WorldWideScience

Sample records for area sho energy

  1. Energy Savings of Vending Machine; Jido hanbaiki no sho enerugi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Yukio. [FUJI Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-28

    By the end of 1997, the number of cending machines used in Japan reached about 5.5 million units. Vending machines areindispensable, playing an important role in our daily lives. Various environmental problems have made the world pay more attention to the vending machine industry. We, the industry, therefore have been struggling with these problems from many angles. For the saving energy project, we have focused on insulation and air-tightness improvement, fan motor control, fluorescent light inverter control and so forth. The goal set by Japan Vending Machine Manufacturers Association is, by 2001, to cut the level of electric power consumption from 1996 by 15%. This report focuses on the diffused units of vending machines in Japan, and concrete measures which we, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., have taken, and will be taking, for the reduction of energy consumption. (author)

  2. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Transportation control measures for reduced energy consumption; Sho energy ni mukete no kotsu shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, R. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-07-05

    This paper describes a possibility of reducing energy consumption by suppressing utilization of automobiles in urban areas. What gives decisive effects on transportation of both of human being and goods is the progress of motorization. It has influential power not only on what transportation organizations should bear, but also on all aspects of the present society, including industrial locations, urban structures, goods distribution patterns, and people`s life style. The progress of motorization causes land utilization to develop into automobile oriented pattern, which degrades functioning of public transportation organizations, making further progress in the motorization. Putting brakes on urban motorization is an urgent necessity. Energy consumption by households for transportation has strong correlation with owning and utilizing automobiles. There is a possibility of largely reducing energy consumption by taking policies of suppressing automobile owning and utilization and by promoting living in areas where public transportation organizations are established at high density. These measures are intended to be applied to urban structures, land utilization, traffic facilities, traffic demand, and energy efficiency in transportation organizations. It is necessary to understand interactions of different conditions and evaluate effectiveness of the policies. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Report on energy saving vision in Santo-cho region; Santocho chiiki sho energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Santo-cho region in Hyogo Prefecture, with its outline reported. This town is such that about 80% of the region is mountains, forests and wilderness and that aging is advancing at the rate above that of Hyogo Prefecture or the national average. Nearly entire energy of the town is dependent on the supply from outside. The energy consumption is somewhat increasing as a whole, with that of the people's livelihood/domestic sector and of transportation sector are rising. In the classification of fuels, electricity is growing in consumption. As an energy-saving vision, it aimed principally at personal surroundings in which every one got into the habit of saving energy continuously without being forced. The basic plan for the energy conservation drive consisted of inducement to an energy-saving life style, energy conservation to be spread by the next generation children, continuation of energy saving activity rooted in the region, and promotion of energy conservation as a basis for introducing new energy. The diffusion and enlightenment for children destined to lead the next generation were defined as a particularly important assignment, as was the promotion of energy conservation and environmental education. (NEDO)

  5. Energy conservation house by photovoltaic system. 2; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Photovoltaic power generation system was once placed in excessive expectation what with a growing tendency toward environmental issues and what with vulnerability in supply and demand of energy. However, its utilization was negative because of the low energy conversion efficiency and the high cost. Then, gradually the wind shifted round to the improvement in solar cell efficiency, reduced cost, implementation of subsidizing policy by MITI, purchase of excess power by electric power companies and the amendment of the Electricity Enterprises Act, encouraging the use of the system again. In addition, with a lesson from the Great Hanshin Earthquake, the merit of the system was appreciated as a life-support power source, motivating house-builders. Earlier, the authors had reported designs of energy-saving homes, system structures of photovoltaic power generation, etc. This paper presents the power generation record of a year old system and an example of the comfortable sealed residential room environment, etc., created with the use of the power thus obtained. The annual power generation was 4,088kWh, 30% of which was used in the house and 70% of which was sold as an excess power, resulting in the purchase of power for 6,642kWh. 5 refs., 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  6. Energy saving by regenerative burner; Rigene burner ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, S. [Chugai Ro Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Described are the characteristics of a regenerative burner (RB) and some important respects to consider before its employment. In this burner system, a set of two burners are operated, with one burning and the other sucking gas out of the furnace. The roles are switched over between the two burners every minute or every tens of seconds, and the repetition of heat accumulation and radiation by the heat accumulating bodies in the heat accumulators results in an air temperature which is near the gas temperature in the furnace. An optimum switchover time is determined by the make, or the specific heat and weight, of the heat accumulating bodies. The configuration may be effectively employed in the modification of existing furnaces (1) when treatment capacity improvement is required or (2) when sufficient waste heat recovery is impossible. In the case of (1), an increase in combustion will be mandatory for capacity enhancement. Refurbishment to increase combustion, however, will not be required when RB is installed, and this enables capacity improvement while maintaining or enhancing energy saving performance at a low cost. In the case of (2), at a steel-making plant where recovery of waste heat is difficult because a ladle preheater or tandish preheater has no flue, effective heat recovery will be realized if RB is installed. (NEDO)

  7. Approach for energy conservation promotion in household sector; Konshuma bumon ni taisuru sho energy suishin no approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsuzaki, K. [The Energy Conservation Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-05

    This paper describes the approach for energy conservation promotion in household sector according to the mutual agreement in COP3. Gap occurs even if the standard promotion measures for energy conservation are proposed because of a diversified life style. An approach method must be considered. During the purchase of new electric appliances, the energy consumption efficiency is difficult to understand in spite of an important factor. For an air conditioner, television, VTR, and refrigerator, therefore, the energy conservation center listed each model, the standard price for each manufacturer, and the annual power consumption and rate and then distributed them as a pamphlet. Moreover, the mark system based on the standard that was internationally unified according to the energy star program enforced by America has been investigated for introduction. (It is a registration mark for indicating the products that cleared the standard of a third-party evaluating organization to ensure the energy conservation performance.) The actual condition of standby power consumption was also examined. The result showed that large volumes of energy had been wasted around the country. Improvement and propagation must be enlightened. 11 tabs.

  8. New city model with environmental symbiosis and energy conservation; Kankyo kyosei sho energy wo mezashita shintoshi koso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    New city concept is studied from the viewpoints of city economy, environmental symbiosis, energy and resources, transportation, urban disaster prevention, information dissemination, etc. As the result, twelve cluster cities equipped with capabilities of state capital function and administrative business, commerce, interchange of people and goods, and recreational activities are dispersed and distributed to form a double ring, populated by 0.6 million and occupying 7000ha. In a simulation of the heat island phenomenon, the temperature is lowered by 0.2-0.3degC by the dispersion of city functions, and by 0.1-0.15degC by environmental symbiosis-related measures. Primary energy consumption is reduced by 17% by reduced demand for power and heat and energy saving of 15% is attained by recyclable energy utilization and enhanced-efficiency energy supply, all thanks to passive solar systems and higher-efficiency electric machines, photovoltaic power generation, heat pump-aided utilization of waste heat and environmental heat, electrothermal energy supply from the MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cell), etc. 64 refs., 56 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Report on investigation of initial stage of energy-saving vision in Ikeda City region; Ikedashi sho energy vision shoki dankai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigation was conducted for the purpose of deciding energy-saving vision in the region of Ikeda City, Osaka Prefecture. Ikeda City is lower in the use of electric lights per household than Osaka Prefecture or the whole country, and is higher in the consumption of city gas. The carbon dioxide exhaust of the City is less compared with that of Osaka Prefecture or the whole country. As to new energy, there is a good possibility of the use of solar energy. As a result of energy conservation diagnosis, about 25% energy saving was found possible in the government office building jointly used by the City and the Prefecture, and 21% in Kitateshima Junior High School. From these investigative results, proposals were made for the basic policy of the energy saving vision; they were, for example, to enrich one's life style by promoting efficient use of energy, to build an urban structure having less energy load, to enhance all citizens' consciousness about energy, to change the way of living by the community unit, to take the lead in energy conservation as the city administration to set an example for the whole city, to foster the environmental industry by dealing with energy problems, and to have a long-term outlook and tackle the issue with stress placed on feasible projects. (NEDO)

  10. Measures to prevent global warming, and NEDO's energy-saving model projects; Chikyu ondanka boshi taisaku to NEDO sho energy model jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the world AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly) projects, and the Japan's measures and NEDO's energy-saving model projects therefor. NEDO has been inviting the public to join the contests for the projects to be implemented as part of the AIJ Japan program for the first time since April 1996. A total of 11 projects were adopted in July, including the model project for recovering heat from red-hot coke with inert gas, to be implemented by NEDO in China. After the first invitation, an individual proposal will be accepted and examined for which no time limit is set. The NEDO's model projects approved so far include demonstration studies on facilities for effective utilization of paper-making sludge, waste heat recovery at steel furnaces, energy-saving at electric furnaces for alloys, effective utilization of waste heat at garbage incinerators, and power saving at cement kilns. (NEDO)

  11. Studies on utilization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for saving energy; Chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uozumi, T.; Koyama, R.; Horiuchi, M.; Hidaka, M.; Masaki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, T.; Inoue, A. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes analysis and enhancement of nitrogen-fixing gene of rice root bacteria, such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferumn and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, for realizing energy saving through conservation of nitrogenous fertilizers. For K. oxytoca, modified strain R-16 was developed, which can fix nitrogen effectively even in the presence of NH4{sup +}. Nitrogen-fixing ability of A. lipoferumn depends on the activity control by the modification of nitrogen-fixing enzyme as well as on the adjustment of transcription level by the transcription activating gene, nifA. The control gene relating to the above was analyzed by making clones. As a result, a modified strain TAl without the control by NH4{sup +} was developed. The R-16 and TAl strains were inoculated into rice sterile-cultured without nitrogen. Consequently, inoculated strains were settled in the root, which resulted in the increased vegetation weight of plant to two times heavier than that without inoculation. 9 refs.

