WorldWideScience

Sample records for area socioeconomic status

  1. Do Relationships Between Environmental Attributes and Recreational Walking Vary According to Area-Level Socioeconomic Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Natasha J. Howard; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Daniel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1...

  2. A Review on Socioeconomic Status of Sichuan Frontier Areas in the Modern Writings of the Foreigners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In the 32nd year of the Guangxu period in the Qing dynasty ( 1906 ) , a position of“minister for managing frontier affairs” ( bianwu dachen) of Sichuan and Yunnan was set up .It was responsible for managing Dajianlu ting ( present day Kangding ) , that area belonging to all the tusi ( native officials) within the region , and the Kang district in Tibet.In 1912, the area was changed into jinglueshi of Sichuan Frontier .In 1914 , it was regarded as a Special District of the Sichuan Fron-tier, and in 1939, it was incorporated into Xikang province .Therefore , the “Sichuan Frontier” was an important “special district” in modern south-west China.This article, by relying on both Chi-nese and foreign documents , tries to explore the socioeconomic status of the Sichuan frontier in modern times as presented in the writings of the foreigners through the discussion four aspects: the tea trade, currency issue , Wula system of labor and socioeconomic life .

  3. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  4. Socio-economic Status of Women Influences of Domestic Violence:A Sociological Analysis at Urban Area in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rabi Ullah; Shahanaz Parvin

    2015-01-01

    From the early stages women are confined at some definite work, position and role which generally differ to men in society. Their status is seen as below than men in patriarchal social structure like Bangladesh. Today the situation is more or less remaining same to some extent in their family roles and responsibilities that causes to domestic violence. The article mainly focuses on the socio-economic status of women and different forms of domestic violence at urban area in Dhaka city. The stu...

  5. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strohmeyer Marianne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs in relation to household socioeconomic status for children in two small Amazonian urban communities of Peru; Yurimaguas, Department of Loreto and Moyobamba, Department of San Martin, Peru. Methods Cross-sectional study design included household interviews. Caregivers of 780 children aged 6–72 months in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers, and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self-reported symptoms were classified into illnesses based on the IMCI algorithm (Integrated Management of Childhood Ilness. Wealth was used as a proxy indicator for the economic status. Wealth values were generated by Principal Component Analysis using household assets and characteristics. Results Significantly more caregivers from the least poor stratum consulted health professionals for cough/cold (p Conclusion The poorest seek less care from health professionals for non-severe illnesses as well as for severe illnesses; and treatment with antibiotics is lacking for illnesses where it would be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.

  6. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  7. Socioeconomic status and the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G

    1994-02-01

    People from lower socioeconomic status are making increasing use of mental health facilities. Surveys have indicated that the Rorschach is still one of the more frequently used instruments by psychologists in such facilities, but research has also shown that clinicians tend to misinterpret Rorschachs of people from the lower socioeconomic group as reflecting greater psychopathology than the same Rorschachs identified as being given by people from the middle class. Research has also shown that growing up in conditions of poverty significantly affects how people perform on tests of abstract thinking, tests of intelligence, and tests of academic achievement; the question was raised as to whether this extends to the Rorschach. The lack of sufficient research on the effect of socioeconomic status on responsiveness to the Rorschach precluded that question being answered. The kind of research still needed was discussed. PMID:8153241

  8. Socioeconomic status, area remoteness, and survival from childhood leukemia: results from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros; Dessypris, Nick; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Skalkidis, Ilias; Baka, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Athanassiadou, Fani; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Frangandrea, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Petridou, Eleni T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present nationwide Greek study is to assess whether survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is modified by socioeconomic status (SES) and area remoteness. Detailed precoded information derived from a personal interview conducted by specially trained health personnel with the child guardians was available for 883 ALL and 111 AML incident childhood cases registered in the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies during the period 1996-2010. Parental socioprofessional category was recorded on the basis of ISCO68 and ISCO88 codes; the exact traveling distance between residence and the treating hospital was ad hoc calculated. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mutually adjusted associations between survival and potential predictors. Children from a lower parental socioprofessional category experienced 40% worse survival (P=0.02) independent of age, sex, and ALL subtype, whereas those whose parents were married had better outcomes (rate ratio: 0.47, P=0.01). Urbanization of residence at diagnosis or 'residence to treating hospital' distance was not nominally associated with survival from ALL. By contrast, no noteworthy associations implicating SES were found for AML survival, probably because of the burden of the disease and small numbers. Lower SES indicators and a single-parenthood family milieu seem to be independently associated with unfavorable outcomes from childhood ALL. Area remoteness might not be a significant outcome predictor during recent years, following considerable improvements in the motorway infrastructures and care delivery patterns. This study may provide a valuable snapshot capturing the impact of socioeconomic covariates before the burst of the Greek financial crisis. PMID:23238585

  9. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  10. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  11. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......-reported symptoms were classified into illnesses based on the IMCI algorithm (Integrated Management of Childhood Ilness). Wealth was used as a proxy indicator for the economic status. Wealth values were generated by Principal Component Analysis using household assets and characteristics. RESULTS: Significantly more...

  12. Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyaambo Cosmas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]. Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1] and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0] areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most

  13. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Structural Brain Development

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    Natalie H Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain.

  15. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Natalie H; Noble, Kimberly G

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain. PMID:25249931

  16. Racial disparities in individual breast cancer outcomes by hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status and healthcare resources

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Waterbor, John W.; Altekruse, Sean F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of area-level socio-economic status and healthcare access in addition to tumor hormone-receptor subtype on individual breast cancer stage, treatment, and mortality among Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic US adults. Analysis was based on 456,217 breast cancer patients in the SEER database from 2000 to 2010. Multilevel and multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to account for...

  17. Racial disparities in individual breast cancer outcomes by hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status and healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Waterbor, John W; Altekruse, Sean F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of area-level socio-economic status and healthcare access in addition to tumor hormone-receptor subtype on individual breast cancer stage, treatment, and mortality among Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic US adults. Analysis was based on 456,217 breast cancer patients in the SEER database from 2000 to 2010. Multilevel and multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to account for clustering by SEER registry of diagnosis. NH-Black women had greater area-level access to healthcare resources compared with women of other races. For instance, the average numbers of oncology hospitals per million population in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 8.1, 7.7, and 5.0 respectively; average numbers of medical doctors per million in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women were 100.7, 854.0, and 866.3 respectively; and average number of Ob/Gyn in counties with NH-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic women was 155.6, 127.4, and 127.3, respectively (all p values <0.001). Regardless, NH-Black women (HR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.36-1.43) and Hispanic women (HR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03-1.08) had significantly higher breast cancer mortality compared with NH-White women even after adjusting for hormone-receptor subtype, area-level socio-economic status, and area-level healthcare access. In addition, lower county-level socio-economic status and healthcare access measures were significantly and independently associated with stage at presentation, surgery, and radiation treatment as well as mortality after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and HR subtype. Although breast cancer HR subtype is a strong, important, and consistent predictor of breast cancer outcomes, we still observed significant and independent influences of area-level SES and HCA on breast cancer outcomes that deserve further study and may be critical to eliminating breast cancer outcome

  18. Socioeconomic Impacts of Protection Status on Residents of National Parks

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    Järv Henri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural population ageing and decline is a serious problem throughout Europe resulting in a deterioration of the socioeconomic situation in rural areas. This leads to land abandonment, and consequently the loss of valuable cultural landscapes. Protected areas are no exception and inhabitants also face restrictions arising from the protection status. The aim of this study is to identify the existence, extent and nature of the socioeconomic impacts derived from the protection status on the local population. Population and socioeconomic indicators were compared with the results of in-depth interviews with local stakeholders within 2 Estonian national parks and contextualised with recent social change. It was concluded that protected areas have a considerable socioeconomic impact and in order to preserve cultural landscapes, achieve conservation objectives and contribute to balanced regional development, measures must be taken.

  19. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

  20. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  1. Subjective socioeconomic status and health: relationships reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Weintraub, Miranda Ritterman; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-04-01

    Subjective status, an individual's perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  2. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    OpenAIRE

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general ...

  3. Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

  4. Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India.

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    S V Subramanian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous

  5. Association between Maternal Socio-economic Status, Polygamy and Risk of Pre-eclampsia in Rural Areas of Northern Nigeria

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    Abubakar Attahir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine association between maternal socio-cultural status, as indicated by maternal Income, education and polygamy with severity of pre–eclampsia.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Primary Health Centers in Katsina, Adamawa and Borno States. A total of two groups of subjects were selected for the study, with 50 Subjects in each group. Group A - pregnant non hypertensive women; Group B women with pre-eclampsia. Blood pressure was measured in a sitting position with sphygmomanometer after at least 10 minutes of rest. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to each respondent. P value≤ 0.05 was accepted as significant difference.  Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure BP was significantly different. (167.60±2.75 and 107.48±8.01 Vs. 116.70±0.98 and 76.80±8.67 in group B Vs. group A respectively, P<0.05.In Socio–cultural background significant correlation exists between pre–eclampsia and age at first marriage (P= 0.01. There also exists a correlation between age and number of marriages (P= 0.05. Age, parity, history of hypertension and number of marriages are negatively and significantly correlated with pre– eclampsia.Conclusion: This study found that seclusion and polygamy are not risk factors for developing pre-eclampsia.

  6. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Streichert Laura C; Rehm Colin D; Moudon Anne V; Hurvitz Philip M; Drewnowski Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  7. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age 44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications.

  8. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Zafer Kartaloglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a higher prevalence of smoking and respiratory infections in childhood. It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between lung function and SES. Childhood SES may influence pulmonary function in adulthood. Pulmonary functions decline earlier and faster for individual with lower childhood SES. It was reported that hospital admission rates for COPD in low SES group were higher than in the high SES group. There was not adequate data about relationship between SES and COPD in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 87-96

  10. THE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF THE ELDERLY

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    Olga GAGAUZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of the study is to extend knowledge on the key issues facing older people. The purpose of the research is to establish the socio-economic position of the elderly, level of respect of their rights in various areas and their vulnerability. The study methodology includes a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. First, by using the method of social survey based on questionnaire on two target-groups samples (one for people aged 60 and over (1096 respondents and another for employable people aged 20-55 (500 respondents. Second, by conducting individual 10 in-depth interviews with experts and three focus group with elderly (aged 60 and over that live in their own household/housing (38 elderly. The study allowed identifying the main problems faced by older people in various social areas, to identify cases of discrimination, as well as to develop a series of recommendations to improve the situation.

  11. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    OpenAIRE

    van de Mheen, Dike; Stronks, Karien; Looman, Caspar; Mackenbach, Johan

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands (13 854 respondents, aged between 25 and 74). Childhood socioeconomic group was indicated by occupation of the father, and adult health was ind...

  12. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European count

  13. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  14. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Da

  15. Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang En Wee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods: The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES and rental flats (low SES in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as Results: Participation was 61.4% (558/909. Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397 of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161 of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = –1.41, SD = 0.58, p Conclusion: Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.

  16. Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences.

  17. Social Capital, Socioeconomic Status and Self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Han; Xiaoyuan Chu; Huicun Song; Yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    This study internalized social capital on the basis of traditional study of the influence of economic factors on self-efficacy, and studied the relationship among the family socio-economic status, social capital and self-efficacy. Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, the paper studied the intermediate effect of social capital in the relationship between the socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. We draw on the following conc...

  18. Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Hastie, Nicholas D; Wright, Alan F; Porteous, David J; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-05-01

    Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.

  19. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  20. Socioeconomic Status During Lifetime and Cognitive Impairment No-Dementia in Late Life: The Population-Based Aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the In Chianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics, occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders. Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2) was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI =1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates, high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up. PMID:21297261

  1. Effect of lifestyle, education and socioeconomic status on periodontal health

    OpenAIRE

    Rupasree Gundala; Chava, Vijay K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-se...

  2. Television viewing and other screen-based entertainment in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators and area deprivation: The Scottish Health Survey 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Mishra, Gita; Hamer, Mark; Marmot, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sedentary behaviour (sitting) is detrimental to health, independently of participation in physical activity. Socioeconomic position (SEP) is known to relate strongly to physical activity participation but we know very little about how SEP relates to sedentary behaviour. This study aimed to assess the relationships between SEP, neighbourhood deprivation and an index of sedentary time. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 79...

  3. Intergenerational mobility of socio-economic status in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Björklund; Markus Jäntti

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews three strands of literature on socio-economic intergenerational mobility. The first is a mostly recent and rapidly growing economics literature that measures mobility in labour earnings and income. This approach is compared with two classical sociological approaches that measure the mobility in class and status. The United States seems to rank quite high in terms of class and status mobility, but low in terms of earnings and income mobility. This seemingly contradictory res...

  4. Socioeconomic status in relation to BMI in Macedonian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bojadzieva, Biljana; Nakeva, Natasa; Zafirova, Biljana; Matveeva, Niki; Chadikovska, Elizabeta; Jovevska, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status in Macedonian high school students in relation to their socioeconomic status (SES), education and employment of their parents. In this study 117 adolescent students (48 males and 69 females) at the age of 17 and 18 were included. We measured weight and height using standard procedures while BMI was calculated. The examinees completed the questionnaire including data for SES, parents’ education and employment. Male ...

  5. Supermarket Speak: Increasing Talk among Low-Socioeconomic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Katherine E.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Ilgaz, Hande; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn A.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2015-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families often fall behind their middle-class peers in early language development. But interventions designed to support their language skills are often costly and labor-intensive. This study implements an inexpensive and subtle language intervention aimed at sparking parent-child interaction in a place…

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Elementary Students in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorvey-Watson, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which added accountability to President Lyndon Johnson's original Title I legislation of 1964. Specifically, it required that all children in Grades 3-8, by school year 2014, regardless of socioeconomic status, perform at or above grade level requirements in…

  7. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien Hagedoorn

    Full Text Available Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in lung cancer mortality.

  8. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  9. Immunization Status of School Children of Indore Hailing from Different Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri inamdar, Saurabh Piparsania, Savita inamdar Kuldeep Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the immunization coverage has increased over the past few years, school age is still a neglected area and accounts for high number of unimmunized children in developing world including India. Objective: This study has been undertaken to determine the immunization status of school children in an urban locality of Indore, a district of central India; and to determine if parental socioeconomic status affect immunization coverage. Material and methods: The study was school based cross-sectional, conducted in 50 schools of Indore district selected by random sampling. Children were between the ages of 5-16 years. Information was collected from parents by providing pre-tested proforma to the students. Result: Only 54.3% of children included in the survey were fully immunized as UIP schedule, while the percentage of partially immunized and unimmunized children was 42.1 and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of vaccination was significantly proportionate to higher socioeconomic status (p –value <0.0001.

  10. Socioeconomic Status and the Allocation of Government Resources in Australia: How Well Do Geographic Measures Perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick; Gemici, Sinan; Rice, John; Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of area-based vs individual-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Design/methodology/approach: Using data from the longitudinal surveys of Australian youth (LSAY), a multidimensional measure of individual SES is created. This individual measure is used to benchmark the relative…

  11. Predictors of Sociometric Status for Low Socioeconomic Status Elementary Mainstreamed Students with and without Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydik, Berrin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the sociometric status of low socioeconomic status elementary school students with and without special needs and investigate the effects of different variables (gender, age, physical appearance, social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence) on students' sociometric status. Elementary…

  12. How does socio-economic status shape a child's personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...

  13. Subjective Socioeconomic Status in Daily Cognitive Functioning and Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to investigate to what extent objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) provide unique information regarding the impact of SES on cognitive aging trajectories, as well as daily individual variability and plasticity in cognitive functioning. For Study 1, two large samples were drawn from publically available data in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine cross-sectional performance on episodic memory and fluid reasoning tasks, and...

  14. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-01-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnic...

  15. The impact of socioeconomic status on growth during infancy versus puberty in a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly A EI-Nofely; Sahar A El-Masry

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between socioeconomic status from one side and physi-cal growth and nutritional status from the other side, in infants versus adolescents in Egyptians. Methods: Three samples were investigated:a) A sample of 605 infants aged 6 months+1 week (287 girls and 318 boys). B) A sample of 992 infants of age 4-24 months (465 girls and 527 boys). C) A sample of 1864 chil-dren and adolescents aged 6-14 years of (744 girls and 1120 boys). All samples are from Big Cairo area of both urban and rural localities and of various socioeconomic strata. Body weight and length/height had been measured and body mass index (BMI) had been calculated for every subject. Assessment of the impact of pa-rental education level, locality and number of sibs, on growth and nutrition as indicated by BMI was attemp-ted. Results: a) Breastfed infants (6 months +1 week) grow bigger in low socioeconomic strata and in rural areas than artificially fed infants. The practice of breast feeding was more common and lasted longer in low so-cioeconomic stratum than in middle and high one. B) A significant positive association between body mass in-dex of infants (4-24 months) and the socioeconomic status (particularly level of father education reflecting family income) was proved. C) The socioeconomic factors had insignificant influence on BMI of school chil-dren aged 6~9 years, but it showed significant influence in the period 10~14 years. After the age of 9 years, children started the pubertal stage earlier and had higher BMI in the high socioeconomic strata as com-pared to those of low socioeconomic strata. D) In the low socioeconomic status, breast feeding compensates the deleterious influences of the environment on growth and physique of infants. Conclusion: children of educated parents have significantly low number of siblings'size in comparison to those of uneducated parents. Also chil-dren of educated parents are significantly more in number in urban areas than

  16. Socioeconomic status and bullying: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) could be used to identify which schools or children are at greatest risk of bullying, which can adversely affect children's health and life. We conducted a review of published literature on school bullying and SES. We identified 28 studies that reported an association between roles in school bullying (victim, bully, and bully-victim) and measures of SES. Random effects models showed SES was weakly related to bullying roles. Adjusting for publication bias, victims (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.58) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from low socioeconomic households. Bullies (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) and victims (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.97) were slightly less likely to come from high socioeconomic backgrounds. SES provides little guidance for targeted intervention, and all schools and children, not just those with more socioeconomic deprivation, should be targeted to reduce the adverse effects of bullying. PMID:24825231

  17. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans. PMID:27413687

  18. Socioeconomic status and health in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali

    2009-06-01

    There is growing interest in the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health. Individual SES has been shown to be closely related to mortality, morbidity, health-related behavior and access to health care services in Western countries. Whether the same set of social determinants accounts for higher rates of mortality or morbidity in Japan is questionable, because over the past decade the magnitude of the social stratification within the society has increased due to economic and social circumstances. SES must be interpreted within the economic, social, demographic and cultural contexts of a specific country. In this report we discuss the impact of individuals' socioeconomic position on health in Japan with regard to educational attainment, occupational gradient/class, income level, and unemployment. This review is based mainly on papers indexed in Medline/PubMed between 1990 and 2007. We find that socioeconomic differences in mortality, morbidity and risk factors are not uniformly small in Japan. The majority of papers investigate the relationship between education, occupational class and health, but low income and unemployment are not examined sufficiently in Japan. The results also indicate that different socioeconomic contexts and inequality contribute to the mortality, morbidity, and biological and behavioral risk factors in Japan, although the pattern and direction of the relationships may not necessarily be the same in terms of size, pattern, distribution, magnitude and impact as in Western countries. In particular, the association between higher occupational status and lower mortality, as well as higher educational attainment and either mortality or morbidity, is not as strongly expressed among the Japanese. Japan is still one of the healthiest and most egalitarian nations in the world, and social inequalities within the population are less expressed. However, the magnitude of the social stratification has started to increase, and this is an alarming

  19. Cooperation of Preschool Teachers and Parents – The Differences in Environments with Different Socio-Economics Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Janžekovič Žmauc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool education is not possible without the cooperation of the parents, because it represents a complement to family education. Socio-economic status of parents is one of the factors that affect the cooperation of preschool teachers and parents. The empirical study checked whether there are differences in the types and frequency of participation of preschool teachers and parents in the areas of two Slovenian statistical regions that differ in the socio-economic status. We found that preschool teachers in the environment with lower socio-economic status more often cooperate with parents in some formal and informal modes of cooperation than they do in the environment with higher socio-economic status.

