Temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in the mangrove creek area along the Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Naz; Naureen Aziz Qureshi; Noor Us Saher

    2014-01-01

    The temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (1-Volumetric method by settling volume and displacement volume and 2- Gravimetric method through wet weight, dry weight and ash-free dry weight) with relation to environmental parameters were studied in the mangrove creek area of Karachi coast, Pakistan. The data of mesozooplankton samples along with environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, etc.) were collected during January 1998 to December 1998 from two creek stations. The abun-dance of mesozooplankton also exhibited seasonal trends at both stations. At Sta. S2, the highest and low-est abundance values were observed during post-monsoon and southwest monsoon respectively whereas, at Sta. S1, a clear trend of high abundance in pre-monsoon to low abundance in southwest monsoon was observed. Mesozooplankton abundance was also positively correlated with settling volume, displacement volume, wet weight and dry weight. The highest biomass value was observed in the northeast monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. The results of the canonical analysis of the output from the discriminate function was tested. Out of fifteen variables, only one was significantly different in single character ratios dry weight/ash free-dry weight (F3,23=4.78,P<0.005). The mesozooplankton community was collectively composed of 28 taxa. Among these groups, copepoda (66.3%), gastropod larvae (9.94%), evadne (4.60%), zoea (3.60%), cypris nauplii (2.56%), lemellibranch larvae (1.87%), chaetognaths (1.81%), ostracods (1.73%), lucifer (1.15%) and barnacles nauplii (1.35%) contributed the most to the similarities within Sta. S1, while copepoda (74.68%), cypris nauplii (5.29%), gastropods (4.87%), barnacles nauplii (4.81%), evadne (1.72%), zoea (1.53%) and ca-ridean larvae (1.18%) at Sta. S2. The remaining mesozooplanktonic group were accounted for less than 5% and 6% at Sta. S1 and Sta. S2 respectively, of the total organisms. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed

  12. Evidence of a planetary influence on solar activity: Phase coherence of the variation in sunspot area with the tidal effect of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Edmonds, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of quasiperiodicities in solar activity in the intermediate period range. However, no accepted explanation for the episodic occurrence of quasiperiodicities has emerged. This paper examines the possibility that the periodicities are associated with a Mercury Sun interaction of base period 88 days. To test this idea we band pass filter the 140 year long daily sunspot area data to obtain the 88 day period and 176 day sub harmonic period components of the data and compare the time variation of the components with the time variation of the orbital radius of Mercury, or more specifically with the time variation of the tidal effect of Mercury. We were able to show that, when successive episodes of the occurrence of the 88 day period component were discrete and not overlapping in time, the time variation of this component of sunspot area was either exactly in-phase or exactly in anti-phase with the time variation of tidal effect. A similar result was obtained for the 176 day period c...

  13. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (peconomic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and

  14. Socioeconomic Factors and Asthma Control in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Shannon F.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma control in children, as defined by the Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional data from a completed study of 879 asthmatic children between the ages of 1 and 18 residing in the Greater Toronto Area were used. The database included data on demographics, health status, asthma control, and health-related quality of life. Stepwise forward modeling multiple regression was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on asthma control, based on six control parameters from the 2003 Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Results Only 11% of patients met the requirements for acceptable control, while 20% had intermediate control, and 69% had unacceptable asthma control. Children from families in lower income adequacy levels had poorer control. Conclusions Disparities in asthma control between children from families of different socio-economic strata persist, even with adjustment for utilization of primary care services and use of controller medications. PMID:18615669

  15. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months.

  16. Age, gender, socioeconomic, and ethnic differences in patients' assessments of primary health care

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J.; Ramsay, J.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background—Patients' evaluations are an important means of measuring aspects of primary care quality such as communication and interpersonal care. This study aims to examine variations in assessments of primary care according to age, gender, socioeconomic, and ethnicity variables.

  17. The Importance of Socio-Economic Versus Environmental Risk Factors for Reported Dengue Cases in Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Topping, Margo; Rainey, Stephanie M.; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major mosquito-borne viral disease and an important public health problem. Identifying which factors are important determinants in the risk of dengue infection is critical in supporting and guiding preventive measures. In South-East Asia, half of all reported fatal infections are recorded in Indonesia, yet little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in this country. Methodology/Principal findings Hospital-reported dengue cases in Banyumas regency, Central Java were examined to build Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models assessing the influence of climatic, demographic and socio-economic factors on the risk of dengue infection. A socio-economic factor linking employment type and economic status was the most influential on the risk of dengue infection in the Regency. Other factors such as access to healthcare facilities and night-time temperature were also found to be associated with higher risk of reported dengue infection but had limited explanatory power. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. Although our analysis did not account for factors such as variations in immunity which need further investigation, this study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment. PMID:27603137

  18. Morphological variation of Laguncularia racemosa (L. C. F. Gaertn. (Combretaceae in mangrove areas and in transition areas between mangrove and restinga forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Carrion Bartz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive responses to the interaction of abiotic factors that operate at different spatial and temporal scales may reflect on the distribution of species, due to their interaction with the environment. This study aimed to check differences in the structure of individuals between populations of Laguncularia racemosa (L. C. F. Gaertn. (Combretaceae distributed in mangrove areas and in transition areas between mangrove and restinga forest, using leaf morphological characteristics and plant architecture. Environmental variables were analyzed, such as soil nutrients and salinity level. The transition area showed lower salinity of pore water and soil pH, probably due to the high levels of aluminum. Laguncularia racemosa individuals in the mangrove area had larger leaves than the population in the transition area, with larger leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf density, and smaller leaf volume. In mangrove, L. racemosa individuals had higher height and basal trunk diameter and lower canopy density and percentage of leaves subject to herbivory, but a higher number of senescent leaves. Such results may be related to the contrasting environmental conditions and significant differences in water salinity and soil nutrients.

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Structural Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie H Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain.

  20. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Natalie H; Noble, Kimberly G

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain. PMID:25249931

  1. Quantitative Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Water-Surface Area Variations from the 1990s to 2013 in Honghu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianrong Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-surface areas of the lakes in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, have undergone significant changes under the combined impacts of global climate change and local anthropogenic stress. As a typical lake in this region, the Honghu Lake features water-surface area variations that are documented in this study based on high–resolution remote sensing images from the 1990s to 2013. The impact of human activities is analyzed by a novel method based on land use data. The relative impacts of each driving force are further distinguished by the statistical analysis method. Results show that the water-surface area has significant inter-annual and seasonal variabilities, and the minimum of which generally occurs in spring. The degree to which climate factors and land use structure affect the water-surface area varies between different stages. In the April-May period, the sum of the water demands of paddies and aquaculture has a negative effect that is greater than the positive effect of the difference between the monthly precipitation and monthly evaporation. In the June–October period, the precipitation features a positive impact that is greater than the negative effect of the water demand of agriculture. Meanwhile, climate factors and human activities have no influence on the lake area in the November–March period. With the land use being altered when annual precipitations are close in value, paddy field areas decrease, ponds areas increase, and the water demand of agriculture rises in both flood and drought years. These findings provide scientific foundation for understanding the causes of water-surface area variations and for effectively maintaining the stability of the Honghu Lake area through adjustments in land use structure.

  2. Socioeconomic status and the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G

    1994-02-01

    People from lower socioeconomic status are making increasing use of mental health facilities. Surveys have indicated that the Rorschach is still one of the more frequently used instruments by psychologists in such facilities, but research has also shown that clinicians tend to misinterpret Rorschachs of people from the lower socioeconomic group as reflecting greater psychopathology than the same Rorschachs identified as being given by people from the middle class. Research has also shown that growing up in conditions of poverty significantly affects how people perform on tests of abstract thinking, tests of intelligence, and tests of academic achievement; the question was raised as to whether this extends to the Rorschach. The lack of sufficient research on the effect of socioeconomic status on responsiveness to the Rorschach precluded that question being answered. The kind of research still needed was discussed. PMID:8153241

  3. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Dos Santos, Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-08-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest-savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i.e., abiotic) and environmental filtering on community structure along the gradients. Community-weighted LMA increased with decreasing forest cover in Brazil, likely due to increased light availability and water stress, and increased with elevation in Peru, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum strategy expected in colder, less productive environments. A very high species turnover was observed along both environmental gradients, and consequently, the first source of variation in LMA was species turnover. Variation in LMA at the genus or family levels was greater in Peru than in Brazil. Using dominant trees to examine possible filters on community assembly, we found that in Brazil, internal filtering was strongest in the forest, while environmental filtering was observed in the dry savanna. In Peru, internal filtering was observed along 80% of the gradient, perhaps due to variation in taxa or interspecific competition. Environmental filtering was observed at cloud zone edges and in lowlands, possibly due to water and nutrient availability, respectively. These results related to variation in LMA indicate that biodiversity in species rich tropical assemblages may be structured by differential niche-based processes. In the future, specific mechanisms generating these patterns of variation in leaf functional traits across tropical environmental gradients should be explored. PMID:27547346

  4. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity. PMID:20660151

  5. δ15N variation in Ulva lactuca as a proxy for anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in coastal areas of Gulf of Gaeta (Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ulva lactuca and Cystoseira amentacea δ15N values were assessed in the Gulf of Gaeta. • U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental pollution. • Comparison of fragments from the same frond overcomes natural isotopic variability. • Spatial analysis indicated areas in the Gulf differently affected by N inputs. - Abstract: We tested the capacity of Ulva lactuca to mark N sources across large marine areas by measuring variation in its δ15N at several sites in the Gulf of Gaeta. Comparisons were made with the macroalga Cystoseira amentacea. Variation of δ15N values was assessed also in the coastal waters off the Circeo Natural Park, where U. lactuca and C. amentacea were harvested, as these waters are barely influenced by human activities and were used as reference site. A small fragment from each frond was preserved before deployment in order to characterize the initial isotopic values. After 48 h of submersion, U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental variation and δ15N enrichment in the Gulf of Gaeta was observed. The spatial distribution of δ15N enrichment indicated that different macro-areas in the Gulf were affected by N inputs from different origins. Comparison of the δ15N values of fragments taken from the same transplanted frond avoided bias arising from natural isotopic variability

  6. Seasonal variation and longitudinal distribution of copepods in the main river area of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianliang YAO; Junzeng XUE; Dengyuan WANGt; Qinghua CAI; Xiangfei HUANG; Jiankang LIU

    2008-01-01

    The ecosystem of the Three Gorges in the Yangtze River was changed into an artificial lake (res-ervoir) ecosystem after impoundment in June 2003. We surveyed the seasonal variation and spatial distribution of copepods from April 2004 to January 2005 in order to provide data for clarifying the successional pattern of the ecosystem. From Jiangjin to Maoping, eight copepod species were collected and classified into Calanoida (2), Harpacticoida (1), and Cyclopoida (5). Among them, Mesocyclops pehpeiensis, M. leuckarti and Sinocalanus dorrii had a relatively wide distribution. No distinct dif-ference in species number was found among the sampling sites, but the species composition was different. Species composition, distribution and density of copepods showed significant seasonal variations. In addition, cope-pod density showed an obvious gradient with the distance from the reservoir dam: the nearer to the dam, the denser the copepods.

  7. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  8. Integration of a 3D Variational data assimilation scheme with a coastal area morphodynamic model of Morecambe Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Thornhill, Gill D.; Mason, David C.; Sarah L. Dance; Amos S. Lawless; Nichols, Nancy K.; Forbes, Heather R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a 3D variational (3D-Var) data assimilation scheme for a morphodynamic model applied to Morecambe Bay, UK. A simple decoupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model is combined with a data assimilation scheme to investigate the ability of such methods to improve the accuracy of the predicted bathymetry. The inverse forecast error covariance matrix is modelled using a Laplacian approximation which is calibrated for the length scale parameter requir...

  9. Trends in researching the socioeconomic influences on mathematical achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Meaney, Tamsin

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the topic of socioeconomic influences on mathematical achievement through an overview of existing research reports and articles. International trends in the way the topic has emerged and become increasingly important in the international field of mathematics education research...... are outlined. From this review, there is a discussion about what appears to be neglected in previous work in this area and how the papers in this issue of ZDM provide information about some of these neglected areas. The main argument in this article is that socioeconomic influences on mathematical achievement...... should not be considered as a taken-for-granted fact that is accepted uncritically. Instead, it is suggested that the relationship between multiple socioeconomic influences and various understandings of mathematical achievement are historically contingent ways of understanding exclusions and inclusions...

  10. Assessing Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variations of Lake Surface Areas in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinkyu; Hong, Suk Young

    2016-01-01

    A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface areas in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in area were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake area detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake area for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-area ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km(2). The lake area decreased by -9.3% at an annual rate of -53.7 km(2) yr(-1) during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake area reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake area reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake area change and diagnosed considerable lake area reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake area changes and their spatial variability. PMID:27007233

  11. Diversity, distribution pattern and seasonal variation in moth assemblages along altitudinal gradient in Gangotri landscape area, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sanyal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field survey was conducted at different altitudes and land-use areas in the two protected areas, viz., Gangotri National Park and Govind National Park of Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 475 specimens of moth representing 436 morphospecies were collected using light trap method during the survey conducted between September 2008-May 2010. Preliminary findings show a decreasing diversity with increasing altitude. Subalpine areas were least diverse and subtropical areas had the highest diversity of moths. The greatest number of specimens were collected during the summer and post-monsoon period. The lunar phase had a significant effect on catch success with new moon days resulting in the largest catches and full moon days resulting in the least number of species as well as individuals. Of the thirty two species mentioned in Appendix 1, nine species are first time record from the state Uttarakhand. Four species are new record from Western Himalaya within Indian Territory, and also first time recorded from entire Himalayan landscape. As there was no previous comprehensive study on the moth diversity of Gangotri landscape area, all the 32 species described could be regarded as new record from these two protected areas.

  12. The Variation in the Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation in an Adult Asian Population and Its Relationship with the Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus and Erector Spinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Masaki; Watanabe, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers. Purpose We aimed to investigate the variation in the lumbar facet joint orientation in an adult Asian population. The relationship between the facet joint orientation and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus and erector spinae was also clarified. Overview of Literature Several studies have reported that lumbar pathologies, such as lumbar spondylolysis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, were related to the horizontally shaped lumbar facet joint orientation at the lower lumbar level. However, data regarding variations in the facet joint orientation in asymptomatic subjects have not been well documented. Methods In 31 healthy male adult Asian volunteers, the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae were measured using magnetic resonance imaging at the L4–5 and L5–S1 levels. Variation in the facet joint orientation was examined using coefficients of variation (CV). Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae. Results Lumbar facet joint orientation had a wider range of variation at L5–S1 (CV=0.30) than at L4–5 (CV=0.18). The L4–5 facet joint orientation had a weak but significant correlation with the CSA of erector spinae (r=0.40; p=0.031). The CSA of the multifidus had no relationship with the facet joint orientation at the L4–5 (r=0.19; p=0.314) and the L5–S1 level (r=0.19; p=0.312). Conclusions The lumbar facet joint orientation was found to have a wide variation, particularly at the L5–S1 in the Asian adult population, and the facet joint orientation had a relationship with the CSA of the erector spinae at the L4–5.

  13. Seasonal variation of sedimentation in the Changjiang Estuary mud area%长江口泥质区的季节性沉积效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志刚; 杨作升; 范德江

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of suspended matter and their sedimentary effect on the ChangjiangEstuary mud area of the East China Sea were discussed, based on three cruise data of totalsuspended matter, temperature and salinity collected from the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacentarea in summer and winter. The results show that the basic pattern of distributions of suspendedmatter in the study area is almost the same in winter and in summer. Sediments from Changjiang(Yangtze River) to the sea are chiefly trapped to the west of 123°15'E due to a strong obstruction ofthe Taiwan Warm Current. This suggests that these sediments are mainly transported and deposited inthe inner shelf. The sediment supply, Taiwan Warm Current, and Zhejiang Coastal Current show astrong seasonal variation, which results in a strong seasonal variation of the sedimentary effect onthis mud area. This mud area is a "sink" of the Changjiang's sediment discharge to the sea and itssedimentation is stronger in summer and weaker in winter.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacallao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”.