  12. FY1995 studies on saving energy by use of nitrogen- fixing bacteria; 1995 nendo chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To save energy by improving the ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Kebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferum and Sphingomonas paucimobilis) in the rhizosphere of rice, by means of genetic analysis and engineering of the nif genes. Analysis and improvement of the nif genes were performed in 3 species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizoshere of rice. (1) In an facultative anaerobe, K. oxytoca, the repressor gene, nifL was destroyed, and the activator gene, nifA was fortified, to attain a novel mutant strain R16, which fixes nitrogen even in the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. (2) In a microaerophilic nitrogen fixer, A. lipoferum, the regulatory genes draT and draG were cloned and analysed, and an improved strain TA1 was obtained by introduction of K. oxytoca nifA gene. (3) In an aerobic nitrogen-fixer S. paucimobilis, the nifA gene was cloned and sequenced, and the activity was expressed in E. coil to show that the product activates the nif promoters of Azospirillurn and Klebsiella. (4) The improved strains K. oxytoca R16 and A. lipoferun TA1 were inoculated to rice plant cultured in a pot without addition of nitrogen source. The inoculated plant showed twice as much dry weight as the noninoculated plant, showing that the improved strains are effective to stimulate the growth of rice. (NEDO)

  13. 18th national meeting for energy saving promotion (prize winning case awarded by Ministry of International Trade and Industry). ; Saving energy in annealed coil cooling equipment by using volatile corrosion inhibitor. Dai 18 kai sho energy suishin zenkoku taikai (tsusho sangyo daijinsho jusho jirei); Kikasei boseizai ni yoru shodon coil reikyaku setsubi no sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-30

    A method and a device for preventing rust in annealed coils using volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI) were put into practical use. Air cooling using dehumidified air and corrosion inhibiting air cooling have been used to prevent rusting caused by condensation on surfaces of coils being cooled, but these methods consume a very large amount of energy. As a result of discussing new corrosion inhibiting methods, cyclohexylamine carbonate (CHC) showed a highest corrosion prohibition capability as a VCI. Because CHC has a strong odor, new deodorants have been searched by combining it with special metallic salts. It was found that the range where a deodorant can be added without impeding the corrosion prohibiting effect is from 20% to 30%. A test for practical application indicated that rusting could be suppressed even using a VCI with concentration as low as 0.4 ppm to 0.8 ppm if the velocity of cooling air on coil surfaces is held from 0.2 m/s to 0.4 m/s. A high-accuracy continuous CHC analyzing method was established that uses a nitrogen oxide analyzer. The required installation space was reduced to 1/15 to 1/20 and the running cost to 1/8 to 1/10 of conventional methods. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. FY 2000 Project report on drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Ginan. Preliminary survey; 2000 nendo Ginan-cho chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho. Shoki dankai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Actual situations of energy consumption and potentially saved energy are surveyed among others for introduction of concrete energy-saving measures in Town of Ginan, Gifu Pref., to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The problems pointed out by the survey on the actual situations of energy consumption include insufficient measures for avoiding waste in houses relative to the nation-wide tendencies, although improved to some extent, difficulty in spreading energy-saving conception throughout the employees in industrial areas, and insufficient limitation of use of private cars and alternative transportation systems. The energy-saving measures studied include setting temperature for air conditioners, and efficient use of home electric appliances, e.g., TV sets, refrigerators and washing machines. The measures studied for the transportation sector include spreading/promotion of clean cars, wider utilization of public transportation systems, promotion of telework systems aided by information communications, and promotion of eco-driving. The energy-saving target, to be realized in FY 2010 by these measures, is set at 67,646 times 10{sup 7}Kcal for the town. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the project on energy conservation by effectively using building energy in Indonesia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia ni okeru biru energy yuko riyo ni yoru sho energy ka project chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As an energy conservation method for a model building, the following eight methods were selected and trially calculated of the effects. 1) adoption of high efficient illumination apparatus, 2) introduction of an illuminance control system, 3) cooling water secondary pump with invertor, 4) ventilation control for parking lots, 5) heightening of the established temperature, 6) improvement of the 24-hour run chiller, 7) elevator with invertor, and 8) introduction of the photovoltaic power generation. As a result, it was found out that energy was totally reduced by about 3,837.4 MWh/yr or 25.6%. If viewed from the amount of reduction in greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 emitted from office buildings, approximately 0.22 million t-C/yr, decreases to approximately 0.16 million t-C/yr. Further, approximately 0.93 million t-C/yr, the amount of CO2 emitted from commercial use facilities such as office buildings, department stores and hotels is reduced to about 0.69 million t-C/yr, thanks to the effect of the project on energy saving buildings, which made a CO2 reduction by approximately 0.24 million t-C/yr possible. Validity of the project on energy conservation in Indonesia was confirmed. 2 refs., 55 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy conservation measure project for Ahwaz Steel Complex in Iran; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Iran Ahwaz seitetsusho ni okeru sho energy taisaku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emission, a project has been discussed to introduce a gas turbine combined cycle power generation system for effective waste heat utilization and a pellet coating facility into the direct reduction steel making plant of Ahwaz Steel Complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The project will have a waste heat boiler installed at the outlet of the MIDREX plant waste heat recovery device to link it with a gas turbine combined cycle power plant to structure a 42-MW power generation system. In addition, productivity enhancement was attempted by applying the raw material pellets with coating to raise the reduction gas blow-in temperature. The energy saving effect expected from this project would be saving of 63,140 tons of crude oil equivalent annually, and the greenhouse effect gas reducing effect would reduce 173,790 t-CO2 annually. Although the investment will require about 3.16 billion yen, the cost reduction amount in association with power generation is small because of the power purchase unit cost being as very low as 1.9 yen/kWh, making the investment recovery period 10.2 years. Therefore, the project will not be realizable economically. (NEDO)

  17. Thermal energy storage application areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The use of thermal energy storage in the areas of building heating and cooling, recovery of industrial process and waste heat, solar power generation, and off-peak energy storage and load management in electric utilities is reviewed. (TFD)

  18. Survey report on a regional new energy vision establishment in Ueki Township. Town of solar energy and energy conservation (vision to build the town by actively living and creating with environment); Uekimachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho. Taiyo energy to sho energy no machi (kankyo to sekkyokuteki ni kyosei kyososuru machizukuri vision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on the new energy vision at Ueki Township in Kumamoto Prefecture. The total energy demand in Ueki Township is 898 x 10{sup 7} Kcal. of which about 44% is accounted for by the transportation department, 34.7% by the industrial department, and 21% by the consumer department. The total available regional new energy amount is estimated to be 52.1 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, which is consisted of stockbreeding wastes energy at 44.1%, solar energy power generation at 33.2% and solar heat utilization at 22.6%. Introduction of wind energy was judged impracticable. The new energy introduction plan calls for introduction of solar energy power generation for lighting and air conditioning of the diamond shaped nursery school, the Yamamoto nursery school, the Ueki Township office building, the multi-purpose sports center, the Ueki Hospital operated by the national health insurance, the multi-purpose health and welfare center, Yoshimatsu Sports Park, and Tahara Sports Park. A subsidy institution by the local government was discussed as the proliferation plan of solar energy power generation systems to be installed in individuals' houses and enterprises, with which introduction to residential houses of about 30% was targeted by 2010. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1995 report of feasibility study of a model project on energy saving equipment for Fe-alloy electric furnaces in China. Independent theme survey of rationalization of energy consumption; 1995 nendo chosa hokokusho Chugoku no gokintetsu denkiro ni okeru sho energy ka setsubi model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa. Energy shiyo gorika taisaku kobetsu tema chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A feasibility study of a model project was conducted on energy conservation and introduction of technology against pollution for Fe-alloy electric furnaces in China. The total production of Fe-alloy was 4.32 million tons in 1995, which recorded the maximum production. Out of which ferro-Cr occupied 9.5%. Production of high carbon ferro-Cr in 2000 is estimated to be 600,000 tons. China`s electric furnaces for ferro-Cr using carbon as heat source do not have covers and gas recovery systems. The gas from furnaces is burnt and wasted, which results in air pollution. To cover the furnaces, grading of powder materials is indispensable for improving the ventilation in furnaces. In Japan, sintering and pelletizing methods were developed. In China, the covering and gas recovery are performed for furnaces using expensive massive ores. In most cases, they are not performed. For three works at Jilin, Lioyang and Jinzhou surveyed in this project, recovered gas can be effectively utilized, which would provide energy saving and environment improving effects. They have enough site areas and workshops in the sites. Construction works can be conducted by China themselves. 6 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Entre a Nakba e a Shoá: catástrofes e narrativas nacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel GHERMAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O pós-guerra traz mudanças importantes nas práticas discursivas de dois nacionalismos concorrentes e concomitantes: o movimento sionista e o movimento nacional palestino. Se desde o início do século XX os dois grupos disputavam o mesmo território sob lógicas de pertencimento difusas e complexas, referências às suas tragédias coletivas passam a ser centrais em seus respectivos discursos nacionais a partir dos anos 1940. Aqui, tanto a Shoá quanto a Nakba passam a constituir tentativas constantes de reafirmar justeza e legitimidade de suas demandas políticas. Neste artigo discutimos a centralidade dos usos políticos da Nakba e da Shoá por palestinos e sionistas em cenários de confronto ideológico, nacional e territorial.

  1. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  2. Searching for Warm Waters at the Mt. Cobb Sai Sho Zen-ji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.; Schnabel, G. R.; Schnabel, E.; Moscoso, K. M.; Brophy, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Mt. Cobb Sai Sho Zen-ji is a Zen Center located in Lake County, CA about 2 km east of the Geysers Geothermal plant. The well-known Geysers geothermal system is a deep, hot system spanning an area of approximately 78 square km that provides electricity for ~60% of the power demand for coastal California north of the Golden Gate Bridge. Not surprisingly this region also is rich in hot springs used for bathing and spas. This study was undertaken to locate shallow, warm waters to be used at the Zen Center. The 300-acre Zen Center is situated on the Franciscan Formation, complex and typically chaotic assemblage of metasedimentary and volcanic rocks that dominate the geology of the California Pacific Coast Ranges. The principal water source at the Center flows at 20-25 l/min, at a temperature of 21 degree C, and a pH of 7.7. This spring has a mineral profile that corresponds to exposures to temperatures of approximately 65 degree C. A seep excavated into a slope about 4.5 m below the level of an adjacent meadow, revealed an increase in water temperature to 24 degrees C. This moderate temperature increase is consistent with deep, warm water mixing with cooler surface waters. Another source of warm water was identified at a seasonally productive seep producing up to about 50 l/min in the winter months, but dry in the summer. A well drilled on the basis of a low-resistivity anomaly revealed by an electrical resistivity survey produced 21 degree C water at a rate of~90 l/min, but was only drilled to a depth of 45 m upon encountering basalt. A second well, located nearby (15 m distant) and drilled to 260 m, was dry. Due to the ambiguous nature of the initial exploration program a detailed audiomagnetotelluric survey was undertaken using the Geometrics Stratagem system to aid in finding a stable source of warm water. Two-dimensional inverse models derived from these AMT soundings delineated several local structures. These models, interpreted in conjunction with surficial

  3. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Environmental improvement and energy conservation measures in Pakistan Steel, a state-run enterprise in Pakistan; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Pakistan koku kokuei Pakistan Steel ni okeru kankyo kaizen sho energy taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the state-run plant of Pakistan Steel in Pakistan, an investigational study was conducted on energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. In the project, energy conservation technology on the following was tried to be introduced: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering cooler waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) equipment, and hot strip mill heating furnace regenerative type burner equipment. Further, in the project on environmental improvement, studies were made on coke oven environmental improvement and blast furnace cast house dust collection. The results of the study indicated that economical effects of the energy conservation project were considered as low because the unit price of energy of Pakistan Steel is low. However, substitution of the low-priced domestic coal for the imported coal has a good effect, and energy conservation in the TRT power generation and by the regenerative type burner produces a highly economical effect. Therefore, Pakistan Steel also agrees to positively promote the project. Moreover, concerning the environmental improvement project, it was considered that the necessity of the project is high in the relation of the coke oven aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances. (NEDO)