  20. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Late Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Andrea L; Flatt, Jason D; Carlson, Michelle C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rosano, Caterina; Brown, Arleen F; Matthews, Karen A; Gianaros, Peter J

    2016-06-15

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive function, independently of individual demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. However, research has been largely cross-sectional, and mechanisms of the association are unknown. In 1992-1993, Cardiovascular Health Study participants (n = 3,595; mean age = 74.8 years; 15.7% black) underwent cognitive testing and magnetic resonance imaging of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and their addresses were geocoded. NSES was calculated using 1990 US Census data (block groups; 6 measures of wealth, education, and occupation). The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) was used to assess general cognition, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess speed of processing annually for 6 years. Associations of race-specific NSES tertiles with 3MS, DSST, and WMH were estimated using linear mixed-effects models accounting for geographic clustering, stratified by race, and adjusted for demographic, health, and individual socioeconomic status (education, income, lifetime occupational status) variables. In fully adjusted models, higher NSES was associated with higher 3MS scores in blacks (mean difference between highest and lowest NSES = 2.4 points; P = 0.004) and whites (mean difference = 0.7 points; P = 0.02) at baseline but not with changes in 3MS over time. NSES was marginally associated with DSST and was not associated with WMH. Adjustment for WMH did not attenuate NSES-3MS associations. Associations of NSES with cognition in late adulthood differ by race, are not explained by WMH, and are evident only at baseline. PMID:27257114

  1. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiene Silva Normando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private preschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312 or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340 in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A high prevalence of malocclusion (81.44% was found in the sample. LSS females exhibited significantly lower prevalence (72.1% in comparison to HSS females (84.7%, particularly with regard to Class II (P < 0.0001, posterior crossbite (P = 0.006, increased overbite (P = 0.005 and overjet (P < 0.0001. Overall, malocclusion prevalence was similar between HSS and LSS male children (P = 0.36. Early loss of primary teeth was significantly more prevalent in the LSS group (20.9% in comparison to children in the HSS group (0.9%, for both males and females (P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic background influences the occurrence of malocclusion in the primary dentition. In the largest metropolitan area of the Amazon, one in every five LSS children has lost at least one primary tooth before the age of seven.

  2. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Carlos AB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.

  3. REVISED SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE FOR URBAN AND RURAL INDIA – REVISION FOR 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Raj M.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of any country depends on the socio economic status (SES and the per capita income of the citizens of that country. The SES also decides the affordability and utilization of the health facilities. Socioeconomic status (SES refers to an individual’s position within a hierarchical social structure, which is one of the important determinants of health status. Composite scales are generally used to measure the SES, which has a combination of social and economic variables. Several studies namely hospital and community based require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. This reflects the affordability of health services, necessities and purchasing power of the same. Several methods or scales have been proposed for classifying different populations by socioeconomic status: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. Kuppuswamy classification is used in urban and peri urban areas which consider the education of the head of family, occupation of head of the family and per capita monthly income. Uday Pareekh classification is used for rural areas which takes into account following characteristics namely caste, occupation of family head, education of family head, and level of social participation of family head, landholding, housing, farm power, material possessions and type of family. B.G Prasad’s classification, Standard of living index and poverty line assessment are used in both urban and rural areas. Standard of living indices(SLI is based on following items- type of house, own/ rented house, possession of agricultural land, irrigated land, possession of live stalk, separate kitchen, fuel used for cooking, source of lighting, source of drinking water, type of toilet, items owned by the family e.g. cooker, TV, telephone. Measurement of poverty line is based on the following Scoreable Socio

  4. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  5. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  6. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  7. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  8. Relation between Socioeconomic Status of Parents and Health of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Zulkifle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.

  9. Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

  10. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  11. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  12. Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Status Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Thakkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years.Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors.The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell us

  13. Accounting For Patients' Socioeconomic Status Does Not Change Hospital Readmission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Susannah M; Parzynski, Craig S; Horwitz, Leora; Lin, Zhenqiu; Araas, Michael J; Ross, Joseph S; Drye, Elizabeth E; Suter, Lisa G; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-08-01

    There is an active public debate about whether patients' socioeconomic status should be included in the readmission measures used to determine penalties in Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). Using the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services methodology, we compared risk-standardized readmission rates for hospitals caring for high and low proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status (as defined by their Medicaid status or neighborhood income). We then calculated risk-standardized readmission rates after additionally adjusting for patients' socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that hospitals caring for large proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status have readmission rates similar to those of other hospitals. Moreover, readmission rates calculated with and without adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status are highly correlated. Readmission rates of hospitals caring for patients of low socioeconomic status changed by approximately 0.1 percent with adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status, and only 3-4 percent fewer such hospitals reached the threshold for payment penalty in Medicare's HRRP. Overall, adjustment for socioeconomic status does not change hospital results in meaningful ways.

  14. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity. PMID:20660151

  15. Geographical associations between radon and cancer: is domestic radon level a marker of socioeconomic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, S.P. (University College, London (United Kingdom). Toxicology Lab. Middlesex School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)); Stern, G.

    1991-12-01

    Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author).

  16. Implications of Socioeconomic Status on Academic Competence: A Perspective for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, Luis F.; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Bueno, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of academic achievement. This theoretical paper proposes that despite the fact that low-socioeconomic status represents a risk factor that seems to undermine attentional skills and thus academic achievement, emerging evidence suggests the potential of new approaches, interventions and…

  17. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Elementary Student Achievement in Rural South Texas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…

  18. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Risk of Obesity, and the Importance of Albert J. Stunkard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Gregory; Lewis, Dwight W; Locher, Julie; Allison, David B

    2016-03-01

    Albert J. Stunkard's influential career in obesity research spanned over 50 years and included several landmark studies on social factors related to obesity. This review discusses the important contributions Stunkard made to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status socioeconomic status and obesity, extensions of his work, and reflects on Stunkard's role in the mentoring of succeeding generations of scientists. PMID:26746415

  20. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike;

    2013-01-01

    parishes. Results were compared with the Townsend index and a possible modifying effect of population density was investigated. Sensitivity of the index was investigated with multilevel survival analyses evaluating the association between all-cause mortality and DANDEX, the Townsend Index, individual...... of socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation). A clear gradient in standardised mortality ratios was seen across quintiles of both index components. Modifying effects were seen when stratifying the index components by population density. In a frailty model, DANDEX accounted for 76% of the between...

  1. Variations in the Availability and Quality of Early Childhood Education and Care by Socioeconomic Status of Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, Dan; Cleveland, Gordon; Hattie, John; Tayler, Collette

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This article provides Australian evidence of the availability and quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in low-socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods. There is less availability of ECEC in low-SES areas in Australia, and these programs provide a lower average quality of care than in more advantaged…

  2. Pediatric Pulmonologists' Perceptions of Family Socioeconomic Status in Asthma Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Gordon, Brian J; Jennings, Jacky M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Adler, Nancy E; Okelo, Sande O

    2014-09-01

    Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=-0.60, punconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness. PMID:25276485

  3. Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-07-01

    Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27196418

  4. The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Pour Afkari

    2013-02-01

    Scodel, A. & Freedman, M. L. , (1956 ”Additional Observation on the Social Perceptions of Authoritarians and Nonauthoritarians ”. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, Vol. 52(1, PP. 92-95. Scodel, A. & Mussen, P. (1953 “Social perceptions of authoritarians and nonauthoritarians. ” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, vol. 48(2, PP. 181-184. Shek,D. T. L (2006. Assessment of perceived parental psychological control in chinese adolescents in hongkong. ” Research on social work practice, V. 16, N. 383. Simons, H. W. (1966”Authoritarianism and social Perceptiveness. Journal of Social Psychology. ” vol. 68, PP (2. 291-297. Sonnak, Carina; Towell, Tony (2000. "the impostor phenomenon in british university students: relationship between self esteem, mental health, parental rearing style and socioeconomic status. Personality and individual difference, 31, 863-874. Srole, L. (1956. Social integration and certain corollaries: an exploratory study. American Sociological Review, 21(6, 709- 716. Teevan Jr, J. J. (1975. On measuring anomia: Suggested modification of the Srole scale. The Pacific Sociological Review, 18(2, 159-170. Wright, James D. (1972” The Working Class, Authoritarianism, and the War in Vietnam. ” Social Problems, Vol. 20, No. 2 , pp. 133-150. Xiao, Hong. 2000. "Class, Gender, and Parental Values in the 1990s". Gender & Society 14(6:785-803

  5. A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town

    OpenAIRE

    SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

    2012-01-01

    Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and obse...

  6. The role of socioeconomic status in longitudinal trends of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ(01) = -0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α(01) = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high

  7. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Miller

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was

  8. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for

  9. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    OpenAIRE

    Eimear Keane; Richard Layte; Janas Harrington; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) o...

  10. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Patricia M Kearney; Perry, Ivan J

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of ...

  11. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

  12. Evaluation of the Interactionist Model of Socioeconomic Status and Problem Behavior: A Developmental Cascade across Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Dogan, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith F.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current multigenerational study evaluates the utility of the Interactionist Model of Socioeconomic Influence on human development (IMSI) in explaining problem behaviors across generations. The IMSI proposes that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and human development involves a dynamic interplay that includes both social causation (SES influences human development) and social selection (individual characteristics affect SES). As part of the developmental cascade proposed ...

  13. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  14. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents: The mediating role of self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S.A.; Dijk, J.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of socioeconomic status and the self-esteem of adolescents with physical activity, and their joint effects. Methods: A sample of 3694 elementary-school students from ...

  15. Socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity in an adult chinese population in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Sabanayagam, C; A Shankar; Wong, T. Y.; Saw, S. M.; Foster, P J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from industrialized Western countries have reported an inverse association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity. In contrast, few studies from newly industrialized countries in Asia have examined this association. In this context, we examined the association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity by gender in Chinese adults in Singapore.METHODS: A population-based cross sectional study of 942 participants (57.3% women, 40-81 years) residing in t...

  16. Dimensions of socioeconomic status and clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Thorsgaard, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood.......The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood....

  17. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  18. Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Sastry, Narayan; Vanlandingham, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans on the 29th of August 2005 and displaced virtually the entire population of the city. Soon after, observers predicted the city would become whiter and wealthier as a result of selective return migration, although challenges related to sampling and data collection in a post-disaster environment have hampered evaluation of these hypotheses. In this article, we investigate return to the city by displaced residents over a period of approximately 14 months following the storm, describing overall return rates and examining differences in return rates by race and socioeconomic status. We use unique data from a representative sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans residents collected in the Displaced New Orleans Residents Pilot Survey. We find that black residents returned to the city at a much slower pace than white residents even after controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics. However, the racial disparity disappears after controlling for housing damage. We conclude that blacks tended to live in areas that experienced greater flooding and hence suffered more severe housing damage which, in turn, led to their delayed return to the city. The full-scale survey of displaced residents being fielded in 2009-2010 will show whether the repopulation of the city was selective over a longer period.

  19. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976....... Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...... by age. A total of 219 females and 265 males were admitted to hospital for COPD during follow-up. Education and income were significantly associated with admission to hospital. After detailed adjustment for smoking the relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for medium and high versus low socioeconomic...

  20. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  1. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income, physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites, human (e.g., education, and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism

  2. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  3. Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, problem drinking, and socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Oers (Johannes Anna Maria); I.M.B. Bongers (Inge); L.A. van de Goor; H.F.L. Garretsen (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn general, a lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to a lower health status, more health problems, and a shorter life expectancy. Although causal relations between SES and health are unclear, lifestyle factors play an intermediate role. The purpose of

  4. Using Principal Component Analysis to Identify Priority Neighbourhoods for Health Services Delivery by Ranking Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christine Elizabeth; Seliske, Patrick; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a comprehensive indicator of health status and is useful in area-level health research and informing public health resource allocation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool for developing SES indices to identify area-level disparities in SES within communities. While SES research in Canada has relied on census data, the voluntary nature of the 2011 National Household Survey challenges the validity of its data, especially income variables. This study sought to determine the appropriateness of replacing census income information with tax filer data in neighbourhood SES index development. Methods. Census and taxfiler data for Guelph, Ontario were retrieved for the years 2005, 2006, and 2011. Data were extracted for eleven income and non-income SES variables. PCA was employed to identify significant principal components from each dataset and weights of each contributing variable. Variable-specific factor scores were applied to standardized census and taxfiler data values to produce SES scores. Results. The substitution of taxfiler income variables for census income variables yielded SES score distributions and neighbourhood SES classifications that were similar to SES scores calculated using entirely census variables. Combining taxfiler income variables with census non-income variables also produced clearer SES level distinctions. Internal validation procedures indicated that utilizing multiple principal components produced clearer SES level distinctions than using only the first principal component. Conclusion. Identifying socioeconomic disparities between neighbourhoods is an important step in assessing the level of disadvantage of communities. The ability to replace census income information with taxfiler data to develop SES indices expands the versatility of public health research and planning in Canada, as more data sources can be explored. The apparent usefulness of PCA also contributes to the improvement

  5. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  6. Socioeconomic status and response to antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Lisa S; Smith, Colette J; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Margaret A; Lampe, Fiona C

    2016-05-15

    It has been shown that socioeconomic factors are associated with the prognosis of several chronic diseases; however, there is no recent systematic review of their effect on HIV treatment outcomes. We aimed to review the evidence regarding the existence of an association of socioeconomic status with virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We systematically searched the current literature using the database PubMed. We identified and summarized original research studies in high-income countries that assessed the association between socioeconomic factors (education, employment, income/financial status, housing, health insurance, and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors) and virological response, immunological response, and ART nonadherence among people with HIV-prescribed ART. A total of 48 studies met the inclusion criteria (26 from the United States, six Canadian, 13 European, and one Australian), of which 14, six, and 35 analysed virological, immunological, and ART nonadherence outcomes, respectively. Ten (71%), four (67%), and 23 (66%) of these studies found a significant association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer response, and none found a significant association with improved response. Several studies showed that adjustment for nonadherence attenuated the association between socioeconomic status and ART response. Our review provides strong support that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer response to ART. However, most studies have been conducted in settings such as the United States without universal free healthcare access. Further study in settings with free access to ART could help assess the impact of socioeconomic status on ART outcomes and the mechanisms by which it operates. PMID:26919732

  7. Family Socioeconomic Status and Consistent Environmental Stimulation in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Crosnoe, Robert; Leventhal, Tama; Wirth, R. J.; Pierce, Kim M.; Pianta, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The transition into school occurs at the intersection of multiple environmental settings. This study applied growth curve modeling to a sample of 1,364 American children, followed from birth through age six, who had been categorized by their exposure to cognitive stimulation at home and in preschool child care and first grade classrooms. Of special interest was the unique and combined contribution to early learning of these three settings. Net of socioeconomic selection into different setting...

  8. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  9. Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham

    2015-12-01

    As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (pmotor skills and boys outperformed girls for catch and dribble gross motor skills. High socioeconomic status significantly outperformed middle and/or low socioeconomic status for total, fine and gross motor proficiency. Current motor proficiency of primary children aged 4-7 years in the UK is just below average with differences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status.

  10. Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham

    2015-12-01

    As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (pfine motor skills and boys outperformed girls for catch and dribble gross motor skills. High socioeconomic status significantly outperformed middle and/or low socioeconomic status for total, fine and gross motor proficiency. Current motor proficiency of primary children aged 4-7 years in the UK is just below average with differences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status. PMID:26342797

  11. Divorce, socioeconomic status, and children's cognitive-social competence at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidubaldi, J; Perry, J D

    1984-07-01

    All 115 kindergarteners in a suburban school district were evaluated with an extensive battery of intellectual, academic, social, and adaptive behavior measures to determine the predictive significance of single-parent status on school-entry competencies. Divorce was found to add significant amounts of independent variance to the socioeconomic status predictions of several criteria, specifically those relating to social and academic competence. Both single-parent status and SES were more powerful predictors than other family background, developmental history, and health variables.

  12. Socioeconomic status, comorbidity and the use of health services in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Droomers, M.; G P Westert

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a strong association between comorbidity and volume and variety of health care utilisation. Aim: The study objective is to examine the relation between socioeconomic status and multiple health care utilisation and comorbidity. Methods: Analysis of continuous Netherlands Health Interview Survey data (1990-1998). The study population consisted of adults older than 25 years (n=53,339). Socioeconomic position was indicated by educational level in four categories. Comorbidity ...

  13. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kocoglu

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Traffic Accidents in Metropolitan Tehran: A Population-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Sehat; Kourosh Holakouie Naieni; Mohsen Asadi-Lari; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani; Hossein Malek-Afzali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Population-based estimates of traffic accidents (TAs) are not readily available for developing countries. This study examined the contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) to the risk of TA among Iranian adults. Methods: A total of 64,200people aged ≥18years were identified from 2008 Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) survey. 22,128 households were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, severity and socioeconomic determinants of TAs ...

  15. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over...... use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality....

  16. Lung cancer: is there an association with socioeconomic status in The Netherlands?

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, A. J.; Goldbohm, R. A.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To evaluate if there are differences in lung cancer incidence between socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands and if so, if smoking habits and other lifestyle characteristics could explain these differences. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. Baseline measurement included information on socioeconomic status, smoking habits, and other covariates by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Follow up was established by computerised record linkage to cancer registries and a pat...

  17. A STUDY OF SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF CONCEPT OF HIGH AND LOW SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS HIGH AND LOW SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Subhash Bindwal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: 1. to search the self esteem of high and low socio-economic status college students. 2. To examine the self concept of high and low socio-economic status college students. Hypotheses: 1. There will be no significant difference between high and low socio-economic status college students on dimension self esteem. 2. There will be no significant difference between high and low socio-economic status college students on dimension self concept. Participants: A total of 80 s...

  18. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

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    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  19. Low socioeconomic status predicts abnormal eating attitudes in Latin American female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113

  20. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse L. Manrique Millones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  1. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

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    Claudette D. Ncho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

  2. Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade Socioeconomic status and obesity

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    Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the

  3. ARE UNDER WEIGHT ADOLESCENTS BOYS ASSOCIATED TO A LOWER SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN INDONESIA?

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    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A good understanding of the association between under nutrition and socioeconomic status (SES has many important public health and policies implications for the prevention and management of underweight. Objective: To examine the relation of SES, education level, working status, urban-rural and age on the Body mass index (BMI. Methods: The data were part of Basic Health Research in Indonesia, 2010. It was a cross sectional study that covered the whole households' members that were chosen through a multistage random sampling. Data was gathered using structured questionnaire. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for assessment of statistical association between variables. Results: It covered 20,819 boys, their mean age: 14.1+2.9 years, the prevalence of underweight and normal weight was 51.3% and 39.9%. The prevalence of underweight at 10 years and 19 years were 73.6% and 21.5%; the prevalence of normal weight at 10 years and 19 years were 18.3% and 63.7%. The adjusted odds ratios for the association With underweight for aged 13-15 years were: 0.53 (95% CI:0.48-0.57; for aged 16-19 years 0.23(0.21-0.26; for status of not working 0.89(0.82-0.95; for status of working 0.59(0.54-0.66; for finished elementary school 1.29(1.14-1.48; for no schooling/did not finished elementary school1.73(1.50-2.00; for medium socio-economic status 1.16(1.0Er 1.29; for low socio-economic status 1.23(1.11-1.37. Conclusions: Younger adolescents, lack of schooling and those with lower socioeconomic were more likely to be underweight. This study will help the government for developing programs to assist underweight adolescents.   Key words: Adolescents, boys, underweight, education, socio-economic status

  4. Socioeconomic status and stroke prevalence in Morocco: results from the Rabat-Casablanca study.

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    Thomas Engels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. METHODS: Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. FINDINGS: Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural and richest (mainly urban households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89. CONCLUSION: We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population

  5. Quality of life in lung cancer patients: does socioeconomic status matter?

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    Milroy Robert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a prospective study on quality of life in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients an investigation was carried out to examine whether there were differences among patients' quality of life scores and their socioeconomic status. Methods Quality of life was measured at two points in time (baseline and three months after initial treatment using three standard instruments; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, the European Organization for Research and Cancer Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer supplement (QLQ-LC13. Socioeconomic status for each individual patient was derived using Carstairs and Morris Deprivation Category ranging from 1 (least deprived to 7 (most deprived on the basis of the postcode sector of their address. Results In all, 129 lung cancer patients entered into the study. Of these data for 82 patients were complete (at baseline and follow-up. 57% of patients were of lower socioeconomic status and they had more health problems, less functioning, and more symptoms as compared to affluent patients. Of these, physical mobility (P = 0.05, energy (P = 0.01, role functioning (P = 0.04, physical functioning (P = 0.03, and breathlessness (P = 0.02 were significant at baseline. However, at follow-up assessment there was no significant difference between patient groups nor did any consistent pattern emerge. Conclusion At baseline assessment patients of lower socioeconomic status showed lower health related quality of life. Since there was no clear trend at follow-up assessment this suggests that patients from different socioeconomic status responded to treatment similarly. In general, the findings suggest that quality of life is not only the outcome of the disease and its treatment, but is also highly dependent on each patients' socioeconomic characteristics.

  6. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

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    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  7. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467

  8. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

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    Laura Lauria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women. Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

  9. Is the Impact of Health Shocks Cushioned by Socioeconomic Status? The Case of Low Birthweight

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Hyson; Janet Currie

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term effects of low birthweight (LBW) on educational attainments, labor market outcomes, and health status using data from the National Child Development Study. The study has followed the cohort of children born in Great Britain during one week in 1958 through age 33. We pay particular attentionto possible interactions between LBS and socio-economic status (SES), asking to what extent the deleterious effects of LBW are mitigated by higher SES. We find that LBW has...