  15. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  16. Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south-east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. It is not known how user fees introduced under the Bamako Initiative (BI system affect healthcare seeking among different socio-economic groups in Nigeria for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Reliable information is needed to initiate new policy thrusts to protect the poor from the adverse effect of user fees. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1594 female household primary care givers or household head on their socio-economic and demographic status and use of malaria diagnosis and treatment services. Principal components analysis was used to create a socio-economic status index which was decomposed into quartiles and chi-square for trends was used to calculate for any statistical difference. Results The study showed that self diagnosis was the commonest form of diagnosis by the respondents. This was followed by diagnosis through laboratory tests, community health workers, family members and traditional healers. The initial choice of care for malaria was a visit to the patent medicine dealers for most respondents. This was followed by visit to the government hospitals, the BI health centres, traditional medicine healers, private clinics, community health workers and does nothing at home. Furthermore, the private health facilities were the initial choice of treatment for the majority with a decline among those choosing them as a second source of care and an increase in the utilization of public health facilities as a second choice of care. Self diagnosis was practiced more by the poorer households while the least poor used the patent medicine dealers and community health workers less often for diagnosis of malaria. The least poor groups had a higher probability of seeking treatment at the BI health centres (creating equity problem in BI, hospitals, and private clinics and in using laboratory procedures. The least

  17. [Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in Xiaojiang backwater area during the preliminary operation stage of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-song; Sheng, Jin-ping; Li, Zhe; Gao, Xu; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Hong

    2010-07-01

    According to one year's continuous observation on algae in the Xiaojiang backwater area in Three Gorges Reservoir, our group analyzed algae community and its succession in the Xiaojiang backwater area at the beginning of the function of the reservoir. The algae cell density and biomass are the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. The maximal value of cell density is 421.64 x 10(3) cells x L(-1), and the minimal value is 2.06 x 10(5) cells x L(-1); and maximal value of biomass is 39,231.84 microg x L(-1), and the minimal value is 226.17 microg x L(-1). From May 2007 to May 2008, there are 7 phylum, 101 category, 262 genus appeared in the Xiaojiang backwater area, in which 51 categories are Chlorophyta accounting for 50.5%, 22 categories are Bacillariophyta accounting for 21.8%, 18 categories are Cyanophyta accounting for 17.8%, and 4 categories are Dinophyta, 2 categories are Cryptophyta, 3 categories are Euglenophyta, 1 category is Xanthophyta and others. Cryptomonas, Chlorella, Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Oocystis, Chlamydomonas, Schroederia, Aulacoseira, Stephanodiscus and Fragilaria are familiar categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. Asterionnella, Aulacoseira, Coelastrunm, Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Aclinastnrum, Dictyosphaerium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Merismopedia, Ceratium, Peridinium and Cryptomonas are the preponderant categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. PMID:20825015

  18. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Miller

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was

  19. Analysis on variation characteristics of geomagnetic field in Beijing area%北京地磁场变化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀玲; 范晓勇; 周江林

    2015-01-01

    According to the data recorded by the Beijing Geomagnetic Station from 1987 to 2013, we analyze the secular and short-term variations of the geomagnetic field. We conclude that the secular variation of the geomagnetic field presents the trend of increasing, decreasing slowly and then increasing gradually again, and the short-term variation of the geomagnetic field is inlfuenced by the activity intensity of sun spot. These variations are signiifcant for understanding the characteristics of geomagnetic ifeld in Beijing area.%根据北京国家地球观象台北京地震台1987—2013年地磁观测资料,分析该台地磁场长期变化和短期变化,认为北京地磁场长期变化具有缓慢上升、缓慢下降和逐渐恢复上升的形态,短期变化受太阳黑子活动强度影响,对了解北京地区地磁场变化特征具有一定意义。

  20. Variation Characteristics of Hydrothermal Resources Effectiveness Under the Background of Climate Change in Southern Rice Production Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.

  1. THE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga GAGAUZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of the study is to extend knowledge on the key issues facing older people. The purpose of the research is to establish the socio-economic position of the elderly, level of respect of their rights in various areas and their vulnerability. The study methodology includes a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. First, by using the method of social survey based on questionnaire on two target-groups samples (one for people aged 60 and over (1096 respondents and another for employable people aged 20-55 (500 respondents. Second, by conducting individual 10 in-depth interviews with experts and three focus group with elderly (aged 60 and over that live in their own household/housing (38 elderly. The study allowed identifying the main problems faced by older people in various social areas, to identify cases of discrimination, as well as to develop a series of recommendations to improve the situation.

  2. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  3. Climate change impacts on agriculture in 2050 under a range of plausible socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and input data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. This paper extends that analysis to explore a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from multiple climate and economic models are combined to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on agricultural yields, area, production, consumption, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar crops to 2050. We find that climate impacts on global average yields, area, production and consumption are similar across shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP 1, 2 and 3, as we implement them based on population, income and productivity drivers), except when changes in trade policies are included. Impacts on trade and prices are higher for SSP 3 than SSP 2, and higher for SSP 2 than for SSP 1. Climate impacts for all variables are similar across low to moderate emissions pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0), but increase for a higher emissions pathway (RCP 8.5). It is important to note that these global averages may hide regional variations. Projected reductions in agricultural yields due to climate change by 2050 are larger for some crops than those estimated for the past half century, but smaller than projected increases to 2050 due to rising demand and intrinsic productivity growth. Results illustrate the sensitivity of climate change impacts to differences in socioeconomic and emissions pathways. Yield impacts increase at high emissions levels and vary with changes in population, income and technology, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables. (paper)

  4. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  5. Socio-economic impacts of GKI activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential socio-economic impacts of Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) activities on Uintah Basin. Potential impacts on socio-economic conditions in the Uintah Basin are limited by the scope of GKI operations. In 1978, the population of Uintah and Duchesne counties was nearly 30,000. GKI employees represented 0.1% of the Basin population. 1978 Gross Taxable Sales were estimated to be $167.182 million for the Uintah Basin. GKI expenditures totaled less than 1% of gross taxable sales, even if it is assumed that all expenditures went to Basin businesses. GKI employment and expenditures are likely to increase in the years ahead, but projected increases will have insignificant socio-economic impacts on local communities. However, some employees will already own and others will seek to purchase homes in the area. Resulting impacts, though insignificant, will be positive. Several years ago, Utah State University researchers developed estimates of population changes and impacts associated with employment growth in Uintah County. Their report indicated that a project increasing basic employment by 400 persons would have minor impact, but would increase the tax base of the county. It is unlikely that GKI employment will approach, let alone exceed, the threshold level of 400 employees. In addition, GKI growth will be incremental and gradual, even to commercial scale operations. This leads us to conclude that GKI operations will have minimal adverse impact upon the Uintah Basin and in fact will probably have a net positive impact on the Basin.

  6. Seasonal variation analysis of atmospheric CH4,N2O and CO2 in Tianjin offshore area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of CH4, N2O and CO2 at the sea level were observed from November 2007 to August 2008 in order to study the greenhouse gases in the Tianjin offshore area of Bohai Sea. CH4 concentrations varied from 1.87 to 2.61 ppm with the highest value appearing in summer and the lowest in winter. The concentration range of N2O was 319.3 to 347.7 ppb, with the maximal value appearing in winter. CO2 was higher in the heating season than in non-heating season in this area. Concentrations of the three greenhouse gases in the study area exceeded the 2005 global background values. Backward trajectory model was used to analyze the sources. All three gases were influenced evidently by continental sources in the inshore area during the sampling periods. Every gas was compared with each other by correlation analysis, showing that the correlation of CO2 and N2O was more significant than to CH4 and their relationship with meteorological factors was consistent. It can be concluded these three greenhouse gases may be influenced by some similar sources, especially for CO2 and N2O.

  7. Variations of Near Surface Energy Balance Caused by Land Cover Changes in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Dynamics of Land System (DLS model to simulating the land cover under the designed scenarios and then analyzes the effects of land cover conversion on energy flux in the semiarid grassland area of China with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a steadily upgrowing trend under the coordinated environmental sustainability (CES scenario. Compared to the CES scenario, the rate of increase in grassland cover is lower, while the rate of increase in urban land cover will be higher under the rapid economic growth (REG scenario. Although the conversion from cropland to grassland will reduce the energy flux, the expansion of urban area and decreasing of forestry area will bring about more energy flux. As a whole, the energy flux of near surface will obviously not change under the CES scenario, and the climate therefore will not be possible to be influenced greatly by land cover change. The energy flux under the REG scenario is higher than that under the CES scenario. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and climate change adaptation in the semiarid grassland area of China.

  8. Combining nested and linear sampling for determining the scale and form of the spatial variation of soil radon in the Midlands area of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistical method of 'unbalanced nested sampling' has been applied to radon measurements in the field in order to determine the scale pattern of spatial variation in radon soil-gas concentrations. This technique allows these parameters to be economically determined over several orders of magnitude by incorporating a spatial scale in the nested analysis. By sampling the radon concentrations in soil at 108 individual points over a 225 km2 area in the Hereford and Worcester county of the English Midlands, it was shown that 95% of the total variation in the activity concentrations occurred over a scale of less than 10 m -the distance between the closest sampling points used. In all cases the soil gas concentrations were measured using the solid state nuclear track detection technique. (author)

  9. The effects of magnetic-field geometry on longitudinal oscillations of solar prominences: Cross-sectional area variation for thin tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, M; Oliver, R; Terradas, J; Karpen, J

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament-channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation p...

  10. Favourable areas for expansion and reintroduction of Iberian lynx accounting for distribution trends and genetic variation of the wild rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Márcia Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although on a local scale Iberian lynx distribution is determined by the availability of prey rabbits, recent modelling analyses have uncovered broad-scale disagreements between these two species’ distribution trends. These analyses showed also that the lynx had become restricted to only a fraction of the rabbit’s genetic variability, and that this could be jeopardising its survival in the face of environmental hazards and uncertainty. In the present paper, a follow-up was carried out through the building of lynx and rabbit distribution models based on the most recent Spanish mammal atlas. The predictions of environmental favourability (which is an indicator of abundance for lynx and rabbit were positively correlated within the lynx's current distribution area, but they were negatively correlated within the total Spanish area where lynx occurred in the 1980’s. Environmental favourability for rabbits was significantly higher where lynx maintains reproductive populations than where it recently disappeared, indicating that rabbit favourability plays an important role and can be a good predictor of lynx persistence. The lynx and rabbit models were extrapolated to predict favourable areas for both species in Spain as well as in Portugal, on the original scale of the distribution data (10x10 km and on a 100 times finer spatial resolution (1x1 km. The lynx and rabbit models were also combined through fuzzy logic to forecast the potential for lynx occurrence incorporating information on favourable areas for its main prey. Several areas are proposed as favourable for lynx expansion or re-introduction, encompassing both countries and both genetic lineages of the rabbit.

  11. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, C; Etches, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.

  12. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  13. Exploring the socio-economics of enhanced landfill mining

    OpenAIRE

    Van Passel, S.; de Gheldere, S.; Dubois, M; Eyckmans, J; Van Acker, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the socio-economics of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). A conceptual framework including performance drivers is presented. Technology (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) and Waste-to-Material (WtM) technologies), regulation (subsidies, taxes, allowances,...) and markets (energy, material prices and input costs) determine the economic performance of ELFM. Especially variations in WtE efficiency, electricity and CO2 price, investment and operational WtE-costs and ELFM support explain the...

  14. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  15. Socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction 1971-1994 in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Lundberg, Mats; Diderichsen, Finn;

    1998-01-01

    The general trend in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the Stockholm area changed from increasing to decreasing around 1980. The objective of this study is to examine time trends in incidence in major socioeconomic strata, relative risk between socioeconomic groups and population risk...

  16. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  17. Associação entre fatores socioeconômicos e insegurança alimentar: estudo de base populacional na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between socioeconomic factors and food insecurity: a population-based study in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Salles-Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de insegurança alimentar em famílias de Duque de Caxias, município localizado na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, e avaliar a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e insegurança alimentar. MÉTODOS: Desenvolveu-se estudo transversal, de base populacional, em famílias do distrito de Campos Elíseos, município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, que investigou amostra probabilística composta por 1.085 domicílios. As informações sobre condições socioeconômicas foram obtidas por meio de entrevista, utilizando questionário estruturado. A insegurança alimentar foi avaliada com o uso da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar, que permite classificar as famílias em segurança alimentar ou em insegurança alimentar leve, moderada ou grave. As análises foram desenvolvidas levando em consideração o efeito do desenho da amostra. Foi estimada a prevalência de insegurança alimentar, avaliando-se sua associação com as variáveis socioeconômicas aplicando-se o teste do qui-quadrado (pOBJECTIVE: This work aims to evaluate the prevalence of food insecurity among families from Duque de Caxias, in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area and the association between socioeconomic indicators and food insecurity. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study investigated a probabilistic sample composed of 1,085 households from the district of Campos Elíseos, in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Information on socioeconomic condition was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food insecurity was assessed by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, which allows classifying the families into food security, or mild, moderate or severe food insecurity. The analyses took into account the sampling design effect. The food insecurity prevalence was estimated and its association with socioeconomic variables was assessed using the chi-square test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Food

  18. Variation in Chlorophyll Content per Unit Leaf Area in Spring Wheat and Implications for Selection in Segregating Material

    OpenAIRE

    John Hamblin; Katia Stefanova; Tefera Tolera Angessa

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase availab...

  19. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  20. Universal health care no guarantee of equity: Comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in the receipt of coronary procedures in patients with acute myocardial infarction and angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelman Chris W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there is a socioeconomic gradient in morbidity and mortality favouring socioeconomically advantaged people, much of which is accounted for by ischaemic heart disease. This study examines if Australia's universal health care system, with its mixed public/private funding and delivery model, may actually perpetuate this inequity. We do this by quantifying and comparing socioeconomic inequalities in the receipt of coronary procedures in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and patients with angina. Methods Using linked hospital and mortality data, we followed patients admitted to Western Australian hospitals with a first admission for AMI (n = 5539 or angina (n = 7401 in 2001-2003. An outcome event was the receipt, within a year, of a coronary procedure—angiography, angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. Socioeconomic status was assigned to each individual using an area-based measure, the SEIFA Index of Disadvantage. Multivariable proportional hazards regression was used to model the association between socioeconomic status and procedure rates, allowing for censoring and adjustment of multiple covariates. Mediating models examined the effect of private health insurance. Results In the AMI patient cohort, socioeconomic gradients were not evident except that disadvantaged women were more likely than advantaged women to undergo CABG. In contrast, in the angina patient group there were clear socioeconomic gradients for all procedures, favouring more advantaged patients. Compared with patients in the most disadvantaged quintile of socioeconomic status, patients in the least disadvantaged quintile were 11% (1-21% more likely to receive angiography, 52% (29-80% more likely to undergo angioplasty and 30% (3-55% more likely to undergo CABG. Private health insurance explained some of the socioeconomic variation in rates. Conclusions Australia's universal health care system does not guarantee

  1. Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations. METHODS: A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained. RESULTS: Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD. CONCLUSIONS: Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to

  2. Eco-geographical variation in the diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in mountainous areas of France

    OpenAIRE

    Halliez Guillaume; Becel Clémence Marie Lucie; Canella Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Because of the worldwide distribution of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the easily way to find its pellets, it is often used to diet studies. To investigate the eco-geographical impact of mountainous areas on its diet, we conducted studies in the Jura, Alpes, Central and Pyrénées mountains and we also did pellet analysis from 8 sites in the Jura mountains. Analysis of the tooth and skull content of pellets allowed us to draw up two types of change in the diet of Tyto alba in correlation with mo...