  4. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Energy conservation by modernization of a cement plant (Double Horse Cement Co.) in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku cement kojo (Double Horse Cement) kindaika ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  5. Research report of fiscal 1997. Research on the projects on Activities Implemented Jointly Japan Program (feasibility research on energy saving by improving heat management for hot blast stoves and heating furnaces); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. `Kyodo jisshi katsudo Japan Program` ni kakawaru project chosa (neppuro, kanetsuro no netsukanri kaizen ni yoru sho energy kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research was made on joint implementation (JI) for preventing global climate changes in China. Since such the stove and furnace consume a large amount of energy, their improvement and energy saving are important for integrated iron plants. Maanshan iron plant was selected for the research. All the furnaces were manually operated without combustion control systems, and oxygen meters for exhaust gas frequently troubled. As measures for the stoves, operation at a proper air fuel ratio, improvement of over heat storage combustion, and dust cleaning for waste heat recovery gas heaters were proposed. For the furnaces, a proper oxygen content at the end of furnaces (reduction of invasion air) was proposed to improve exhaust gas loss up to that in Japan. For this target, reinforced instrument management and standardized combustion control are essential. JI of software improvement for operation and management can reduce annual greenhouse effect gas emission to 45,900t and 6,300t in carbon equivalent for the stove and furnace, respectively. CO2 reduction is also estimated to be 1,173,000t and 205,000t in China of 107,570,000t in raw steel production, respectively. 28 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. 18th national meeting for energy saving promotion (prize winning case awarded by Minstry of International Trade and Industry). ; Optimization of additive carrying argon gas in continuous casting. Dai 18 kai sho energy suishin zenkoku taikai (tsusho sangyo daijinsho jusho jirei). ; Renzoku chuzo ni okeru tenkazai hansoyo argon gas no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-30

    An optimal amount of argon gas carrying CaSi additive particles was discovered in a continuous casting process and a stable operation method was established to conserve energy and cost. CaSi particles are added into molten steel to prevent steel materials from cracking, and argon gas is used in carrying the CaSi particles to prevent oxygen and nitrogen from mixing into the molten steel. The proposed modification plan intends to use the existing facilities up to the seal rotary machine, and to reduce the size and length of the carrying pipes thereafter, the length of the flexible tubes, and the size of the booster. A verification test was carried out. As a result of measuring the CaSi particle scattering distribution, it was found that an in-pipe flow velocity of 25 m/s produces a narrow scattering distribution and has the particles impinge on the molten steel dropping position concentratedly. It was also learned that the in-pipe flow velocity of 25 m/s can increase the solid-air ratio to 0.81 to 1.21. Operations of the modified machine reduced the argon gas amount by 5.2 m[sup 3]N/min (reduction rate of 61%) and realized stabler CaSi particle injection which improved the Ca yield by 9.4%. 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  8. ShoRAH: estimating the genetic diversity of a mixed sample from next-generation sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Nicholas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With next-generation sequencing technologies, experiments that were considered prohibitive only a few years ago are now possible. However, while these technologies have the ability to produce enormous volumes of data, the sequence reads are prone to error. This poses fundamental hurdles when genetic diversity is investigated. Results We developed ShoRAH, a computational method for quantifying genetic diversity in a mixed sample and for identifying the individual clones in the population, while accounting for sequencing errors. The software was run on simulated data and on real data obtained in wet lab experiments to assess its reliability. Conclusions ShoRAH is implemented in C++, Python, and Perl and has been tested under Linux and Mac OS X. Source code is available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.cbg.ethz.ch/software/shorah.

  9. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  10. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM New Jersey Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development and evaluation of the delineations for the New Jersey (NJ) WEA. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the New Jersey WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL identified a selection of leasing areas and proposed delineation boundaries within the established NJ WEA. The primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  11. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Maryland Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Draxl, C.

    2013-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of the delineation proposed by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) for the Maryland (MD) WEA and two alternative delineations. The objectives of the NREL evaluation were to assess MEA's proposed delineation of the MD WEA, perform independent analysis, and recommend how the MD WEA should be delineated.

  12. Energy and rural areas; Energie und Laendliche Raeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose (ed.)

    2013-02-01

    Within the 1st Goettinger talks on agricultural legislation at 5th November, 2010, the following lectures were held: (1) Energy supply and rural municipality (Johann-Christian Pielow); (2) Legal issues and practical handling of the compensation of provider rights (Hubertus Schmitte); (3) Energy economic plan approval in the rural area using natural gas pipelines as an example (Mathias Wolkewitz), (4) Maritime regional planning - Instrument for conflict resolution between wind power and fishery (Nico Nolte); (5) Energy and agriculture (Jose Martinez).

  13. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  14. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  15. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the BOEM Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Parker, Z.; Fields, M.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Draxl, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to identify and delineate leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM. This report focuses on NREL's development of three delineated leasing area options for the Massachusetts (MA) WEA and the technical evaluation of these leasing areas. The overarching objective of this study is to develop a logical process by which the MA WEA can be subdivided into non-overlapping leasing areas for BOEM's use in developing an auction process in a renewable energy lease sale. NREL worked with BOEM to identify an appropriate number of leasing areas and proposed three delineation alternatives within the MA WEA based on the boundaries announced in May 2012. A primary output of the interagency agreement is this report, which documents the methodology, including key variables and assumptions, by which the leasing areas were identified and delineated.

  16. Research and development project of regional consortiums in fiscal 1998. Research and development of regional consortium energy (development of measuring technology to aid energy conservation in electronic device manufacturing processes (design and trial production of IMI) (Report on the result in the first year)); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu (IMI no sekkei to shisaku) (dai 1 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes the development of intelligent micro instruments (IMI) inaugurated in fiscal 1998 as the wide-area consortium project for the Tama area. Research and development will be carried out on the following items: IMI substrate elements utilizing micro machining technology, applicable to micro sensors and micro probes, semiconductor process sensors, electronic device measuring probes, signal processing and communication circuits for wireless sensing. This paper describes the achievements during fiscal 1998. Technologies were transferred from the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on silicon micro machining and PZT piezoelectric thin film formation. An IMI research laboratory was installed at the Tokyo Metropolitan University. In developing the IMI substrate elements, different beams applicable to sensors and probes were fabricated on a trial basis, and their mechanical properties were measured. For the semiconductor process sensors, discussions were given on micronization on a chlorine ion analyzer. In developing the electronic device measuring probes, the target was placed on measurement of in-situ characteristics of IC chips on a wafer. A prototype transmitting and receiving circuit board was fabricated for developing the wireless sensing. (NEDO)

  17. Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

  18. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  19. Atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. O principal componente do óleo essencial obtido a partir de folhas da planta submetidas ao processo de hidrodestilação foi o linalol (80 a 95% m/m. O óleo essencial mostrou atividade antimicrobiana para todos os microrganismos testados, com exceção de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maior atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial sobre as bactérias testadas foi observada sobre Xanthomonas campestris (33,0 mm e a menor sobre Yersinia enterocolitica (10,5 mm. Para a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, observou-se que todos os microrganismos apresentaram-se susceptíveis ao óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. A variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-positivas foi de 1,00 mg.mL-1 (Streptococcus mutans a 1,75 mg.mL-1 (Staphylococcus epidermidis. Já a variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-negativas foi de 0,625 mg.mL-1 (Citrobacter freundii a 2,50 mg.mL-1 (Shigella flexneri. Os resultados obtidos na determinação da atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial demonstram que o percentual antioxidante aumenta proporcionalmente à concentração de óleo essencial adicionado, atingindo o valor máximo de 97,49% de atividade antioxidante para a concentração de 50000 μg.mL-1.The main objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the Ho-Sho essential oil. The major component of the essential oil obtained from the leaves submitted to hydro-distillation was linalool (80-95 wt%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity for all tested microorganisms, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Higher antimicrobial activities over the tested bacterium were observed for Xanthomonas campestris (33.0 mm, and lower activities were obtained for Yersinia enterocolitica (10.5 mm. For the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC, it was observed that all microorganisms presented susceptibility to the Ho-Sho

  20. Energy Efficiency in Industrial Areas: Application of Best Practices for Energy Efficiency In Mediterranean Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Anna Segreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper originate from an EU research project that is near toits completion. The goal was to build a model that can be applied to all industrial sites inthe Mediterranean area. The approach followed to achieve the objectives was to study allthe new technologies and systems that, if applied globally, can make the whole areasustainable both energetically and environmentally. The application of the model allowsthe design and implementation of self-sufficient green areas in terms of energy which alsobrings to the reduction of the emissions into the atmosphere. An aim of the project wasalso to identify possible sources of funding or incentives. The main beneficiaries of theresults are SMEs that through a more responsible approach to the environment could getgreater market competitiveness and reduce energy costs of their enterprises. Otherbeneficiaries are the people who obtain advantages from a clearer and less pollutedsurrounding environment.The paper presents the results obtained from the application of the model in some pilotcases.

  1. Low energy demonstration accelerator technical area 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The resulting Record of Decision (ROD) determined that over the next three years the DOE would follow a dual-track acquisition strategy that assures tritium production for the nuclear weapon stockpile in a rapid, cost effective, and safe manner. Under this strategy the DOE will further investigate and compare two options for producing tritium: (1) purchase of an existing commercial light-water reactor or irradiation services with an option to purchase the reactor for conversion to a defense facility; and (2) design, build, and test critical components of a system for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The final decision to select the primary production option will be made by the Secretary of Energy in the October 1998 time frame. The alternative not chosen as the primary production method, if feasible, would be developed as a back-up tritium supply source. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end low-energy section of the accelerator, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. The following issues were evaluated for the proposed action: utility demands, air, human health, environmental restoration, waste management, transportation, water, threatened and endangered species, wetlands, cultural resources, and environmental justice

  2. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered

  3. Bio energies: a new boost for rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornell, P.K.

    1993-12-31

    Renewable energies will ensure for the next century a stable, sure supply of energy and will be as respectful of the environment as possible. The EC shows the way of a possible development. In Germany and especially in Bavaria the conditions are favorable for renewable energy channels. The paper explains the bavarian situation. In this area, the use of bio-energies is encouraged by the local authorities. (TEC). 1 fig.

  4. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author)

  5. Wave energy resource in the Estaca de Bares area (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Carballo, R. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, EPS, Hydraulic Eng., Campus Univ. s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The area around Cape Estaca de Bares (the northernmost point of Iberia) presents a great potential for wave energy exploitation owing to its prominent position, with average deepwater wave power values exceeding 40 kW/m. The newly available SIMAR-44 dataset, composed of hindcast data spanning 44 years (1958-2001), is used alongside wave buoy data and numerical modelling to assess this substantial energy resource in detail. Most of the energy is provided by waves from the IV quadrant, generated by the prevailing westerlies blowing over the long Atlantic fetch. Combined scatter and energy diagrams are used to characterise the wave energy available in an average year in terms of the sea states involved. The lion's share is shown to correspond to significant wave heights between 2 and 5 m and energy periods between 11 and 14 s. The nearshore energy patterns are then examined using a coastal wave model (SWAN) with reference to four situations: average wave energy, growing wave energy (at the approach of a storm), extreme wave energy (at the peak of the storm) and decaying wave energy (as the storm recedes). The irregular bathymetry is found to produce local concentrations of wave energy in the nearshore between Cape Prior and Cape Ortegal and in front of Cape Estaca de Bares, with similar patterns (but varying wave power) in the four cases. These nearshore areas of enhanced wave energy are of the highest interest as prospective sites for a wave energy operation. The largest of them is directly in the lee of a large underwater mount west of Cape Ortegal. In sum, the Estaca de Bares area emerges as one of the most promising for wave energy exploitation in Europe. (author)

  6. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marique, Anne-Françoise; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient str...