  10. Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status

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    Spencer Moore

    2010-01-01

    Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8% and obesity (9.3% most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.

  11. Gender Differences in the Association between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyoung Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study was aimed to explore the gender differences in the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive function in later life. Methods. Using a nationally representative sample from the Health and Retirement Study, 5,544 females and 3,863 males were analyzed separately. Growth curve models were used to examine memory status and change in memory from 1998 to 2010. Results. The results showed that SES disadvantage in childhood was associated with lower ...

  12. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  13. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, General Language Learning Outcome, and Beliefs about Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the probable relationship between Iranian students' socioeconomic status, general language learning outcome, and their beliefs about language learning. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English for specific courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were…

  14. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

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    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  15. A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students

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    Lam, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

  16. An Examination of Fast Mapping Skills in Preschool Children from Families with Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Researchers consistently report that children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families have, on average, smaller vocabularies as assessed by measures of existing vocabulary knowledge than children from higher SES families. Yet, few studies have examined the word-learning process of children from low SES families. The present study was an…

  17. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

  18. Socio-economic status of Dog owners in Nagpur city of Maharashtra

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    A.D. Sawaimul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229

  19. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik Var, Esra; Kiliç, Sükran; Kumandas, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and…

  20. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  1. Influence of socio-economic status, parents and peers on smoking behaviour of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; Stewart, R; van Dijk, JP; Orosova, O; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of analysing the importance of psycho-social factors in predicting adolescents' smoking behaviour, a model of the interrelations between socio-economic status, parents', peers' and adolescents' own smoking behaviours was tested. The sample consisted of 2,616 adolescents. LISREL analyses

  2. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  3. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general pr...

  4. Socioeconomic status, comorbidity and the use of health services in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droomers, M.; Westert, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a strong association between comorbidity and volume and variety of health care utilisation. Aim: The study objective is to examine the relation between socioeconomic status and multiple health care utilisation and comorbidity. Methods: Analysis of continuous Netherlands Health I

  5. Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    Although a positive relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement is well-established, how it varies with age is not. This article uses four data points from Canada's National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine how the academic achievement gap attributed to SES changes from childhood to adolescence…

  6. Intellectual Interest Mediates Gene x Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Adolescent Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic influences on cognitive ability and academic achievement are larger for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes. However, little work has been done to document the psychosocial processes that underlie this Gene x Environment interaction. One process may involve the conversion of…

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed the literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement in journal articles published between 1990 and 2000. The sample included 101,157 students, 6,871 schools, and 128 school districts gathered from 74 independent samples. The results showed a medium to strong SES-achievement relation. This relation,…

  8. Tobacco control policies specified according to socioeconomic status : health disparities and cost-effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, Eelco A. B.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Droomers, Mariel; Uiters, Ellen; van Gelder, Boukje M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policy for different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. We aimed to evaluate SES-specific cost-effectiveness ratios of policies with known favorable effect in low-SES groups: a tobacco tax increase and reimbursement of ces

  9. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  10. Relationship between socioeconomic status and quality of life in older adults : a path analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielderman, A.; de Greef, M. H. G.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of life, social functioning, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, physical function, and socioeconomic status (SES) in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the relationships. A

  11. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  12. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  13. Mediators of the Association Between Low Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vart, Priya; Gansevoort, Ronald; Crews, Deidra C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bultmann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Using data collected from 9,823 participants in the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we formally investigated potentially modifiable factors linking low socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) for their presence and magnitude

  14. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  15. Teaching Students Using Technology: Facilitating Success for Students from Low Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; McKay, Jade

    2016-01-01

    Australian higher education has adopted a widening participation agenda with a focus on the participation of disadvantaged students, particularly those from low socioeconomic status (LSES) backgrounds. As these students begin to enter university in greater number and proportion than ever before, there is increasing interest in how best to…

  16. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  17. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a s

  18. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  19. Does Socioeconomic Status Matter? A Meta-Analysis on Parent Training Effectiveness for Disruptive Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged family socioeconomic status (SES) is often assumed to diminish parent training program effectiveness. In examining effects of SES, influences of initial problem severity have been largely ignored. In the present meta-analysis, we examined (a) whether there is a differential influence of SES on parent training effectiveness at…

  20. The Change of Work Value Endorsement among Korean Adolescents and Its Association with Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Landberg, Monique; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the endorsement of work values changed over time and investigated the role of socioeconomic status in the development of work values. A 5-year longitudinal sample of Korean adolescents was used. Three work values were measured: Extrinsic reward, working conditions, and personal development. Findings indicate that Korean…

  1. Ethnic Variations of Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Preacademic Skills in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…

  2. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  3. Socio-economic status and physical activity among adolescents : The mediating role of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study w

  4. Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…

  5. Relationship between socioeconomic status and quality of life in older adults: a path analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielderman, A.; Greef, M.H.G. de; Krijnen, W.P.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of life, social functioning, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, physical function, and socioeconomic status (SES) in community-dwelling older adults. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to examine

  6. Maternal Teaching Talk within Families of Mexican Descent: Influences of Task and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ann R.

    2002-01-01

    The interactions of 20 middle-class and 20 working-class Mexican American mothers and their 4-year-old children were observed during a school-type construction task (block building) and a home-type construction task (baking biscuits). Both task and socioeconomic status had significant effects on mothers' and children's conversations and behaviors.…

  7. Socioeconomic Status and the Adjustment to School: The Role of Self-Regulation during Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES) and the self-regulation of children on the students' ability to adjust to kindergarten. Reports that self-regulation acted as a mediator between SES and interpersonal problems, the expectations of teachers at school, and assessment of students with hyperactivity-attention deficiency.…

  8. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  9. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  10. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  11. School Socio-Economic Status and Student Socio-Academic Achievement Goals in Upper Secondary Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…

  12. Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…

  13. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in SAT-Freshman Grade Relationships across Gender and Racial Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdem, Jana L.; Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.; Shen, Winny; Beatty, Adam S.; Kiger, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that admissions tests retain the vast majority of their predictive power after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), and that SES provides only a slight increment over SAT and high school grades (high school grade point average [HSGPA]) in predicting academic performance. To address the possibility that these…

  14. Reading Skill-Fractional Anisotropy Relationships in Visuospatial Tracts Diverge Depending on Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…

  15. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  16. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have…

  17. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  18. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  19. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  20. Effect of socioeconomic status on mortality after bacteremia in working-age patients. A danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality.......To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality....

  1. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Beliefs about Language Learning: A Study of Iranian Postgraduate EAP Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the probable interaction between Iranian language students' beliefs about language learning and their socio-economic status. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were grouped in terms of their socio-economic status. They answered a…

  2. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalkowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards.The odds ratio (OR for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P < 0.05 by Polish standards and 0.22 (95%CI:0.05-0.95; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (low SESI. In total girls who had mothers with higher education level, the OR adjusted for age was 0.44 (95%CI:0.21-0.90; P <0.05 by Polish standards and 0.35 (95%CI:0.15-0.81; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (maternal elementary education. The other single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence.The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  3. Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafillia Natsiopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.

  4. The Women's Health Initiative: The food environment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Eibner, Christine; Slaughter, Mary E; Fernandes, Meenakshi; Whitsel, Eric A; Bird, Chloe E; Jewell, Adria; Margolis, Karen L; Li, Wenjun; Michael, Yvonne L; Shih, Regina A; Manson, Joann E; Escarce, José J

    2012-04-01

    Using data (n = 60,775 women) from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)-a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years-we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman's residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), BMI, and blood pressure (BP). We simultaneously modeled NSES and food outlets using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for multiple sociodemographic factors, population density and random effects at the tract and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level. We found significant associations between NSES, availability of food outlets and individual-level measurements of BMI and BP. As grocery store/supermarket availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, controlling for confounders, BMI was lower by 0.30 kg/m(2). Conversely, as fast-food outlet availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, BMI was higher by 0.28 kg/m(2). When NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, BMI was lower by 1.26 kg/m(2). As NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, systolic and diastolic BP were lower by 1.11 mm Hg and 0.40 mm Hg, respectively. As grocery store/supermarket outlet availability increased from the 10th and 90th percentiles, diastolic BP was lower by 0.31 mm Hg. In this national sample of postmenopausal women, we found important independent associations between the food and socioeconomic environments and BMI and BP. These findings suggest that changes in the neighborhood environment may contribute to efforts to control obesity and hypertension. PMID:21660076

  5. How socioeconomic status influences road traffic injuries and home injuries in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilloni, Laura; Farchi, Sara; Chini, Francesco; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) and home injuries (HI) are a relevant public health problem, especially among people living in deprived areas. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between morbidity, hospitalisation, mortality from RTI and HI, and socioeconomic status (SES) of the area of residence. RTI and HI surveillance based on the Emergency Information System, the Hospital Information System and the Mortality Registry of Lazio region are the three sources of this study to create a unique surveillance system. For each subject, the SES index (5 levels) of its census tract of residence was obtained. The study population included emergency department admissions (year 2005) of residents in Rome, Italy. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs) have been estimated using Poisson Regression. The rates of RTI and HI emergency department visits were higher among the most deprived level of SES (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.24-1.30; IRR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.29-1.37, respectively) compared to the most privileged ones; a similar result was found for hospitalisation (IRR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08-1.32; IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). A strong relation was found between RTI mortality rates and poor level of SES. The study concluded that RTI and HI incidence were associated to sociodemographic factors.

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kowalkowska; Lidia Wadolowska; Justyna Weronika Wuenstel; Małgorzata Anna Słowińska; Ewa Niedźwiedzka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and ag...

  7. Time-Use in the Older Population: Variation by Socio-economic Status and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hurd; Susann Rohwedder

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on time-use from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large general-purpose survey that is representative of the U.S. population age 51 and over. The data stand out for its rich set of covariates which are used to present variation in time-use by health and socio-economic status. The HRS interviews about 20,000 persons about a wide array of topics, covering economic status, physical and mental health, family relations and support, labor market status and retir...

  8. Gender differences and socioeconomic status in relation to overweight among older Korean people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Noh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ever-increasing older population and its association with serious overweight problems have garnered much attention. The correlation between being overweight and socioeconomic status factors could be helpful for understanding the inequalities among the overweight population. We examined the correlation between being overweight and some key variables, such as demographics, socioeconomic status, general health status, and health behavior in a large sample of older individuals, by each gender. METHODS: We used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and it included 8,157 participants who were 45 years or older. To understand the relationship between the overweight participants in accordance to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and health behaviors, a weighted chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted by separating variables related to overweight, according to the genders. RESULTS: The number of people in the normal group was 6,347 (77.8%, while the people who were considered overweight were 1,810 (22.2%. Women (n = 4,583 constituted 52.7% of the subject, 24.9% of whom were classified as overweight. Meanwhile, 20.6% of the 47.3% (n = 3,574 of the sample who were men were classified as overweight. Participants between the ages of 45 and 64 with chronic diseases were more likely to be overweight. Men in the 4th quartile of household income were more likely to be overweight than those who were in the 1st quartile, in contrast, while unemployed women with lower education levels and urban residents were at greater risk for being overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Among the men, health status and health behavior appeared to show a correlation with being overweight; however, among women, socioeconomic status factors were strongly related to being overweight. These findings appear to support the association of gender-specifics with the prevalence of being overweight.

  9. Is the status of diabetes socioeconomic inequality changing in Kurdistan province, west of Iran? A comparison of two surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Malekafzali, Hossein; Jafari, Saeede; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: About 80% of deaths in 350 million cases of diabetes in the world occur in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of diabetes socioeconomic inequality and the share of determinants of inequalities in Kurdistan Province, West of Iran, using two surveys in 2005 and 2009. Methods: Data were collected from non-communicable disease surveillance surveys in Kurdistan in 2005 and 2009. In this study, the socioeconomic status (SES) of the participants was determined based on the residential area and assets using principal component analysis statistical method. We used concentration index and logistic regression to determine inequality. Decomposition analysis was used to determine the share of each determinant of inequality. Results: The prevalence of diabetes expressed by individuals changed from 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.3) in 2005 to 3.1% (95% CI: 2-4) in 2009. Diabetes Concentration Index changed from -0.163 (95% CI: -0.301- -0.024) in 2005 to 0.273 (95% CI: 0.101-0.445) in 2009. The results of decomposition analysis revealed that in 2009, 67% of the inequality was due to low socioeconomic status and 16% to area of residence; i.e., living in rural areas. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes significantly increased, and the diabetes inequality shifted from the poor people to groups with better SES. Increased prevalence of diabetes among the high SES individuals may be due to their better responses to diabetes control and awareness programs or due to the type of services they were provided during these years. PMID:27493919

  10. Large Cross-National Differences in Gene × Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Bates, Timothy C

    2016-02-01

    A core hypothesis in developmental theory predicts that genetic influences on intelligence and academic achievement are suppressed under conditions of socioeconomic privation and more fully realized under conditions of socioeconomic advantage: a Gene × Childhood Socioeconomic Status (SES) interaction. Tests of this hypothesis have produced apparently inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis of tests of Gene × SES interaction on intelligence and academic-achievement test scores, allowing for stratification by nation (United States vs. non-United States), and we conducted rigorous tests for publication bias and between-studies heterogeneity. In U.S. studies, we found clear support for moderately sized Gene × SES effects. In studies from Western Europe and Australia, where social policies ensure more uniform access to high-quality education and health care, Gene × SES effects were zero or reversed. PMID:26671911

  11. Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk.

  12. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-07-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indicate that SES matters for the segregation patterns of whites from minorities. In particular, we find that whites as a whole are less segregated from higher-SES minority group members than lower-SES ones. Among whites, those of higher SES are more segregated from blacks and Hispanics as a whole and less segregated from Asians, indicating the importance of SES differentials across racial/ethnic groups in shaping residential patterns. We also find that during the 2000s, white-black segregation remained stable or declined, while whites became more segregated from Hispanics and Asians by all SES indicators. Fixed-effects models indicate that increasing white-minority SES segregation was fueled in part by increases in a metropolitan area's immigrant and elderly populations, minority poverty rate, and home values, while declining segregation was associated with rising education levels and new housing construction. PMID:23721673

  13. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  14. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability...... the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation....... to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine...

  15. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN......: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...

  16. Influence of family socioeconomic status on IQ, language, memory and executive functions of Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane da Rosa Piccolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES and parental education on non-verbal IQ and on the processing of oral and written language, working memory, verbal memory and executive functions in children from different age ranges. A total of 419 Brazilian children aged 6–12 years old, attending public and private schools from Porto Alegre, RS participated in the study. Structural equation analyzes revealed that in the general model (for all ages, the SES contributed to cognitive performance – IQ, verbal memory, working memory, oral and written language and executive functions (28, 19, 36, 28 and 25 %, respectively. SES had stronger effects on younger children (up to nine years old, in most cognitive tasks examined. Probably, after this age, a combination of factors such as schooling, living in other social environments, among others, may mitigate the effects of family socioeconomic status.

  17. Socio-economic status and enrollment in higher education: do costs matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have developed less academic ability during previous schooling and are therefore less likely to participate. We apply our analysis to Flanders, where tuition...

  18. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    OpenAIRE

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. Method: The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Results: Structural Equation Modeling s...

  19. Differential effects of socioeconomic status on working and procedural memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Julia A.; Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    While prior research has shown a strong relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and working memory performance, the relation between SES and procedural (implicit) memory remains unknown. Convergent research in both animals and humans has revealed a fundamental dissociation, both behaviorally and neurally, between a working memory system that depends on medial temporal-lobe structures and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) vs. a procedural memory system that depends on the ba...

  20. Socioeconomic Determinants of Nutritional Status of Children in Lao PDR: Effects of Household and Community Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...

  1. Impact of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Underweight in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and underweight is steadily increasing among children and adolescents. To explore the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and body mass index, we examined levels of overweight and underweight among representative samples of children and adolescents in South Korea. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 Korean Survey on the Obesity of Youth and Children, conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute. The sample response rate for this su...

  2. Diet composition, socio-economic status and food outlets development in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among the British population. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975-2000. Daily intakes-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study a...

  3. The relationship between food consumption and socio-economic status: evidence among British youths

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...

  4. Socioeconomic status and stress in Mexican–American women: a multi-method perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Gonzalez, Patricia; Fortmann, Addie L.; de los Monteros, Karla Espinosa; Roesch, Scott C.; Talavera, Gregory A; Matthews, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a hypothesized pathway in socioeconomic status (SES)-physical health associations, but the available empirical data are inconsistent. In part, this may reflect discrepancies in the approach to measuring stress across studies, and differences in the nature of SES-stress associations across demographic groups. We examined associations of SES (education, income) with general and domain-specific chronic stressors, stressful life events, perceived stress, and stressful daily experiences ...

  5. Child representations of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria

    2009-01-01

    The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI) inspired in seven cards graphically repre­senting the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children r...

  6. Intimate Partner Violence Associated with Postpartum Depression, Regardless of Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Catherine L; Liepman, Michael R; Shama Tareen, R; Florian, Phyllis; Charoth, Remitha M; Haas, Suzanne S; McKean, Joseph W; Moe, Angela; Wiley, James; Curtis, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Objective This study examined whether socioeconomic status moderated the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum depression among a community-based sample of women. Defining the role of poverty in the risk of postpartum depression for IPV victims enables prioritization of health promotion efforts to maximize the effectiveness of existing maternal-infant resources. Methods This cross-sectional telephone-survey study interviewed 301 postpartum women 2 months after delivery, screening them for IPV and depression [using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)]. Socioeconomic status was defined by insurance (Medicaid-paid-delivery or not). This analysis controlled for the following covariates, collected through interview and medical-record review: demographics, obstetric history, prenatal health and additional psychosocial risk factors. After adjusting for significant covariates, multiple linear regression was conducted to test whether socioeconomic status confounded or moderated IPV's relationship with EPDS-score. Results Ten percent of participants screened positive for postpartum depression, 21.3 % screened positive for current or previous adult emotional or physical abuse by a partner, and 32.2 % met poverty criteria. IPV and poverty were positively associated with each other (χ(2) (1) = 11.76, p < .001) and with EPDS score (IPV: beta 3.2 (CI 2.0, 4.5) p < .001, poverty: beta 1.3 (CI 0.2, 2.4) p = .017). In the multiple linear regression, IPV remained significantly associated, but poverty did not (IPV: adjusted beta 3.1 (CI 1.8, 4.3) p < .001, poverty: adjusted beta 0.8 (CI -0.3, 1.9) p = .141), and no statistically significant interaction between IPV and poverty was found. Conclusions Study findings illustrated that IPV was strongly associated with postpartum depression, outweighing the influence of socioeconomic status upon depression for postpartum women. PMID:26955998

  7. Intercontinental Evidence on Socioeconomic Status and Early Childhood: Cognitive Skills: Is Latin America Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Boo, Florencia

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents disparities in cognitive development- as measured by a receptive vocabulary test-between children from households with high and low socioeconomic status (SES) in two different phases of childhood (before and after early school years) in four developing countries: Peru, Ethiopia, India, and Vietnam. Intercontinental evidence on the timing, shape, pattern, and persistence of these disparities is provided. The nonparametric analysis suggests that disparities found at age 5 p...

  8. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; MEUNIER, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin ...

  9. Women of low socioeconomic status living with diabetes: Becoming adept at handling a disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boonsatean, Wimonrut; Dychawy Rosner, Irena; Carlsson, Anna; Östman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how Thai women of low socioeconomic status handle their type 2 diabetes. Methods: A qualitative interpretative method was used to study 19 women with type 2 diabetes in a suburban community in Thailand. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were analysed using inductive and constructive processes. Results: Participants’ lives underwent many changes between their initial diagnoses and later stages when they became adept at ...

  10. Nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers

    OpenAIRE

    José Wesley dos Santos Alves; Nádia Tavares Soares; Thelma Celene Saraiva Leão; Nadja Agra Diniz; Emanuel Diego dos Santos Penha; Raquel Simões Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5%) men and 85 (54.5%) women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and fo...

  11. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Naiqing; Wang, Hao; Jie ZHANG; He, Qingfang; Su, Danting; Ming ZHAO; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying; Yu, Min; Ye, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. Methods Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were ...

  12. Differential effects of socioeconomic status on working and procedural memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    While prior research has shown a strong relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and working memory performance, the relation between SES and procedural (implicit) memory remains unknown. Convergent research in both animals and humans has revealed a fundamental dissociation, both behaviorally and neurally, between a working memory system that depends on medial temporal-lobe structures and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) versus a procedural memory system that depends on the...