  3. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  4. Exploring variations in upper ocean structure for the last 2Ma of the Nansha area by means of calcareous nannofossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU; Chua; nlian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Molfino, B., Mclntyre, A., Precessional forcing of nutricline dynamics in the Equatorial Atlantic, Science, 1990, 249:766-769.[2]Ahagon, N., Tanaka, Y., Ujiie, H., Florisphaera profunda, a possible nannoplankton indicator of late quaternary changes in seawater turbidity at the northwestern margin of the Pacific, Marine Micropaleontology, 1993, 22: 255-273.[3]Cheng, X., Wang, P, Variations in late Quaternary upper ocean structure of Okinawa Trough: A nannofossil approach,Science in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(3): 290-296.[4]Okada, H., Matsuoka, M., Lower-photic nannoflora as an indicator of the late Quaternary monsoonal palaeo-record in the tropical Indian Ocean, in Micro-fossils and Oceanic Environments (eds. Moguilevsky, A., Whatley, R.), University of Wales, Aberystwyth Press, 1996, 231-245.[5]Beaufort, L., Lancelot, Y., Camberlin, P. et al., Insolation cycles as a major control of equatorial Indian Ocean primary production, Science, 1997, 278: 1451-1454.[6]Bassinot, F. C., Beaufort, L., Vincent, E. et al., Changes in the Dynamics of western Equatorial Atlantic surface current sand biogenic productivity at the “Mid-Pleistocene Revolution“ (930 ka), in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program,Scientific Results (eds. Shackleton, N. J., Curry, W. B., Richter, C.), 1997, 154: 269-284.[7]Castradori, D., Calcareous nannofossils and the origin of eastern Mediterranean sapropels, Paleoceanography, 1993, 8(4):459-471.[8]Baumann, K. H., Cepek, M., Kinkel, H., Coccolithophores as indicators of ocean water masses, surface-water temperature,and paleoproductivity Examples from the South Atlantic, in Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography: Examples from the South Atlantic (eds. Fischer, G., Wefer, G.), Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1999, 111-144.[9]Kinkel, H., Baumann, K. H., Cepek, M., Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Response to seasonal and Late Quaternary surface water variability, Marine Micropaleontology, 2000, 39

  5. The effects of magnetic-field geometry on longitudinal oscillations of solar prominences: Cross-sectional area variation for thin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M.; Díaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Karpen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament-channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. Methods: We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation properties. Results: We found that the influence of the symmetric and asymmetric expansion factors on longitudinal oscillations is small. Conclusions: We conclude that the longitudinal oscillations are not significantly influenced by variations of the cross-section of the flux tubes, validating the pendulum model in this context.

  6. Temporal and spatial variations of airborne Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in rural areas of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torseth; Hanssen; Semb

    1999-08-30

    The Norwegian air chemistry monitoring network includes measurements of gaseous and particulate compounds in air at 12 rural sites. The sampling method is designed to determine concentration levels of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and uses a three-stage filter pack sampler. Concentration levels of base-cations and sea salts may also be determined from the chemical analysis of the filter extracts. In this study, concentration levels of water soluble Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in air have been investigated in terms of temporal, seasonal and spatial trends during the period 1986-1996. The results have been combined with precipitation chemistry data to estimate total deposition, and to evaluate the relative importance of dry deposition. While Na, Cl and Mg are of marine origin, which is clearly reflected in concentration ratios and spatial gradients, Ca and K are of a mixed origin. Air trajectory analyses indicate that air masses originating in Eastern Europe result in significantly higher airborne concentrations of non-sea salt Ca and K, than air from other sectors. Major sources of airborne Ca and K in Norway are expected to be of anthropogenic origin from combustion plants and industrial processes in Eastern Europe, while aeolian dust from agricultural areas within Europe or from Sahara is of limited importance. Concentration levels of non-sea salt base-cations in air were 20-30% lower during the 1990s, compared to 1986-1989. Precipitation chemistry data available since the early 1980s indicate even larger reductions, and in the order of 50%. Total deposition of non-sea salt base-cations during 1993-1996 was generally below 10 mmol(c) m-2 year-1, whereas in coastal areas with large precipitation amounts, inputs exceeding 15 mmol(c) m-2 year-1 occurred. Deposition of base-cations may thus counteract up to 25% of the strong acid anion input, but more typically in the order of 5-10%. Dry deposition of non-sea salt base-cations of southern Norway is comparatively small

  7. Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies for cancer reduction and management are targeted at both individual and area levels. Area-level strategies require careful understanding of geographic differences in cancer incidence, in particular the association with factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and accessibility. This study aimed to identify the complex interplay of area-level factors associated with high area-specific incidence of Australian priority cancers using a classification and regression tree (CART approach. Methods Area-specific smoothed standardised incidence ratios were estimated for priority-area cancers across 478 statistical local areas in Queensland, Australia (1998-2007, n = 186,075. For those cancers with significant spatial variation, CART models were used to identify whether area-level accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity were associated with high area-specific incidence. Results The accessibility of a person's residence had the most consistent association with the risk of cancer diagnosis across the specific cancers. Many cancers were likely to have high incidence in more urban areas, although male lung cancer and cervical cancer tended to have high incidence in more remote areas. The impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on these associations differed by type of cancer. Conclusions These results highlight the complex interactions between accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity in determining cancer incidence risk.

  8. Fate and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the deposition within a heavily urbanized area: case of Paris (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, B; Lorgeoux, C; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results on the geochemical cycle of PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ethers (or PBDE) in the Paris Region (France). In order to provide information about the distribution and mobility of eight PBDE congeners, we first determined the level of contamination of different environmental compartments: i.e. atmosphere, soils and waters. Atmospheric PBDE deposition was estimated from a site located in the centre of Paris. Surface soils (0-10 cm) were collected from multiple wooded, rural and urban locations through the Paris Region (12,000 km²). To complete our investigation, we measured PBDE concentrations/contents in the runoff from an urban catchment and settleable particles from the Seine River. Hence, gained results showed that in the superficial soils, the highest concentrations of highly brominated congeners were measured in the vicinity of the most urbanized areas whereas less brominated congeners were widespread in the whole Paris Region. This could be explained by the higher affinity of highly brominated congeners for the solid phase substrata coupled with the fact that the atmospheric deposition occurred mainly through particle deposition (close to 90% of the total atmospheric deposition). To the opposite, the less brominated congeners from the superficial soils were readily transferred to the dissolved phase of runoff and could reach more distant terrestrial and aquatic systems. Finally, a mass transfer was established at the scale of the Paris metropolitan city (105 km²). It showed that the cycle of PBDE in this particular urban area is highly dynamic with multiple sources and sinks, and rapid transfers between the ecosystem compartments.

  9. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. PMID:26736058

  10. The effect of the overall heat transfer coefficient variation on the optimal distribution of the heat transfer surface conductance or area in a Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costea, M. [Polytechnic University of Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of Applied Thermodynamics; Feidt, M. [University H. Poincare of Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    This study aims to assess for a Stirling engine the influence of the overall heat transfer coefficient variation on the optimum state and on the optimum distribution of the heat transfer surface conductance or area among the machine heat exchangers. The analysis is based on a Stirling machine optimization method, previously elaborated, which is now applied to a cycle with total heat regeneration. The method was conceived for an irreversible cycle with heat transfer across temperature differences at the source and the sink, and heat losses between the hot-end and the cold-end of the engine. Source and sink of finite thermal capacity as well as thermostats are considered. The new approach considers a linear variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient of the machine heat exchangers with respect to the local temperature difference. A comparison of the optimum state and the optimum distribution of the heat transfer surface conductance or area among the heater and the cooler is made for several cases. (author)

  11. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Feng

    Full Text Available Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36. At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged. Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  12. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  13. Spatiotemporal Exploration of Impacts of Coupled Climate and Socioeconomic Changes on Grassland Ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Although the coupled impacts of climate change and human adaptation on land cover change has been a prime research topic in recent years, a majority of reported efforts are examining the coupled effects of climate and socioeconomic factors qualitatively. Even though some are applying statistical methods, they often look into the impacts of coupled climate variations and socioeconomic transformations on land cover changes in a detached or sequential manner, or they handle socioeconomic influences indirectly through land use changes. Very few of them deal with the coupled effects concurrently through times and cross regions. We assimilate a big dataset of climate change, plant community growth condition, and socioeconomic transformation in Inner Mongolia of China. The study area consists of twelve types of plant communities, reflecting an east-to-west water-temperature gradient from moist meadow-type, to typical steppe-type and then to arid desert-type communities. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI), derived from MODIS at a 250 m resolution and 16-day intervals from May 8 to September 28 during 2000-2010, is adopted as a proxy for vegetation growth. The inter-annual and intra-annual changes of seven climate factors (barometric pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunlight hours, temperature, vapor pressure and wind speed) during the same period are synchronized with the EVI observations. Ten socioeconomic variables (urban population, urban GDP, rural GDP, grain output, livestock, fixed assets investment, local government revenue, per capita net income of farmers and pastoralists, the total length of highways, and rural population) are collected over 34 counties in the study area and during the same period. The GIS-based spatial database approach is adopted to integrate all of the above data into a big spatiotemporal dataset. We develop a multi-controlled panel-data regression model to investigate spatiotemporal changes of vegetation growth and their underlying causes

  14. Seasonal and interannual variation of radiation and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Yu, Ye; Chen, Jinbei; Zhang, Tangtang; Li, Zhenchao

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the land-atmosphere interactions over the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau is important due to its special climate and unique underlying surface. In this study, two years' micrometeorological and energy flux observations from the Pingliang Land Surface Process & Severe Weather Research Station, CAS were used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of radiation budget and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, with an emphasis on the influence of rain, soil moisture and agricultural production activities (such as crop type and harvest time) on the energy partitioning as well as the surface energy balance. The results revealed large annual variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation, which gave rise to significant seasonal and interannual variations in soil moisture. Soil moisture was the main factor affecting radiation budget and energy partitioning. There was a negatively linear relationship between the albedo and the soil moisture. The main consumer of available energy varied among months and years with an apparent water stress threshold value of ca. 0.12 m3 m- 3, and the evapotranspiration was suppressed especially during the growing season. On an annual scale, the largest consumer of midday net radiation was sensible heat flux in 2010-2011, while it was latent heat flux in 2011-2012, which accounted for about 35% and 40% of the net radiation, respectively. The agricultural activity altered the sensitivity and variability of albedo to soil moisture, as well as energy partitioning patterns. The surface energy budget closures during Dec. 2010-Nov. 2011 and Dec. 2011-Nov. 2012 were 77.6% and 73.3%, respectively, after considering the soil heat storage. The closure was comparable to other sites in ChinaFLUX (49% to 81% of 8 sites). The patterns of energy partitioning and the water stress threshold found in the semi-arid cropland could be used to evaluate and improve land surface models.

  15. Relative Contributions of Land Use and Climate Change to Water Supply Variations over Yellow River Source Area in Tibetan Plateau during the Past Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shaohong; Liu, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of environmental change impacts on ecosystem processes and services, yet poor understanding of the relative contributions of land use and climate change to ecosystem services variations. Based on detailed meteorological, hydrological records and satellite data over the Yellow River Source Area (YRSA) in Tibetan Plateau from 1980s to 2008, together with a water-yield module of Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and also a Residual Trends (RESTREND) method, we assessed the water supply variations in YRSA during the past three decades and disentangled the relative contributions of land use and climate change. Results show that water supply significantly decreased from 1980 to 2005 and then increased from 2005 to 2008. The quantity slightly decreased from 283.01 mm in 1980 to 276.95 mm in 1995, 270.12 mm in 2000 and 267.97 mm in 2005, and it then rebounded slightly to 275.26 mm in 2008. The water supply variation ranged from 283.01 mm to 267.97 mm. Climate change contributed dominantly to water supply decrease from 1980 to 1995, which accounts for approximately 64% of the decrease. During 1995 to 2000, land use contributed more and about 58% to the water supply decrease as the intense human activities. From 2000 to 2005, climate change became a positive contribution to the water supply as the increased precipitation, but the land use still contributed negatively. From 2005 to 2008, both climate and land use have positive impacts, but land use contributed about 61% to the water supply increase. The implementation of the Three Rivers Source Area Ecological Protection Project has greatly improved the vegetation coverage conditions and the water retention ability during this period. We recommend that the implementation of ecological projects, grazing policies and artificial improvement of degraded grassland would help to conserve the water retention ability and increase water supply.

  16. Socio-Economic Status, HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigma, and Sexual Behavior in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-3), this paper analyzes the socioeconomic correlates of sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma in India. The main findings are that, overall, the Indian population is faithful and abstains from sex with very small variations across socioeconomic classes. However, given the large size of the population, there is still room for some concern as condom use is low, knowledge about the disease is poor, and stigma is high; especially w...

  17. Deep Demographics: Understanding Local Variation in Donor Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Michael; Olmo, Cathy; Andrada, Sandy; Koertzen, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    This is the first published study to examine in detail the demographic factors associated with willingness to register as an organ donor at a state motor vehicles bureau. It uses registration counts controlling for the size of the general population as the measure of willingness. Local variation in registration levels is modeled as a function of a set of local socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and immigration characteristics; cluster analysis of social areas is used to probe the effects of nonlinear combinations of local social environment factors. Results show that residence in high minority areas, lower-income areas, and immigrant-heavy areas depresses registration levels but also that significant nonlinear combinations of factors are at work. Specifically, minority/immigrant areas tend strongly to have lower registration counts controlling for population regardless of socioeconomic status (SES), whereas registration in less prosperous areas depends largely on the racial, ethnic, and immigrant proportions in those areas. Moreover, the very highest SES neighborhoods in the study area (northern California minus greater Sacramento) have very high levels of donor registration despite high racial, ethnic, and national origin diversity. PMID:27207409

  18. Eco-geographical variation in the diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba in mountainous areas of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliez Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the worldwide distribution of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba and the easily way to find its pellets, it is often used to diet studies. To investigate the eco-geographical impact of mountainous areas on its diet, we conducted studies in the Jura, Alpes, Central and Pyrénées mountains and we also did pellet analysis from 8 sites in the Jura mountains. Analysis of the tooth and skull content of pellets allowed us to draw up two types of change in the diet of Tyto alba in correlation with mountain elevation. The first one concerns the Jura, Alpes and Central mountains, where the diversity of the diet declines with the increase in elevation. The second one concerns the Pyrénées mountains, where there is no change in the diversity of the diet, perhaps because of the higher diversity of small mammals caused by mediterranean influence. Thus, it seems that elevation cau ses a decrease in diet diversity of Tyto alba in continental mountains (Jura, Alpes and Central mountains probably because of more homogeneous landscapes dedicated to grass production. However, in Mediterranean mountains (Pyrénées, a more diversified small mammal guild provides a constant level of diet diversity.

  19. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    0.7166), C (δ13CDIC = −21.3‰ to −4.7‰), and B (δ11B = 3.9–32.9‰) isotopes clearly reflect water–rock interactions within the aquifer rocks, while the stable O and H isotopic composition mimics the local meteoric water composition. Overall, there was a geochemical gradient from low-mineralized recharge water to more evolved Ca–HCO3, and higher-mineralized Na–HCO3 composition generated by a combination of carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering, and reverse base-exchange reactions. The chemical and isotopic compositions of the bulk shallow groundwater samples were distinct from the Na–Cl type Fayetteville flowback/produced waters (TDS ∼10,000–20,000 mg/L). Yet, the high Br/Cl variations in a small subset of saline shallow groundwater suggest that they were derived from dilution of saline water similar to the brine in the Fayetteville Shale. Nonetheless, no spatial relationship was found between CH4 and salinity occurrences in shallow drinking water wells with proximity to shale-gas drilling sites. The integration of multiple geochemical and isotopic proxies shows no direct evidence of contamination in shallow drinking-water aquifers associated with natural gas extraction from the Fayetteville Shale.

  20. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

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    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  1. Analysis of the seasonal and inter-annual variations, and long-term trends of ozone in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassmany Hernández Paniagua, Iván; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Mendoza, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Since 1993, high-precision and high-frequency measurements of ambient O3 have been recorded at 5 sites within the metropolitan area of Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico. O3was measured by the Integral Environmental Monitoring System of the Nuevo Leon State Government using commercially available, conventional UV photometry instrumentation (precision better than ±1 ppb). The datasets exhibit variations on differing time-scales of minutes to hours, with evidence of seasonal cycles and inter-annual variability. The O3 diurnal cycles vary with length of daylight, which influences its formation and loss via photochemistry. No apparent influence is observed in the amplitudes of O3 diurnal cycles recorded during weekdays with higher emissions from fossil fuel combustion than at weekends, although larger amplitudes occur at sites with polluted air from industrial areas. Seasonal cycles are driven by the variation in solar radiation and changes in emissions of primary precursors, VOCs and NOX. Maximum O3 mixing ratios were recorded in spring, and minimum values in winter, with a secondary trough during summer due to the advection of clean air masses from the Gulf of Mexico. The largest spring maxima are recorded downwind of an industrial area likely due photochemical processing of VOCs and NOx, with the lowest recorded in a highly populated area due to reaction of O3 and NO. At all sites, decreasing seasonal amplitudes were observed during 1993-1998, followed by persistent increases from 1998 to 2014. Wind sector analyses were carried out by splitting the wind direction into 8 categories (45°). At all sites, the highest O3 mixing ratios were recorded from the E and SE sectors, with lowest values recorded in air masses from the W and NW. Wind sector analysis of primary precursors (such as VOCs, CO, NOX) reveal that sources are dominated by emissions from industrial regions in Monterrey and surrounding areas. The largest annual growth rates for the E and SE

  2. Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

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    Richard M Starr

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs.