  7. Sustainability: criteria and indicators for the energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the concept of sustainability with reference to the energy area. The importance of energy topics in the fundamental ideas behind sustainability - ecological compatibility, economic efficiency and social fairness - is discussed. The methods used to define the criteria and indicators for sustainability are discussed on the basis of existing systems. >From these, criteria and indicators are proposed for the energy area, including indicators for the influence of energy on the environment, economy and society, activity-indicators and indicators for energy efficiency and politics. The system boundaries for the indicators are discussed, as are grey energy and other 'grey' effects in the environmental, economic and social areas. The various criteria, indicators and the effort needed to collect data on them are presented in table form. The report is completed with a discussion of recommendations on what is still to be done in the area, how the results of the study can be used and what actions are still to be taken

  8. District Heating in Areas with Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan Ibrahim

    renewable energy sources and the heat energy requirements, both in terms of the variations involved, such through the excessive production of heat by means of solar based systems, heat that cannot be used immediately but can be stored in borehole storage systems, to be used then in the cold winter period......This PhD thesis presents a summary of a three-year PhD project involving three case studies, each pertaining to a typical regional Danish energy planning scheme with regard to the extensive use of low-energy district heating systems, operating at temperatures as low as 55°C for supply and 25°C...... for return, and with the aim of intensive exploitation of renewable energy sources. The hypothesis is that a detailed analysis of energy performance and cost of construction and operation of low energy district heating systems can be used as a rational basis for planning use of district heating in areas...

  9. Cosmic censorship, area theorem, and self-energy of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (zeroth-order) energy of a particle in the background of a black hole is given by Carter's integrals. However, exact calculations of a particle's self-energy (first-order corrections) are still beyond our present reach in many situations. In this paper we use Hawking's area theorem in order to derive bounds on the self-energy of a particle in the vicinity of a black hole. Furthermore, we show that self-energy corrections must be taken into account in order to guarantee the validity of Penrose's cosmic censorship conjecture

  10. Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI and Sonoelastography: Non-Invasive Assessments of Chemoprevention of Liver Fibrosis in Thioacetamide-Induced Rats with Sho-Saiko-To

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Pan, Huay-Ben; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chen-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the performance of gadoxetic acid -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sonoelastography in evaluating chemopreventive effects of Sho-Saiko-To (SST) in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced early liver fibrosis in rats. Materials and Methods Ten of Sprague-Dawley rats receiving TAA (200 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneal injection were divided into three groups: Group 1 (TAA only, n = 3), Group 2 (TAA +0.25 g/kg SST, n = 4) and Group 3 (TAA+1 g/kg SST,...

  11. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  13. Model operation to improve energy consumption efficiency in developing countries (demonstration study on material preheating equipment for an electric furnace (using reduced iron as a raw material)). Investigation project 2. Report on histories of energy saving technologies and environment preserving measures used in Japanese iron and steel industry; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi (kangen tetsu genryo) ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu (chosa jigyo 2)). Nippon tekkogyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taiskau gijutsu no tekishi hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to contribute to economic growth and global environment preservation in the Asian territories, investigations were made on histories of energy conservation and environment preserving measures used in Japanese iron and steel industry. Energy conservation in blast furnace and converter methods are based on the following actions: improvement in energy efficiency (charging moisture adjusted coals and other techniques), energy recovery (blast furnace gas expander power generation and converter gas recovery), process simplification (continuous casting, heated piece charging and other techniques), and use of alternative energies. With regard to the environment, application of such environmental preserving measures have been advanced rapidly since the 1965`s as waste gas reduction, coke furnace gas liquefaction, and reduction of dusts, soots and noise. At the same time, slag re-utilization has been moved forward. As the building material demand has increased, the use of electric furnace steel making process using scraps has increased, whose production has exceeded one-third of the crude steel production, or 32 million tons. Energy conservation in the electric furnace process consists of use of ultra high power, direct current and scrap preheating, by which unit requirement in calorific power was reduced from 1.5 million to 1.2 million kcal/t or less. The unit requirement for energy consumption for crude steel production in the Japanese iron and steel industry has reduced by 10% from 4.96 million kcal/t in fiscal 1980 to 4.44 million kcal/t in fiscal 1989. 159 refs., 84 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  15. Renewable energy systems for remote areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, D.; Lloyd, C.R. [Centre for Appropriate Technology, Alice Springs (Australia)

    2001-03-01

    It has been long thought that the northern and central regions of Australia are ideal places for the installation of remote area power supplies (RAPS) based on renewable energy. In particular the solar regime in these areas is among the highest in the world. The Centre of Appropriate Technology has been undertaking a project, as part of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy research program, to look at the viability of renewable energy systems in remote areas of northern and central Australia. The study has involved compiling a database of existing knowledge of renewables in these areas combined with a set of site visits and case studies to look at both community attitudes to renewable energy and the actual operation of the systems. The study started in early 1997 and is due to be completed towards the end of 1999. The present paper outlines the logistics of the study and some of the results. The emphasis so far has been on wind and solar systems (including hybrid diesel systems) in Aboriginal communities. Some work has progressed for systems in pastoral properties and tourist ventures. The fieldwork to date has covered northern South Australia and the Northern Territory. Further fieldwork will occur in northern Queensland and Western Australia in mid 1999. (author)

  16. Report to Congress on Insular Area energy vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), which directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the US Mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to assess unique vulnerabilities, the study examined the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  17. Network Coding for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Lucani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A network coding scheme for practical implementations of wireless body area networks is presented, with the objective of providing reliability under low-energy constraints. We propose a simple network layer protocol, study the mean energy to complete in-cast transmissions of given packets from the sensors to the base station (BS), and show through numerical examples that this scheme can reduce the overall energy consumption. More specifically, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is used to allocate the wireless channel to individual nodes. Each node linearly combines its data packets before taking turns to send the ensuing mixtures to the BS. An acknowledgement message is broadcasted by the BS after each round of transmissions, indicating the number of coded packets to be transmitted in the next round. We parametrically study the optimal number of coded packets to send, in terms of completion energy, given the packet erasure probabilities, and the energy use for transmitting data packets as well as listening...

  18. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da; Chassin, Forrest S.; Zhang, Yu; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Warwick, William M.; Fuller, Jason C.; Diao, Ruisheng; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3. Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.

  19. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: ► The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. ► Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. ► Energy savings can be achieved by reducing distances to travel through a good mix between activities at the

  20. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise, E-mail: afmarique@ulg.ac.be; Reiter, Sigrid, E-mail: Sigrid.Reiter@ulg.ac.be

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  1. Extraction of ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora nees and eberm var. Linaloolifera fujita essential oil with supercritical CO2: experiments and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Steffani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from the leaves of a variety of camphor tree known as Ho-Sho was studied. Experiments were carried out within the following ranges: CO2 flow rate (1 - 4 mL/min; pressure (80 - 100 bar; temperature (40 - 60 ºC and particle size (0.37 - 1.0 mm. The equipment used was an HP 8670 T extractor module with an extraction cell volume of 7 mL. Two mathematical models of the process were proposed. Model 1 was a modified version of the traditional shrinking core model with effective diffusivity and the external mass transfer coefficient as the fitting parameters. Model 2 used an additional kinetic parameter based on an Arrhenius-like expression. Both models took into account the cell pressurization step. The best fit between the extraction model curves and the experimental data was obtained using model 2.

  2. Energy-efficient MAC Protocol for Patient Personal Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2005-01-01

    The formulation of a Personal Area Network (PAN), consisting of a wireless infrastructure of medical sensors, attached to patient's body, and a supervising device carried by them, lays the path for continuous and real-time monitoring of vital signs without discomforting the person in question. This infrastructure enhances the context of remote healthcare services by supporting flexible acquisition of crucial vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Aiming at the exploitation of the inherent features and requirements of wireless medical sensor networks, in this paper we focus on the main design guidelines of a low power Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, designated to support a patient PAN. The proposed protocol intends to improve energy efficiency in such applications and thus is oriented towards the prevention of main energy wastage sources, such as collision, idle listening and power outspending. PMID:17281057

  3. Energy-efficiency instruments in the electricity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a mix of instruments that could increase the efficiency of electricity usage in Switzerland. The basis for the development of these instruments - the experience gained in Europe in this area - is discussed. Explicitly not discussed are energy and electricity steering taxes, which could also be part of a future instrument-mix. The measures suggested include the setting of compulsory long-term reduction targets that are to form the basis for strategies and measures to be taken in particular areas and the development of an appropriate instrument-mix for this purpose. These could include regulations and labels, a national fund and certificate trading. Suppliers of electricity could be committed to increasing the efficiency of electricity use and national programmes could also attempt to influence consumer habits. The instruments should, according to the authors, be based on the existing legal framework and use know-how and structures that are already available

  4. Determination of Suitable Areas for the Generation of Wind Energy in Germany: Potential Areas of the Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Blankenhorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, the Federal Government of Germany decided to change the structure of the country’s energy supply system by ending nuclear energy conversion and strongly promoting the development of renewable energies. In order to politically set the course for sustainable energy supply in this time of transition, it is important to analyze the factors influencing the future development of renewable energies. This work contributes to this purpose in the field of onshore wind electricity generation by displaying the temporal development of areas suitable for wind energy use. The availability of such areas is crucial to the extension of sites for wind energy plants. In our approach, the current potential area is determined by excluding areas unsuitable for this kind of electricity generation. For the determination of potential areas of the future, assumptions are made based on the expansion of settlement and traffic areas, and the occupation of protection areas. According to various scenarios, a decline of potential areas between 3% and 8% between 2011 and 2030 is indicated.

  5. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE's commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex

  6. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-16

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE`s commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex.

  7. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  8. Energy Sovereignty in Rural Areas: Off-Grid Paradigm for Strengthen the Use of Renewable Energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dell’Anna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe policy guidelines for the UN General Assembly recognize the need of one universal and transformative agenda for sustainable development, based on the rights, and with people and the planet at the centre. This paper concerns a study of compact system designed to ensure energy independence and then energy sovereignty in marginal rural areas: the Off-Grid Box. This system is an integrated technical device, held in a 6 feet container, which provides - in a Plug&Play way – essential services and resources, namely electricity, hot water, rain water harvesting and storage for washing or irrigation and a water purification process to pasteurize or distil pure water (H2O. Key objectives are reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the exploitation of renewable energy sources, safeguarding the quality and the availability of clean water, promoting a more sustainable and healthy way of life. OGB can be modulated in different geographical contexts and demonstrate the feasibility and the strategic use of total off grid systems for individual units ensuring energy sovereignty of local communities. These systems should be designed in terms incorporated in the territory in order to realize the small-scale-smart-grid. These scenarios are interesting in rural areas especially for small family farms that adopt sustainable models and methods of production with low environmental impact and low energy demand. Keywords: Energy sovereignty, renewable energy, off-grid system, small scale farming, rural development.