  13. Socioeconomic Status, Functional Recovery, and Long-Term Mortality among Patients Surviving Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Alter, David A.; Barry Franklin; Ko, Dennis T; Austin, Peter C.; Lee, Douglas S.; Oh, Paul I.; Stukel, Therese A; Tu, Jack V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between socio-economic status (SES), functional recovery and long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: The extent to which SES mortality disparities are explained by differences in functional recovery following AMI is unclear. METHODS: We prospectively examined 1368 patients who survived at least one-year following an index AMI between 1999 and 2003 in Ontario, Canada. Each patient was linked to administrative data and...

  14. Exploring genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus and their association with indicators of socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. Methods We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall stu...

  15. Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

  16. Socioeconomic status is positively correlated with frontal white matter integrity in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nathan F.; Kim, Chobok; Gold, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important reserve variable which has been shown to benefit the aging brain’s macrostructure. However, it remains unknown whether SES affects age-related changes in the brain’s white matter (WM) microstructure. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to explore the relationship between SES and three components of the diffusion tensor [fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity (DR)]. Participants were 40 (16 male) cognitively normal yo...

  17. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Gregory,; Iceland, John

    2013-01-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indic...

  18. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kell, K. P.; Judd, S. E.; Pearson, K. E.; Shikany, J. M.; Fernández, J.R

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17 062 black (34·6 %) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression mo...

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Gradient over Age:New Evidence from China.

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Ma

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic analysis of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on overweight and obesity in China and investigates how and why the SES-obesity gradient differs with age. Using a longitudinal sample drawn from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), I find that body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with SES during early childhood but becomes inversely related to childhood SES as children age into adulthood. Estimation results show that children from low SE...

  20. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kipping, Ruth R.; Smith, Michèle; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2014-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inact...

  1. Socioeconomic status and antisocial behaviour among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Stride, Christopher B; Croft, Simone E; Rowe, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Previous research on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour has produced mixed findings showing variation in the strength of association. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic status and broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour, investigating variation across a range of antisocial subtypes and other potential moderators, including age, sex and informant. We identified 133 studies containing data suitable for effect size calculation, and 139 independent effect sizes were analysed (total N=339868). The global meta-analysis showed that lower family socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Moderation analyses revealed this relationship was stronger where callous-unemotional traits were the outcome, and where antisocial behaviour was reported by parents or teachers rather than self-reported. The relationship between family SES and antisocial behaviour, however, was independent of higher-level constructs such as national income inequality. These results indicate that SES can be considered a robust correlate of broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour but the strength of this relationship may depend on the antisocial subtype under investigation and the design of the study.

  2. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, pyouth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518

  3. Health and Socio-Economic Status: Factors impacting care and treatment in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.;

    2011-01-01

    To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... and a tendency to be overweight. Many had a low educational level, were retired, and lived alone with few financial resources. The quality of the surgical treatment had improved in terms of centralisation and staging procedures. Conclusions: As a group the women proved to be in a vulnerable position in terms...

  4. Low socioeconomic status is associated with worse survival in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While low socioeconomic status (SES has been associated with inferior cancer outcome among adults, its impact in pediatric oncology is unclear. Our objective was therefore to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of SES upon outcome in children with cancer. METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to December 2012. Studies for which survival-related outcomes were reported by socioeconomic subgroups were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed articles and extracted data. Given anticipated heterogeneity, no quantitative meta-analyses were planned a priori. RESULTS: Of 7,737 publications, 527 in ten languages met criteria for full review; 36 studies met final inclusion criteria. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, lower SES was uniformly associated with inferior survival, regardless of the measure chosen. The majority of associations were statistically significant. Of 52 associations between socioeconomic variables and outcome among high-income country (HIC children, 38 (73.1% found low SES to be associated with worse survival, 15 of which were statistically significant. Of the remaining 14 (no association or high SES associated with worse survival, only one was statistically significant. Both HIC studies examining the effect of insurance found uninsured status to be statistically associated with inferior survival. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic gradients in which low SES is associated with inferior childhood cancer survival are ubiquitous in LMIC and common in HIC. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms underlying these gradients, allowing the design of interventions mediating socioeconomic effects. Targeting the effect of low SES will allow for further improvements in childhood cancer survival.

  5. Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations. METHODS: A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained. RESULTS: Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD. CONCLUSIONS: Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to

  6. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school ne

  7. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school : Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods

  8. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  9. Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening....

  10. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  11. School environment, socioeconomic status and weight of children in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia N.M. Meko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned.Aim: To determine the nutritional status of 13–15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors.Setting: Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006.Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415 completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children’s weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease.Results: Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0% were wasted than girls (10% and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively. Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4% and medium (30.4% socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%.Conclusion: A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status.

  12. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  13. Influence of socioeconomic status on acute myocardial infarction in the Chinese population: the INTERHEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Background Many researches report that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).This study aimed to determine whether levels of education,family income,and other SES were associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Chinese population,and to compare the difference in this association between northern and southern regions in China.Methods We conducted a case-control study.Cases were first AMI (n=2909).Controls (n=2947) were randomly selected and frequency matched to cases on age and sex.SES was measured using education,family income,possessions in the household,and occupation.Results Low levels of education (8 years) were more common in cases compared to controls (53.4% and 44.1%;P=0.0001).After adjusting all risk factors,the level of education was associated with AMI risk in the Chinese population (P=0.0005).The odds ratio (OR) associated with education of 8 years or less,compared with more than 12 years (trade school/college/university) was 1.33 (95% CI 1.12-1.59),and for education of 9-12 years 1.04 (95% CI 0.88-1.33).The proportion of higher income population was more in controls than cases (39.4% and 35.3%).Number of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI.The adjusted OR associated with the lower education was 2.38 (95% CI 1.67-3.39) in women,and 1.18 (95% CI 0.99-1.42) in men (P=0.0001,for heterogeneity).The interaction between levels of education and different regions was significant (P=0.0206,for interaction).Conclusion Several socioeconomic factors including levels of education and income were closely associated with increase of AMI risk in China,most markedly in northeast and southern area.The effect of education was stronger towards AMI in women than men.

  14. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element....... MAIN RESULTS: The suicide rate ratios obtained from the case-sibling and the case-control analysis, respectively, were of similar magnitude. For example, in the case-sibling analysis the adjusted suicide rate ratios associated with discharge from a psychiatric hospital within the previous 365 days...

  15. Just care: should doctors give priority to patients of low socioeconomic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, S A

    2009-01-01

    Growing data on the socioeconomic determinants of health pose a challenge to analysis and application of fairness in health. In Just health: meeting health needs fairly, Norman Daniels argues for a change in the population end of our thinking about just health. What about clinical care? Given our knowledge of the importance of wealth, education or social status to health, is fairness in medicine served better by continuing to avoid considering our patients' social status in setting clinical priorities, or by attempting to equalise existing health inequalities by giving priority to the socioeconomically disadvantaged at the point of care? In this article, I argue that doctors should not attempt the latter. Granted, giving priority to low status would go some way towards compensating unjust health inequalities and the impression of being left aside in other social spaces. It would represent reverse discrimination, but could still be justified inasmuch as disadvantaged groups could be identifiable, and as long as the intent was compensation rather than retribution. However, under current circumstances such priority would risk being attributed arbitrarily, would represent a form of medical proselytising, risk leaving the worst-off with less by alienating the powerful, and require teaching doctors to act in strongly counter-cultural ways--possibly at great cost. Crucially, however, we protect both equal health and equal regard by treating all alike: priority to low status would promote the first somewhat, but at the expense of sacrificing the second. PMID:19103935

  16. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  17. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...

  18. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Me...

  19. Impact of Physician's Education on Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment for Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shinwon; Khan, Omar Faruk; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Dong Yeon; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Hee-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Successful tuberculosis control depends on good adherence to treatment. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of methods for improving the adherence of patients of low socioeconomic status. We evaluated the impact of physician-provided patient education on adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication in a low socioeconomic status and resource-limited setting. A pre-/post-intervention study was conducted at a suburban primary health care clinic in Bangladesh where an intensive education...

  20. State variations in women's socioeconomic status and use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther O Lamidi

    Full Text Available According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country.I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria.Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910, I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models.The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use.Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.

  1. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential. PMID:26484621

  2. Impact of socioeconomic status on Brazilian elderly health Impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Ramos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity, this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra nos

  3. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    1999-01-01

    A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based stud

  4. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharee Kantipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

  5. Status and socio-economic significance of wetland in the tropics: a study from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana MP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%, duck rearing (29%, cattle rearing (28%, fuel wood collection (6%, sand extraction (3% and reed collection (2%. The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%. The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is

  6. Child representations of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI inspired in seven cards graphically repre­senting the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children refer to more serious ones. Children represent the disease consistently with what child development literature has depicted. Within the lower socioeconomic level, there is a delay in the access to certain concepts, which is recti­fied at later stages.

  7. Socioeconomic status influences time to surgery and surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinger, Luc; Chan, Carol; Andrade, Danielle; Go, Cristina; Smith, Mary Lou; Snead, O Carter; Rutka, James T; Widjaja, Elysa

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on time-to-surgery (TTS) and surgical outcome in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy in a universal health care system. The cohort consisted of children who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery between 2001 and 2013 in Canada. The patients' postal codes were linked to Statistics Canada National Household Survey data to obtain dissemination area income, which was used to infer SES. Time-to-surgery was defined as the interval from date of epilepsy onset to date of surgery. Seizure outcome was classified using ILAE classification. The associations between SES and TTS, as well as SES and surgical outcome, were assessed. Two hundred eighty-four children who had epilepsy surgery were included. Patients in the lowest income quintile had a significantly higher TTS relative to the highest income quintile (β=0.121, p=0.044). There were no significant associations between income quintiles and seizure-free surgical outcome (odds ratio (OR)=0.746-1.494, all p>0.05). However, patients in the lowest income quintile had a significantly lower odds of an improvement in seizure frequency relative to the highest income quintile (OR=0.262, p=0.046). The TTS was not uniform across SES in spite of the existence of a universal health care system. This finding highlights the need to address social and economic barriers for epilepsy surgery to improve access to this potentially curative treatment. Those with lower SES had lower likelihood of improvement in seizure control following epilepsy surgery and may require additional support including social and financial support to mitigate the discrepancies in seizure control following surgery between SES levels. PMID:26773684

  8. Socioeconomic status influences time to surgery and surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinger, Luc; Chan, Carol; Andrade, Danielle; Go, Cristina; Smith, Mary Lou; Snead, O Carter; Rutka, James T; Widjaja, Elysa

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on time-to-surgery (TTS) and surgical outcome in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy in a universal health care system. The cohort consisted of children who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery between 2001 and 2013 in Canada. The patients' postal codes were linked to Statistics Canada National Household Survey data to obtain dissemination area income, which was used to infer SES. Time-to-surgery was defined as the interval from date of epilepsy onset to date of surgery. Seizure outcome was classified using ILAE classification. The associations between SES and TTS, as well as SES and surgical outcome, were assessed. Two hundred eighty-four children who had epilepsy surgery were included. Patients in the lowest income quintile had a significantly higher TTS relative to the highest income quintile (β=0.121, p=0.044). There were no significant associations between income quintiles and seizure-free surgical outcome (odds ratio (OR)=0.746-1.494, all p>0.05). However, patients in the lowest income quintile had a significantly lower odds of an improvement in seizure frequency relative to the highest income quintile (OR=0.262, p=0.046). The TTS was not uniform across SES in spite of the existence of a universal health care system. This finding highlights the need to address social and economic barriers for epilepsy surgery to improve access to this potentially curative treatment. Those with lower SES had lower likelihood of improvement in seizure control following epilepsy surgery and may require additional support including social and financial support to mitigate the discrepancies in seizure control following surgery between SES levels.

  9. The effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on gastric cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Gastric cancer is a leading cause of death, particularly in the developing world. The literature reports individual socioeconomic status (SES or neighborhood SES as related to survival, but the effect of both has not been studied. This study investigated the effect of individual and neighborhood SES simultaneously on mortality in gastric cancer patients in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was conducted of 3,396 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer between 2002 and 2006. Each patient was followed for five years or until death. Individual SES was defined by income-related insurance premium (low, moderate, and high. Neighborhood SES was based on household income dichotomized into advantaged and disadvantaged areas. Multilevel logistic regression model was used to compare survival rates by SES group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: In patients younger than 65 years, 5-year overall survival rates were lowest for those with low individual SES. After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, gastric cancer patients with high individual SES had 68% risk reduction of mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR] of mortality, 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.61. Patients aged 65 and above had no statistically significant difference in mortality rates by individual SES group. Different neighborhood SES did not statistically differ in the survival rates. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer patients aged less than 65 years old with low individual SES have higher risk of mortality, even under an universal healthcare system. Public health strategies, education and welfare policies should seek to correct the inequality in gastric cancer survival, especially in those with lower individual SES.

  10. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongou Roland

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

  11. Assessment of Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Floods in the Bâsca Chiojdului Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REMUS PRĂVĂLIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological risk phenomena such as floods are among the most costly natural disasters worldwide, effects consisting of socioeconomic damages and deaths. The Bâsca Chiojdului catchment area, by its morphometric and hydrographic peculiarities, is prone to generate these hydrological risk phenomena, so there is a high vulnerability in the socioeconomic elements. This paper is focused on the identification of the main socioeconomic elements vulnerable to hydrological risk phenomena such as floods, based on the assessment of their manifestation potential. Thus, following the delimitation of areas with the highest flood occurrence potential (susceptibility to floods, major socioeconomic factors existing in the basin, considering human settlements (constructions, transport infrastructure, and agricultural areas (the most important category, were superimposed. Results showed a high vulnerability for all three exposed socioeconomic elements especially in valley sectors, of which household structures were the most vulnerable, given both their importance and the high number of areas highly exposed to floods (approximately 2,500 houses and outbuildings, out of a total of about 10,250, intersect the most susceptible area to floods in the study area.

  12. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  13. Socioeconomic status and paranoia: the role of life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Fraser; Freeman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Paranoid ideation is more common in the general population than previously thought, and it is associated with low socioeconomic status. Daily life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority may partly account for this association, but these factors have not been examined in relation to paranoid thoughts. Two hundred fifteen individuals from the general population completed self-report assessments of paranoid thoughts during the last month, daily life hassles, self-mastery, striving to avoid inferiority, and socioeconomic classification. A greater number of daily hassles, low self-mastery, and insecure striving were all associated with greater levels of paranoid thinking. Each variable was associated with markers of socioeconomic status. This study demonstrates for the first time the association of paranoid thoughts with life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority. Each of the factors examined may be a plausible candidate to account for why lower socioeconomic status is associated with greater perceptions of threat from other people.

  14. Physical activity of adult residents of Katowice and selected determinants of their occupational status and socio-economic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Puciato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of physical activity (PA is often addressed in the literature, but its socio-economic determinants are not fully recognized. To date no studies of the adult population of Katowice have been carried out. Research in this area is of great importance in the context of the documented influence of PA on health and extension of retirement age in Poland. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between PA and socio-economic status of adult residents of Katowice. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in 2010 comprised 2053 people (987 women and 1066 men aged 30-65 years. To evaluate PA in the study group the diagnostic survey method and a research tool in the form of an abridged version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with specification expanded by the authors, were used. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was employed. Results: The likelihood of meeting the standards of health-enhancing PA was higher in men than in women, and it decreased with age and education level of the respondents. The highest proportion of those meeting the recommendation of health-enhancing PA was observed among blue-collar workers, operators, teachers, police and soldiers. The lowest probability of meeting the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine was found among economists and lawyers, office workers, the unemployed, managers, and engineers, pensioners and health care professionals. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the correlation between PA and socio-economic status of the respondents. The analysis of the results indicates the necessity to promote PA programs mainly among women, the elderly, the unemployed, pensioners and representatives of professions, such as economists, lawyers, managers, engineers, and health professionals. Med Pr 2013;64(5:649–657

  15. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  16. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  17. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas. PMID:27413660

  18. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Keane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568. Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82% and age eligible children (response rate 57% were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3% or obese (6.6%. Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due

  19. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin;

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9...... to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time...... food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy...... from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds....

  20. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman C D'Arcy J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.

  1. On the Laws and Causes of Socio-economic Territorial Differentiation in Minority Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei; Dong Suocheng

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of applying quantitative and qualitative approaches as well as GIS technology,this paper established an index system to make a comprehensive evaluation on socioeconomic development of minority areas in China.The result showed that socio-economic development in minority area presents a series of characteristics that the north is high and the south is low,center-margin pattern is obvious and the areas with middle and lower development indices are distributed centrally and continuously.However,the causes of the socioeconomic characteristics mainly include natural conditions,economic development basic,population cultural quality,regional combination and development conditions of mineral and energy resources,informal institutional factors and distribution of major traffic lines..

  2. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative

  3. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  4. Gender Differences in the Association between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was aimed to explore the gender differences in the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES and cognitive function in later life. Methods. Using a nationally representative sample from the Health and Retirement Study, 5,544 females and 3,863 males were analyzed separately. Growth curve models were used to examine memory status and change in memory from 1998 to 2010. Results. The results showed that SES disadvantage in childhood was associated with lower memory at baseline controlling for adult SES and other covariates. In addition, cumulated disadvantage in SES was associated with poor memory in both genders. Statistically, the impact of cumulative SES on memory function at baseline was significantly different by gender. Discussion. These findings suggest that childhood SES has long-term effects on cognitive function among both men and women, and cumulative SES from childhood to adulthood may be more important for men than women with respect to their memory performance.

  5. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Pernilla; Fridberger Anders; Wikman Anders; Alexanderson Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and countr...

  6. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  7. The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhammer Arnulf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.

  8. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  9. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Selection of Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sholzberg

    Full Text Available Without third-party insurance, access to marketed drugs is limited to those who can afford to pay. We examined this phenomenon in the context of anticoagulation for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.To determine whether, among older Ontarians receiving anticoagulation for NVAF, patients of higher socioeconomic status (SES were more likely to switch from warfarin to dabigatran prior to its addition to the provincial formulary.Population-based retrospective cohort study of Ontarians aged 66 years and older, between 2008 and 2012.Socioeconomic status, as approximated by median neighborhood income.We identified two groups of older adults with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: those who appeared to switch from warfarin to dabigatran after its market approval but prior to its inclusion on the provincial formulary ("switchers", and those with ongoing warfarin use during the same interval ("non-switchers".We studied 34,797 patients, including 3183 "switchers" and 31,614 "non-switchers". We found that higher SES was associated with switching to dabigatran prior to its coverage on the provincial formulary (p<0.0001. In multivariable analysis, subjects in the highest quintile were 50% more likely to switch to dabigatran than those in the lowest income quintile (11.3% vs. 7.3%; adjusted odds ratio 1.50; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.68. Following dabigatran's addition to the formulary, the income gradient disappeared.We documented socioeconomic inequality in access to dabigatran among patients receiving warfarin for NVAF. This disparity was eliminated following the drug's addition to the provincial formulary, highlighting the importance of timely reimbursement decisions.

  10. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

  11. Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert

    2012-09-01

    The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered. PMID:23437504

  12. Gender and Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Weight Perception and Weight Control Behavior in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyung Joh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. Results: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9% and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40% than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend trend trend = 0.047 in men, ptrend Conclusion: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.

  13. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Nutrition in Asia and Future Nutrition Policy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of health disparities has been reported around the world. One of the intermediate factors between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is nutrition. Many studies reported socioeconomically disadvantaged people had more risk of obesity and lifestyle-related diseases than others in western society. Micronutrient intake affected by SES, but little evidence indicates that SES affects either energy intake or the macronutrient composition of the diet in western countries. In contrast, there is not enough evidence of a consistent relationship between SES and nutrition in Asian countries at present. The present status of nutrition disparities in Asia is considered to vary by economic level of the country. For developing countries in Asia, India and Vietnam, SES associates with BMI positively in women. For relatively developed countries in Asia, Korea and Japan, SES associates with BMI negatively in women. Low SES groups consume more carbohydrate, and less protein and fat, so not only micronutrient but also macronutrient intake is affected by SES both in developing and in developed Asian countries. There are some studies on the pathway from SES to diet/nutrition. The association between low SES and obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods, concern about food price and dietary knowledge. Nutrition policy research is required to reduce nutrition disparities in Asia. We need a collaborative study of the impact of potential political options on diet and on health with other academic fields. PMID:26598891

  14. Nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wesley dos Santos Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.

  15. Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert

    2012-09-01

    The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered.