  3. Infestação de área urbana por Aedes aegypti e relação com níveis socioeconômicos Infestation of an urban area by Aedes aegypti and relation with socioeconomic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Chimello Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre índices de infestação larvária por Aedes aegypti e fatores socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: Foram calculados os índices de infestação na área urbana de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, em janeiro de 2005 e em seguida geocodificados por endereço. Os setores censitários urbanos foram agrupados por meio de análise de componentes principais, produzindo quatro áreas socioeconômicas (1-4, ordem decrescente de nível socioeconômico e um quinto agrupamento (5 com nível inferior aos demais e não pertencente aos setores censitários urbanos (bairros novos e loteamentos irregulares. Calcularam-se, para cada área, os índices de Breteau (IB, predial (IP e de recipientes (IR, e as médias de recipientes existentes e pesquisados por casa. RESULTADOS: Os valores dos índices de infestação não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as áreas socioeconômicas 1 a 4, mas foram menores que os índices obtidos para a área 5. As médias de recipientes existentes e pesquisados foram maiores para a área 1 em relação às áreas 2 a 4, mas não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à 5. CONCLUSÕES: Os índices larvários não mostraram associação com os diferentes níveis socioeconômicos da área correspondente aos setores censitários urbanos. Entretanto, os bairros novos, loteamentos irregulares e locais contíguos com as piores condições de saneamento básico apresentaram os maiores valores desses indicadores.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between Aedes aegypti larvae infestation rates and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Infestation rates in the urban area of the city of São José do Rio Preto, Southeastern Brazil, were calculated in January of 2005 and subsequently geocoded by address. The urban census tracts were grouped by means of main component analysis, thus producing four socioeconomic clusters (1-4, in a decreasing order of socioeconomic level and a fifth

  4. 浙江嵊泗人工鱼礁区渔业资源生态容纳量变动的研究%Preliminary study on the variation of the carrying capacity of fishery resources in Shengsi artificial reef area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹增强; 章守宇

    2011-01-01

    人工鱼礁是放置于海底以影响海洋生物资源的物理、生物或社会经济过程的人工设施.科学评价人工鱼礁对渔业资源生态容纳量的改善程度对揭示鱼礁的生态功能和指导鱼礁后续建设具有重要的理论与现实意义.人工鱼礁区鱼类和大型无脊椎动物可分为3种类型(Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型和Ⅲ型),其中Ⅱ型鱼类和大型无脊椎动物身体不接触鱼礁,但在鱼礁周围游泳、在海底栖息.该生物学资料可通过拖网调查取样获得.根据2004年10月~2007年9月浙江嵊泗人工鱼礁海域渔业资源拖网调查数据,建立了模拟礁区渔业资源密度随时间变化趋势的Logistic模型,并据此求解了鱼礁海域资源数量容纳量模型.通过遗传算法求得了Logistic模型的参数.结果表明,人工鱼礁区Ⅱ型鱼类和大型无脊椎动物的原有生态容纳量约为6.00~8.03 ind/km·kW,鱼礁投放所产生的新生态容纳量约为4.40~5.89 ind/km· kW,容纳量随季节变化而呈周期性波动.%An artificial reef is one or more objects of natural or human origin deployed purposefully on the seafloor to influence physical, biological, or socioeconomic processes related to living marine resources, which is applied to improve marine environment and protect fishery resources. Large numbers of artificial reef projects have been carried out in China since the beginning of 21st century, so as to restore marine habitat. It is practically very important for future construction of the artificial reefs that the fishery resources enhancement of the artificial reef can be scientifically evaluated. There are 3 types of fish and macro-invertebrates (I. E. Type I, Ⅱ · And Ⅲ) in artificial reef area. Type Ⅱ animals inhabit surrounding areas and do not contact artificial reef, whose biological data can be obtained by trawling. Based on the survey data of fishery resources in artificial reef area of Shengsi in Zhejiang Province, the density of

  5. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION OF THE GREEN TURTLE, Chelonia mydas (CHELONIIDAE, IN THE FORAGING AREA OF GORGONA NATURAL NATIONAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC

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    Laura Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL, curved carapace length (CCL, weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747 than yellow turtles (n = 276 were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.Variación intraespecífica de la tortuga verde Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacífico colombianoSe comparó la distribución de tallas y condición corporal de los dos morfotipos conocidos de tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (PNNG en el Pacífico colombiano entre 2003 y 2012. Se tomaron medidas de largo recto de caparazón (LRC, largo curvo de caparazón (LCC, peso y condición corporal de 1.023 tortugas capturadas en los arrecifes del PNG. Se capturaron más tortugas negras (n = 747 que amarillas (n = 276, todas juveniles. Las tortugas negras fueron significativamente más grandes y pesadas que las amarillas. El tamaño de reclutamiento a la zona nerítica fue de 40,0–49,9 cm

  6. Seasonal Variations in Drug Retail in Chengde Area%承德地区药品零售的季节性差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鑫; 陈玉文; 党晓伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查河北省承德地区药品零售的季节性规律,为优化本地区药店运营管理提供参考。方法抽样调查承德地区零售药店近3年的药品销售情况,分析不同季节药品销售差异。结果承德地区春季以销售抗过敏药为主,夏季以消暑驱蚊药、抗肠炎痢疾药和皮炎外用药热卖,秋季去火、止血药多用,冬季主要销售抗感冒药,钙剂、维生素类等受季节影响不大。结论承德地区药品零售具有一定的季节性差异,只有小部分药品销售受季节影响不大。%Objective To investigate the seasonal variations on the drug retail in Chengde area in order to provide reference for optimizing the operating management of local drugstores. Methods The drug retail sales in the drug stores of Chengde area for the recent three years were performed the sam-pling survey and the seasonal variations of drug retail was analyzed. Results The retail drugs were mainly the antiallergic agents in spring;the removing summer-heat drugs,mosquito repellents,antidiarrheal agents and anti-dermatitis drugs for external use were the hot sales in summer;the drugs of re-ducing internal heat and styptic drugs were predominant in autumn and the anti-cold drugs were mainly sold in winter. The sales of calcium medicinal preparations and vitamins were little affected by seasons. Conclusion There are seasonal variations on the drug retail sales in Chengde area. The sales of only a small part of drugs have been little affected by seasons.

  7. Variation of forest surface and carbon fixation in mountain areas of the Regione Veneto (Italy and the application of the Kyoto protocol

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    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parties that have signed the Kyoto Protocol must reduce global emissions of Greenhouse Gasses (GHG during the First Commitment Period (2008 - 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. This share is 6.5% for Italy. The Kyoto Protocol lays down some measures for reducing GHG emissions, which include actions in agriculture and forestry. it will thus be possible to take emissions and absorptions resulting from land use changes into account in the National Balances. Given the widespread forests in Italy, it is very important to have an assessment of the aptitude of this sector to act as a carbon sink. In this study we analysed the variation of forestland cover in a mountain area of the Veneto Region (NE Italy. The analysis was done by comparing aerial photos taken in 1991 with orthophotos reported to 2003, by photointerpretation of points with casual distribution on sample areas, according to a stratified sampling. We estimated a statistically relevant increment of about 0.095% of forest land only up to 1500 m compared to the estimated forest cover for 1990 (about 42 ha, underlining how this low increase is mainly due to forest management. The second step was to estimate the fixed carbon in the areas where forests increased. This was achieved by collecting biometrical data in the field, and then using allometric functions. The annual carbon sink was estimated as 0.69 Mg ha-1 year-1. Comparing these results with previous studies done in the pre-alpine region we estimate the annual increment of the forest area in the whole Veneto region to be about 409.94 ha and that the total carbon sink is about 282.86 Mg C year-1. A method for estimating carbon sink in afforestation/reforestation areas is proposed that could also be applied to other sites in Italy.

  8. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  9. Session II-E. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major tasks of the socioeconomic program are designed to address and resolve issues raised by federal, state, and local agencies and the public, and to meet legal and regulatory requirements. The tasks are intended to: (1) characterize socioeconomic and other nontechnical issues, and recommend possible resolution, (2) develop socioeconomic impact methodologies and provide impact assessments, (3) design and implement a community development approach to impact mitigation, and (4)conduct institutional and organizational analyses. The following papers relate to these socioeconomic tasks: (1) an integrated approach to socioeconomic considerations in nuclear waste management; (2)ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste isolation and mitigation; (3) institutional issues in transportation of nuclear wastes; (4) framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting; (5)special issues in impact mitigation; (6) effective programs for public participation in siting large public facilities; (7) a program for community development assistance; and (8) examination of factors affecting socioeconomic mitigation costs

  10. Professional practice and innovation: Chronic disease, geographic location and socioeconomic disadvantage as obstacles to equitable access to e-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Sunderland, Naomi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Gudes, Ori; Henniker, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent public attention to e-health as a solution to rising healthcare costs and an ageing population, there have been relatively few studies examining the geographical pattern of e-health usage. This paper argues for an equitable approach to e-health and attention to the way in which e-health initiatives can produce locational health inequalities, particularly in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. In this paper, we use a case study to demonstrate geographical variation in Internet accessibility, Internet status and prevalence of chronic diseases within a small district. There are significant disparities in access to health information within socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The most vulnerable people in these areas are likely to have limited availability of, or access to Internet healthcare resources. They are also more likely to have complex chronic diseases and, therefore, be in greatest need of these resources. This case study demonstrates the importance of an equitable approach to e-health information technologies and telecommunications infrastructure. PMID:20577021

  11. [Variation of soil nitrogen during in situ mineralization process under different grasslands in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue-Li; Zhao, Tong; Yan, Hao; Huang, Yi-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Variations in organic nitrogen, microbial biomass nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N, NO2(-) -N and N mineralization were investigated under three different grasslands in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China (natural grassland, artificial turf and abandoned land) using the close-top tube incubation method. Microbial biomass nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N and N mineralization exhibited significant seasonal variations. The nitrogen levels remained essentially unchanged from April to June, significantly decreased in July-August, rebounded after August, and were lowest in August. The organic nitrogen content remained unchanged in the whole training process. The soil mineralization rates, nitrification and ammonification rate were lowest in June-August. The ratios of each N fraction to total N responded differently to seasonal changes. The ratios of organic N, NO2(-) -N to total N did not change, in contrast, the ratios of nitrate N, microbial biomass nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, to total soil N decreased from April to August, and increased from August to December. The soil organic matter, pH, and bulk density were closely related to soil N. There was a significant positive correlation among the six N fractions. The soil nitrogen content of the different grassland types followed the order of natural grassland > abandoned land > artificial turf.

  12. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site. PMID:24619364

  13. Socio-economic and environmental sustainability estimate of ENEL project for the S. Maria in Brasimone basin area; Valutazione della sostenibilita' socio-economica e ambientale del progetto ENEL per l'area del bacino di S. Maria del Brasimone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L; Beone, F.; Carrabba, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Lorenzelli, E.; Cialani, C.

    1999-07-01

    During preparatory activities of National Conference on Energy and Environment (CNEA), which took place in Rome in November 1998, the ENEA Biological Diversity Group and ENEL signed an agreement to lead a socio-economic and environmental sustainability analysis of a tourism valorisation project about an ENEL vacant, marginal, fragile or abandoned site. The activities had also the aim to be an effective contribution to individuation of future guidelines on sustainable tourism which the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will discuss and issue, if possible. This work has the purpose of proposing a territorial dialogue example between many parties, which would start a local development that was sustainable, respecting local traditions. Actions proposed by ENEA are: 1. integration of a project based on environmental valorisation to tourist purpose, adding elements of respect and sustainable use of local biological diversity. 2. Analysis, through a series of medium/long term statistic model, both of the interventions proposed by ENEL and of the possible integrations suggested by ENEA. 3. Collaboration in searching for institutional funds (UE), for the achievement of the demonstrative project on sustainable tourism as regards of local biological diversity. The analysis conducts by ENEA allowed the following conclusions: the cost-benefit analysis, for the period taken into account, highlight as the project could have a positive result only if it is possible to rely on Regional or European funds. The possibility to obtain these types of funds in the fields of tourism is proportional to the consideration given into the project to the environment, to the rural development and the diversification of the income in the rural areas. Moreover, the authors suggests that the ENEL project should be wider, inclusive of more interventions, as i.e. the restoration of old building to turn into agritourism, recreational centres and hotels: the improvement of particular local

  14. Ten-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE: Time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas for anthropogenic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: Willy.Maenhaut@UGent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, BE-9000 Gent (Belgium); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Karnieli, Arnon [Remote Sensing Laboratory, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sde Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Andreae, Meinrat O. [Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, D-55020 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at Sde Boker, Israel, with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2–2–3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following nine anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Se, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of −34%, −25%, −47%, +26%, and −40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.6 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other three seasons. Vanadium and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly oil burning. Trajectory statistics, using 10-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, were applied to assess the source areas. Sulphur originated mostly from south-eastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the south-eastern part of European Russia, whilst the source picture for Zn was rather unclear. The other six anthropogenic elements and BC seemed to originate mainly from regional sources.

  15. Diurnal variation of particle-bound PAHs in an urban area of Spain using TD-GC/MS: Influence of meteorological parameters and emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorduy, I.; Elcoroaristizabal, S.; Durana, N.; García, J. A.; Alonso, L.

    2016-08-01

    Short -term particulate concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 were determined in the urban area of Bilbao (Spain). The analysis was performed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), which enabled to use three diurnal periods of 8 h sampling basis time resolution. A total of 105 PM10 samples were collected during 5 months in 2013. Diurnal average concentration of total PAHs (∑13 PAHs) ranged from 1.18 to 9.78 ng m-3; and from 0.06 to 0.70 ng m-3 for benzo[a]pyrene. The presence of high concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene, pyrene, fluoranthene and chrysene, and the significant PAHs diurnal variations due to the sampling period, pointed out the influence of mixing anthropogenic sources and meteorological conditions. The diurnal pattern of source contributions was assessed by binary diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA). These results showed the prevalence of pyrogenic sources coming from traffic and coal/coke combustion sources. Moreover, the PCA differentiated a diurnal pattern of source contributions. The influence of meteorological factors was studied by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Three factors, temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure, were identified as the most significant ones affecting diurnal PAHs concentrations. Finally, PCA of the PAHs levels, regulated atmospheric pollutants and meteorological parameters showed that diurnal PAHs concentrations were mainly influenced by variations in the emission sources, atmospheric oxidants such as ozone, and temperature conditions. These results provide further insight into the PAHs diurnal patterns in urban areas by using higher temporal resolutions.

  16. Ten-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE: Time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas for anthropogenic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at Sde Boker, Israel, with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2–2–3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following nine anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Se, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of −34%, −25%, −47%, +26%, and −40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.6 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other three seasons. Vanadium and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly oil burning. Trajectory statistics, using 10-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, were applied to assess the source areas. Sulphur originated mostly from south-eastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the south-eastern part of European Russia, whilst the source picture for Zn was rather unclear. The other six anthropogenic elements and BC seemed to originate mainly from regional sources

  17. 20 Years of Research on Socioeconomic Inequality and Children's—Unintentional Injuries Understanding the Cause-Specific Evidence at Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at both area and individual levels, the bulk of which deal with road traffic, burn, and fall injuries. As a whole and for each injury cause separately, their results support the notion that low socioeconomic status is greatly detrimental to child safety but not in all instances and settings. In light of variations between causes and, within causes, between settings and countries, it is emphasized that the prevention of inequities in child safety requires not only that proximal risk factors of injuries be tackled but also remote and fundamental ones inherent to poverty.

  18. Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences.

  19. Similarity between neonatal profile and socioeconomic index: a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Orsi Eleonora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare neonatal characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in Rio de Janeiro city neighborhoods in order to identify priority areas for intervention. The study design was ecological. Two databases were used: the Brazilian Population Census and the Live Birth Information System, aggregated by neighborhoods. Spatial analysis, multivariate cluster classification, and Moran's I statistics for detection of spatial clustering were used. A similarity index was created to compare socioeconomic clusters with the neonatal profile in each neighborhood. The proportions of Apgar score above 8 and cesarean sections showed positive spatial correlation and high similarity with the socioeconomic index. The proportion of low birth weight infants showed a random spatial distribution, indicating that at this scale of analysis, birth weight is not sufficiently sensitive to discriminate subtler differences among population groups. The observed relationship between the neighborhoods' neonatal profile (particularly Apgar score and mode of delivery and socioeconomic conditions shows evidence of a change in infant health profile, where the possibility for intervention shifts to medical services and the Apgar score assumes growing significance as a risk indicator.