  9. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an innovative low-energy district heating (DH) concept based on low-temperature operation. The decreased heating demand from low-energy buildings affects the cost-effectiveness of traditionally-designed DH systems, so we carried out a case study of the annual energy performance of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the network design, and operational temperature and pressure. In the north-European climate, we found that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher heating power than those anticipated in the reference values in the standard calculations for energy demand patterns in energy-efficient buildings. This considerable impact of human behaviour should clearly be included in energy simulations. We also showed that low-energy DH systems are robust systems that ensure security of supply for each customer in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way in areas with linear heat density down to 0.20 MWh/(m year), and that the levelized cost of energy in low-energy DH supply is competitive with a scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years; so, the implementation of an energy system that fully relies on renewable energy needs substantial capital investment, but in the long term this is sustainable from the environmental and socio-economic points of view. Having demonstrated the value of the low-energy DH concept, we evaluated various possible designs with the aim of finding the optimal solution with regard to economic and energy efficiency issues. Here we showed the advantage of low supply and return temperatures, their effect on energy efficiency and that

  10. Energy demand management in selected African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contains five empirical papers that contribute to the energy demand management literature on Africa. It investigates the following policy issues – business cycle and energy conservation, government fuel subsidies and energy efficiency, economic growth and environmental quality, structural effects in parameters, the transition between energy efficiency and energy inefficiency, forecast of energy demand, shifts in demand behaviour, and the persistence profile of energy demand to sho...

  11. Energy Sovereignty in Rural Areas: Off-Grid Paradigm for Strengthen the Use of Renewable Energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Dell’Anna; Menconi, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThe policy guidelines for the UN General Assembly recognize the need of one universal and transformative agenda for sustainable development, based on the rights, and with people and the planet at the centre. This paper concerns a study of compact system designed to ensure energy independence and then energy sovereignty in marginal rural areas: the Off-Grid Box. This system is an integrated technical device, held in a 6 feet container, which provides - in a Plug&Play way – essentia...

  12. 'Cluster'-development and effects in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from an analysis of the formation of so called 'clusters' of companies acting in related fields with the aim of enhancing innovation in their business areas. This is achieved by promoting the exchange of knowledge to encourage learning processes. The report discusses the pros and cons of the 'cluster' theory as well as experience gained in this area in various European countries. It also suggests measures to be taken to aid the formation and further development of clusters in Switzerland. The measures looked at include political ones on the demand side such as levies, energy standards, export promotion and the setting of examples by authorities and - to a lesser degree - measures on the supply side such as the support of research. In particular, the successful use of the 'cluster' method in Austria is looked at

  13. GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (∼ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and γ beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on

  14. GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi

    2003-07-01

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (~ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and γ beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on

  15. Ukraine’s renewable energy potential as promising investment area

    OpenAIRE

    Sivitska, Svitlana

    2013-01-01

    In this research types of enewable energy have been considered, the necessity of investing has been substantiated and the main factors for alternative energy development in Ukraine have been identified.The most promising regions for investment in alternative energy on the basis of a comparison of its development potential in each regions of Ukraine have been identified and also the territorial aspect of each renewable energy sources type development has been analyzed.

  16. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained

  17. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  18. Analysis of cognitive structure of nuclear energy focusing on inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to clarify people's cognitive structure of nuclear energy, and to analyze how the cognitive structure varies with inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge of nuclear energy. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey of perception of nuclear energy in the urban areas and nuclear power plants (NPP) siting areas. After collecting data, we defined 8 categories in terms of respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge, and applied factor analysis to each category's data. Consequently, we found 4 cognitive factors of nuclear: 'trust in the authorities', 'utility of nuclear power generation', 'benefit for NPP siting areas', and 'risk perception about nuclear technology', regardless of the respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge. In addition, when the respondents assess many perceptions of nuclear energy, respondents living in urban areas tend to regard 'trust in the authorities' as important, while respondents living in NPP siting areas tend to take into consideration of risk perception about nuclear technology'. (author)

  19. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  20. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, Luc; Marechal, Francois; Dubuis, Matthias; Calame-Darbellay, Nicole; Favrat, Daniel [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LENI-IGE-STI, Bat. ME A2, Station 9, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland). (author)

  1. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland).

  2. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  3. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  4. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  5. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  6. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  7. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  8. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  9. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  10. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  11. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  12. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  13. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  14. Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hammerle

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria. The main findings of the study were: i Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; ii When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; ii There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003.

  15. Insitutional aspects of the Energy area in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document about the objective of individualizing the activities developed in the energy topic, and to identify possible line of agreement action with the legal attributions and infrastructure existent in the country dedicated to the topic

  16. Mountains and energy transition. Status of use of renewable energies and challenges for their development in mountain areas - Renewable energies Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview of challenges related to the development of renewable energies in mountain areas (conservation of biodiversity and landscapes, main legal measures regarding biodiversity and landscapes), this report proposes an overview of the status and potentials of the different renewable energies (solar, wind, hydroelectricity, bio-energies, geothermal) in mountain areas. It proposes an assessment (strengths and weaknesses) and recommendations for solar, wind, hydroelectricity and bio energies in mountain areas

  17. 'Energy research in the building area is very successful'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this interview with Tony Kaiser, president of the Swiss Energy Research Commission CORE, the urgent necessity for the reduction of climate-damaging greenhouse gas emissions is stressed. The main requirement placed on energy research is noted as being its orientation toward long-term goals in order to support the development of efficient and sustainable technologies. Topics discussed also include the current situation in Switzerland, experience gained in the course of activities carried out within the framework of the current 2008 - 2011 Master Plan, the concrete goals of the research program, energy use in buildings, the 2000-Watt Society, work already planned for the 2012 -2015 period, international aspects and co-operation with academia

  18. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  19. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.81 State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted...

  20. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  1. To Ingest or Rest? Specialized Roles of Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neurons in Coordinating Energy Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Juliette A.; Hillary L. Woodworth; Gina Marie Leinninger

    2015-01-01

    Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and au...

  2. To ingest or rest? Specialized roles of lateral hypothalamic area neurons in coordinating energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Juliette A.; Hillary L. Woodworth; Leinninger, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and auto...

  3. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations; Technologie-Monitoring - Weitere Bereiche - Vertiefungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigassi, R.; Eicher, H. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Steiner, P.; Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered.

  4. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  5. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S.N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  6. Living environment and energy consumption in cities of Yangtze Delta Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijun Gao [Kitakyushu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Engineering; Xingtian Wang [Shanghai Nikko Architectural Consultation Co. Ltd. (China); Li Haifeng [Building Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Penglin Zhao [Shenzhen Municipal Planning and Land Bureau (China); Jianxing Ren [Shanghai Inst. of Electric Power (China). Dept. of Power Engineering; Ojima,Toshio [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Architecture

    2004-12-01

    In this research, we used the statistical data to investigate the basic condition of living environment and energy consumption for Yangtze Delta Area. Yangtze Delta Area is most developed area in China, the center of which is Shanghai, a largest economical city and largest harbor for industry and trade. Besides Shanghai, this area has many cities with a high economical power and highly developed urbanization. The development of economy and living condition in this area will give a significant impact on other cities in China. Through the study, we found that home energy use increases very fast in this area especially for pipeline coal gas use. Reflecting the dense population and an active economy, the density of automobile traffic in this area is exceedingly high and congestion, particularly in mega cities. The living condition for resident has improved gradually. (author)

  7. Living environment and energy consumption in cities of Yangtze Delta Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.J.; Wang, X.T.; Li, H.F.; Zhao, P.L.; Ren, J.X.; Toshio, O. [University of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Engineering

    2004-12-01

    In this research, we used the statistical data to investigate the basic condition of living environment and energy consumption for Yangtze Delta Area. Yangtze Delta Area is most developed area in China, the center of which is Shanghai, the large economical city and largest harbor for industry and trade. Besides Shanghai, this area has many cities with a high economical power and highly developed urbanization. The development of economy and living condition in this area will give a significant impact on other cities in China. Through the study, we found that home energy use increases very fast in this area especially for pipeline coal gas use. Reflecting the dense population and an active economy, the density of automobile traffic in this area is exceedingly high and congestion, particularly in mega cities. The living condition for resident has improved gradually.

  8. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  9. Guidance Law Design for Terminal Area Energy Management of Reusable Launch Vehicle by Energy-to-Range Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Jiang; Zhaohua Yang

    2014-01-01

    A new guidance scheme that utilizes a trajectory planning algorithm by energy-to-range ratio has been developed under the circumstance of surplus energy for the terminal area energy management phase of a reusable launch vehicle. The trajectory planning scheme estimates the reference flight profile by piecing together several flight phases that are defined by a set of geometric parameters. Guidance commands are readily available once the best reference trajectory is determined. The trajectory ...

  10. RE-ATTEMPT: A New Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the deliver...

  11. A practice-theory approach of homeowners’ energy retrofits in four European areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartiaux, Franise Bartiaux; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Fonseca, Paula; Ozolina, Liga; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2014-01-01

    question, energy retrofits are described and their variability compared in four European areas: Denmark, Latvia, the Coimbra area in Portugal and Wallonia in Belgium. Although these areas have different geographical, cultural and housing contexts, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD......) provides a common form of regulation. As a policy, its main underlying intention is to promote the opportunities for energy retrofitting. Based on an analysis of 60 in-depth interviews with homeowners, it is found that energy retrofitting is not an integrative practice in 2010, despite the EPBD and other......This article examines whether and how energy retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings can be understood within the framework of social practice theories. Practice theories help to shift the focus towards more collective approaches and practices, rather than towards individuals. In addressing this...

  12. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the four main areas 'efficient use of energy', 'renewable energy sources', 'nuclear energy' and 'energy economics' is presented. This allows comparison with other publications such as the Federal Energy-Research Concept or the Overviews of the Energy-Research Programme Managers. The classification system is also compared with that used by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Network for Information and Technology Transfer (ENET) is also presented, which has a comprehensive data base at its disposal and which maintains a systematic collection of energy-relevant publications. Details on these projects can be obtained from the appropriate heads of programmes and SFOE departmental heads, whose addresses are given in the report

  13. CG-DAR-1: Guide to the declassified areas of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide, which is based on classification of information by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and on subsequent declassification actions by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, is intended to identify those areas of nuclear research and development that have been removed from the Restricted Data (RD) category and declassified

  14. Statistical Process Control Concerning the Glazed Areas Influence on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepădatu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a statistical investigation, for analyzing the buildings characteristics from the energy efficiency point of view. The energy efficiency of buildings may be estimated by their capacity to ensure a healthy and comfortable environment, with low energy consumption during the whole year. The glazed areas have a decisive role in the building energy efficiency having in view the complex functions that they play in the system. A parametric study, based on the method of factorial plan of experience with two levels, allows us to emphasize the measure in which the geometric and energetic characteristics of glazed areas influence the energy efficiency, estimated by the yearly energy needs, to ensure a comfortable and healthy environment.