  16. Influence of socioeconomic and working status of the parents on the incidence of their children's dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. Materials and Methods: One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. Results: A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Conclusion: Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints. PMID:27433061

  17. Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

  18. Food insecurity and socioeconomic, food and nutrition profile of schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non-Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mohammad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In­dex over ≥30. Constructed area (per-person, educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate and multiple logistic regression.  "nResults: A total number of 2859 non-menopause women aged 15-49 yr from urban areas of Tehran have been studied. The preva­lence of obesity and overweight were 16.4% and 28.4% respectively. Women aged 30-49 yr had greater risk of obesity (ad­justed OR=2.53, 95%CI: 1.99-3.20. Comparing with students, homemakers and employees were at higher risk of obe­sity (adjusted OR= 4.33, 95%CI: 2.47-7.76, adjusted OR= 2.82, 95%CI: 1.41-5.63 respectively. Those with >= 12 yr of educa­tion had lower risk of obesity compared to illiterate women (adjusted OR=.57, 95%CI: 0.38-0.86."nConclusion: The role of social factors is dominant over economic factor on obesity. This fact should be considered as one of the most important research priorities in future researches.

  20. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN OF AGRARIAN FAMILIES IN BANGLADESH: A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alom, Jahangir; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Quddus, Md. Abdul

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional status of under five children is a sensitive sign of a country's health status as well as economic condition. This study investigated differential impact of some demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and health related factors on nutritional status among under five children in Bangladesh whose fathers' occupation was agriculture. The study used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 data. Bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis (Cox's linear logistic regression mo...

  1. Impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on overall and health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objective was to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) vs. overall quality of life (QOL). Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis using data regarding 8250 individuals drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). We analyzed differences between HRQOL and QOL in individuals of various socioeconomic strata (high, middle, or low household income and education levels) and subjective so...

  2. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Pauline W; Verlinden Marina; Berkel Anke Dommisse-van; Mieloo Cathelijne; van der Ende Jan; Veenstra René; Verhulst Frank C; Jansen Wilma; Tiemeier Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimiza...

  3. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, L.H.; Nicolau, M; Van Dam; Vries, de, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic p...

  4. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Annika Gottschling-Lang; Marco Franze; Wolfgang Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES) as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP) to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870). Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were colle...

  5. Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, D S; Forgatch, M S; Martinez, C R

    1999-01-01

    Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment.

  6. Underweight in low socioeconomic status preschool children with severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of severe early childhood caries (sECC is high in developing nations like India. It has local as well as systemic manifestations. Aims: This study evaluated the influence of sECC and its management on growth parameters and quality of life (QoL of preschool children from low socioeconomic status families. Materials and Methods: 100 preschool children (50 with sECC and 50 with no dental caries; mean age 5.42 ± 0.74 years from low socioeconomic status were studied. QoL; Decayed, extracted and filled teeth (def index; Height (Ht; Weight (Wt; Head circumference (HC; Mid arm circumference (MAC; and, Body Mass Index (BMI were recorded at baseline and compared after six months of dental rehabilitation. The test group included children with sECC having def > 6 and at least one pulpally involved tooth.The control group children did not have DC (def =0. Both the groups were age, gender and socioeconomic status matched. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.11.0 computer software. Chi-square test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Fisher′s exact and paired t tests were performed for comparing the groups at baseline and six month recall visit. Results: Baseline measurements showed that 46% of children with sECC had Wt below 3rd percentile (underweight; mean 15.49 ± 1.87Kg which was less than the controls (mean Wt 16.34 ± 1.46kg. They also complained of pain (40%, avoidance of hard food (24%, noticed Wt loss (18% and sleep disturbances (12%. After 6 months of dental rehabilitation, there was a significant improvement in their Wt (P= 0.002 and QoL. Conclusions: sECC negatively influenced the Wt and QoL of children. Awareness, education of parents and facilitation of oral health services may help in improving their Wt and QoL.

  7. Is general practitioner decision making associated with patient socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A; Shiell, A; King, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary exploration into the relationship between decisions made by general practitioners (GPs) and the socio-economic status (SES) of patients. There is a large literature on the association between SES, health state and the use of health services, but relatively little has been published on the association between SES and decisions by clinicians once a patient is in the health system. The associations between GP decision making and the patient's SES, health status, gender and insurance status are examined using logit analysis. Three sets of binary choices are analysed: the decision to follow up; to prescribe; and to perform or to order a diagnostic test. Secondary data on consultations for a check up/examination were used to explore these relationships. The results suggest that SES is associated independently with the decision to test and the decision to prescribe but not with the decision to follow up. Patients of high SES are, ceteris paribus, more likely to be tested and less likely to receive a prescription compared with patients of low SES. Women are more likely to be tested and to receive a prescription than men. These findings have implications for the pursuit of equity as a goal of health services policy. PMID:8745106

  8. Subjective socioeconomic status causes aggression: A test of the theory of social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Seven studies (overall N = 3690) addressed the relation between people's subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and their aggression levels. Based on relative deprivation theory, we proposed that people low in subjective SES would feel at a disadvantage, which in turn would elicit aggressive responses. In 3 correlational studies, subjective SES was negatively related to trait aggression. Importantly, this relation held when controlling for measures that are related to 1 or both subjective SES and trait aggression, such as the dark tetrad and the Big Five. Four experimental studies then demonstrated that participants in a low status condition were more aggressive than were participants in a high status condition. Compared with a medium-SES condition, participants of low subjective SES were more aggressive rather than participants of high subjective SES being less aggressive. Moreover, low SES increased aggressive behavior toward targets that were the source for participants' experience of disadvantage but also toward neutral targets. Sequential mediation analyses suggest that the experience of disadvantage underlies the effect of subjective SES on aggressive affect, whereas aggressive affect was the proximal determinant of aggressive behavior. Taken together, the present research found comprehensive support for key predictions derived from the theory of relative deprivation of how the perception of low SES is related to the person's judgments, emotional reactions, and actions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267323

  9. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  10. Impact of socioeconomic status on disease phenotype, genomic landscape and outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastaglio, Francesca; Bedair, Khaled; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Groves, Michael J; Hyslop, Ann; Keenan, Norene; Hothersall, Eleanor J; Campbell, Peter J; Bowen, David T; Tauro, Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the biological and clinical characteristics of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but a role for socioeconomic environment remains unclear. Here, socioeconomic status (SES) for 283 MDS patients was estimated using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation tool. Indices were assigned to quintile categorical indicators ranked from SES1 (lowest) to SES5 (highest). Clinicopathological features and outcomes between SES quintiles containing 15%, 20%, 19%, 30% and 16% of patients were compared. Prognostic scores identified lower-risk MDS in 82% of patients, with higher-risk disease in 18%. SES quintiles did not associate with age, gender, cytogenetics, International Prognostic scores or, in sub-analysis (n = 95), driver mutations. The odds ratio of a diagnosis of refractory anaemia was greater than other MDS sub-types in SES5 (OR 1·9, P = 0·024). Most patients (91%) exclusively received supportive care. SES did not associate with leukaemic transformation or cause of death. Cox regression models confirmed male gender (P disease-risk (P disease biology or survival in MDS patients receiving supportive treatment; additional studies are required to determine whether outcomes following disease-modifying therapies are influenced by SES. PMID:27098194

  11. Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home

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    Teresa C. B. Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the availability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space, Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys. RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

  12. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

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    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  13. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. PMID:27589048

  14. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  15. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor S.S.;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES...... differences in tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. In a pooled analysis, we investigated whether SES as represented by level of education is predictive for advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer, overall and by histotype. The effect of cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI......) on the association was also evaluated. METHODS: From 18 case-control studies, we obtained information on 10,601 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled...

  16. Is the relationship between type of alcohol and mortality influenced by socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G;

    2004-01-01

    controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association between......OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of socio-economic status on the relationship between type of alcohol and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A prospective population study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 14,223 men and women participated in the first examination...... of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined after...

  17. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey...... was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence...... to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high...

  18. Enduring links from childhood mathematics and reading achievement to adult socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  20. Is There an Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index among Adolescents in Mauritius?

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    Waqia Begum Fokeena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no documented studies on socioeconomic status (SES and body mass index (BMI among Mauritian adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationships between SES and BMI among adolescents with focus on diet quality and physical activity (PA as mediating factors. Mauritian school adolescents (=200; 96 males, 104 females were recruited using multistage sampling. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate BMI (categorised into underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, obese. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and Independent samples -test were used for statistical analysis. A negative association was found between SES and BMI (2=8.15%, <0.05. Diet quality, time spent in PA at school (=0.000, but not total PA (=0.562, were significantly associated with high SES. Poor diet quality and less time spent in PA at school could explain BMI discrepancies between SES groups.

  1. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

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    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.

  2. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure. PMID:27064731

  3. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure.

  4. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  5. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrie Lars

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS. Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania. Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1 Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2 The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3 The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4 The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth

  6. Gender, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health in a transitional middle-income setting: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-09-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country.The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent "poor" or "very poor" SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status.

  7. Assessments of the Socioeconomic Status and Diet on the Prevalence of Dental Caries at School Children in Central Bosnian Canton

    OpenAIRE

    Saban, Aida; Ridic, Ognjen; Karamehic, Jasenko; Saban, Orhan; Delic-Sarac, Marina; Dzananovic, Nejra; Coric, Jozo; Ridic, Goran; Panjeta, Mirsad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of this research was to determine the influence of socioeconomic status and residence/living conditions on the status of oral health (e.g. health of mouth and teeth) in primary school students residing in Canton Central Bosnia. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Our research included two-phased stratified random sample of 804 participants. The quantitative research method and newly designed survey instrument were utilized in order to provide data on ...

  8. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

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    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status of children in Lao PDR: effects of household and community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research. PMID:21957672

  10. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  11. Amerind ancestry, socioeconomic status and the genetics of type 2 diabetes in a Colombian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond D Campbell

    Full Text Available The "thrifty genotype" hypothesis proposes that the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in Native Americans and admixed Latin Americans has a genetic basis and reflects an evolutionary adaptation to a past low calorie/high exercise lifestyle. However, identification of the gene variants underpinning this hypothesis remains elusive. Here we assessed the role of Native American ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES and 21 candidate gene loci in susceptibility to T2D in a sample of 876 T2D cases and 399 controls from Antioquia (Colombia. Although mean Native American ancestry is significantly higher in T2D cases than in controls (32% v 29%, this difference is confounded by the correlation of ancestry with SES, which is a stronger predictor of disease status. Nominally significant association (P1 was observed for markers selected from previous T2D genome-wide association studies, consistent with a role for Old World variants in susceptibility to T2D in Latin Americans. No association was found to the only known Native American-specific gene variant previously associated with T2D in a Mexican sample (rs9282541 in ABCA1. An admixture mapping scan with 1,536 ancestry informative markers (AIMs did not identify genome regions with significant deviation of ancestry in Antioquia. Exclusion analysis indicates that this scan rules out ~95% of the genome as harboring loci with ancestry risk ratios >1.22 (at P < 0.05.

  12. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  13. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors, Gender and Indigenous Status on Smoking in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ting Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous Austronesian minority of Taiwan is heavily affected by health disparities which may include suffering from a greater burden of the tobacco epidemic. While a lack of representative data has historically precluded an investigation of the differences in smoking between Taiwanese ethnicities, these data have recently become available through an annual population-based telephone survey conducted by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare (previously known as the Bureau of Health Promotion (BHP, Department of Health. We used the BHP monitoring data to observe the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among indigenous and non-indigenous Taiwanese surrounding a tobacco welfare tax increase in 2006, investigate ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and environmental tobacco smoke exposure each year between 2005 and 2008, and perform multiple logistic regression to estimate measures of association between potential risk factors and smoking status. Despite significant ethnic and gender differences in smoking prevalence, smoking status was not found to be significantly associated with ethnicity after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  14. Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

  15. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  16. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…

  17. Parents' Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated parents' socio-economic status on secondary school students' academic performance in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted. The population for the study comprised all Junior Secondary School students in Ekiti State. The sample consisted of 960 students from 20 secondary schools randomly…

  18. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.H.; Nicolau, M.; Dam, van R.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objecti

  19. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  20. Family Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement among Korean Adolescents: Linking Mechanisms of Family Processes and Adolescents' Time Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined pathways through which family socioeconomic status may influence adolescents' academic achievement. We focused on parental monitoring and adolescents' after-school time-use patterns as linking mechanisms. Participants were 441 twelve- to fourteen-year-old Korean adolescents who participated in the Korea Welfare Panel Study.…

  1. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  2. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  3. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly: the role of risk factors in the EPESE study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lenthe, Frank J van; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P; Bos, G A M van den; Fay, Martha E; Berkman, Lisa F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. METHODS: Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established Po

  4. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly - The role of risk factors in the EPESE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Avendano; I. Kawachi; F. van Lenthe; H.C. Boshuizen; J.P. Mackenbach; G.A.M. van den Bos; M.E. Fay; L.F. Berkman

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose - This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. Methods - Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established

  5. Behavioural and emotional problems in moderately preterm children with low socioeconomic status : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Moderately preterm (MP) birth is associated with higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems. To determine the extent to which low socioeconomic status (SES) contributes to these higher rates, we assessed independent and joint effects of MP birth and low SES, overall and by gender. Dutch prev

  6. Social Consciousness of Low-Income College Students in Taiwan: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Collegiate Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), collegiate involvement, and social consciousness of low-income college students (LICSs) and higher-income college students (HICSs) in Taiwan. The study analyzed 1,453 LICSs and 1,453 HICSs from 156 colleges in Taiwan. The results showed that the two student groups exhibited different SESs and…

  7. Socioeconomic status is positively associated with measures of adiposity and insulin resistance, but inversely associated with dyslipidaemia in Colombian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Buitrago-Lopez (Adriana); E.H. van den Hooven (Edith); C.F. Rueda-Clausen (Christian F); N. Serrano (Norma); A.J. Ruiz (Alvaro J.); M.A. Pereira (Mark A); N.T. Mueller (Noel T)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases in developed societies, but investigation of SES and cardiometabolic risk in children in less economically developed populations is sparse. We aimed to examine associations among SE

  8. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  9. Parents' Socioeconomic Status and Health Literacy Domains among Shokrof Preparatory School Students , Shokrof Village, Algarbia Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseraty, Wafaa Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Parents' socioeconomic status is mainly impact their children health outcomes, cognitive, social and emotional development. It also had a great impact on children health-related knowledge, health-related attitudes, health-related communication, health-related behavior, and self-efficiency level. Enhancing health literacy domains are the keystone…

  10. Social Support and Socioeconomic Status Predict Secondary Students' Grades and Educational Plans Indifferently across Immigrant Group and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola

    2015-01-01

    Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…

  11. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  12. Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

  13. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  14. Scientific Argumentation for All? Comparing Teacher Beliefs about Argumentation in High, Mid, and Low Socioeconomic Status Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; McNeill, Katherine L.; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring all students have opportunities to engage in scientific argumentation is a key goal for K-12 students. While research has shown that teachers' beliefs about argumentation can impact their classroom instruction and that students in low socioeconomic status (SES) schools are less likely to experience challenging science learning, there is…

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SHIRAZ, SOUTHERN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Robab; Chan, Yoke Mun; Khor, Geok Lin; Rahman, Hejar Abul; Esmailzadeh, Ahmad; Wong, Teck Wee

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its individual components with socio-economic factors among 14-18 year-old adolescents in Shiraz, Iran. Using a multistage random sampling, a total of 538 (289 males and 249 females) adolescents consented to the study. Socio-economic status was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire while presence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components was ascertained using NCEP-ATP III criteria. The relationships between the participants' socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome and its components were determined using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Approximately 6% of the adolescents had metabolic syndrome, with significantly more males than females (9.3% vs 2.4%, p economic status and metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the studied participants. An intervention program to prevent metabolic syndrome needs to be developed for this young generation, especially among those who are overweight or obese and those with a family history of obesity. Keywords: adolescents, metabolic syndrome, components of metabolic syndrome, socio-economic status, Iran PMID:27244965

  16. Independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status on low back pain among health care workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Clausen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical workload...

  17. Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10 year-old girls : The NHLBI Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimm, SYS; Obarzanek, E; Barton, BA; Aston, CE; Similo, SL; Morrison, JA; Sabry, ZI; Schreiber, GB; McMahon, RP

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are inversely associated with obesity in 9- to 10-year-old black and white girls and their parents. Subjects were participants in the Growth and Health Study (NGHS) of the National Heart, Lung, and Bloo

  18. The Quadratic Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Learning Performance in China by Multilevel Analysis: Implications for Policies to Foster Education Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Verhaeghe, JeanPierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does…

  19. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Anyoha; F. N. Nnadi; J. Chikaire; J. A. Echetama; C. O. Utazi; R. A. Ihenacho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomi...

  20. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.

  1. Socioeconomic status and subclinical coronary disease in the Whitehall II epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Steptoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors in accounting for this association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CAC was assessed in 528 asymptomatic men and women aged 53-76 years, stratified into higher, intermediate and lower by grade of employment groups. Lifestyle (smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, biological (blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, inflammatory markers and psychosocial factors (work stress, financial strain, social support, depression, hostility, optimism were also measured. Detectable CAC was present in 293 participants (55.5%. The presence of calcification was related to lifestyle and biological risk factors, but not to grade of employment. But among individuals with detectable calcification, the severity of CAC was inversely associated with grade of employment (p = 0.010, and this relationship remained after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors. Compared with the higher grade group, there was a mean increase in log Agatston scores of 0.783 (95% C.I. 0.265-1.302, p = 0.003 in the intermediate and 0.941 (C.I. 0.226-1.657, p = 0.010 in the lower grade of employment groups, after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors. CONCLUSIONS: Low grade of employment did not predict the presence of calcification in this cohort, but was related to the severity of CAC. These findings suggest that lower SES may be particularly relevant at advanced stages of subclinical coronary

  2. Measuring VET Participation by Socioeconomic Status: An Examination of the Robustness of ABS SEIFA Measures over Time. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick; Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At every five-yearly census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) recalculates both the SEIFA (Socio-economic Indexes for Areas) indexes and also recalibrates the borders and sizes of the geographic areas from which these SEIFA measurements are derived. Further, over time, the composition of geographic areas may change, due to urban renewal…

  3. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  4. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

    OpenAIRE

    Holman C D'Arcy J; Moorin Rachael E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS)...

  5. Socio-economic status and types of childhood injury in Alberta: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES, demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance. Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total, superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more

  6. The effects of socioeconomic status and short stature on overweight, obesity and the risk of metabolic complications in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Álvarez Castaño

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia.Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5,556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved.Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of   obesity,  and risk of metabolic complications.Conclusion: These  results are not only from  individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore,  policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins  before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood.

  7. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. PMID:26189011

  8. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly.

  9. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  10. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  11. Reaction to political and socioeconomic transition and self-perceived health status in the adult population of Gjilan region, Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Qazimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of our study was to assess the association of reaction to political and socioeconomic transition with self-perceived general health status in adult men and women in a region of Kosovo, a post-war country in the Western Balkans which has proclaimed independence in 2008. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Gjilan region of Kosovo in 2014, including a representative sample of 867 primary health care users aged ≥35 years (419 men aged 54.3±10.9 years and 448 women aged 54.0±10.1 years; overall response rate: 87%. Reaction to political and socioeconomic aspects of transition was assessed by a three-item scale (trichotomized in the analysis into positive attitude, intermediate attitude, and negative attitude towards transition, which was previously used in the neighbouring Albania. Self-reported health status was measured on a 5-point scale which was dichotomized in the analysis into “good” vs. “poor” health. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of reaction to transition with self-rated health status. Results: In crude/unadjusted models, negative attitude to transition was a “strong” predictor of poor self-perceived health (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.7-3.8. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic factors and socioeconomic characteristics, the association was attenuated and was only borderline statistically significant (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.6, P=0.07. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important association between reaction to transition and self-perceived health status in the adult population of the newly independent Kosovo. Policymakers and decision-makers in post-war countries such as Kosovo should be aware of the health effects of attitudes towards political and socioeconomic aspects of transition, which is seemingly an important psychosocial factor.

  12. A Study of Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Bhopal District

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    Sheloj M Joshi, Swarna Likhar, Sanjay S Agarwal, Mahesh Kumar Mishra, Umashankar Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Majority of rural adolescent girls were under nourished. There was significant association between socio-economic status (SES and nutritional status of adolescent girls. Nutritional status has profound effect on health and school performance of adolescent girls.