  20. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  1. Slope-confined submarine canyons in the Baiyun deep-water area, northern South China Sea: variation in their modern morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. S.; Zhou, Q. J.; Su, T. Y.; Liu, L. J.; Gao, S.; Zhou, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of newly collected multibeam bathymetric data, chirp profiles and existing seismic data, we presented a detailed morphological interpretation of a series of slope-confined canyons in water depths of 300-2000 m in the Baiyun deep-water area, northern margin of the South China Sea. Although these canyons are commonly characterized by regular spacing and a straight-line shape, they vary in their lengths, starting and ending water depths, canyon relief, slope gradients, wall slope gradients and depth profiles along the axis. The eastern canyons (C1-C8) have complex surface features, low values in their slope gradient, canyon relief and wall slope gradient and high values in their length and starting and ending depth contrasting to the western ones (C9-C17). From the bathymetric data and chirp profiles, we interpret two main processes that have controlled the morphology and evolution of the canyons: axial incision and landsliding. The western part of the shelf margin where there were at least four stages of submerged reefs differs from the eastern part of the shelf margin where sedimentary undulations occurred at a water depth of ~650 m. We consider that the variation in morphology of submarine canyons in the study area is the result of multiple causes, with the leading cause being the difference in stability of the upper slope which is related to the submerged reefs and sedimentary undulations.

  2. Seasonal variations in dust concentration and dust emission observed over Horqin Sandy Land area in China from December 2010 to November 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2012-12-01

    Hourly mean dust concentration observations and meteorological measurements obtained from a sandstorm monitoring station in Horqin Sandy Land area in China from December 2010 to November 2011 were used to investigate the seasonal variations in dust concentration and dust emission flux as well as their relationship with meteorological parameters and soil condition. Based on 14 local dust emission events in spring 2011, the friction velocity (u*) and free convective velocity (w*) were calculated, and their correlation with dust emission flux was used to evaluate the dynamic and thermal impact on dust emission by turbulence. Results indicated that dust events occur in every season with peak dust activity in spring. The maximum dust concentration is 1654.1 μg m-3 and dust emission flux is 98.4 μg m-2 s-1. Freezing of soil in winter effectively decreases soil erodibility and suppresses dust emission. However, soil moisture does not show a significant impact on dust emission in this semi-arid Horqin Sandy Land area. Both friction velocity and free convective velocity could reflect the trend in dust emission flux, but both with obvious underestimation. The thermal impact on dust emission by turbulence is found to be far less than its dynamic impact.

  3. Relation between parasuicide, suicide, psychiatric admissions, and socioeconomic deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnell, D. J.; Peters, T. J.; Kammerling, R M; Brooks, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relations between parasuicide, suicide, psychiatric inpatient admissions, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN--Ecological analysis with data from routine information systems and the 1991 census. SETTING--24 localities in the area covered by the Bristol and District Health Authority (population 817,000), consisting of aggregations of neighbouring wards, with an average population of 34,000. SUBJECTS--6089 subjects aged over 10 years admitted to hospital after parasu...

  4. The generation of socioeconomic surfaces for public policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    I Bracken

    1989-01-01

    The development is explained of a technique to generate 'modelled' surfaces of census-type socioeconomic survey data that offer the potential to overcome many of the problems inherent in the analysis and presentation of such data in conventional area-based form. Potential benefits of the modelled surface include a level of resolution that arguably can provide a more finely focused spatial basis for the generation of a wide range of spatial indicators that can aid public policymaking. This typ...

  5. Socio-economic Scenario Development for Climate Change Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KRIEGLER Elmar; O'Neill, Brian-C; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Kram, Tom; Moss, Richard-H; Lempert, Robert; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Socio-economic scenarios constitute an important tool for exploring the long-term consequences of anthropogenic climate change and available response options. They have been applied for different purposes and to a different degree in various areas of climate change analysis, typically in combination with projections of future climate change. Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) has used them to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios for the 21st century and to investigate strategies...

  6. A Study on Sea Level Variations of the Korean Peninsula and Surrounding Areas Based on Tide Gauge, GPS and Satellite Altimeter Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Park, K.; Won, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sea level variations of the Korean peninsula and surrounding areas in the ranges of 20-40 °N and 110-145 °E were investigated for the purpose of understanding the regional characteristics of the abnormal sea level rise near the Jeju island located in the southern edge of the Korean peninsula. For this study, we used tide gauge (TG) data, Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, and satellite altimeter measurements taken in the study area. We used the data at 194 TG stations. We obtained the TG data from 38 stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) in Korea. We also collected monthly mean sea level observations from 139 and 17 TG stations of Japan and China, respectively. The data of Japan and China are from Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) services. We computed sea level rates using monthly mean sea level measurements, and analyzed spatial-temporal correlation through the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. As the second part of our study, we derived absolute sea level rise rates by correcting the TG data for crustal deformation rates. To obtain the uplift rates in the area, we used continuous measurements at permanent GPS stations located at the TG site. For GPS data processing high-precision GPS data processing program GIPSY-OASIS II was used. To analyze local signatures of crustal deformation, we subtracted the primary EOF mode signal from the GPS height time series. Furthermore, we compared the obtained absolute sea level rates with satellite altimeter measurements. We obtained and analyzed TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeter data provided by AVISO from 1993 to 2010. We found that the absolute sea level rates from geodetic measurements are generally in good agreement with radar altimeter rates.

  7. Seasonal variations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the sea-surface microlayer and subsurface water of Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Honghai; YANG Guipeng; LIU Chunying; LI Chenxuan

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of DMS and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate, in both dissolved (DMSPd)and particulate fractions (DMSPp) were determined in the sea-surface microlayer and corresponding subsurface water of the Jiaozhou Bay, China and its adjacent area in May and August 2006.The concentrations of all these components showed a clear seasonal variation, with higher concentrations occurring in summer. This can be mainly attributed to the higher phytoplankton biomass observed in summer. Simultaneously, the enrichment extents of DMSPd and DMSPp in the microlayer also exhibited seasonal changes, with higher values in spring and lower ones in summer.Higher water temperature and stronger radiant intensity in summer can enhance their solubilityand photochemical reaction in the microlayer water, reducing their enrichment factors (the ratio of concentration in the microlayer to that in the corresponding subsurface water). A statistically significant relationship was found between the microlayer and subsurface water concentrations of DMS, DMSP and chlorophyll a, demonstrating that the biogenic materials in the microlayer come primarily from the underlying water. Moreover, our data show that the concentrations of DMSPp and DMS were significantly correlated with the levels of chlorophyll a, indicating that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distributions of biogenic sulfurs in the study area. The ratios of DMS/chlorophyll a and DMSPp/chlorophyll a varied little from spring to summer, suggesting that there was no obvious change in the proportion of DMSP producers in the phytoplankton community. The mean sea-to-air flux of DMS from the study area was estimated to be 5.70μmol/(m2·d),which highlights the effects of human impacts on DMS emision.

  8. Socioeconomic profile of Clark County, Nevada: Community services inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is preparing socioeconomic profiles of Clark County, Nevada, and communities in Clark County that could be affected by siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, located in Nye County. These profiles serve as a data base for evaluating local community service impacts; store existing socioeconomic data in a uniform, readily accessible format; identify the need for additional data; and assist in developing a plan for monitoring and mitigating any significant adverse impacts that may be associated with site characterization and potential repository development. This element of the socioeconomic profiles contains an inventory of community services provided by local, county, and state agencies and volunteer organizations to residents of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, Indian Springs, and unincorporated areas of the county. Services inventoried include housing, growth management, general government, education, police protection, transportation networks, public clinics, private health personnel, parks and recreation, social services, libraries, ambulances, electric power, natural gas, water, sewers and wastewater treatment, solid waste, and fire protection. The report includes a summary overview of service providers in Clark County, discussions of the services provided to residents of communities in Clark County that may be affected by Project activities, and a description of service providers whose service areas are not limited to the incorporated areas of Clark County. Data presented in this profile were collected through March of 1985. Data collection efforts are ongoing and this profile will be updated periodically

  9. Family Expressiveness: Sex and Socioeconomic Class Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoldsby, Bron B.; McKim, Suzanne

    Communication, particularly in the form of self-disclosure or emotional expressiveness is important to happy, healthy relationships. Differences in emotional expressiveness between sexes, between socioeconomic groups, and within each of these groups were examined in 48 males and 44 females from high and low socioeconomic (SES) groups. Subjects…

  10. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  11. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  12. "Dynamic Geodiversity" of glacial environments: new techniques for monitoring landscape variations on Alpine areas. Examples from the Gran Paradiso National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotto, Stefania; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Mortara, Giovanni; Baroni, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The importance of keeping memory of past morpho-climatic events is particular evident in recently deglaciated areas. The survival of glaciers is now very uncertain, due to climate changes and related effects occurring in the last decades. In the Western Alps, many glaciers are now extinct or show a dramatic reduction of area and thickness. Permafrost and periglacial areas are also responding promptly to climate changes as glaciers do, but they are not good "visual" indicators of climate changes, because they are not easily recognizable. Indeed, Italian glacial elements are constantly monitored by the Italian Glaciological Committe (CGI) in the last two centuries. The volunteers of CGI constantly monitor variations of glacier snout position of a great majority of Italian glaciers. CGI is not only a very important source of historical documentation and information, but also a very important scientific reference of the studies conducted in glacial areas. Particularly, thanks to CGI, it was created an inventory of Italian glaciers was created. Anyway, due to recent rapid changes, it is difficult to quickly update the inventory, also considering the difficulty of reaching alpine high mountain areas. The recent use of Geomatics in geological and geomorphological studies can be applied to evaluate landform changes in glacial and periglacial areas. The combination of remote sensing and on field techniques (i.e. aerial photogrammetry, GPS, Terrestrial photogrammetry, satellite images and LiDaR) provides constant monitoring of landform changes and updating inventories. The Gran Paradiso National Park (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Regions, Western Italian Alps) represents an excellent example of conservation of geodiversity. Many key-elements of the high mountain landscape are present here: glaciers, glacial cirques, rock glaciers, moraines (not only from Holocene, but also from Little Ice Age, of XVI-XIX centuries), steepled peaks, rock walls, roche moutonnée, ravines, debris

  13. Synergistic impacts of land-use change and soil property variation on non-point source nitrogen pollution in a freeze-thaw area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Guo, Bobo

    2013-07-01

    Quantifying the non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution response to the varied land-use and soil properties in highly agricultural regions is critical for the proper management of NPS pollution. This study simulated the NPS nitrogen loading responses to variations of land-use and soil from 1979 to 2009. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the NPS organic nitrogen and nitrate loading in a freeze-thaw area in northeast China. The temporal-spatial simulations of land-use in four periods indicated that the NPS nitrogen loading responded to the disappearance of wetlands and the conversion of uplands to paddy rice. After updating the soil data, the watershed NPS nitrogen loading decreased, and the spatial distribution of the loading indicated that the NPS organic nitrogen was more sensitive than was the nitrate to soil variation. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables in five types of scenarios. Overall, the results indicate that the watershed NPS nitrogen loading is sensitive to changes of soil and land-use, but soil changes have a more significant impact. The results of this study also suggest that temperature has significant effects on NPS nitrogen yield and that it caused the twin peaks in the temporal scale. Increasing the temperature above zero in April caused a temporal shift in soil water movement and transported nitrogen pollution earlier in the year, causing an increased loading in water before the summer irrigation, which is advantageous for NPS nitrogen pollution control.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.;

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...... not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross...

  15. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Elliot Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011) and post-impoundment (2012) periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35 microm mesh size and 0.25m2 mouth surface area) from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100 m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%), Chlorophyceae (43%), Cyanophyceae (48.6%) and Euglenophyceae (0.8%) were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%), Chlorophyceae (26.1%) and Cyanophyceae (71.7%) were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/M3) to August (106 cells/m3) in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1237 cels/m3) to August (4 cells/m3). The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (pstation than the downstream station indicating the impact of the impoundment on the downstream ecology. Hence, river management strategies should be implemented

  16. The Variations and Trends of MODIS C5 & C6 Products’ Errors in the Recent Decade over the Background and Urban Areas of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With ten-year (2004–2013 ground-based observations of Beijing Forest (BJF and Beijing City (BJC sites in North China, we validated the high-quality MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 5 (C5 and Collection 6 (C6 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products’ precision and discussed the sensors degradation issues. The annual mean AOD and Angstrom exponent (α were 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.83 ± 0.15 in the background over the past ten years, and they were 0.59 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.08 in the urban, respectively. Ground-based AOD had both slightly declining trends, with variations of 0.023 and 0.057 over the past decade in the background and urban, respectively. There were large differences among the eight kinds of MODIS AOD products (Terra vs. Aqua, C5 vs. C6, DT (Deep Target vs. DB (Deep Blue, and DTDB in the background and urban areas, but all the products’ monthly errors had larger variations in the spring and summer, and smaller ones in the autumn and winter. In the background, more than 62% of DT matchups for C5 and C6 products were within NASA’s expected error (EE envelope. In the urban, 69%~72% of C6 DB retrievals were falling within EE envelope. The new dataset named C6 DTDB had better performance in the background, whereas it overestimated by 37%~41% in the urban caused by surface reflectivity estimation error. The range of monthly average error varied from −0.21 to 0.28 in the background and from −0.63 to 0.48 in the urban. From the background to the urban areas, the retrieval errors of Terra and Aqua had slightly increased by 0.0023~0.0158 and 0.0011~0.0124 per year, respectively, which implied that the two MODIS instruments had degraded slowly.

  17. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  18. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population r

  19. The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: An ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Mahmood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC and gastric cancer (GC incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs. We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.

  20. Seasonal variation in size estimates of Aedes albopictus population based on standard mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area on Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier; Dumont, Yves; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the sterile insect technique for area-wide vector control requires that natural population density be accurately estimated to determine both the appropriate time to treat and the adequate number of sterile males for release. Herein, we used mark-release-recapture (MRR) to derive seasonal abundance estimates of Aedes albopictus population sizes within a delimited geographical area in Reunion Island. Population size of Ae. albopictus was estimated through four mark-release-recapture experiments carried out separately in different seasons. Marked males and females were released each time, and recaptured using BG sentinel traps for six consecutive days. Data were used to estimate the population size using a conceptual model that incorporates the variation in daily mortality rates. The likely influence of environmental factors on the magnitude of catches and on population fluctuation was analyzed. A total of 2827 mosquitoes (1914 males and 913 females) were marked and released on four occasions during dry and wet seasons. After release, 138 males (7.21%) and 86 females (9.41%) of the marked specimens were recaptured in subsequent samplings. The effectiveness of the daily captures of wild and released mosquitoes was significantly influenced by meteorological conditions such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and light intensity. The estimates of Ae. albopictus population size obtained with our model estimator ranged from 298 to 1238 males and 604 to 2208 females per ha, with seasonal variability - higher population size in the humid season. The presented results will be essential in designing more effective sterile male release strategies for long-term suppression of wild Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:25592432

  1. Geographical Variation of Climate Change Impact on Rice Yield in the Rice-Cropping Areas of Northeast China during 1980–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhuan Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China (NEC is one of China’s major rice production areas and has experienced obvious climate warming over the past three decades, similar to other mid- to high-latitude regions in the Northern Hemisphere. The present study investigates the temporal and spatial impacts of climate warming on rice yield in mid–high latitude regions. In this study, two time series datasets of rice yield and climate records in the NEC, including 178 county sites and 105 climate stations and covering the period from 1980 to 2008, were compiled. From these data, the responses of rice yield to the rice-growing season temperature (GST, growing degree days (GDD, and precipitation (GSP were estimated using a regression model. The results indicate that rice yield benefits from climate warming in the NEC. GST positively impacted rice yield in 64.6% of the counties, with an increase of approximately 3.65%; GDD positively impacted yield in 64% of the counties, an increase of approximately 3.2%; and GSP negatively impacted rice yield in 68% of the counties, with a decrease of approximately −2.3%. Spatial variation was observed in the climate-rice yield relationships. The statistical relationships of GST and GDD with rice yield were significantly and positively correlated with latitude, longitude, and altitude, while that of GSP and rice yield was significantly and negatively correlated with latitude and longitude and showed a nonsignificant positive correlation with altitude. In summary, climate warming has significantly increased rice yield over the last three decades in the region north of 42°N, east of 122.4°E, and at an elevation of 134–473 m, which covers the majority of the rice-growing areas in the NEC.