  15. What is the impact of altitude on energy demand? A step towards developing specialized energy policy for mountainous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific strategies for the energy sector should be a central part of a sustainable mountain policy. However, there is a lack of research on the energy issues of mountainous areas and specialized energy policy measures cannot be effectively supported. The determination of the energy demand in mountainous areas, which is an essential step in the direction of developing mountain energy policy, is analyzed in this paper. Greece has been selected as a case study. The results show that altitude is the decisive factor affecting degree-days and energy needs, within the geographical range of Greece. It is proved that the thermal, as well as the total energy demand are significantly increased in mountain settlements. The annual energy expenditure of a typical residence lying at an altitude of 1000 m proved to be 85% higher than the corresponding cost at sea level. This makes mountainous populations vulnerable to energy poverty. It is also proved that the subsidy policy for heating oil, in Greece, cannot alleviate energy poverty. The results of the present study can be utilized in the direction of re-designing the present policy and this is a completely necessary step for creating a sustainable policy for mountainous areas, in general. - Highlights: • The altitude’s influence on degree-days and energy needs in Greece was quantified. • Altitude affects heating degree-days 3.5 times more intensely than latitude in Greece. • A typical home has two times more thermal needs at 800 m than at sea-level in Greece. • The subsidy policy for heating oil is inadequate for Greek mountainous territories. • More than 85% of the households located over 800 m are energy poor in Greece

  16. Energy-efficient area coverage for intruder detection in sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    He, Shibo; Li, Junkun

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents recent research results on area coverage for intruder detection from an energy-efficient perspective. These results cover a variety of topics, including environmental surveillance and security monitoring. The authors also provide the background and range of applications for area coverage and elaborate on system models such as the formal definition of area coverage and sensing models. Several chapters focus on energy-efficient intruder detection and intruder trapping under the well-known binary sensing model, along with intruder trapping under the probabilistic sens

  17. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative low-energy district heating (DH) concept based on low-temperature operation. The decreased heating demand from low-energy buildings affects the cost-effectiveness of traditionally-designed DH systems, so we carried out a case study of the annual energy performance...... of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the...... network design, and operational temperature and pressure. In the north-European climate, we found that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher heating power than those anticipated in the reference values in the standard calculations for energy demand patterns in energy-efficient...

  18. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  19. The relation between energy consumption and developed land; a model for the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Jorge; Romano, Yraida; Perez, Claudia; Roca, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The study of the developed land and the energy consumption is part of a main project, which objective is the development of a model for the evaluation of the environmental and energy efficiency of the interaction (mobility) and land use structure (called as 'territorial functionality'), applied to the metropolitan area of Barcelona . One of the most important points of the main project is the modeling of energy consumption, and developed land produced by the territorial functionality. This pa...

  20. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors.

  1. Toward low energy cities : A case study of the urban area of Liège

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid; Marique, Anne-Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this article, a methodology is proposed for assessing residential energy uses for buildings and transport at the city scale. This method is based on the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of urban and transport criteria. The methodology allows to model buildings and transport energy use at the city scale, as well as to ...

  2. City Energy Management : A Case Study on the Area of Liège in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid; Wallemacq, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liège through the use of GIS tools in order to assess energy uses of residential buildings and transport of residents at the city scale. For each class of this typology, a representative block is selected in order to model energy use at the city...

  3. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The main findings are that the excess heat from NZEBs can benefit DH systems by decreasing the production from production units utilizing combustible fuels. In DH areas where the heat demand in summer months is already covered by renewable energy...... buildings in Denmark are connected to electricity grids and around half are connected to districtheating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy systems enables them to send and receive energy from these systems. This paper’s objective is to examine how excess heat production from NZEBs......Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  4. Direct observation of resonance tryptophan-to-chromophore energy transfer in visible fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, NV; Borst, JW; Hink, MA; van Hoek, A; Visser, AJWG

    2005-01-01

    Visible fluorescent proteins from Aequorea victoria contain next to the fluorophoric group a single tryptophan residue. Both molecules form a single donor-acceptor pair for resonance energy transfer (RET) within the protein. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments using tryptophan excitation have sho

  5. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  6. Load frequency stabilization of four area hydro thermal system using Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ruby meena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic generation control in electric power system design is a major concern nowadays due to its rising size, varying structure, integration of renewable-energy sources and distributed generators to meet the growing demand. In this paper, automatic generation control of an interconnected four area hydro thermal system examined. Each area equipped with reheat turbine for thermal system and hydro turbine with electric governor for hydro system. Load frequency stabilization gained by including Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system (SMES in all areas. A comparative analysis made between Proportional and Integral (PI controller with Fuzzy Logic controller with and without including SMES in the four area power system. The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller can generate best dynamic performance for step load perturbations given in all areas. The system simulation realized by using MATLAB software.

  7. fMRI Investigation of Working Memory for Faces in Autism: Visual Coding and Underconnectivity with Frontal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Hideya; Kana, Rajesh K.; Keller, Timothy A.; Vladimir L Cherkassky; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2007-01-01

    Brain activation and functional connectivity were investigated in high functioning autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging in an n-back working memory task involving photographic face stimuli. The autism group showed reliably lower activation compared with controls in the inferior left prefrontal area (involved in verbal processing and working memory maintenance) and the right posterior temporal area (associated with theory of mind processing). The participants with autism also sho...

  8. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.;

    2009-01-01

    (CAISO) areas. The proposed wide area energy management system (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participat-ing control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control areas, the new...... conventional hydro plant). The aggregate would be integrated with BPA and CAISO automatic generation control systems. An optimization control algorithm has been developed. It provides an excellent regulation signal following capability, helps to maintain a desired state of charge on the ESD, prevents...

  9. Energy-neutral areas very common in 2050. Innovative concepts and designs for area development; Energieneutrale gebieden in 2050 heel gewoon. Innovatieve concepten en projecten voor gebiedsontwikkeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Visser, H.; Ruijg, G.J. [ECN Efficiency en Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Epema, T. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Willems, E. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Realizing an energy neutral built environment at the area level offers a new challenge. Smart combinations of existing and still to be developed techniques, together with area specific measures, are a precondition for energy neutral districts and especially cities in 2050. The Dutch cities of Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen and Tilburg are taking the lead. An area is considered energy neutral is that area does not require any net import of energy from outside the area boundaries annually. [Dutch] Het realiseren van energieneutrale gebouwde omgeving op een gebiedsschaal is een nieuwe uitdaging. Slimme combinaties van bestaande en nog te ontwikkelen technieken, samen met gebiedsgebonden maatregelen zijn een voorwaarde voor energieneutrale wijken en vooral steden anno 2050. Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen en Tilburg nemen het voortouw. Een gebied is energieneutraal als op jaarbasis geen netto import van energie van buiten de gebiedsgrens nodig is.

  10. Energy use efficiency of livestock farms in a mountain area of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Stringi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the performance (in terms of energy of livestock farms located in a Mediterranean mountain area and characterized by different stocking rates. Farm data were collected from in-person interviews of farmers of 58 farms representative of the livestock farms of the Madonie and Nebrodi mountains area (Sicily, Italy, including several parameters related to farm characteristics, animal, crop and pasture management. The farm parameters were used to calculate input and output energy values from which agroecosystem performance indicators were derived. Increasing stocking rate corresponded to a more than proportional increase in total inputs per unit area because of a greater farm dependence on external energy sources derived from agriculture (mainly for concentrate feed and to a lower energy use efficiency. The indicator of dependence on non-renewable energy sources was, on average, very low irrespective of stocking rate. As stocking rate increased the farm autonomy indicator fell and the immediate removal indicator increased. Overall, the best agroecosystem performance in terms of energy was found on farms with lower stocking rates, higher proportions of permanent pastures to total farm area, and longer periods of exclusive grazing.

  11. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  12. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  13. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  14. Internet of Things for Residential Areas: Toward Personalized Energy Management Using Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Salehinejad, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent management of machines, particularly in a residence area, has been of interest for many years. However, such system design has always been limited to simple control of machines from a local area or remotely from the Internet. In this report, for the first time, an intelligent system is proposed, where not only provides intelligent control ability of machines to user, but also utilizes big data and optimization techniques to provide promotional offers to the user to optimize energy...

  15. Energy Efficient Aggregation and Reliable Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham; Dr. Jothi venkateswaran; Dr. Hafidh Taher Ba Omar

    2014-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBAN), the data loss, security and reliability requirements are not handled in the existing literature works. This necessitates the technique that deals with slot allocation scheme, delay and other performance metrics. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient aggregation and reliable communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Initially, the aggregator nodes are chosen based on the nodes connectivity. During the d...

  16. Windows of Opportunities : The Glazed Area and its Impact on the Energy Balance of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2006-01-01

    The impact of window area on the energy balance of a building was investigated by simulations in DEROB-LTH. The glazed area was varied in three types of buildings with different types of glazing and for several climates. One low energy house was compared to a less insulated house but identical in size and layout. Three different types of glazing were used; uncoated double glazing, double glazing with one low-e coated pane and triple glazing with two low-e coated panes. Climates with variation...

  17. Improving energy efficiency of existing suburban areas through district energy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Marique, Anne-Françoise; Reiter, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    Urban sprawl represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption of a territory for energy needs in buildings and for transport. It is a huge concern in Belgium where public authorities face the following question: “what to do with existing low-density districts that require a lot of resources?” while households still continue to favour this kind of dwellings. In this context, the paper draws up a typological classification of reference Walloon suburban blocks. Then, energ...

  18. Rural energy assessment and potential alternative energy resources & technologies in rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an in-depth review and critical analysis of the various rural energy resources and their socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It also explores the potential alternative energy resources and affordable technologies for rural people and as well as their potential socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods. The review of the consumption aspect ...