  13. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

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    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  14. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

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    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  15. The relative effect of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by socioeconomic status

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    Ripping, Theodora M.; van der Waal, Danielle; Verbeek, André L.M.; Broeders, Mireille J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer incidence and mortality are higher in women with a high socioeconomic status (SES). The potential to prevent death from breast cancer is therefore greater in the high SES group. This does, however, require that the effectiveness of screening in the high SES group is equal to or greater than the effectiveness in the low SES group. The aim of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by SES. In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, women are invited to participate in biennial mammographic screening since 1975. Postal code is collected at each round and is used to calculate the SES of each woman based on the SES indicator of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research. The Dutch average was used to classify the SES score of each woman as either high or low. We designed a case-control study to investigate the effect of mammographic screening in women aged 50 to 75, 40 to 75, and 50 to 69 years, and calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among the women invited to the mammographic screening program in Nijmegen, 10% had a high SES. In women aged 50 to 75 years, the breast cancer death rate was 38% lower in screened women than in unscreened women. The ORs for women with high SES (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.31–2.19) and low SES did not differ significantly (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). Mammographic screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but we did not observe a significant difference in the relative effectiveness of screening by SES. If the effectiveness of mammographic screening is indeed not dependent on SES status, the absolute number of breast cancer deaths prevented by mammographic screening will be greater in the high SES than low SES group, because women with a high SES have a greater risk of breast cancer death. PMID:27495038

  16. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

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    Peter Congdon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas.

  17. The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria

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    Femi Ogunshola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180 students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

  18. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). PMID:26164418

  19. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. Method: The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Results: Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. Conclusion: SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control. PMID:26441784

  20. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  1. Jumping the gun: the problematic discourse on socioeconomic status and cardiovascular health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Smith, George Davey

    2013-10-01

    There has been an increased focus on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in India, especially on cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors. In this essay, we scrutinize the prevailing narrative that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are no longer confined to the economically advantaged groups but are an increasing burden among the poor in India. We conducted a comprehensive review of studies reporting the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and CVRF, CVD, and CVD-related mortality in India. With the exception of smoking and low fruit and vegetable intake, the studies clearly suggest that CVRF/CVD is more prevalent among high SES groups in India than among the low SES groups. Although CVD-related mortality rates appear to be higher among the lower SES groups, the proportion of deaths from CVD-related causes was found to be greatest among higher SES groups. The studies on SES and CVRF/CVD also reveal a substantial discrepancy between the data presented and the authors' interpretations and conclusions, along with an unsubstantiated claim that a reversal in the positive SES-CVRF/CVD association has occurred or is occurring in India. We conclude our essay by emphasizing the need to prioritize public health policies that are focused on the health concerns of the majority of the Indian population. Resource allocation in the context of efforts to make health care in India free and universal should reflect the proportional burden of disease on different population groups if it is not to entrench inequity.

  2. Parental Involvement and Adolescents' Educational Success: The Roles of Prior Achievement and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Sadler, Sydney

    2016-06-01

    Parental educational involvement in primary and secondary school is strongly linked to students' academic success; however; less is known about the long-term effects of parental involvement. In this study, we investigated the associations between four aspects of parents' educational involvement (i.e., home- and school-based involvement, educational expectations, academic advice) and young people's proximal (i.e., grades) and distal academic outcomes (i.e., educational attainment). Attention was also placed on whether these relations varied as a function of family socioeconomic status or adolescents' prior achievement. The data were drawn from 15,240 10th grade students (50 % females; 57 % White, 13 % African American, 15 % Latino, 9 % Asian American, and 6 % other race/ethnicity) participating in the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. We observed significant links between both school-based involvement and parental educational expectations and adolescents' cumulative high school grades and educational attainment. Moderation analyses revealed that school-based involvement seemed to be particularly beneficial for more disadvantaged youth (i.e., those from low-SES families, those with poorer prior achievement), whereas parents' academic socialization seemed to better promote the academic success of more advantaged youth (i.e., those from high-SES families, those with higher prior achievement). These findings suggest that academic interventions and supports could be carefully targeted to better support the educational success of all young people. PMID:26847424

  3. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact).

  4. Relative health effects of education, socioeconomic status and domestic gender inequity in Sweden: a cohort study.

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    Susan P Phillips

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. METHODS: Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 773 we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women and the work environment (for men in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated.

  5. Differential effects of socioeconomic status on working and procedural memory systems

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    Julia A Leonard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While prior research has shown a strong relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and working memory performance, the relation between SES and procedural (implicit memory remains unknown. Convergent research in both animals and humans has revealed a fundamental dissociation, both behaviorally and neurally, between a working memory system that depends on medial temporal-lobe structures and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC versus a procedural memory system that depends on the basal ganglia. Here, we measured performance in adolescents from lower- and higher-SES backgrounds on tests of working memory capacity (complex working memory span and procedural memory (probabilistic classification and their hippocampal, DLPFC, and caudate volumes. Lower-SES adolescents had worse working memory performance and smaller hippocampal and DLPFC volumes than their higher-SES peers, but there was no significant difference between the lower- and higher-SES groups on the procedural memory task or in caudate volumes. These findings suggest that SES may have a selective influence on hippocampal-prefrontal-dependent working memory and little influence on striatal-dependent procedural memory.

  6. Socioeconomic status and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: data from the Women's Health Study.

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    Timothy C Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We prospectively examined whether socioeconomic status (SES predicts incident type II diabetes (diabetes, a cardiovascular risk equivalent and burgeoning public health epidemic among women. METHODS: Participants include 23,992 women with Hb(A1c levels <6% and no CVD or diabetes at baseline followed from February 1993 to March 2007. SES was measured by education and income while diabetes was self-reported. RESULTS: Over 12.3 years of follow-up, 1,262 women developed diabetes. In age and race adjusted models, the relative risk of diabetes decreased with increasing education (<2 years of nursing, 2 to <4 years of nursing, bachelor's degree, master's degree, and doctorate: 1.0, 0.7 [95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.6-0.8], 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.6, 0.4 (95% CI, 0.3-0.5; p(trend<0.001. Adjustment for traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors attenuated this relationship (education: p(trend = 0.96. Similar associations were observed between income categories and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Advanced education and increasing income were both inversely associated with incident diabetes even in this relatively well-educated cohort. This relationship was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly body mass index.

  7. Differential effects of socioeconomic status on working and procedural memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Julia A; Mackey, Allyson P; Finn, Amy S; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    While prior research has shown a strong relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and working memory performance, the relation between SES and procedural (implicit) memory remains unknown. Convergent research in both animals and humans has revealed a fundamental dissociation, both behaviorally and neurally, between a working memory system that depends on medial temporal-lobe structures and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) vs. a procedural memory system that depends on the basal ganglia. Here, we measured performance in adolescents from lower- and higher-SES backgrounds on tests of working memory capacity (complex working memory span) and procedural memory (probabilistic classification) and their hippocampal, DLPFC, and caudate volumes. Lower-SES adolescents had worse working memory performance and smaller hippocampal and DLPFC volumes than their higher-SES peers, but there was no significant difference between the lower- and higher-SES groups on the procedural memory task or in caudate volumes. These findings suggest that SES may have a selective influence on hippocampal-prefrontal-dependent working memory and little influence on striatal-dependent procedural memory. PMID:26500525

  8. Nutritional status of children from Papua New Guinea: associations with socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sarah E; Nicholas Mascie-Taylor, C G

    2002-01-01

    Growth faltering has been well documented in children from Papua New Guinea, although there is evidence that broad processes of modernization, such as cash cropping, have resulted in increased body size. It is not clear, however, what household socioeconomic factors may be associated with larger body size in populations undergoing early stages of modernization. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional status of children between birth and 5 years of age living near Kanabea, Papua New Guinea, a relatively remote outpost in the highland fringe experiencing a limited cash economy. Weight and height were measured on 260 children from 190 households. The mean z-scores of -2.26 +/- 1.50 (SD) for height-for-age, -2.43 +/- 1.25 for weight-for-age, and -1.34 +/- 1.49 for weight-for-height are suggestive of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Using a cut-off value of pidgin and/or English in addition to the local language had children with better z-scores.

  9. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

  10. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-03-09

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥ 1 fruit serving and ≥ 3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  11. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes

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    Jihyun You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES and fruit and vegetable (F/V intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥1 fruit serving and ≥3 vegetable servings per day versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001 and F/V intakes (beta = −0.17, p = 0.038 were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046. Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  12. Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status.

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    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services. PMID:26439072

  13. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

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    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  14. Evaluating the evidence base: policies and interventions to address socioeconomic status gradients in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, William H; Schoeni, Robert F; Adler, Nancy E; Stewart, Judith

    2010-02-01

    This chapter discusses the current evidence base for policies that could address socioeconomic status (SES) health gradients in the United States. The present volume has documented an enormous amount of research on the linkages between SES and health, but there are still relatively few studies that rigorously establish the effectiveness of particular policies or interventions in reducing those gradients. Given the difficulty in developing randomized evidence for many types of interventions related to social determinants of health, we argue for conducting policy analysis from a Bayesian perspective. This Bayesian approach combines information on best available theory and evidence regarding probable health benefits and costs of an intervention, providing a framework that also incorporates the probable costs of inaction. The second half of the chapter adopts a ladder metaphor to classify policies and interventions that could reduce SES gradients in population health. Using this framework, we consider the evidence base for various types of policies, focusing primarily on the social determinants of health, under the rubric that "all policy is health policy." We conclude by discussing promising strategies for future strengthening of the evidence base for policy, including the role of health impact assessment. PMID:20201876

  15. Understanding associations among race, socioeconomic status, and health: Patterns and prospects.

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    Williams, David R; Priest, Naomi; Anderson, Norman B

    2016-04-01

    Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) are social categories that capture differential exposure to conditions of life that have health consequences. Race/ethnicity and SES are linked to each other, but race matters for health even after SES is considered. This commentary considers the complex ways in which race combines with SES to affect health. There is a need for greater attention to understanding how risks and resources in the social environment are systematically patterned by race, ethnicity and SES, and how they combine to influence cardiovascular disease and other health outcomes. Future research needs to examine how the levels, timing and accumulation of institutional and interpersonal racism combine with other toxic exposures, over the life-course, to influence the onset and course of illness. There is also an urgent need for research that seeks to build the science base that will identify the multilevel interventions that are likely to enhance the health of all, even while they improve the health of disadvantaged groups more rapidly than the rest of the population so that inequities in health can be reduced and ultimately eliminated. We also need sustained research attention to identifying how to build the political support to reduce the large shortfalls in health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27018733

  16. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status? A factorial vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark; Hansen, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced by the patient's SES. Material and method An experimental factorial vignette survey was used. Four different vignettes describing fictitious patient cases with different SES variables were randomly allocated to therapists working in somatic hospitals. Thereafter, the therapists judged specific clinical situations and general attitudes in relation to the patient's SES. Chi-square was used to test the statistical association between the variables. Results No statistically significant associations were found between the specific clinical situations and the patient's SES. A statistical significant association was found between general attitudes and the patient's SES. Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the therapist's gender, age, and the therapeutic judgement in relation to SES. Conclusion In the specific clinical situations, Danish therapists seem to maintain their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted. PMID:26982521

  17. Influence of socioeconomic status trajectories on innate immune responsiveness in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B Azad

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Lower socioeconomic status (SES is consistently associated with poor health, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this inequality. In children, we examined the impact of early-life SES trajectories on the intensity of global innate immune activation, recognizing that excessive activation can be a precursor to inflammation and chronic disease. METHODS: Stimulated interleukin-6 production, a measure of immune responsiveness, was analyzed ex vivo for 267 Canadian schoolchildren from a 1995 birth cohort in Manitoba, Canada. Childhood SES trajectories were determined from parent-reported housing data using a longitudinal latent-class modeling technique. Multivariate regression was conducted with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003, with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts. Despite initially lower SES, responses from children experiencing increasing SES trajectories throughout childhood were indistinguishable from high-SES children. Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01. Independent of SES trajectories, immune responsiveness was increased in First Nations children (p<0.05 and urban children with atopic asthma (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

  18. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonska Beata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  19. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  20. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

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    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  1. Performance of Coral Reef Management within Marine Protected Areas: Integrating Ecological, Socioeconomic, Technological, and Institutional Dimensions

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    Roni Bawole

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics and approaches that contributed to the successful of coral reef management (CRM efforts.  One such characteristic occurred in most case  studies was the importance of integrating ecological, socio-economic, technological use, and  institutional dimensions during all processes. Based on a multi-dimensional analysis,  the sustainability of CRM was 56.34% cumulatively, indicating a moderate level of management. This study  further suggested the importance to improve  technology and institution to achieve an effective CRM since both dimensions have  contributed only 38.80% and 49.26% respectively.  Stakeholder involvement was also central to the success of networking development within the management of Cenderawasih Bay National Park, specifically in facilitating the integration of ecological, socioeconomic, political will, and local cultural objectives in achieving an optimum planning objectives. Compilations of baselin information (both scientific and local knowledge were important to evaluate the effectiveness of all processes and for adaptive management to increase its potential in the management strategies. Balancing the integration of all management dimensions (ecology, socio-economic, technology, and institution in the whole processes with specific attributes in each case, would lead to an adaptive management for the implementation of conservation and management process.Keywords: coral  reef, management performance,  integrated dimensions, marine protected areas.

  2. Constructing pragmatic socioeconomic status assessment tools to address health equality challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Tajik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key challenge for equality evaluation and monitoring, mainly in developing countries, is assessing socioeconomic status (SES of individuals. This difficulty along with low technical competency, have resulted in many health information collected in these countries which are devoid of suitable SES indices. However, simplifying data collection requirements for estimating economic parameters seems to guarantee their wide adoption by survey and health information system (HIS designers, resulting in immediate production of equity-oriented policy-relevant information. The goal of this study is obtaining adequate number of variables, which their combination can provide a valid assessment of SES in Iranian population. Methods: The data source was Living Standards Measurement Study of Iran (2006. Data of 27,000 households on the ownership of 33 household assets was used for this analysis. Households of this study were divided into 5 groups in terms of SES status using principle component analysis. Then selection was made among the 33 variables so that a combination with minimum necessary number for obtaining SES status is reached. Agreement of the new combination (including minimum number of variables with full variable combination (including all 33 variables was assessed using weighted kappa. Results: A minimum set of six variables including having kitchen, bathroom, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, freezer and personal computer could successfully discriminate SES of the population. Comparing this 6 item-index with the whole 33 item-index revealed that 65% of households were in the same quintiles, with a weighted kappa statistics of 0.76. For households in different quintiles, movement was generally limited to one quintile, with just 2% of households moving two or more quintiles. Conclusions: The proposed simple index is completely applicable in current Iran′s society. It can be used in different survey and studies. The development is

  3. Does socioeconomic status affect the association of social relationships and health? A moderator analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations have repeatedly been found to be an important determinant of health. However, it is unclear whether the association between social relations and health is consistent throughout different status groups. It is likely that health effects of social relations vary in different status groups, as stated in the hypothesis of differential vulnerability. In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES moderates the association between social relations and health. Methods In the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, conducted in a dense populated Western German region (N = 4,814, response rate 56%, SES was measured by income and education. Social relations were classified by using both structural as well as functional measures. The Social Integration Index was used as a structural measure, whilst functional aspects were assessed by emotional and instrumental support. Health was indicated by self-rated health (1 item and a short version of the CES-D scale measuring the frequency of depressive symptoms. Based on logistic regression models we calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI which indicates existing moderator effects. Results Our findings show highest odds ratios (ORs for both poor self-rated health and more frequent depressive symptoms when respondents have a low SES as well as inappropriate social relations. For example, respondents with low income and a low level of social integration have an OR for a high depression score of 2.85 (95% CI 2.32-4.49, compared to an OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.12-1.86 amongst those with a low income but a high level of social integration and an OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.45-2.03 amongst respondents with high income but a low level of social integration. As reference group those reporting high income and a high level of social integration were used. Conclusions The analyses indicate that the association of social relations and subjective

  4. Constructing Pragmatic Socioeconomic Status Assessment Tools to Address Health Equality Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Parvin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: A key challenge for equality evaluation and monitoring, mainly in developing countries, is assessing socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals. This difficulty along with low technical competency, have resulted in many health information collected in these countries which are devoid of suitable SES indices. However, simplifying data collection requirements for estimating economic parameters seems to guarantee their wide adoption by survey and health information system (HIS) designers, resulting in immediate production of equity-oriented policy-relevant information. The goal of this study is obtaining adequate number of variables, which their combination can provide a valid assessment of SES in Iranian population. Methods: The data source was Living Standards Measurement Study of Iran (2006). Data of 27,000 households on the ownership of 33 household assets was used for this analysis. Households of this study were divided into 5 groups in terms of SES status using principle component analysis. Then selection was made among the 33 variables so that a combination with minimum necessary number for obtaining SES status is reached. Agreement of the new combination (including minimum number of variables) with full variable combination (including all 33 variables) was assessed using weighted kappa. Results: A minimum set of six variables including having kitchen, bathroom, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, freezer and personal computer could successfully discriminate SES of the population. Comparing this 6 item-index with the whole 33 item-index revealed that 65% of households were in the same quintiles, with a weighted kappa statistics of 0.76. For households in different quintiles, movement was generally limited to one quintile, with just 2% of households moving two or more quintiles. Conclusions: The proposed simple index is completely applicable in current Iran's society. It can be used in different survey and studies. The development is quite simple and can

  5. The relative impact of socioeconomic status and childhood trauma on Black-White differences in paranoid personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, Juliette M; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2014-02-01

    The current study examines mechanisms of racial differences in symptoms of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in a sample of adults ages 55-64 from the St. Louis, MO area. Socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood trauma were tested as intervening variables in the association between race and PPD symptoms using structural equation modeling. PPD symptoms were modeled as a latent variable composed of items from the PPD scales of the Multi-Source Assessment of Personality Pathology self and informant reports and the Structured Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Personality. Childhood trauma was measured using the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, and SES was a composite of parent education, participant education, and annual household income. Blacks exhibited higher levels of PPD symptoms across the 3 personality measures, reported significantly lower SES, and reported greater childhood trauma. The proposed model was a good fit to the data, and the effect of race on PPD symptoms operated mainly through SES. The indirect effect through SES was stronger for males. Findings suggest that racial differences in PPD symptoms are partly explained by problems more commonly experienced by Black individuals.

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingling Chen

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.

  7. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  8. Different Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Urban and Rural Residents’Health%社会经济地位与城乡居民健康差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅杰; 成萍

    2015-01-01

    Based on the date from China General Social Survey (CGSS)2010,the thesis analyzes the health re-turn of the socioeconomic status under different institutional arrangements in urban and rural areas.With the or-dered logistic regression analysis,the following conclusions can be drawn:first of all,compared with the rural res-idents,the urban residents’health is better in general,while after controlling the socioeconomic status factors,the rural residents’health is better.More importantly,the way socioeconomic status influences health is different be-tween the two kinds of residents.Specifically,the rural residents’education and income has higher health return than the urban residents.After adding the age groups,the socioeconomic status has different health impacts on dif-ferent age groups in the two areas.As a result,to reduce the health gap between residents in urban and rural are-as,the government needs to improve the rural residents’income and education,and to promote the harmonious development of urban and rural areas.%基于2010年中国综合社会调查(CGSS)数据,探讨了基于城乡不同制度安排下社会经济地位对居民健康水平的回报。回归分析发现:尽管总体上城市居民的健康状况要好于农村居民,但在控制社会经济地位等变量后,农村居民要强于城市居民;更重要的是社会经济地位对城乡居民健康的影响机制是存在差异的,教育、收入对农村居民的回报大于对城市居民。进而,添加年龄组后,发现经济社会地位对城乡居民健康影响在不同人群中也会有所不同。为缩小城乡居民之间的健康差异,应着力提升农村居民的收入和教育水平,促进城乡协调发展。

  9. Maternal child-rearing attitudes, IQ, and socioeconomic status as related to cognitive abilities of five-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H W; Sommerfelt, K; Sonnander, K; Ahlsten, G

    1996-08-01

    The effects of maternal child-rearing attitudes, as measured by the Child Rearing Practices Report, on 5-yr.-old children's Verbal IQ and Performance IQ were investigated in a Scandinavian sample of 108 boys and 126 girls. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Restrictiveness, as defined by scores on the Report, showed negative relations to the cognitive measures. However, the significant negative relation between Restrictiveness and Verbal IQ, obtained for both sexes, disappeared when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Nurturance, as defined by scores on the Report, was significantly related to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ for boys only. Significant relationships between scores on Nurturance and cognitive abilities of boys remained when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled. PMID:8873781

  10. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription...... of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates...... of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins...

  11. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  12. The experience of living with stroke in low urban and rural socioeconomic areas of South Africa

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    M. Maleka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of stroke on stroke survivors are profound and affecttheir quality of life. The aim of this study was to establish the experience of peopleliving with stroke in low socioeconomic urban and rural areas of South Africa.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data.Participants were identified from stroke registers and recruited from PHC clinicsin Soweto, Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Participants had to have had a stroke,be above the age of 18 and had lived in the community six months to a year followingtheir stroke. The researcher or research assistant conducted the interviews ofparticipants who had had strokes as well as their caregivers in the home language of the participants. The interviewswere audio taped, transcribed and translated into English. A thematic content analysis was done.Thirty two participants were interviewed, 13 from Soweto, Gauteng, and 19 from rural Limpopo provinces. Theresults suggest that the sudden, overwhelming transformation as a result of a stroke forms a background for loss ofcommunity mobility, social isolation, role reversal within the family and community, loss of role within the family andcommunity, loss of meaningful activities of daily living, loss of hope and threat to livelihood amongst stroke survivorsliving in low socioeconomic areas of South Africa.An overwhelming picture of despondency was found, with few positive stories told in both settings. The themesidentified from the interviews reflected the experience and issues that a patient with stroke has to deal with in lowsocioeconomic areas of South Africa.