  2. Three-year Variations of Water, Energy and CO2 Fluxes of Cropland and Degraded Grassland Surfaces in a Semi-arid Area of Northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huizhi; TU Gang; FU Congbin; SHI Liqing

    2008-01-01

    Based on 3 years (2003-05) of the eddy covariance (EC) observations on degraded grassland and cropland surfaces in a semi-arid area of Tongyu (44°25'N, 122°52'E, 184 m a.s.l.), Northeast China, seasonal and annual variations of water, energy and CO2 fluxes have been investigated. The soil moisture in the thin soil layer (at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) clearly indicates the pronounced annual wet-dry cycle; the annual cycle is divided into the wet (growing season) and dry seasons (non-growing season). During the growing season (from May to September), the sensible and latent heat fluxes showed a linear dependence on the global solar radiation. However, in the non-growing season, the latent heat flux was always less than 50 W m-2, while the available energy was dissipated as sensible, rather than latent heat flux. During the growing season in 2003-05, the daily average sensible and latent heat fluxes were larger on the cropland surface than on the degraded grassland surface. The cropland ecosystem absorbed more CO2 than the degraded grassland ecosystem in the growing season in 2003-05. The total evapotranspiration on the cropland was more than the total precipitation, while the total evapotranspiration on the degraded grassland was almost the same as the total annual precipitation in the growing season. The soil moisture had a good correlation with the rainfall in the growing season. Precipitation in the growing season is an important factor on the water and carbon budget in the semi-arid area.

  3. Variations in pH caused by porous ceramic capsules in water sampling in non-saturated areas; Variaciones del pH inducidas por las capsulas de ceramica porosa en el muestreo de agua en la zona no saturada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre de la Sanchez, M. L.; Grande Gil, J. A.; Garrido Morillo, R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior La Rabida. Palos de La Frontera. Huelva (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    Porous ceramic capsules are a very useful tool for water sampling in non-saturated areas. However, several authors have found variations in pH in the water collected by such capsules. This paper compares the variation in pH distilled water and in different concentrations of saline solution. A large increase in pH was found due to the release process and subsequent precipitation of calcium ions from the ceramic. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT ON PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Kordić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.

  5. Characteristics of Variation of Soil Temperature in Shrub Meadow Area of Lhasa%拉萨灌丛草甸区土壤温度变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩玉玲; 王兆锋; 张镱锂; 冯永军

    2016-01-01

    Soil temperature is one important environmental factor affecting soil formation and plant growth,especially in the alpine environment. The studies on plateau soil temperature may help researchers understand how soil heat is conducted during the freezing and thawing process as well as how fragile the ecosystem of an alpine region is. However,so far the studies on soil temperature of alpine regions are not so helpful and instead affect proper characterization of the variation of soil temperature,because they are often conducted in fields different in vegetation,topography,latitude and longitude,etc. This study was laid out in a typical shrub meadow area of the Lhasa River Valley on a mountain slope uniform in natural conditions, including vegetation type,slope degree and aspect. The slope is covered dominantly with Rhododendron primuliflorum,making the total vegetation coverage up to 82%. The soil on the slope is of the type of sub-alpine shrub meadow soil,slightly acidic. Nine monitoring points were distributed over the slope from elevation of 4 000 m to 4 800 m with a gradient of 100 m;and in each point 2 temperature recorders(The Onset HOBO Company of USA;The type is U23-003;Operation range Internal sensors:-40 °C to 100 °C) were placed,each with 4 temperature sensors placed at the depth of 5,10,20and 30 cm,separately. Data were collected once an hour from October 5,2013 to September 15,2014. As the monitoring points at 4 000 m,4 400 m and 4 700 m were damaged owning to unknown causes,only the data collected from the points at 4 100,4 200,4 300,4 500,4 600 and 4 800 m were analyzed with the typical statistical method for characteristics of the variation of soil temperature with elevation and soil depth gradients. Results show that(1)in a year,the daily mean soil temperature within the 0~30 cm soil layer followed a cosine function curve,fluctuating within the range from -9.05 °C to 14.21 °C and averaging 2.94 °C;it rose at a rate of 0.11 °C d-1 and fell at a

  6. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  7. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variation in groundwater level and uranium concentration in Peddagattu and Seripalli area of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater caters the needs of most of the rural and urban population in developing countries like India. Being an integral part of the hydrological cycle, its availability depends on the rainfall and recharge conditions. This study was carried out with the objective of understanding the spatial and temporal variation in groundwater level and uranium concentration in a uranium mineralized zone in Peddagattu and Seripalli areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater samples were collected from forty five wells during March 2008 to January 2010 and they were analyzed for their uranium concentration using laser fluorimeter. Groundwater level in wells was recorded with the help water level indicator. The uranium concentration in the groundwater of this region ranges from 0.2 ppb to 118.4. About 20.61% of the groundwater samples had uranium concentration about the standards set by USEPA (30 ppb). The comparison between groundwater level and uranium concentration in groundwater shows that the uranium concentration increases with raise in groundwater table. (author)

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities and Air Pollution Exposure: a Global Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajat, Anjum; Hsia, Charlene; O'Neill, Marie S

    2015-12-01

    The existing reviews and meta-analyses addressing unequal exposure of environmental hazards on certain populations have focused on several environmental pollutants or on the siting of hazardous facilities. This review updates and contributes to the environmental inequality literature by focusing on ambient criteria air pollutants (including NOx), by evaluating studies related to inequality by socioeconomic status (as opposed to race/ethnicity) and by providing a more global perspective. Overall, most North American studies have shown that areas where low-socioeconomic-status (SES) communities dwell experience higher concentrations of criteria air pollutants, while European research has been mixed. Research from Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world has shown a general trend similar to that of North America, but research in these parts of the world is limited. PMID:26381684

  10. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  11. Socioeconomic data base report for the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published as a product of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. The objective of this program is to develop terminal waste storage facilities in deep, stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the Federal Government is responsible. The Socioeconomic Analysis Report for the Paradox Basin in Utah is part of the CRWM Program described above. This report presents baseline data on the demography, economics, community facilities, government and fiscal structure, and social structure characteristics in San Juan and Grand Counties, the socioeconomic study area. The technical criteria upon which a repository site(s) will be selected, evaluated, and licensed for high-level waste disposal will be partially based on the data in this report

  12. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

  13. Socioeconomic Indicators for Analyzing Convergence: The Case of Greece--1960-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Fotopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use socioeconomic indicators for analyzing convergence within Greece at regional (NUTS II) and prefecture levels (NUTS III) since 1960. We use two alternative approaches. The first one is based on the coefficient of variation and the second one on quality of life rankings. We confirm the decline of regional…

  14. Riding the Resource Roller Coaster: Understanding Socioeconomic Differences between Mining Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa J.

    2004-01-01

    Social science studies of mining communities suggest that the well-being of these company towns varies a great deal. Yet the literature has not thoroughly explained the sources of that variation, especially its potential relationship to the resource itself. In order to clarify our understanding of socioeconomic well-being, this paper likens the…

  15. Socioeconomic factors affecting tree species abundance and composition in Gondar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Maru Shete

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated if there is variation in the frequency of tree species maintained at household level, and the socioeconomic factors that can explain its variation. Data were collected from 156 randomly selected households in 2009 in Ambober village of Gondar district, Ethiopia. Farm visits and recording, observation, group discussion and interview were the methods used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using mean, independent samples test, one way analysis of variance, and multip...

  16. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models...... with high-stage disease who lived alone were less likely to receive first-line treatment. The socioeconomic difference in overall survival was partly explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity, although some differences remained after adjustment. Among patients with high-stage disease...

  17. Using socioeconomic evidence in clinical practice guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Rosemary; Kemp, Lynn; Williams, Jenny Stewart; Harris, Elizabeth; Simpson, Sarah; Wilson, Amanda; McGill, Katie; Byles, Julie; Lowe, Julia; Jackson, Terri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of socioeconomic position on health have been largely ignored in clinical guidelines. Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council has produced a framework to ensure that they are taken into account

  18. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  19. Socioeconomic trajectories affect mortality in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend;

    2011-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is associated with male infertility, hypogonadism, and learning disability. Morbidity and mortality are increased and the causes behind remain unknown. Is it the chromosome aberration or is it caused by postulated poorer socioeconomic status?......Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is associated with male infertility, hypogonadism, and learning disability. Morbidity and mortality are increased and the causes behind remain unknown. Is it the chromosome aberration or is it caused by postulated poorer socioeconomic status?...

  20. Investigation of correlation of the variations in land subsidence (detected by continuous GPS measurements and methodological data in the surrounding areas of Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moghtased-Azar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia, a salt lake in the north-west of Iran, plays a valuable role in the environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, but now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and is rapidly going to become barren desert. As a result, the increasing demands upon groundwater resources due to expanding metropolitan and agricultural areas are a serious challenge in the surrounding regions of Lake Urmia. The continuous GPS measurements around the lake illustrate significant subsidence rate between 2005 and 2009. The objective of this study was to detect and specify the non-linear correlation of land subsidence and temperature activities in the region from 2005 to 2009. For this purpose, the cross wavelet transform (XWT was carried out between the two types of time series, namely vertical components of GPS measurements and daily temperature time series. The significant common patterns are illustrated in the high period bands from 180–218 days band (~6–7 months from September 2007 to February 2009. Consequently, the satellite altimetry data confirmed that the maximum rate of linear trend of water variation in the lake from 2005 to 2009, is associated with time interval from September 2007 to February 2009. This event was detected by XWT as a critical interval to be holding the strong correlation between the land subsidence phenomena and surface temperature. Eventually the analysis can be used for modeling and prediction purposes and probably stave off the damage from subsidence phenomena.

  1. Spatial–temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10 in urban and rural areas of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m−3, pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011. Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October–March due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban–rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m−3 ≫ Pb (93.7 ≫ Cu (54.9 ≫ Ni (9.37 > V (8.34 ≫ Cd (2.84 > Co (1.76. Judging from concentrations (mg kg−1, enrichment factors (EFs, a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR, the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east

  2. Spatiotemporal variations and factors affecting soil nitrogen in the purple hilly area of Southwest China during the 1980s and the 2010s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiquan; Luo, Youlin; Wang, Changquan; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xin; Yuan, Dagang; Gao, Xuesong; Zhang, Hao

    2016-03-15

    Determination of soil nitrogen distributions and the factors affecting them is critical for nitrogen fertilizer management and prevention of nitrogen pollution. In this paper, the spatiotemporal variations of soil nitrogen and the relative importance of their affecting factors were analysed at a county scale in the purple hilly area of the mid-Sichuan Basin in Southwest China based on soil data collected in 1981 and 2012. Statistical results showed that soil total nitrogen (TN) increased from 0.88 g kg(-1) in 1981 to 1.12 g kg(-1) in 2012, whereas available nitrogen (AN) decreased from 84.22 mg kg(-1) to 74.35 mg kg(-1). In particular, AN showed a significant decrease in agricultural ecosystems but remained stable in woodland and grassland. Correspondingly, most of the study area exhibited increased TN content and decreased AN content in space. The nugget/sill ratios of TN and AN increased from 0.419 to 0.608 and from 0.733 to 0.790, whereas spatial correlation distances decreased from 12.00 km to 9.50 km and from 9.50 km to 9.00 km, respectively, suggesting that the spatial dependence of soil nitrogen became weaker and that the extrinsic factors played increasingly important roles in affecting the soil nitrogen distribution. Soil group and land use type were the two dominant factors in 1981, followed by topographic factors, vegetation coverage and parent material, whereas land use type became the most important factor in 2012, and the relative contribution of topographic factors declined markedly. The results suggested that land use related to cultivation management and fertilizer application was the decisive factor for soil nitrogen change. The increase in TN content and the decrease in AN content over the study period also suggested improper use of nitrogen fertilizer, which can result in nitrogen loss through increasing nitrification rates. Thus, effective measures should be taken to increase the uptake rate of nitrogen and prevent nitrogen pollution.

  3. Spatial-temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10) in urban and rural areas of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Ip, C. C. M.; Li, W.; Tao, S.; Li, X. D.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m-3), pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols) were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian) across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011). Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October-March) due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban-rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m-3) ≫ Pb (93.7) ≫ Cu (54.9) ≫ Ni (9.37) > V (8.34) ≫ Cd (2.84) > Co (1.76). Judging from concentrations (mg kg-1), enrichment factors (EFs), a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA), and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR), the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east. The

  4. The role of patient, tumour and system factors in socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer treatment: population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, L F; White, M.(Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia); Rubin, G; Adams, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reducing socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer treatment may reduce survival inequalities. However, the reasons for treatment variation are unclear. Methods: Northern and Yorkshire cancer registry, Hospital Episode Statistics and lung cancer audit data sets were linked. Logistic regression was used to explore the role of stage, histology, performance status and comorbidity in socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer treatment, for 28 733 lung cancer patients diagnosed in 2006...

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Delobel-Ayoub

    Full Text Available Study of the impact of socioeconomic status on autism spectrum disorders (ASD and severe intellectual disabilities (ID has yielded conflicting results. Recent European studies suggested that, unlike reports from the United States, low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of ASD. For intellectual disabilities, the links with socioeconomic status vary according to the severity. We wished to clarify the links between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of ASD (with or without ID and isolated severe ID.500 children with ASD and 245 children with severe ID (IQ <50 aged 8 years, born 1995 to 2004, were recruited from a French population-based registry. Inclusions were based on clinical diagnoses reported in medical records according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Socioeconomic status was measured by indicators available at block census level which characterize the population of the child's area of residence. Measures of deprivation, employment, occupation, education, immigration and family structure were used. Prevalences were compared between groups of census units defined by the tertiles of socioeconomic level in the general population.Prevalence of ASD with associated ID was higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation and the highest percentage of unemployed adults, persons with no diploma, immigrants and single-parent families. No association was found when using occupational class. Regarding ASD without associated ID, a higher prevalence was found in areas with the highest percentage of immigrants. No association was found for other socioeconomic indicators. The prevalence of isolated severe ID was likely to be higher in the most disadvantaged groups defined by all indicators.The prevalence of ASD with associated ID and of severe isolated ID is more likely to be higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation.

  6. Neighbourhood socioeconomic context and self reported health and smoking: A secondary analysis of data on seven cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many studies have shown that poor health status and harmful heolth behaviour occur more frequently in deprived neighbourhoods. Most studies show modest associations between area level socioeconomic factors, the neighbourhood context, and health outcomes. However, estimates for the context

  7. Socioeconomic influence on mathematical achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Graven, Mellony; Jurdak, Murad;

    2012-01-01

    The survey team worked in three areas: Literature review of published papers in international publications, particular approaches to the topic considering what in the literature seems to be neglected, and opening a discussion among researchers and teachers about how they understand this topic in ...

  8. Socioeconomic influence on mathematical achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Graven, Mellony; Jurdak, Murad;

    2015-01-01

    The survey team worked in two main areas: Literature review of published papers in international publications, and particular approaches to the topic considering what in the literature seems to be neglected. In this paper we offer a synoptic overview of the main points that the team finds relevan...

  9. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colman Peter G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD each local government area (LGA across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A, in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6 and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2. Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years. Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.