  19. Quantification of surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy: the concept of effective amorphous surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jeffrey; Burnett, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the use of dispersive surface energy in quantifying surface amorphous content, and the concept of effective amorphous surface area is introduced. An equation is introduced employing the linear combination of surface area normalized square root dispersive surface energy terms. This equation is effective in generating calibration curves when crystalline and amorphous references are used. Inverse gas chromatography is used to generate dispersive surface energy values. Two systems are investigated, and in both cases surface energy data collected for physical mixture samples comprised of amorphous and crystalline references fits the predicted response with good accuracy. Surface amorphous content of processed lactose samples is quantified using the calibration curve, and interpreted within the context of effective amorphous surface area. Data for bulk amorphous content is also utilized to generate a thorough picture of how disorder is distributed throughout the particle. An approach to quantifying surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy is presented. Quantification is achieved by equating results to an effective amorphous surface area based on reference crystalline, and amorphous materials. PMID:21725707

  20. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is a key issue in the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia's major heavy industrial region, where the major energy consuming industries consume upto 80 PJ/yr of energy in their processes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made towards the reduction of energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in Kwinana. One way to further advance sustainable energy use is through the realisation of regional synergies. These concern the capture, recovery and reuse of by-products, water and energy between industries in close proximity. Kwinana is recognised as a leading edge example in regional synergy development, but more synergy opportunities appear to exist. The centre for sustainable resource processing (CSRP) is undertaking research to develop new synergies in Kwinana, including energy utility synergies. As part of the research, a methodology was developed and applied to identify and evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental feasibility of collaborative energy recovery opportunities from industry flue gases in Kwinana. The trial application demonstrated the significant potential to mitigate CO2 emissions through energy recovery from flue gases by applying technologies to convert the embedded energy into useful thermal and electric applications. This article discusses the methodology and outcomes from the trial applications, including the impact of carbon taxes, reducing costs of emerging technologies, and increasing energy prices

  1. The role of BNDES' Energy Department (DEENE) on natural gas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the activities of BNDES' Energy Department (DEENE) as the main financing agent of the brazilian energy sector, with particular emphasis on natural gas - which has not played an important role yet, despite DEENE's disposition and expectancy in participating of projects in this area. The work also outlines the department's plan at short and medium term concerning natural gas, and presents the Bank's financing conditions to this sector. (author)

  2. Area Spectral and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Cellular Networks with Cell DTX

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Peiliang; Miao, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Cell discontinuous transmission (DTX) has been proposed as an effective solution to reduce energy consumption of cellular networks. In this paper, we investigate the impact of network traffic load on area spectral efficiency (ASE) and energy efficiency (EE) of cellular networks with cell DTX. Closedform expressions of ASE and EE as functions of traffic load for cellular networks with cell DTX are derived. It is shown that ASE increases monotonically in traffic load, while EE depends on the po...

  3. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  4. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  5. Polymer and Concentrator Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Return Factors and Area Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Birger; Gustaf Zettergren

    2006-12-20

    Market diffusion of flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology has been induced by economical support schemes and has lead to reduced cost per produced kWh electricity. For further market penetration of the PV technology, a continued reduction of production cost is required. Two alternative approaches to achieve this are using less expensive materials or changing the active materials. The technologies of concentrator PV (CPV) systems and polymer PV (PPV) devices represent these two strategies. The potential energy performance of these technologies is studied in terms of the process primary energy requirements for manufacturing, how many times this energy is paid back during its lifetime and as the required land area for electricity generation. The study is an energy analysis incorporating the inherent uncertainties in technology development. Uncertainties are identified in data acquisition, in design choices, as induced by development and improvement, in performance and by different application scenarios. The future technology alternatives are defined in different ways for CPV and PPV. CPV parameters are derived from existing products and ideas for improvements and PPV parameters from the directions of research. This study shows that the invested energy in future CPV and PPV is potentially paid back up to about 90 and 170 times, respectively, under Arizona (CPV) and average European (PPV) solar irradiation conditions. However the result is highly dependent on configuration, inventory data and device performance. Thus, for certain design alternatives, data and performance, PPV production energy is far from paid back during its lifetime. For CPV the energy return factor is decreased to about 13 in the least beneficial case. Area efficiency is studied as the land area requirements for producing a net output electricity of 1 MWh during 25 years. With device efficiencies from 1 to 5 per cent and lifetimes from 1 to 5 years a PPV device requires from 2

  6. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  7. Optimizing Whole House Deep Energy Retrofit Packages: A Case Study of Existing Chicago-Area Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnie Aguilar Leinartas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency of the residential building stock plays a key role in mitigating global climate change. New guidelines are targeting widespread application of deep energy retrofits to existing homes that reduce their annual energy use by 50%, but questions remain as to how to identify and prioritize the most cost-effective retrofit measures. This work demonstrates the utility of whole building energy simulation and optimization software to construct a “tool-box” of prescriptive deep energy retrofits that can be applied to large portions of the existing housing stock. We consider 10 generally representative typology groups of existing single-family detached homes built prior to 1978 in the Chicago area for identifying cost-optimal deep energy retrofit packages. Simulations were conducted in BEopt and EnergyPlus operating on a cloud-computing platform to first identify cost-optimal enclosure retrofits and then identify cost-optimal upgrades to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems. Results reveal that prescriptive retrofit packages achieving at least 50% site energy savings can be defined for most homes through a combination of envelope retrofits, lighting upgrades, and upgrades to existing HVAC system efficiency or conversion to mini-split heat pumps. The average upfront cost of retrofits is estimated to be ~$14,400, resulting in average annual site energy savings of ~54% and an average simple payback period of ~25 years. Widespread application of these prescriptive retrofit packages across the existing Chicago-area residential building stock is predicted to reduce annual site energy use by 3.7 × 1016 J and yield approximately $280 million USD in annual energy savings.

  8. Standard dossiers Energy Transition. Dossier R3 (previously Sustainable Rijnmond area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R3 project is part of the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the Netherlands, initiated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The R3 project is focused on setting up a hot water business, heat supply to the built environment and heat supply to the greenhouse sector in the Rijnmond area

  9. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  10. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  11. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ''conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,'' and to ''outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.'' The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ''unique vulnerabilities'' were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas' experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry

  12. A survey of critical research areas in the energy segment of restructured electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of a large volume of recent literature on deregulated (a.k.a. restructured) electricity markets underscores the importance of the research needs to ensure proper design and functioning of the markets. Researchers have made significant contributions fueling the evolution of the fundamental market design changes that have taken place since the beginning of the restructuring process. Due to the vast scope, existing survey papers are focused on particular facets of deregulated electricity markets. We adopt a similar approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the energy market. The contributions of the survey paper lie in the novel approach used in classifying the literature based on critical research areas. Some areas of research such as auction based pricing, bidding strategy formulation, market equilibria, and market power are reviewed in a different light than other existing survey papers. We conclude by providing some future research directions for the energy markets. (author)

  13. Selection of possible candidate area for nuclear energy facility in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to stimulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  14. A Study on the Regulatory Requirements of Nuclear Energy Systems in the Area of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study indicates that reasonable guidelines can be developed based on the concepts, principles and fundamentals of proliferation resistance. The regulatory body is responsible for drafting and establishing regulatory requirements for the licensing process of nuclear energy systems, in line with State's commitments, obligations and policies regarding non-proliferation. The requirements would include enforcement ordinance, enforcement regulations, including technical codes and standards for design, operation, and maintenance, in the area of proliferation resistance of an NES. KAERI has been developing potential regulatory requirements of nuclear energy systems in the area of proliferation resistance based on the INPRO methodology. This paper presents general concepts and fundamentals, including relevant issues, of proliferation resistance that are to be considered in the licensing process of nuclear energy systems

  15. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency. PMID:22254777

  16. To Ingest or Rest? Specialized Roles of Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neurons in Coordinating Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette A. Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH or orexins/hypocretins (OX are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders.

  17. Study renewable energy - sugarcane ethanol. Traditional areas. Final report; Estudo energias renovaveis - etanol de cana. Areas tradicionais. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the mapping of areas with potential for ethanol production in traditional areas of the Brazil. In the traditional areas, with clear emphasis in the Northeast region of Brazil, was selected ten areas in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. In the Southeast region two areas, between the Norte Fluminense, Southern of the Espirito Santo and eastern of the Minas Gerais.

  18. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

  19. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  20. WAMS Based Damping Control of Inter-area Oscillations Employing Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA, J.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic design procedure for a wide-area damping controller (WADC employing Energy Storage Systems (ESSs. The WADC is aimed at enhancing the damping of multiple inter-area modes in a large scale power system. Firstly, geometric measures of controllability and obsevability are used to select the control locations for ESSs and most effective stabilizing signals, respectively. Then, the WADC coordinates these signals to achieve multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO controllers with the least Frobenius norm feedback gain matrix. The simulation results of frequency and time domains verify the effectiveness of the wide-area damping controller for various operating conditions. Furthermore, the robustness of the wide-area damping controller is also tested with respect to time delay and uncertainty of models.

  1. Energy and poverty in isolated areas of Colombia; the poor residents' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades a number of studies have analyzed the effect of energy on the poor. In this paper our approach includes an assessment of the community perception of the energy problem. Low income is one of the main reasons that make electricity less accessible to the poor, in addition, deficient access to energy services negatively affects the income of poor population, in this way trapping them in a vicious cycle that is often difficult to break. For better understand the links between energy and poverty, making comparisons between the theory and practice, the result (renewable energy for sustainable rural livelihoods) the project evaluates some of the most important factors that support the efficient and suitable provision of energy services in remote rural areas, using a multidiscipline and participative perspective. An initial survey was undertaken in the Colombian pacific coast and in the Andean region, se both with similar conditions: inhabited by poor population that is isolated from the national grid system. The zones were selected because their inhabitants have access to different forms of renewable energy. The paper discusses the findings of the field work and examines some of the barriers that exist for a more productive use of energy in these regions

  2. Energy and poverty in isolated areas of Colombia. The poor residents' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades a number of studies have analyzed the effect of energy on the poor. In this paper our approach includes an assessment of the community's perception of the energy problem. Low income is one of the main reasons that make electricity less accessible to the poor; in addition, deficient access to energy services negatively affects the in come of poor population, in this way trapping them in a vicious cycle that is often difficult to break. For better understand the links between energy and poverty, making comparisons between theory and practice, the RESURL (Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods) project evaluates some of the most important factors that support the efficient and suitable provision of energy services in remote rural areas, using a multidiscipline and participative perspective. An initial survey was undertaken in the Colombian pacific coast and in the Andean region, both with similar conditions: inhabited by poor population that is isolated from the national grid system. The zones were selected because their inhabitants have access to different forms of renewable energy. The paper discusses the findings of the fieldwork and examines some of the barriers that exist for a more productive use of energy in these regions

  3. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwang Li; Huan Tang; Baohui Zhang; Guixia Yang; Xiaoping Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1) Leaf Area Index (LAI) products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results sho...