  13. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Exposures to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) among Pregnant African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wolff, Mary S.; Susser, Ezra; Matte, Thomas D

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the associations between socioeconomic status and exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in a cohort of inner-city African-American pregnant women. Data for this study were derived from the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center subcohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. African-American women from whom venous blood had been collected during their third trimester of pregnancy during the tim...

  14. Who can afford to look to the future? The relationship between socio-economic status and proactive coping.

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to examine, whether middle-aged and older adults spontaneously engage in proactive coping to prevent future problems associated with ageing and whether differences in proactive coping were associated with socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: As part of the cross-sectional Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2, 2001), a representative sample of 3189 adults aged 50-70 years filled in a questionnaire measuring proactive coping. In addi...

  15. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Nikniaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.044 and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.049. After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (β=-0.28, P<0.034, copper (β=-0.18, P<0.048, and iron (β=-0.22, P<0.04 concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.

  16. Socioeconomic position and childhood-adolescent weight status in rich countries: a systematic review, 1990–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Barriuso, Laura; Miqueleiz Autor, Estrella; Albaladejo, Romana; Villanueva, Rosa; Juana M. Santos; Regidor Poyatos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a major problem in rich countries due to its high prevalence and its harmful health consequences. An exploratory analysis conducted in the PubMed database highlighted that the number of papers published on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and childhood-adolescent weight status had risen substantially with respect to an earlier review which had covered the period 1990–2005. Methods To describe the findings on the relationship between SEP and...

  17. Overweight and obesity in relation to socio-economic status, tobacco smoking and plant food supplements usage

    OpenAIRE

    García-Alvarez, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Salud Pública (Epidemiología, Planificación y Nutrición) [EN]Overweight and obesity are analysed in relation to gender, socio-economic status and tobacco smoking in the adult catalan population from the ENCAT serveys 1&2; BMI is also analysed in relation to the usage of plant food supplements (PFS) in the participants of the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012

  18. Socioeconomic status and substance use among Swiss young men: a population-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Charitonidi, Eleni; Studer, Joseph; Gaume, Jacques; Gmel, Gerhard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Bertholet, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is often inversely related to health outcomes and is likely to play a role in the use of psychoactive substances among young individuals, although little consensus exists on the association between SES and substance use. The purpose of the study was to determine the association of three SES indicators (perceived family income, education level of participants, and parental education level) with past year use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other illicit dru...

  19. Discipline Responses: Influences of Parents' Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Beliefs About Parenting, Stress, and Cognitive–Emotional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Zelli, Arnaldo; BATES, JOHN E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    Direct and indirect precursors to parents' harsh discipline responses to hypothetical vignettes about child misbehavior were studied with data from 978 parents (59% mothers; 82% European American and 16% African American) of 585 kindergarten-aged children. SEM analyses showed that parents' beliefs about spanking and child aggression and family stress mediated a negative relation between socioeconomic status and discipline. In turn, perception of the child and cognitive–emotional processes (ho...

  20. The Influence of the Home Learning Environment on Preschool Children's Informal Mathematical Development: Variation by Age and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    DeFlorio, Lydia Laurene

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) generally enter kindergarten with significantly less mathematical knowledge than children from families of middle SES. Research reveals that this discrepancy is present, although to a lesser degree, at age three years, the age many children enter preschool for the first time (Starkey & Klein, 2008). This mixed-methods correlational study explores relationships between elements of the home learning environment and...

  1. Effects of Race and Socioeconomic Status on the Relative Influence of Education and Literacy on Cognitive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that reading ability is a stronger predictor of cognitive functioning than years of education, particularly for African Americans. The current study was designed to determine whether the relative influence of literacy and education on cognitive abilities varies as a function of race or socioeconomic status (SES). We examined the unique influence of education and reading scores on a range of cognitive tests in low and high SES African Americans and Whites. Literacy ...

  2. Association of obesity with socioeconomic status among adults of ages 18 to 80 years in rural Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Leilei; Cheng, Yue; Kang, Yijun; Yuan, Shuyi; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding social disparities in obesity are presently an essential element in establishing public health priorities. However, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has not been assessed in rural Northwest China. This study aims to explore the effect of SES on overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity by gender and age in rural Northwest China. Methods A total of 3030 participants between the ages of 18 to 80 years from rural Hanzhong, Shaanxi province, N...

  3. Time trends and sex differences in associations between socioeconomic status indicators and overweight-obesity in Mexico (2006–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Quezada, Amado D.; Lozada-Tequeanes, Ana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the associations between specific socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and overweight or obesity (OWOB) have been studied in different countries, fewer evidence exists for these associations when multiple SES indicators are considered simultaneously. Furthermore, there are few studies investigating time trends in OWOB and their relation with SES in upper-middle income countries, especially for men. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the nature and ...

  4. Obesity, race/ethnicity and the multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status during the transition to adulthood: A factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scharoun-Lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S.; Jay S. Kaufman; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity widen dramatically during young adulthood in the US. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity can provide insight on these disparities. However, the delay and complexity of the transition to adulthood creates challenges for defining SES using traditional, single indicators, such as income or years of education. Our objective was to define a multidimensional measure of young adult SES using ex...

  5. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Hidehiro Sugisawa,1 Yumiko Shimizu,2 Tamaki Kumagai,3 Hiroaki Sugisaki,4 Seiji Ohira,5 Toshio Shinoda6 1Graduate School of Gerontology, J.F. Oberlin University, Machida, 2Faculty of Nursing, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Chofu, 3School of Nursing, Osaka City University, Osaka, 4Hachioji Azumacho Clinic, Hachioji, 5Sapporo Kita Clinic, Sapporo, 6Kawakita General Hospital, Suginami, Japan Study purpose: Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of he...

  6. Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaysa Monteiro RAMOS; Antonio Alves de ALMEIDA JÚNIOR; Thayanne Monteiro RAMOS; Sônia Maria Alves NOVAIS; Sara GRINFELD; Tânia Maria Vieira FORTES; Maria Auxiliadora Silva PEREIRA

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire abo...

  7. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cutumisu Nicoleta; Spence John C; Carson Valerie; Cargill Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and we...

  8. The Women’s Health Initiative: the Food Environment, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Dubowitz, T.; Ghosh-Dastidar, B; Eibner, C; Slaughter, M.E.; Fernandes, M; Whitsel, E.A.; Bird, C E; Jewell, A; Margolis, K L.; Li, W.; Michael, Y.; Shih, R; Manson, J.; Escarce, J J

    2011-01-01

    Using data (n=60,775 women) from the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)— a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years — we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman’s residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP).

  9. Effect of socioeconomic status on caregivers' knowledge and beliefs regarding child health care in Savelugu Nanton, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Hekli, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Household ...

  10. Socioeconomic status and lung cancer incidence in men in The Netherlands: is there a role for occupational exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, A. J.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Kant, I J.; Swaen, G M; Kremer, A. M.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of occupational exposure to carcinogens in explaining the association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. Data on diet, other lifestyle factors, sociodemographic characteristics and job history were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. Follow up for incident cancer was established by record linkage with a national pathology register and with regional cancer registries. SETTING: Populat...

  11. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

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    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  12. Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among Indian urban youth: the role of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the distribution of tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors among youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 6th and 8th grades in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai (N = 11,642). The survey was conducted in 2004, before the implementation of a program designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use (MYTRI). Mixed-effect regression models were used (a) to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students, (b) to investigate whether certain psychosocial factors were associated with increased tobacco use, and (c) to determine how these factors varied by school type. Ever-use of multiple forms of tobacco (e.g., gutkha, bidis, and cigarettes) was more prevalent among government school students than private school students. After adjusting for city, gender, grade, and age, we found the prevalence rate for ever-use of any tobacco product to be 18.9% for government school students, compared with 12.2% for private school students (padvertising was also a strong correlate of current tobacco use for government school students but not private school students. In two large cities of India, students attending government schools are using many forms of tobacco at higher rates than private school students. The psychosocial risk profile of government school students suggests they are more vulnerable to initiation and use and to outside influences that encourage use. PMID:18188751

  13. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

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    Williams Julita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255 in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8 and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5 were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals.

  14. Reading skill-fractional anisotropy relationships in visuospatial tracts diverge depending on socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R

    2016-07-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is unknown. We here investigated a potential interactive relationship between SES and real-word reading skill in the white matter in 42 typically developing children. SES was determined based on parental education; reading skill and age were not significantly related to SES. There was a significant neural interaction: Clusters in the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), left superior longitudinal fasciculus, and left corticospinal tract demonstrated interactive skill-SES relationships in fractional anisotropy. Follow-up analyses demonstrated that higher SES children showed a positive relationship between fractional anisotropy, reflecting tract coherence, and reading skill in left hemisphere tract clusters, whereas lower SES children showed a positive relationship in the right hemisphere homologues. Broadly, the ILF has been demonstrated to support orthographic skill on the left and more general visuospatial processing on the right, so high reading achievement in lower SES children may rely on supplementary visuospatial processing more than for higher SES readers. This pattern is consistent with previous work reporting low SES children's environments to include less rich verbal experience, which may lead them to disproportionately draw on visuospatial skills for success. Further, these results indicate that group SES differences may be best described by an adaptive, not a deficit, model. PMID:27412229

  15. Do agreements between adolescent and parent reports on family socioeconomic status vary with household financial stress?

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    Chou Yiing-Jenq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES. However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income varied with parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Methods 2,593 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years, and one of their corresponding parents from the Taiwan Longitudinal Youth Project conducted in 2000 were analyzed. Consistency of adolescents' and parents' reports on parental educational attainment, parental occupation and household income were examined by parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Results Parent-reported SES variables are closely associated with family financial stress. For all levels of household financial stress, the degree of concordance between adolescent's and parent's reports are highest for parental education (κ ranging from 0.87 to 0.71 followed by parental occupation (κ ranging from 0.50 to 0.34 and household income (κ ranging from 0.43 to 0.31. Concordance for father's education and parental occupation decreases with higher parent-reported financial stress. This phenomenon was less significant for parent-reported relative standard of living. Conclusions Though the agreement between adolescents' and parents' reports on the three SES measures is generally judged to be good in most cases, using adolescents reports for family SES may still be biased if analysis is not stratified by family financial stress.

  16. Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?

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    Kevin R Fontaine

    Full Text Available We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1 The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO, and (2 The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT. In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex the raw (unstandardized regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2 in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p = 0.01. Controlling for parental BMI (both adoptive and biological reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p = .034 and the coefficient for adoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average BMI of the rearing father and mother (i.e., mid-parental BMI reduced the SES coefficient by 47% in their biological offspring (p≤.0001, and by 12% in their adoptive offspring (p = .09. Thus, despite the differing structures of the two adoption studies, both suggest that shared genetic diathesis and direct environmental transmission contribute about equally to the association between rearing SES and offspring BMI.

  17. Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T; Holst, Claus; Desmond, Renee; Stunkard, Albert J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Allison, David B

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1) The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO), and (2) The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex) the raw (unstandardized) regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p = 0.01). Controlling for parental BMI (both adoptive and biological) reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p = .034) and the coefficient for adoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average BMI of the rearing father and mother (i.e., mid-parental BMI) reduced the SES coefficient by 47% in their biological offspring (p≤.0001), and by 12% in their adoptive offspring (p = .09). Thus, despite the differing structures of the two adoption studies, both suggest that shared genetic diathesis and direct environmental transmission contribute about equally to the association between rearing SES and offspring BMI. PMID:22110724

  18. Childhood socioeconomic status, telomere length, and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Turner, Ronald B; Marsland, Anna L; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng; Epel, Elissa S; Doyle, William J

    2013-11-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood and adolescence has been found to predict greater susceptibility to common cold viruses in adults. Here, we test whether low childhood SES is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in adulthood, and whether telomere length mediates the association between childhood SES and susceptibility to acute upper respiratory disease in adulthood. At baseline, 196 healthy volunteers reported whether they currently owned their home and, for each year of their childhood, whether their parents owned the family home. Volunteers also had blood drawn for assessment of specific antibody to the challenge virus, and for CD8+ CD28- T-lymphocyte telomere length (in a subset, n=135). They were subsequently quarantined in a hotel, exposed to a virus (rhinovirus [RV] 39) that causes a common cold and followed for infection and illness (clinical cold) over five post-exposure days. Lower childhood SES as measured by fewer years of parental home ownership was associated with shorter adult CD8+ CD28- telomere length and with an increased probability of developing infection and clinical illness when exposed to a common cold virus in adulthood. These associations were independent of adult SES, age, sex, race, body mass, neuroticism, and childhood family characteristics. Associations with infections and colds were also independent of pre-challenge viral-specific antibody and season. Further analyses do not support mediating roles for smoking, alcohol consumption or physical activity but suggest that CD8+ CD28- cell telomere length may act as a partial mediator of the associations between childhood SES and infection and childhood SES and colds.

  19. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Steyl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual’s ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals, especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients’ ability to manage their disease.Aim: The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease.Setting: The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa.Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8 conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33, agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes.Results: Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people’s understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes.Conclusion: Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications.

  20. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

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    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  1. The effects of socioeconomic status, clinical factors, and genetic ancestry on pulmonary tuberculosis disease in northeastern Mexico.

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    Bonnie N Young

    Full Text Available Diverse socioeconomic and clinical factors influence susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB disease in Mexico. The role of genetic factors, particularly those that differ between the parental groups that admixed in Mexico, is unclear. The objectives of this study are to identify the socioeconomic and clinical predictors of the transition from latent TB infection (LTBI to pulmonary TB disease in an urban population in northeastern Mexico, and to examine whether genetic ancestry plays an independent role in this transition. We recruited 97 pulmonary TB disease patients and 97 LTBI individuals from a public hospital in Monterrey, Nuevo León. Socioeconomic and clinical variables were collected from interviews and medical records, and genetic ancestry was estimated for a subset of 142 study participants from 291,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We examined crude associations between the variables and TB disease status. Significant predictors from crude association tests were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. We also compared genetic ancestry between LTBI individuals and TB disease patients at 1,314 SNPs in 273 genes from the TB biosystem in the NCBI BioSystems database. In crude association tests, 12 socioeconomic and clinical variables were associated with TB disease. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that marital status, diabetes, and smoking were independently associated with TB status. Genetic ancestry was not associated with TB disease in either crude or multivariable analyses. Separate analyses showed that LTBI individuals recruited from hospital staff had significantly higher European genetic ancestry than LTBI individuals recruited from the clinics and waiting rooms. Genetic ancestry differed between individuals with LTBI and TB disease at SNPs located in two genes in the TB biosystem. These results indicate that Monterrey may be structured with respect to genetic ancestry, and that genetic

  2. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhauser, Marco; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Püschel, Klaus; Yañez, Fernando; Montero, Joaquín; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria

    2005-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among adolescents, physical activity is associated with benefits in the prevention and control of emotional distress, and improvement of self-esteem. Countries in transitional epidemiological scenarios, such as Chile, need to develop effective strategies to improve physical activity as a way to face the epidemic of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical fitness and mental health status of adolescents living in a low socioeconomic status area in Santiago, Chile. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the program over one academic year. The study included 198 students aged 15 years old. Two ninth grade classes were randomly selected as the intervention group, with two classes of the same grade as controls. A social planning approach was used to develop the intervention. The program was designed and implemented based on student preferences, teachers' expertise and local resources. Changes in physiological and mental health status were assessed. After the intervention, maximum oxygen capacity achieved a significant increase of 8.5% in the intervention versus 1.8% in the control group (p performance scores improved significantly more in the intervention versus the control group (p > 0.01). Anxiety score decreased 13.7% in the intervention group versus 2.8% in the control group (p 80%. To conclude, a school-based program to improve physical activity in adolescents of low socioeconomic status, obtained a high level of participation and achieved significant benefits in terms of physical fitness and mental health status. PMID:15788528

  3. Tuberculosis in asia and the pacific: The role of socioeconomic status and health system development

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    Jie Wu

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.

  4. Adapting an effective lifestyle intervention towards individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins: the design of the MetSLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuscher, D.; Bukman, A.J.; Meershoek, A.; Renes, R.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Baak, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background People with low socioeconomic status (SES) and some ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in lifestyle programmes. Therefore, a lifestyle programme was developed especially targeting these groups. Developing this lifestyle programme and designing an intervention study to test the e

  5. Socio-Economic Status, HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigma, and Sexual Behavior in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-3), this paper analyzes the socioeconomic correlates of sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma in India. The main findings are that, overall, the Indian population is faithful and abstains from sex with very small variations across socioeconomic classes. However, given the large size of the population, there is still room for some concern as condom use is low, knowledge about the disease is poor, and stigma is high; especially w...

  6. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

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    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  7. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I M J; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was...

  8. Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Madjid Atek; Pierre Traissac; Jalila El Ati; Youcef Laid; Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri; Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay; Nadia Mézimèche; Souha Bougatef; Chiraz Béji; Leila Boutekdjiret; Yves Martin-Prével; Hassiba Lebcir; Agnès Gartner; Patrick Kolsteren; Francis Delpeuch

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n...

  9. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, M.; Virtanen, M; Kawachi, I; Nyberg, ST; Alfredsson, L; Batty, GD; Bjorner, JB; Borritz, M; Brunner, EJ; Burr, H; Dragano, N.; Ferrie, JE; Fransson, EI; Hamer, M.; Heikkila, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (c...

  10. Are all immigrant mothers really at risk of low birth weight and perinatal mortality? The crucial role of socio-economic status

    OpenAIRE

    Racape, Judith; Schoenborn, Claudia; Sow, Mouctar; Alexander, Sophie; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing studies show that immigrants have different perinatal health outcomes compared to native women. Nevertheless, we lack a systematic examination of the combined effects of immigrant status and socioeconomic factors on perinatal outcomes. Our objectives were to analyse national Belgian data to determine 1) whether socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the association between maternal nationality and perinatal outcomes (low birth weight and perinatal mortality); 2) the effect ...

  11. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany

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    Annika Gottschling-Lang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870. Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were collected by a standardised questionnaire. Results. Significant differences between the SES groups were identified especially in the field of fine motor skills (P<0.05. In gross motor development differences were not statistically significant. Prevalence rate of fine motor developmental risks ranges from 1.7% to 20.9%; the rate of gross motor developmental risks tops out at 14.4%. The prevalence rates are associated with age and sex. Conclusions. Fine motor skills in 3–6 years old preschool children are significantly associated with the socioeconomic status. In gross motor skills an association could not be identified. In this study, motor development was more affected by sex than by SES.

  12. Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: a longitudinal study of body mass index among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

    2007-09-01

    Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES

  13. Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and the use of mobility devices by children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. R. Cury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional mobility of children with cerebral palsy (CP is influenced by personal and environmental factors, serving as barriers and/or facilitators and impacting on children's strategies and functional outcome. OBJECTIVES: To describe typical mobility methods used by children with CP at home, school and community and to compare them across family's socioeconomic levels (SES. METHODS: The Functional Mobility Scale was used to assess mobility of 113 children with CP of high and low SES at home, school, and community. RESULTS: Differences in mobility methods of participants classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II, III and IV were found between home and community. For levels III and IV, differences were also found between home and school. At home, participants from higher SES used wheelchairs more frequently while those from lower SES used floor mobility (crawling. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and use of mobility devices by children with CP.