  10. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Sarkodie Yaw

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

  11. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  12. Growth parameters and density variation of a queen conch, Strombus gigas (Neotaenioglossa: Strombidae), population from Xel-Ha park, a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqueiro Cárdenas, Erick; Aldana Aranda, Dalila

    2014-03-01

    The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a gastropod of commercial importance in the Caribbean. Population studies are based on size frequency analysis, using either length or weight parameters for the whole live organism. This contribution used mark-recapture data to estimate the Von Bertalanffy equation parameters and population number variation within a non harvest population from a protected area, to clarify the biometric parameters that better suit for the whole population, or for the juvenile and adult fractions. Conchs from Xel-Ha Park were monthly sampled from November 2001 to August 2005. Every conch found was measured and marked with a numbered tag that identified month and locality; and monthly abundance was estimated with Jolly's method. Length, lip thickness and weight increments were used to estimate the Von Bertalanffy growth equation parameters with Appeldoorn's subroutine of FISAT program. The population number varied through the study, with a minimum of 49 in April 2003 and maximum of 9 848 during June 2005. Conchs make only temporary use of Xel-Ha cove. Shell length gave the best fit for the juvenile fraction: L(infinity)=251, K=0.3, C=0.8 Wp=0.3; and lip thickness for adults: L(infinity)=47.78, K=0.17, C=0.1, Wp=0.86, while, the whole population was better represented by weight: L(infinity)=3850, K=0.36, C=0.8, Wp=0.3. A maximum age of 19 years was estimated from the population. Natural mortality was 0.49/year for juveniles and 0.29/year for adults. There were two pulses of recruitment: fall-winter and summer. It is concluded that population studies from length frequency data, should be analyzed independently in two groups, shell for the juvenile fraction and lip thickness for the adult fraction, or if it is not possible to analyze the population fractions separately, weight should be used to avoid miss calculation of the age structure. PMID:24912342

  13. Characteristics of sediment concentration variations in offshore area south of the Oujiang Estuary%瓯江南口外浅滩含沙浓度特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蝶双; 李瑞杰; 丰青; 孔丛颖

    2013-01-01

    Based on the measured data of sediment in offshore area south of the Oujiang Estuary in Oct.2010,temporal and spatial variations of the sediment concentration were studied.A new sediment concentration formula was fitted by nonlinear least square method.Compared with the simple format of the Jiaju Liu formula ignoring the effect of wave,the applicability of the new formula was discussed.The results show that (1) sediment concentration decreases gradually from the south mouth of the Oujiang river to open sea.It is different during spring tide,middle tide and neap tide along the coastline; (2) sediment concentration increases gradually from surface to bottom in the vertical direction; (3) sediment concentration in spring tide is the highest,and higher in middle tide,and low in neap tide.It is higher in flood tide than that in ebb tide; (4) compared with the simple format of the Jiaju Liu formula ignoring the effect of wave,the fitting result of the new formula is highly related to the measured data of sediment concentration,and the relative error is small.%基于2010年10月瓯江南口外浅滩的泥沙实测资料,对含沙浓度的时空变化进行了分析研究.利用非线性最小二乘法拟合出了新的含沙量公式,并与刘家驹公式在不考虑波浪作用下的简式作比较,对新公式的适用性进行了探讨.分析结果表明:(1)含沙浓度从瓯江南口门向外海逐渐减小,沿岸方向的变化则存在大、中、小潮差异;(2)垂向上,含沙浓度由表层向底层逐渐增大;(3)含沙浓度具有大潮最大、中潮次之、小潮最小的特点,涨潮含沙浓度基本大于落潮含沙浓度;(4)与刘家驹公式相比,新公式的拟合结果与实测含沙量的相对误差较小,相关性较高.

  14. Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Koji; Valderrama, Anayansi; Gottdenker, Nicole; Cerezo, Lizbeth; MINAKAWA, NOBORU; Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E.; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected vector-borne zoonosis that persists despite increasing socio-economic development and urbanization in Panamá. Here, we investigate the association between environmental changes and spatio-temporal ACL transmission in the Republic of Panamá (1980–2012). We employ a macroecological approach, where patterns of variation in ACL incidence at the spatially coarse-grained scale of health areas are studied considering factors linked to the ecology...

  15. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  16. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centered on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strong the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behavior, i.e., how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by the network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behavior in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical repre...

  17. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  18. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  19. The impact of socioeconomic status on growth during infancy versus puberty in a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly A EI-Nofely; Sahar A El-Masry

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between socioeconomic status from one side and physi-cal growth and nutritional status from the other side, in infants versus adolescents in Egyptians. Methods: Three samples were investigated:a) A sample of 605 infants aged 6 months+1 week (287 girls and 318 boys). B) A sample of 992 infants of age 4-24 months (465 girls and 527 boys). C) A sample of 1864 chil-dren and adolescents aged 6-14 years of (744 girls and 1120 boys). All samples are from Big Cairo area of both urban and rural localities and of various socioeconomic strata. Body weight and length/height had been measured and body mass index (BMI) had been calculated for every subject. Assessment of the impact of pa-rental education level, locality and number of sibs, on growth and nutrition as indicated by BMI was attemp-ted. Results: a) Breastfed infants (6 months +1 week) grow bigger in low socioeconomic strata and in rural areas than artificially fed infants. The practice of breast feeding was more common and lasted longer in low so-cioeconomic stratum than in middle and high one. B) A significant positive association between body mass in-dex of infants (4-24 months) and the socioeconomic status (particularly level of father education reflecting family income) was proved. C) The socioeconomic factors had insignificant influence on BMI of school chil-dren aged 6~9 years, but it showed significant influence in the period 10~14 years. After the age of 9 years, children started the pubertal stage earlier and had higher BMI in the high socioeconomic strata as com-pared to those of low socioeconomic strata. D) In the low socioeconomic status, breast feeding compensates the deleterious influences of the environment on growth and physique of infants. Conclusion: children of educated parents have significantly low number of siblings'size in comparison to those of uneducated parents. Also chil-dren of educated parents are significantly more in number in urban areas than

  20. Determining town base socioeconomic indices to sensitize development in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban Population is increasing tremendously across the World with many cities struggling to reduce urban divides. Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan and a provincial capital confronted with challenge of urban divides. Socioeconomic inequalities engrossed the city and have become unrelenting in the wake of absence of an effective mechanism to ensure equity of services and development priorities. Consequently, state/cities resources are misdirected from the real and cogent use. Area based socio-economic indices help to classify areas which require for setting priorities and compatible uses. This paper highlights application of Principle Component Analysis to make socioeconomic indices (SESI) for towns of Lahore with outlined extension to union council level. (author)

  1. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  2. The socioeconomic consequences of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Wanscher, Benedikte; Frederiksen, Jette;

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has serious negative effects on health-, social-, and work-related issues for the patients and their families, thus causing significant socioeconomic burden. The objective of the study was to determine healthcare costs and indirect illness costs in MS patient in a national...

  3. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  4. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    observed in stillbirth, preterm birth, birthweight, congenital anomalies, and infant death. The patterns varied according to the health outcome and measure of socioeconomic position, but also according to the time period and the country under study. Our review also shows how many different strategies have...

  5. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on ...... to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine....

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…

  7. Complex Networks and Socioeconomic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendral, Juan A.; López, Luis; Mendes, Jose F.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2003-04-01

    The study and characterization of complex systems is a fruitful research area nowadays. Special attention has been paid recently to complex networks, where graph and network analysis plays an important role since they reduce a given system to a simpler problem. Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied. The effect on the efficiency caused by a change in a traditional hierarchical topology is also analyzed. In particular, by introducing the possibility of communication on the same level of the hierarchy.

  8. Perfil de risco: método multivariado de classificação sócio-econômica de microáreas urbanas - os setores censitários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Risk profile: multivariate cluster analysis of urban small areas based on socioeconomic indicators - census tracts from the Greater Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sá Carvalho

    1997-10-01

    lower income; (C poor; (D low schooling and income; (E low-level access to sanitation. The existing inequality in each of the geopolitical established areas was clearly identified. The proposed method allowed for the construction of compound indices to evaluate quality of life, based on widespread and easily obtained data (the census. Moreover, the method contributed to the detection of socioeconomic inequality, identifying, not only the larger poor regions but also the small excluded areas.

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  10. Analysis of Condition of Noise Environment and Its Variation Trend in Urban Area of NeHe City%讷河市城区声环境质量状况分析与变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces noise pollution in urban area of NeHe city, analyses the reason and variation trend and puts forward suggestions to improve the noise environment.%概述了讷河市城区噪声污染状况、发展趋势及产生原因,提出了改善城区声环境质量的建议。

  11. Projecting the Spatial and Socio-Economic Development of Large City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandas Anastasiia V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that managerial impact in the form of socio-economic projecting in the best way suits the task of integrated solutions to the problems of socio-economic development of a large city in the situation where it is supported by implementing differentiation of urban areas by the preparedness of city people to innovation in the social sphere, carried out by municipal administration. For social projecting in terms of a large city, distances within the level of well-being of social groups should be linked to the division of city on a territorial basis (into urban areas. It is displayed that socio-economic development of a large city can be achieved with a combination of programtarget approach to developing a strategy for such development together with the principles and technologies for socio-economic projecting. Optimization of administrative activity, based on the projecting socio-economic development of city, leads to a gradual increase in the volume and quality of social participation of city people in the implementation of city-wide strategic development programs.

  12. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2014-06-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

  13. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development

  14. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of urban heat island variation in Beijing city and surrounding areas and impact factors based on remote sensing satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jiahua; HOU; Yingyu; LI; Guicai; YAN; Hao; YANG; Lim

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land surface temperature (LST), the land cover classification map,vegetation coverage, and surface evapotranspiration derived from EOS-MODIS satellite data, and by the use of GIS spatial analytic technique and multivariate statistical analysis method, the urban heat island (UHI) spatial distribution of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities and its driving forces are studied in Beijing city and surrounding areas in 2001. The relationships among UHI distribution and landcover categories, topographic factor, vegetation greenness, and surface evapotranspiration are analyzed. The results indicate that: (i) The significant UHI occur in Beijing city areas in the four seasons due to high heat capacity and multi-reflection of compression building, as well as with special topographic features of its three sides surrounded by mountains,especially in the summer. The UHI spatial distribution is corresponding with the urban geometry structure profile. The LST difference is approximately 4-6℃ between Beijing city and suburb areas, comparatively is 8- 10℃ between Beijing city area and outer suburb area in northwestern regions. (ii) The UHI distribution and intensity in daytime are different from nighttime in Beijing city area, the nighttime UHI is obvious. However, in the daytime, the significant UHI mainly appears in the summer, the autumn takes second place, and the UHI in the winter and the spring seem not obvious. The surface evapotranspiration in suburb areas is larger than that in urban areas in the summer, and high latent heat exchange is evident, which leads to LST difference between city area and suburb area. (iii) The reflection of surface landcover categories is sensitive to the UHI, the correlation between vegetation greenness and UHI shows obviously negative.The scatterplot shows that there is the negative correlation between NDVI and LST (R2 = 0.6481).The results demonstrate that the vegetation greenness is an important factor for reducing the UHI

  15. Analysis of the variation of the compressibility index (Cc) of volcanic clays and its application to estimate subsidence in lacustrine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Freyre, D.; González-Hernández, M.; Martinez-Alfaro, D.; Solís-Valdéz, S.; Cerca, M.; Millán-Malo, B.; Gutiérrez-Calderón, R.; Centeno-Salas, F.

    2015-11-01

    An analysis of the deformation conditions of lacustrine materials deposited at three sites in the volcanic valley of the Mexico City is presented. Currently geotechnical studies assume that compressibility of granular materials decreases in depth due to the lithostatic load. That means that the deeper the sample the more rigid is supposed to be, this assumption should be demonstrated by a decreased Compression Index (Cc) in depth. Studies indicate that Mexico City clays exhibit brittle behaviour, and have high water content, low shear strength and variable Cc values. Furthermore, groundwater withdrawal below the city causes a differential decrease in pore pressure, which is related to the physical properties of granular materials (hydraulic conductivity, grain size distribution) and conditions of formation. Our results show that Cc for fine grain materials (lacustrine) can be vertically variable, particularly when soils and sediments are the product of different volcanic materials. Lateral and vertical variations in the distribution of the fluvio-lacustrine materials, especially in basins with recent volcanic activity, may be assessed by Cc index variations. These variations can also be related to differential deformation, nucleation and propagation of fractures and need to be considered when modelling land subsidence.

  16. Measuring VET Participation by Socioeconomic Status: An Examination of the Robustness of ABS SEIFA Measures over Time. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick; Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At every five-yearly census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) recalculates both the SEIFA (Socio-economic Indexes for Areas) indexes and also recalibrates the borders and sizes of the geographic areas from which these SEIFA measurements are derived. Further, over time, the composition of geographic areas may change, due to urban renewal…

  17. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  18. Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Usha; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an escalating problem in India and has major socioeconomic dimensions. Rapid dietary changes coupled with decreased levels of physical activity have resulted in increases in obesity and diabetes in rural and semi-urban areas, as well as in urban-based people living in resettlement colonies. Increasing risk has also been recorded in those who suffered from poor childhood nutrition and in rural-to-urban migrants. Social inequity manifests in disparities in socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, education, gender, and level of awareness and affects prevention, care, and management. All these population subsets have major socioeconomic challenges: low levels of awareness regarding diabetes and prevention, inadequate resources, insufficient allotment of healthcare budgets, and lack of medical reimbursement. Unawareness and delays in seeking medical help lead to complications, resulting in many-fold increased costs in diabetes care. These costs plunge individuals and households into a vicious cycle of further economic hardship, inadequate management, and premature mortality, resulting in more economic losses. At the societal level, these are massive losses to national productivity and the exchequer. Overall, there is an immediate need to strengthen the healthcare delivery system to generate awareness and for the prevention, early detection, cost-effective management, and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes, with a focus on people belonging to the lower SES and women (with a particular focus on nutrition before and during pregnancy). Because of an enhanced awareness campaign spearheaded through the National Program on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and Stroke (NCPCDS) initiated by Government of India, it is likely that the level of awareness and early detection of diabetes may increase.

  19. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  20. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth).

  1. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  2. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of technica

  3. Socioeconomic Status and the Allocation of Government Resources in Australia: How Well Do Geographic Measures Perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick; Gemici, Sinan; Rice, John; Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of area-based vs individual-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Design/methodology/approach: Using data from the longitudinal surveys of Australian youth (LSAY), a multidimensional measure of individual SES is created. This individual measure is used to benchmark the relative…

  4. Agriculture, resource management and institutions : a socioeconomic analysis of households in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfay Belay, Girmay

    2006-01-01

    Empirical investigation of the impact of institutional and socioeconomic factors on agricultural productivity and natural resource conditions is important for an informed evaluation of current policies, and to identify areas for future improvements. In this line, the current study addresses three to

  5. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  6. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  7. Seasonal variation in size estimates of Aedes albopictus population based on standard mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area on Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dehecq, J. S.; Fontenille, Didier; Dumont, Y.; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the sterile insect technique for area-wide vector control requires that natural population density be accurately estimated to determine both the appropriate time to treat and the adequate number of sterile males for release. Herein, we used mark-release-recapture (MRR) to derive seasonal abundance estimates of Aedes albopictus population sizes within a delimited geographical area in Reunion Island. Population size of Ae. albopictus was estimated through four mark-release...

  8. Padrão alimentar de idosos de diferentes estratos socioeconômicos residentes em localidade urbana da região sudeste, Brasil Eating patterns among the elderly of different socioeconomic groups resident in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Spinola Najas

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 283 idosos do sexo masculino e feminino pertencentes ao projeto multicêntrico "Identificação de Necessidades dos Idosos Residentes em Zona Urbana do Município de São Paulo", estratificados por nível socioeconômico em três regiões do Município de São Paulo, SP - Brasil. Utilizou-se o método de freqüência de alimentos para se obter o padrão alimentar do grupo analisado. Os resultados indicam que no grupo de alimentos energéticos, mais de 90% dos indivíduos das três regiões ingerem feculentos, arroz, pão e macarrão; porém, apenas o arroz e o pão são utilizados diariamente. Quanto ao grupo de alimentos protéicos, 70% ou mais dos idosos consomem feijão, carne de boi, aves, leite e ovos, entretanto, no consumo diário, existe uma diferenciação entre as regiões analisadas. Dos reguladores, mais de 85% dos indivíduos têm por hábito consumir frutas, verduras folhosas e legumes, mas, ao se avaliar o consumo diário, verifica-se que a prática é maior na região de melhor nível socioeconômico. As informações dietéticas mostram que os idosos analisados apresentam o mesmo padrão alimentar de outros grupos populacionais no tocante aos alimentos energéticos, porém, diferem quanto aos protéicos e reguladores.Two hundred and eight three male and female elderly subjects were studied. They participated in the Multicentric project: "Health assessment of elderly people living in the urban area of S.Paulo", Brazil, and were stratified by socio-economic level in three areas of S.Paulo city. The food frequency questionnaire was applied in order to discover their food pattern. The results show that for the energy-producing foods more than 90% of the total sample eat tubers, rice, bread and pasta; however, only the rice and bread are consumed daily. As for protein, 70% or more of the elderly people eta beans, beef, poultry, milk and eggs but for the daily consumption there are differences between the 3 regions

  9. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  10. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  11. Tempo-spatial Variation of Nutrient and Chlorophyll-α Concentrations From Summer to Winter in the Zhangzi Island Area (Northern Yellow Sea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jiehui; ZHAO Zengxia; ZHANG Guangtao; WANG Shiwei; WAN Aiyong

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations were investigated monthly along three transects extending from a mariculture area to open waters around the Zhangzi Island area from July to December 2009.The objective of this study is to illustrate food availability to the bottom-sowed scallop Patinopecten yessoensis under the influences of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM),freshwater input and feedbacks of cultivated scallops.Significant thermal stratification was present in open waters from July to October,and salinity decreased in July and August in surface layers in the mariculture area.Nutrient concentrations increased with depth in both areas in summer,but were similar through water column in November and December.On average,nutrient increased from summer to autumn in all components except ammonia.Nutrient concentrations lower than the minimum thresholds for phytoplankton growth were present only in upper layers in summer,but stoichiometric nitrogen limitation existed in the entire investigation period.Column-averaged Chl-a concentration was lower in open waters than in mariculture area in all months.It increased significantly in mariculture area in August and October,and was less variable in open waters.Our results show that nutrients limitation to phytoplankton growth is present mainly in upper layer in association with stratification caused by YSCWM in summer.Freshwater input and upwelling of nutrients accumulated in YSCWM can stimulate phytoplankton production in mariculture area.Farming activities may change stoichiometric nutrient ratios but have less influence on Chl-a concentration.

  12. Impact of climate variation and human activities on runoff in the source area of Bahe River basin%气候变化及人类活动对灞河源流区径流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王战平; 沈冰; 吕继强

    2012-01-01

    As one of the important water supply areas of Xian city, the Bahe river plays an important role in maintaining urban development and ecological health. In the past few decades,the decreasing runoff of the Baihe river basin associated with climate variation and human activities had caused a series of water and eco - environmental problems. The paper quantify the impacts of climate variation and human activities on stream runoff in the source area of the Bahe river, based on analysis of hydrologic changes of the upper Bahe river basin from 1966 to 1975 and from 1991 to 2000. It use tessellation polygon analysis, inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation method and rainfall - runoff modeling method to distinguish the effects of climate variation and human activities. The quantification results indicate that climate variations account for 45, 4% of decrease to the stream flow, while human activities account for 54. 6%. Therefore, human activities and climate variations play an equal impacts on the decline of the stream runoff in the source area of the Bahe river. Climate variations play a domain impact on the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation, which may cause more concentrated and stronger raining.%灞河是西安市主要水源地之一,对于改善城市生态环境和维持快速发展具有重要作用.近年来,气候变化和不断加强的水资源开发利用活动,已经引起生态环境问题.根据灞河流域1966-1975及1991-2000年6个观测站的降雨、径流资料,并结合ARCGIS流域地形及水系提取结果,定量分析了气候变化、人类活动对流域径流的影响.结果表明:灞河上游水资源开发利用强度不大,径流变化受人类活动影响比例54.6%,气候变化因素影响45.4%;气候变化对降水空间分布、年内变化影响较大,降雨分配年内和空间分布更加集中.

  13. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  14. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very

  15. Subjective socioeconomic status and health: relationships reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Weintraub, Miranda Ritterman; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-04-01

    Subjective status, an individual's perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  16. Complex networks analysis in socioeconomic models

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Luis M; Ausloos, Marcel; Carrete, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter aims at reviewing complex networks models and methods that were either developed for or applied to socioeconomic issues, and pertinent to the theme of New Economic Geography. After an introduction to the foundations of the field of complex networks, the present summary adds insights on the statistical mechanical approach, and on the most relevant computational aspects for the treatment of these systems. As the most frequently used model for interacting agent-based systems, a brief description of the statistical mechanics of the classical Ising model on regular lattices, together with recent extensions of the same model on small-world Watts-Strogatz and scale-free Albert-Barabasi complex networks is included. Other sections of the chapter are devoted to applications of complex networks to economics, finance, spreading of innovations, and regional trade and developments. The chapter also reviews results involving applications of complex networks to other relevant socioeconomic issues, including res...

  17. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Trohel

    Full Text Available Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status.The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter.A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need.In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3-37.8]. It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9-34.6], without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0-34.6] and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2-35.4]. It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02-1.44], income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92-2.12] and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26-1.86].These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level.

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  19. Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce

  20. Socioeconomic disparities in childhood cancer survival in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Rueegg, Corina S; Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Egger, Matthias; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated whether childhood cancer survival in Switzerland is influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), and if disparities vary by type of cancer and definition of SES (parental education, living condition, area-based SES). Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed 5-year cumulative mortality in all patients registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed 1991-2006 below 16 years. Information on SES was extracted from the Swiss census by probabilistic record linkage. The study included 1602 children (33% with leukemia, 20% with lymphoma, 22% with central nervous system (CNS) tumors); with an overall 5-year survival of 77% (95%CI 75-79%). Higher SES, particularly parents' education, was associated with a lower 5-year cumulative mortality. Results varied by type of cancer with no association for leukemia and particularly strong effects for CNS tumor patients, where mortality hazard ratios for the different SES indicators, comparing the highest with the lowest group, ranged from 0.48 (95%CI: 0.28-0.81) to 0.71 (95%CI: 0.44-1.15). We conclude that even in Switzerland with a high quality health care system and mandatory health insurance, socioeconomic differences in childhood cancer survival persist. Factors causing these survival differences have to be further explored, to facilitate universal access to optimal treatment and finally eliminate social inequalities in childhood cancer survival. PMID:26840758

  1. Socioeconomic value of orthopedic devices: evidence and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corinna Sorenson,1,2 Michael Drummond2,31LSE Health, London School of Economics, London, UK; 2European Health Technology Institute for Socioeconomic Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UKAbstract: With continued technological advances in orthopedic devices and increasingly limited health care resources, greater attention will be placed on substantiating the socioeconomic value of these devices. Therefore, this study focused on a systematic review of available economic evaluations of selected orthopedic devices (n = 33 studies to assess their impact on different clinical and economic outcomes. The existing evidence suggests that they have important benefits to patients, including reduced risk of fractures, increased mobility and functioning, and enhanced quality of life, and do so cost effectively or with cost savings. However, we have identified several methodological obstacles to sufficient ascertainment of value, such as a lack of robust information on health economic outcomes and long-term evidence. We also identify areas where additional research is needed to assess more fully the value of orthopedic devices.Keywords: medical devices, orthopedics, health economic evaluation

  2. Socioeconomic and institutional considerations for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal activities of the socio-economic program at the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation are discussed. The social and economic impacts of repository development are classified as standard (those which would be associated with any large mining project) and special (those which are unique to the construction and operation of a nuclear waste facility). These are discussed. Research is being conducted to identify possible impact mitigation strategies

  3. Socioeconomic correlates of mortality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Irfan; Alam, I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper disc;usses socioeconomic mortality differentials in Pakistan on the basis of data collected in 1979 from a nationally representative sample of over lO,OOO households in a survey carried out for the Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) project of Pakistan Institute of Development Economics/International Labour Organization. In addition to the questionnaire on fertility, three questionnaires - Income and Expenditure, Labour Force, and Migration - were administered to each ...

  4. Intergenerational and Socioeconomic Gradients of Child Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Costa-Fonta; Joan Gil

    2012-01-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are con...

  5. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    OpenAIRE

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general ...

  6. SOCIOECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF THE LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarkin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of the lithosphere and the biosphere with a view of socioeconomic activity by a human being has the most complete effect in the process of mineral resource utilization. It is typical of mining and metal production complexes (MMC of the Ural, which are basic for the regional economy. A research methodology related to anthropogenic transformation of environment caused by MMCs, including techniques, principles of construction, forms, means and approaches to the scientific knowledge has been developed.

  7. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-i-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are con...

  8. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  9. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  10. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiene Silva Normando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private preschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312 or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340 in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A high prevalence of malocclusion (81.44% was found in the sample. LSS females exhibited significantly lower prevalence (72.1% in comparison to HSS females (84.7%, particularly with regard to Class II (P < 0.0001, posterior crossbite (P = 0.006, increased overbite (P = 0.005 and overjet (P < 0.0001. Overall, malocclusion prevalence was similar between HSS and LSS male children (P = 0.36. Early loss of primary teeth was significantly more prevalent in the LSS group (20.9% in comparison to children in the HSS group (0.9%, for both males and females (P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic background influences the occurrence of malocclusion in the primary dentition. In the largest metropolitan area of the Amazon, one in every five LSS children has lost at least one primary tooth before the age of seven.

  11. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  12. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the number of insects and temperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Jun; Lu, Xiaowei; She, Jiangfeng; Guan, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m³ to 336.4 μg/m³. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions. PMID:27649227

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Jun; Lu, Xiaowei; She, Jiangfeng; Guan, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions. PMID:27649227

  16. When should Doppler-determined valve area be better than the Gorlin formula?: Variation in hydraulic constants in low flow states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, J; Lerner, D J; Miller, D C; Mitchell, R S; Alderman, E A; Popp, R L

    1987-06-01

    In low flow states, underestimation errors occur when the Gorlin formula is used to calculate valve area. A model of valvular stenosis designed to examine changes in the hydraulic discharge coefficient (Cd) and coefficient of orifice contraction (Cc) may explain these errors. Unsteady flow was examined in a pulsatile pump model and in a dog model. Valve areas were calculated from pressure and flow data using: a modified form of the Gorlin formula (assuming constant values for Cd and Cc) and a corrected formula (with values of Cd and Cc obtained from steady state data). Valve area was also calculated using the continuity equation with velocity and flow data (constant Cc). Flow velocities were measured using a newly designed ultrasound Doppler catheter capable of resolving flow velocities of up to 5.5 m/s. Both the corrected formula and continuity equation were highly predictive of actual valve area (r = 0.99, slope or M = 0.96 and r = 0.99, M = 1.06, respectively). The modified Gorlin equation was less accurate and tended to underestimate valve areas (r = 0.87, M = 0.83). This underestimation was most notable at low rates of flow (Gorlin: r = 0.94, M = 0.53; continuity: r = 0.93, M = 0.81 and r = 0.94, M = 0.89, respectively) more accurately than the modified Gorlin formula (r = 0.69, M = 0.49). In patients with low cardiac output, hemodynamic formulas, such as the Gorlin formula, which assume a constant value for the hydraulic discharge coefficient (Cd), may be less accurate than formulas using either a corrected value of Cd or Doppler-determined flow velocity and mean systolic flow. PMID:3294968

  17. Temporal-spatial Variations of Dynamic Source Parameters in the Capital Circle Region and Its Surrounding Areas before the 2006 Ms 5.1 Wen'an Earthquake in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuezhong; Li Yan'e; Guo Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Source spectra, corner frequency and zero frequency amplitudes in near-source conditions were measured using waveform data from 989 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ML2. 0 observed by the Beijing Digital Telemetry Seismic Network in the Capital Circle Region of China and its surrounding areas from January 2002 to June 2006 by the Brune model. Relevant formulas that were used for the calculation of dynamic source parameters include rupture radius, seismic moment, seismic energy, stress drop, and apparent stress. Scaling relations and characteristics of temporal-spatial variations of these dynamic parameters before the Ms5.1 Wen'an earthquake in Hebei Province that occurred on July 20, 2006 were analyzed. Results show that apparent stress, stress drop, and the ratio of seismic energy to the rupture radius had relatively high values in some areas before the Wen'an earthquake. These high-value concentration areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain seismic zone. As is seen from the time curves, parameters, such as apparent stress, stress drop, and ratio of seismic energy to rupture radius underwent significant ascending processes before the Wen'an earthquake, but the variation in the corner frequency showed a descending trend. This result might be related to the enhancement of stress in the North China Plain seismic zone before the earthquake.

  18. 青海湖地区生态系统服务价值变化分析%Quantitative Analysis of the Impacts of Climate and Socio-economic Driving Factors of Land Use Change on the Ecosystem Services Value in the Qinghai Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠梅; 张安录; 高泽兵; 卓玛措

    2012-01-01

    采用生态系统服务估值、Matlab7.0多元线性回归分析和敏感性分析等研究方法,定量分析了生态系统服务价值的变化及其与气候、GDP、个人储蓄、城市化水平等驱动因子之间的相关性和敏感性,以识别影响青海湖生态环境的主要影响因素,以期为该区域生态保护调控和管理提供依据。研究结果表明:①2000-2008年青海湖地区生态系统服务价值平均为119.226亿元,2008年比2000年下降3.98%;②2000-2008年生态系统服务价值变化与气温和社会经济发展因素存在显著的负相关,对气温、GDP和城镇化率的弹性系数分别为0.896、0.249和0.2988;③2000-2008年,生态系统服务价值变化对城市化率和气温具有很大的敏感性,敏感性系数分别为4.979和1.712。研究表明,青海湖地区的生态系统服务下降是气候暖干化和经济发展的综合作用结果。青海湖地区应该关注农牧民生计,实施生态补偿机制以实现可持续的生态保护战略。%By calculating the value of ecosystem services for wetland, grassland, forestland and farmland in the Qinghai Lake area from 2000 to 2008, presents a quantitative analysis of the sensitivity and the correlation between the changes of ecosystem services value and climate as well as socio-economic factors impacting land use changes including NPP(E), GDP, personal savings and urbanization level, and, by doing so, identifies the main factors and provides a basis for regulations and management of the protection of the Qinghai Lake ecosystems in order to achieve ecological and economic sustainable development for the region. The methods used include: a model for valuation of ecosystem services values, a multiple linear regression model in Matlab7.0, and the coef- ficient of sensitivity analysis. The results indicate: (1) From 2000 to 2008, the average ecosystem services value is 119.226 × 108 yuan, and the ecosystem services value decreases by 3.98%; (2

  19. Variabilidad en la utilización de antihipertensivos entre las zonas básicas de salud de la Comunidad Valenciana Variations in antihypertensive drug utilization among primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sanfélix-Gimeno

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar el consumo de cinco subgrupos terapéuticos empleados en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en las zonas básicas de salud (ZBS de la Comunidad Valenciana, y analizar sus variaciones. Métodos: Estudio ecológico, descriptivo, del consumo de antihipertensivos en las ZBS de la Comunidad Valenciana en el año 2005, seguido de análisis de la variabilidad observada. Se estudiaron las 239 ZBS existentes mediante un análisis descriptivo de consumo (dosis diarias definidas [DDD] por 1.000 habitantes y día en pensionistas [DDD/1.000p/día] o activos [DDD/1.000a/día] y razones estandarizadas de utilización. Para el análisis de la variabilidad se utilizaron los estadísticos del análisis de áreas pequeñas. También se analizaron las asociaciones entre el consumo de los diferentes subgrupos terapéuticos. Resultados: El consumo global de antihipertensivos en la Comunidad Valenciana en 2005 fue de 235,6 DDD/1.000/día. Este consumo se concentra en los pensionistas (800DDD/1.000p/día frente a 73 DDD/1000a/día. El consumo de fármacos antihipertensivos, por subgrupos terapéuticos, osciló entre 442DDD/1000p/día para los IECA/ARA-II y 32DDD/1.000p/día para la doxazosina. Para los activos se observó un comportamiento similar. La variabilidad en el consumo fue moderada, con coeficientes de variación entre 0,20 y 0,40 (algo mayor en los activos. Los consumos de los diferentes grupos terapéuticos correlacionaron fuertemente entre sí. Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra una notable variabilidad en el consumo global de antihipertensivos por ZBS en la Comunidad Valenciana, probablemente debida a un problema de infrautilización en las ZBS con bajo consumo.Objectives: To estimate consumption of five subgroups of antihypertensive drugs by primary care areas and to analyze its variation. Methods: We performed an ecological, descriptive study of antihypertensive consumption in 239 primary care areas in the autonomous region of

  20. “Real-world” precision, bias, and between-laboratory variation for surface area measurement of a titanium dioxide nanomaterial in powder form

    OpenAIRE

    Hackley, Vincent A.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate characterization of nanomaterial properties is a critical component of any nanotoxicology testing strategy. Data that describes the performance of various laboratories in measuring the characteristics of the same nanomaterial are scarce. We conducted an inter-laboratory study to evaluate “real-world” precision and bias of specific surface area measurements using a powered material containing sub-30 nm primary crystallites. Each participant was provided a sample of NIST Standard Refer...