  14. The effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on esophageal cancer survival in working-age patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Jian-Han; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality. More than 90% of patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan have squamous cell carcinoma. Survival of such patients is related to socioeconomic status (SES). We studied the association between SES (individual and neighborhood) and the survival of working-age patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan. A population-based study was conducted of 4097 patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer between 2002 and 2006. Each was traced for 5 years or until death. Individual SES was defined by enrollee job category. Neighborhood SES was based on household income and dichotomized into advantaged or disadvantaged. Multilevel logistic regression was used to compare the survival rates by SES group after adjustment for possible confounding and risk factors. Hospital and neighborhood SES were used as random effects in multilevel logistic regression. In patients younger than 65 years, 5-year overall survival rates were worst for those with low individual SES living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. After adjustment for patient characteristics, esophageal cancer patients with high individual SES had a 39% lower risk of mortality than those with low individual SES (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.77). Patients living in disadvantaged areas with high individual SES were more likely to receive surgery than those with low SES (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.89). Esophageal cancer patients with low individual SES have the worst 5-year survival, even with a universal healthcare system. Public health, education, and social welfare programs should address the inequality of esophageal cancer survival. PMID:27399129

  15. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D'angiulli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs and other electroencephalographic (EEG evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc. and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc. may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant and unattended (irrelevant tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive

  16. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  17. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND ORAL HEALTH BEHAVIOUR – POSSIBLE DENTAL CARIES RISK FACTORS IN SCHOOL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BALAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As known, over the whole world, the differences of socio-economic type are also reflected in the general and oro-dental health condition of the members of various communities. The aim of the present study was to determine carious experience in the adolescents of the Iasi district and to establish its correlation with the socioeconomic level and sanogene behaviour of the subjects. Materials and method. The study was performed on 2654 children from the Iasi district, with limits of chronological ages between 10-19 years. Clinical examinations were made for determining the carious experience (DMFT – decayed, missing and filled teeth. Data on the socio-economic status and sanogene behavious of the adolescents were collected with the WHO questionnaire and descriptive analysis was made with the statistic program SPSS 14.0. Results. Caries prevalence was of 73.45% for the 10-14 years group of age, being higher in male subjects, comparatively with the female ones (77.62% vs. 69.29%, and of 86.17%, respectively, for the 15-19 years group, slightly higher values being registered in girls (89.78%. The DMFT value registered in the 10-14 years group, of 2.35 ± 1.45 DS, was lower than that of 3.96 ± 0.87 – recorded in the 15-19 years one. Most of the subjects with DMFT = 0 belonged to the 10-14 years group of age. The lowest DMFT value (1.23 ± 0.7 DS was attained in subjects with a high socio-economic level. Conclusios. The socio-economic level and the sanogene behaviour influence carious experience in the school population of the communities here evaluated. The lack of education, mainly of sanitary information, favorizes to a considerable extent alteration of the oro-dental health condition, with subsequent impact upon the general health condition and development of children.

  18. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

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    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  19. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  20. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  1. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NOx, SOx, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  2. Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranik SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.

  3. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  4. The impact of socioeconomic status across early life on age at menarche among a racially diverse population of girls

    OpenAIRE

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Tehranifar, Parisa; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Titievsky, Lina; Terry, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) at two time points and age at menarche in a multiracial sample of U.S. girls. Methods Our study population consisted of a cohort of female participants enrolled at birth at the New York site of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, who were born during the period 1959–1963 (n = 262). SES at birth, at age 7, and change between birth and age 7 were measured prospectively through an index score ...

  5. Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

    2011-01-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

  6. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carratalà Jordi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (≤ primary level or ≥ secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ≤12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p

  7. EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS (SES) WITH LEISURE TIME SPENDING OF GIRLS EMPHASIZING SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bahyeh Zarei; Mozafar Yektayar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was doing an examination about the relationship of socio-economic status (SES) with leisure time spending in the girls of Sanandaj city emphasizing sporting activities. The method of research was descriptive-correlated and has been done as field research. The population of the research consisted of all young girls of Sanandaj aged between 15-29 years old which 384 samples were selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. The tools of research were Godrat Nama...

  8. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  9. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early…

  10. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced ...

  11. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population.

  12. Case Control Analyses of Acute Endophthalmitis after Cataract Surgery in South India Associated with Technique, Patient Care, and Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraprasad Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated acute endophthalmitis incidence following cataract surgery vis-a-vis the current technological and postoperative care changes in higher and lower socioeconomic categories of patients in South India. Methods. In a retrospective case control study, we analyzed 62 cases of acute endophthalmitis and 5 controls for each endophthalmitis case from 46,095 cataract surgeries done between years 1993 and 1998. The time period covered the transition of surgical technique and after care. In addition, we analyzed systemic diseases, surgeon factor, habitat, and socioeconomic status. Results. Clinical and culture positive endophthalmitis incidence were 0.13% and 0.07%, respectively. Differential incidence of 0.10% and 0.17% for in- and ambulatory care surgeries, respectively, was close to statistical significance (=0.054. Lower economy category ambulatory patients had higher risk of infection. Conclusion. Ambulatory cataract surgery carried additional risk for post-operative infection in lower socioeconomic group. Improved health education could ensure greater safety.

  13. An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionOver the last few decades, urban marginalization has been a major challenge in the metropolitan and large cities. After various experiences of forcible contact, what is recommended by international organizations is an empowerment approach which focuses on the empowerment of squatters instead of financial support. In this study, Ahar squatters were identified and investigated in 4 neighborhoods. Using Cochran formula, 320 samples were chosen randomly and their economic, social, physical and spatial characteristics of neighborhoods were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS software. Besides, using SWOT approach and identifying problems, strategies of Empowerment in different dimensions was presented. Results showed that Shileboran and Nirugah neighborhoods have more problems regarding socio-economic and physical status, whereas Chalabverdi neighborhood has better situation than other neighborhoods. Ownership issue, poor housing conditions, access problems and poor sewage system were serious problems for residents of these neighborhoods. 2- Theoretical basesIn the second decades of 1980s, empowerment strategies along with improvement in informal habitat settings are recommended to overlook the poor economic condition of families and also the inability to use the collective power. Therefore, a great leap was created in modern approach which is based on the improvement of local communities and macro policies. The entity of the empowerment approach is based on the reduction of poverty and in human-oriented sustainable development it is based on the citizen participation.3– DiscussionThe problem of informal settlements in Ahar city because of its geographical location as a city in northeast of Azerbaijan province and its situation in the middle of bundles of small and big villages has been accelerated to the extent that solving the problem has been a real challenge. Investigation of the situation of

  14. Effect of the routine professional application of topical fluoride on caries and treatment experience in adolescents of low socio-economic status in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Kalsbeek, H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of professionally applied topical fluoride on oral health status at the population level in adolescents with low socio-economic status. Adolescents attending dental clinics where professional fluoride application was a routine procedure (high-fluorid

  15. Differences in the association of subjective wellbeing measures with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions among residents of an Eastern Cape township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing measureme

  16. Evaluating the Intersections of Socioeconomic Status and Health Impacts from Exposure to Air Pollution in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baublitz, C. B.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Galvis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Colombia has strict economic divisions, which may be represented by six strata assigned by the National Planning Department. These are assigned by housing conditions and are arranged such that the divisions with subpar living conditions (strata levels one through three) may receive support from those with better than acceptable living conditions (strata levels five and six). Notably, division three no longer receives aid, and division four neither contributes to this system nor receives support. About ten percent of the population is in the upper three strata, while the remaining populace experiences subpar living conditions. Bogotá, DC has poor air quality that sometimes puts sensitive populations at risk due to particulate matter (PM). The local environmental agency has developed seven strategies to reduce air pollution, predominantly by regulating fixed and mobile sources, for the promotion of public health. Preliminary mapping of results indicates there may be higher concentrations of pollutants in areas whose residents are of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). Because it's more difficult for impoverished people to miss work or afford healthcare, higher exposure could have more significance for the city's overall health burden. The aim of this project is to determine the effective impactful regulatory strategy for the benefit of public health as a result of emission reductions. This will be done by using CMAQ results and BenMAP with information for long-term relative risk estimates for PM to find premature mortality rates per source type and location, segregated by strata division. A statistical regression will define the correspondence between health impact and SES. The benefit per reduction will be given in premature mortalities avoided per ton of PM emissions reduced per source type. For each of seven proposed regulatory strategies, this project provides results in mortalities avoided per ton of emissions of PM reduced per source type. It also compares

  17. Socioeconomic status, urbanicity and risk behaviors in Mexican youth: an analysis of three cross-sectional surveys

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    Gutiérrez Juan Pablo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity

  18. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

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    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  19. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. PMID:27362523

  20. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

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    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  1. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  2. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

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    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95

  3. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2012.

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    Ding Ding

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time.Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002-2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD, and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time.The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001. However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator.The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap.Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined strategies of population-wide and targeted

  4. The impact of socio-economic status on incidence of AIDS cases in Brazilian

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    Márcia Regina Godoy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted attention to the issue of the importance of social indicators in disease reduction. The objective of this paper is to analyze the statistical association between the reported AIDS cases and some socioeconomic variables. We analyzed a sample of 1,994 Brazilian municipalities with AIDS cases reported in 1991 and 2000. The variables analyzed are: AIDS incidence rate per capita, illiteracy rate, Gini Index, per capita income, access to electricity and television, life expectancy at birth. The approach used in this study was econometric panel data model. The results of this analysis show that socioeconomic variables are important for understanding the incidence of AIDS cases in Brazil, and are important for the design of public policies to combat the increasing incidence of HIV / AIDS, also show a distinct pattern to found in the literature for African countries.

  5. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

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    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  6. COMPARISON OF LITERACY, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN MOTHERS HAVING A NORMAL OR A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEWBORN

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    F. Azordegan

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available In a case control study the effects of literacy, socio-economic status and the fertility behavior of mothers were fully investigated in two groups. Out of 13123 babies born in 17 hospitals during almost 8 months in 1988-1989 in Tehran 730 had a low birth weight (less than 2500 gr. As a control group, 1460 births were randomly selected from normal weight births. Some basic findings are as follows: 1Mothers who become pregnant in either age group of “less than 20” or “35 and over” will eventually have a higher chance of delivering a low birth weight baby, and as a result, such babies will gave a higher probability mortality in the first week and first month of their lives. 2 Age at marriage is positively correlated with the level of education. 3 The number of children born alive is negatively correlated with the level of education of mothers. 4 The socio-economic status of the family has a significant impact upon child spacing, and that will affect the probability of having a low birth weight newborn, and finally, will increase the mortality rate of babies.

  7. Spirituality in Indian University Students and its Associations with Socioeconomic Status, Religious Background, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience.

  8. Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE

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    Thaysa Monteiro RAMOS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire about oral health, dental hygiene and socio-economic status. The oral conditions were evaluated by the DMFT, IHO-S e SI index. Results: In regard to oral hygiene habits, 58% of the interviewed women brushed their teeth three times a day. The majority (98% made use of toothpaste but only 33% made use of the dental floss. The mean DMTF was 10.43 and the mean value of the IHO-S was 1.93. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the gingival bleeding was low (10.1%. Conclusion: The pregnant women presented poor oral health conditions and undesirable oral hygiene habits justifying the necessity of a primary dental health preventive approach with targeted measures directed at the pregnant women.

  9. Socioeconomic status and child mental health: the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.

  10. Spirituality in Indian University Students and its Associations with Socioeconomic Status, Religious Background, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience. PMID:26920414

  11. Characterizing internet health information seeking strategies by socioeconomic status: a mixed methods approach

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Susan L; Kravitz, Richard L; Bell, Robert A.; Chan, Man Shan; Paterniti, Debora A

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet is valuable for those with limited access to health care services because of its low cost and wealth of information. Our objectives were to investigate how the Internet is used to obtain health-related information and how individuals with differing socioeconomic resources navigate it when presented with a health decision. Methods Study participants were recruited from public settings and social service agencies. Participants listened to one of two clinical scenarios – ...

  12. Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions of Low and High Socioeconomic Status Students

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Patty C.

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the author explored the perceptions of 10 middle-class, teachers regarding the socioeconomic class of both impoverished and advantaged students with whom they worked. Teachers in two public elementary schools from one Intermountain West school district participated; one school generally served children living in poverty and the other generally served affluent children. Through analysis of surveys, interviews, teacher journals, and researcher journal, the complex and...

  13. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Lauria; Manila Bonciani; Angela Spinelli; Michele E. Grandolfo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and...

  14. Impact of Hispanic Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status on Obesity Prevalence in Texas Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Jennifer Gay; Salinas, Jennifer J.; Bassent E. Abdelbary; Elizabeth Rocha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the asso...

  15. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother's Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

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    M Shafiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW despite its high prevalence (36%. This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children.Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (-2SD from median of WHO's reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR, which controls for potential confounders such as child's age and sex, mother's education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder.The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%. While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16-1.30, 1.71 (95% CI:1.53-1.92 and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38-1.56 for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of mother, better household socio-economic

  16. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Shafiqur; Howlader, Tamanna; Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW) despite its high prevalence (36%). This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children. Methods Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (–2SD) from median of WHO’s reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR), which controls for potential confounders such as child’s age and sex, mother’s education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%). While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16–1.30), 1.71 (95% CI:1.53–1.92) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38–1.56) for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of

  17. Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade Socioeconomic status and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira; Rosely Sichieri

    2008-01-01

    Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de...

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  19. Employment Status of the Wife-Mother: Psychological, Social, and Socioeconomic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Joan M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to determine factors that affect the employment status of the wife-mother and prove that these factors would be similar in both "typical" and "disadvantaged" samples. Three "universal variables" were: the husband's attitudes, youngest child's educational status, and frequency of family sharing the housework…

  20. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health – results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vonneilich Nico; Jöckel Karl-Heinz; Erbel Raimund; Klein Jens; Dragano Nico; Siegrist Johannes; von dem Knesebeck Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middl...

  1. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis

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    Aremu O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods

  3. Health behaviours, socioeconomic status, and mortality: further analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL prospective cohorts.

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    Silvia Stringhini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL, health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity, were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis, education, and income (supplementary analysis were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (p<0.001 in Whitehall II (odds ratio [OR] = 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11-4.36 than in GAZEL (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.49; this was also true for unhealthy diet (OR = 7.42, 95% CI 5.19-10.60 in Whitehall II and OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49 in GAZEL, p<0.001. Socioeconomic differences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28-2.05 in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58-2.39 for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%-149% in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%-29% in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Health behaviours were strong

  4. The socioeconomic status and family context of eating attitudes and dietary behaviours of children in Polish primary schools

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    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between the results of the Polish version of Maloney’s ChEAT-26, the socio-economical status of pre-pubertal pupils from Krakow schools and their family situation. The study group comprised 218 pupils that attended Grades from 4 to 6 and their mothers. The children’s ChEAT-26 results were related to family structure, emigration, parental education, the mother’s state of health and her subjective judgement of her state of health and her family circumstances, employment status and financial circumstances. Disordered eating attitudes of the children were elevated in families where one of the parents had emigrated. Parents with higher education levels tend to have a stronger influence on their child’s eating habits. The children of such parents are more aware of dietary standards, they tend to control their eating habits more but they also get less pleasure out of eating food. Having the mother achieve professional success, in her estimation, turned out to be positively correlated with an increased desire in her child to lose weight. A mother’s positive assessment of her family was correlated with her child’s greater compliance with the principles of healthy eating. Some of the observed correlations were different in the boys’ group and in the girls’ group. Any discussion concerning the relationship of the obtained results with a change in the social circumstance, although likely, is only hypothetical. Study has provided evidence of a connection between socioeconomic status, family variables and eating attitudes in young children in modern Poland.

  5. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health – results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study

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    Vonneilich Nico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The

  6. The association between socioeconomic status, oral hygiene practice, denture stomatitis and oral status in elderly people living different residential homes.

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    Evren, Buket Akalin; Uludamar, Altay; Işeri, Ufuk; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak

    2011-01-01

    Oral hygiene practices and denture status of elderly people living in residential homes are different depending on the type of residential homes. In this study the elderly people living in three different residential homes were investigated for this purpose. A total of 269 subjects, 119 males (mean age 73.9±8.8) and 150 females (mean age 78.5±7.2) were involved in this study. All subjects were interviewed and clinically examined. Age, sex, educational status, financial status, general health, dental visiting, overnight denture wearing, brushing habits and frequency were recorded using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of edentulism, the presence and type of dental prostheses, denture cleanliness and the presence of denture stomatitis were evaluated. Forty-one percent of subjects were non-educated. Fifty-one percent of subjects had low income. The majority of people (66.6%) were edentulous. Among the edentulous subjects 32% had full denture and 16% had no denture. Forty three percent of the subjects reported cleaning their dentures with water and 40% with a toothbrush only. Denture hygiene was good for 14% of the subjects. Denture stomatitis was observed in 44% of the subjects wearing dentures. There was statistically significant difference between residential homes and educational status, level of income, dental visiting, denture status, brushing methods and brushing frequency (pdenture hygiene habits and the presence of denture-related stomatitis. The most important need within the residents of the residential home was the enhancement of oral care social insurance.

  7. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewska Marta; Otto Marius

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees) and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In...

  8. Effects of a 12-Month Pedometer-Based Walking Intervention in Women of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M.; Kingsley, J. Derek; Kushnick, Michael R.; Moffatt, Robert J.; Haymes, Emily M.; Miles, Rebecca; Toole, Tonya; Panton, Lynn B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-month walking intervention in overweight/obese, low socioeconomic women. Forty-six women (48.2 ± 8.0 years) entered the study. Outcomes included weight, waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipids, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Both intention-to-treat analyses in all participants and group analyses in study completers only (3K group = increased steps/day by ≥3,000; No Δ group = did not increase steps/day by ≥3,000) were conducted. Group × time ANOVA was used. In study completers, 3K significantly increased steps/day (6,903 ± 3,328 to 12,323 ± 5,736) compared to No Δ (4,926 ± 3,374 to 5,174 ± 3,095) from baseline to 12 months. There was a significant time effect for weight (P = 0.030), BMI (P = 0.029), and hsCRP (P = 0.044). Low socioeconomic women who adhere to a long-term, pedometer-based walking intervention significantly increased steps/day and may improve body weight, BMI, and hsCRP. This could help reduce health disparities in this population over time. PMID:27746679

  9. Socioeconomic status and survival of persons with AIDS before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lazio AIDS Surveillance Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, E; Porta, D; Forastiere, F; Fusco, D; Perucci, C A

    2000-09-01

    We estimated the AIDS survival by neighborhood socioeconomic status before (1993-1995) and after (1996-1997) the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Rome, Italy, in a retrospective cohort of persons with AIDS followed through July 31, 1998. Participants included 1,474 persons with AIDS residing in Rome who were diagnosed in 1993-1997. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of death for two diagnostic periods (before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced) by neighborhood socioeconomic status categorized into four levels (level I = highest socioeconomic status), using the Cox model and adjusting for gender, age, intravenous drug use, CD4 cell count at diagnosis, AIDS-defining disease, and hospital of diagnosis. Thirty-four per cent of persons with AIDS (N = 503) had survived as of mid-1998. For persons with AIDS diagnosed in 1993-1995, we found little difference in the risk of death by neighborhood socioeconomic status. For 1996-1997, the risk of death was greater for persons with lower neighborhood socioeconomic status, especially for levels III and IV [HR = 2.81 (95% confidence interval = 1.38-5.76), and HR = 2.55 (95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.14), respectively, compared with level I]. Stratified analyses showed that the greatest difference was found for women and drug users. In conclusion, even in a country with universal health coverage that provides therapy at no cost, differences in survival of persons with AIDS have emerged by neighborhood socioeconomic status since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced. Inequalities in health-care access or in medical management, or poor adherence to treatment, could explain the observed heterogeneity.

  10. US Forest Service Special Status Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting land areas that have distinct management/use authorities or agreements for Forest Service action. Includes: Cost Share Agreement...

  11. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

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    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health services, and women’s social status.

  12. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population

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    Herrick David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

  13. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

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    Ramin HESHMAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on family assets and parents’ job and education using principle component analysis method. SES was considered as “low”, “intermediate” and “high” in the statistical analysis.Results: Overall, 13486 children and adolescents out of 14,880 invited students (response rate 90.6% participated in this study. They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ±3.36 years. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and also mean of all anthropometric measures increased linearly with increasing SES. Inversely, underweight decreased linearly with increasing SES. Association of BP measures with SES was not statistically significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, association of anthropometric measures and BP with SES did not change significantly.Conclusion: We found that obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity was prevalent in high SES group and underweight in low SES group. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence that contrary to developed countries, in developing countries childhood obesity is more prevalent in families with higher SES. Keywords: Anthropometric measures, Blood pressure, Socio-economic status, Children and adolescents, Iran

  14. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  15. Prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in relation to job description and socioeconomic status: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Patrick J; Swift, Steven E; O'Boyle, Amy L; Valley, Michael T; Bland, Deirdre R; Kahn, Margie A; Schaffer, Joseph I

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if certain occupations or socioeconomic levels are associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Investigators at six American sites performed pelvic organ prolapse quantification examinations on women presenting for routine gynecologic care. Between September 1999 and March 2002, 1,004 patients were examined. Severe pelvic organ prolapse was defined as the leading edge being 1 cm or more beyond the hymeneal ring. The data was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Bonferroni test, multiple logistic regression, and descriptive statistics. The prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in our group was 4.3%. Women who were laborers/factory workers had significantly more severe prolapse than the other job categories (p 30, and smoking status (all p jobs and an annual household income of Dollars 10,000 or less are associated with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

  16. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres. PMID:23288490

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  18. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

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    N. O. Anyoha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.

  19. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  20. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.