  4. Seismic released energy nearby the nuclear waste repository site in Inshas area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the seismicity and seismic history of Egypt indicates some areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. there are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. From the tectonic map of Egypt, the distribution of intensity and magnitude of these epicenters show strong activity along the Nile Delta. This activity might be due to the presence of thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energies of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area. Their effects on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site are considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy revealed that Inshas site is affected by seismic activities from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-fayum, the mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. El-fayum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 1.0E+21 ergs

  5. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  6. Regional distribution of released earthquake energy in northern Egypt along with Inahass area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the seismic history of Egypt indicates sone areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. There are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. Form the tectonic map of Egypt, distribution of Intensity and magnitude show strong activity along Nile Delta. This due to the presence of a thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energy of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area . Its effect on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site is considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy reveals that Inshas site is affected by seismic activity from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-Faiyum, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba seismo-tectonic zones. El-Faiyum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 5.4E+21 erg

  7. Determination of low-frequency energy effect in built-up areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafkina Marina Vladimirovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical direction - study of electromagnetic fields and infrasound built-up areas. These negative factors are not perceived by basic human receptors, and often people underestimate the danger posed by the sources of electromagnetic fields and infrasound. Currently, environmental monitoring system of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields in built up areas includes a study of the amplitude spectrum. The negative impact of these factors is evaluated separately without taking into account their mutual influence on the biological object. However, in the literature there is the data showing the effect of noise on the electrical characteristics of the human body. In this regard, the authors consider appropriate definition of the integral energy of low-frequency effects on built-up areas that will objectively evaluate the overall level of various kinds of fields at the point in space at a given time and their negative impact on biological objects. The authors propose a new approach to ecological monitoring of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the basis of determining the energy parameters. The paper theoretically proved it possible to determine the total energy impact of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields, taking into account the mutual influence of these factors on biological object. The article presents an algorithm of the synergistic index of the low-frequency energy of negative impact on the basis of measurements of integrated intensities of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Definition of the synergistic energy of low-frequency effects allows objectively assessing the negative effects of electromagnetic fields and infrasound on biological objects, as well as fundamentally new challenges to improve environmental safety of built-up areas and the protection of the population from the effects of these factors.

  8. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global

  9. The Factors Influencing Transport Energy Consumption in Urban Areas: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport energy consumption accounts for about one third of total energy consumption in EU. Despite significant advances in transport technology and fuel formulation, transport energy consumption has increased in most EU countries over the last three decades. This increase in consumption occurred as a result of factors such as higher car ownership, a growth in automobile use and an increase in vehicle distances traveled. As travel and land-use are a function of one another, it is often hypothesized that changing urban structure can result in changes in energy consumption. Understanding how different land use characteristics may influence travel behaviour and the corresponding energy consumption is crucial for planners and policy makers in order to develop strategic actions to shrink the environmental footprint of the urban transportation sector. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the connections between land use, travel behavior and energy consumption. In particular, this paper seeks to identify the determinants of transport energy consumption in urban areas by reviewing evidence from empirical studies. To this aim, nine characteristics of land use are presented and their effects on both travel behaviour and energy use are discussed Our review shown that, in contrast to the focus on the effect of the built environment on travel, only few researchers have empirically investigated the linkage between the built environment and transportation energy use. The research described in this paper has been developed within the PON04a2_E Smart Energy Master project. It represents part of a much broader research project aimed at the development of an integrated model of urban energy efficiency.

  10. Corrected Area Law and Komar Energy for Noncommutative Inspired REISSNER-NORDSTRÖM Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    The importance of the Voros product in defining a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordström black hole is emphasized. The entropy of this black hole is then computed in the tunneling approach and is shown to obey the area law at the next to leading order in the noncommutative parameter θ. Correspondingly modifications (logarithmic in nature) to entropy/area law is obtained by going beyond the semiclassical approximation. Also the Komar energy is computed and its relation with the entropy and semiclassical Hawking temperature is studied. The coefficient of the logarithmic term is evaluated and involves the noncommutative parameter θ.

  11. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  12. Development of a large-area detector for position and energy resolving detection of molecular fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamer, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Kampkoetter, A.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Ranitzsch, P.; Schaefer, S.; Wolf, T.; Enss, C. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University. (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    To investigate reactions like the dissociative recombination in laboratory environment, the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg is presently building a cryogenic storage ring to prepare molecular ions in their rotational groundstate. The full kinematics of these processes can be resolved by a position and energy sensitive detection of the reaction products/molecule fragments. We describe the development of a large-area MMC for position sensitive detection of massive particles with kinetic energies of a few keV. The detector encompasses sixteen slice-shaped large-area absorbers to form a circular whole with a diameter of 36 mm. The temperature sensor is positioned on the outer edge of each absorber. Due to the finite thermal diffusivity in the absorber material, the rise-time of the detector-signal depends on the impact location of the particle. We compare a numerical analysis for the energy and position dependence of the detector signal to results of recent test measurements where energy was deposited at different positions by LED light pulses as well as x-ray photons delivered by an {sup 55}Fe source. For massive particles, potential degradation of instrumental line width as well as energy losses by backscattering, sputtering and lattice damages are discussed using Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Development of a large-area detector for position and energy resolving detection of molecular fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate reactions like the dissociative recombination in laboratory environment, the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg is presently building a cryogenic storage ring to prepare molecular ions in their rotational groundstate. The full kinematics of these processes can be resolved by a position and energy sensitive detection of the reaction products/molecule fragments. We describe the development of a large-area MMC for position sensitive detection of massive particles with kinetic energies of a few keV. The detector encompasses sixteen slice-shaped large-area absorbers to form a circular whole with a diameter of 36 mm. The temperature sensor is positioned on the outer edge of each absorber. Due to the finite thermal diffusivity in the absorber material, the rise-time of the detector-signal depends on the impact location of the particle. We compare a numerical analysis for the energy and position dependence of the detector signal to results of recent test measurements where energy was deposited at different positions by LED light pulses as well as x-ray photons delivered by an 55Fe source. For massive particles, potential degradation of instrumental line width as well as energy losses by backscattering, sputtering and lattice damages are discussed using Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Limited area energy budget during a life cycle of Genoa cyclone (18-21 November 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of deep and rapid cyclo genesis over the Gulf of Genoa and its impact on a limited area energy budget are examined in this paper. Energy components, including boundary and generation terms, are calculated for the period 18-21 November 1999 over a limited region in which this disturbance is the major synoptic-scale feature. The energy contents and their changes through the studied atmospheric volume are discussed in the course of the cyclone's development. The combined boundary pressure work and dissipation terms of the zonal and eddy kinetic energies, as well as generation terms of zonal and eddy available energies, are computed as residuals. Data of ALADIN/LACE model are used as input fields for calculations. Formation of the cyclone under study initiated in the upper atmospheric levels. At the initial stage of its development, energy conversion C(KZ,KE) was intense. Thus, zonal flow acted as a source of eddy kinetic energy. The disturbance was induced by a very strong wind shear and the progress of the vortex toward the lower atmospheric layers was associated with downward eddy kinetic energy transport (from the jet stream level toward the surface). Simultaneously, the upward transport of both zonal and eddy available energies (from the lower and middle troposphere toward the upper levels) was present. The disturbance was a consequence of very strong wind shear and it was evident how it progressed toward the lower atmospheric layers. As the vortex reached the ground, energy conditions allowed its possible further growth there. In spite of that, the surface cyclone lifetime was very short due to dynamical conditions that attenuated cyclone development

  15. Mode areas and field energy distribution in honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Laegsgaard, J; Bjarklev, A; Laegsgaard, Jesper; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Bjarklev, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The field energy distributions and effective mode areas of silica-based photonic bandgap fibers with a honeycomb airhole structure in the cladding and an extra airhole defining the core are investigated. We present a generalization of the common effective area definition, suitable for the problem at hand, and compare the results for the photonic bandgap fibers with those of index-guiding microstructured fibers. While the majority of the field energy in the honeycomb photonic bandgap fibers is found to reside in the silica, a substantial fraction (up to ~30%) can be located in the airholes. This property may show such fibers particularly interesting for sensor applications, especially those based on nonlinear effects or interaction with other structures (e.g. Bragg gratings) in the glass.

  16. Model study and energy consumption analysis of passive house in cold areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Chen; Jiayin, Zhu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, (China)

    2010-07-01

    China has launched a variety of solar heating and cooling technology researches. Solar applications and building integration technology were found to be significant energy efficiency technologies. This paper investigated the passive house mode suited to the cold area of China. A comparative analysis of the evolution of design standards and differences of life style and house type in city and rural areas was performed. A comparative analysis of architectural design and energy demand between Germany and China was also performed. It was found that a wide gap exists between China and Germany on the building heat loss index. This paper also developed a passive house model for both city and rural environments. The two basic principles to consider in the design of a rural house are the needs of production and living; as well as adaptation to climatic conditions and resource and waste recycling.

  17. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  18. Neutron dose equivalent rate in intermediate energy heavy ion target area

    CERN Document Server

    Li Gui Sheng; Li Zong Wei; Su You Wu; Zhang Shu Mi

    2000-01-01

    The fluence rate distributions of neutrons emitted in the reactions of 50 MeV/u sup 1 sup 8 O-ion on thick Be, Cu, Au targets were measured with an activation method of threshold detectors and the neutron dose equivalent rate distributions at 1 m from the targets in intermediate energy heavy ion target area were obtained using the conversion coefficients for neutron fluence rate to ambient dose equivalent rate.

  19. Weighted Energy-Balanced Efficient Routing Algorithm for Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoming Li; Zhenyu Xu; Shengge Mao; Xing Tong; Xuejun Sha

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a small-scaled sensor network consisting of a series of medical devices attributed to, around, or implanted in a human body, providing continuous monitoring by different sensors to collect vital signals or motion and GPS. This paper proposes an effective routing algorithm to balance the energy consumption within a WBAN in order to prolong the overall lifetime of the network, called dynamic routing algorithm (DRA) and its improved version based on a multipa...

  20. Energy Efficient Model For Deploying Wireless Body Area Networks Using Multi-Hop Network Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C.Chepkwony

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs offers a lot of application opportunities in the area of health care. Recent developments in sensors and radio communication technologies have motivated many researchers to design WBAN systems for application in healthcare provision. Power consumption is still a limiting factor in realizing a WBAN with a very long lifetime. In order for wireless body area networks to ensure widespread use and adoption, some of the design constraints should be solved to promote uptake and meet social expectations. As a result, design of energy efficient WBANs is required to enhance battery life at the same time ensure that sensor nodes are small enough to be conveniently worn or implanted in the body. Energy consumption in WBANs happens during sensing, processing and communication. This research focused on designing an energy efficient model during communication between sensors. The parameters were simulated and implemented using MATLAB and Simulink simulation software. The sensors are randomly localized on a plane and distance between them calculated. The model uses a relay between the sensors and the coordinator to reduce power consumption by sensors during signal transmission. The relay is dedicated to retransmitting signals onl

  1. District heating supply for low energy areas. second edition; Fjernvarmeforsyning af lavenergiomraeder. 2 udgave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristjansson, H.; Buus, F. [Carl Bro as, Glostrup (Denmark); Boehm, B.; Vejen, N.K. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Rasmussen, J. [Star Pipe, Fredericia (Denmark); Paaske Christensen, K. [Nykoebing Falster Kommune, Nykoebing Falster (Denmark); Bidstrup, N. [Grundfos A/S, Broendby (Denmark)

    2004-08-01

    This report presents recommendations for design of district heating distribution systems in low energy buildings or in other areas with low heating density. For a joint heat supply of areas with low heat density distribution costs are high compared to heat sale. At the same time district heating flow pipes and pumps have developed significantly during the last decade. The project aims at identifying the optimal district heating distribution design for these conditions. The optimal design is dependent on heat price, price level and economic timeframe. Furthermore, savings are dependent of choice of frame of reference. Conditions can vary significantly from one area to another, but preconditions have been adapted to a reasonable level. (BA)

  2. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  3. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  4. Energy for development in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.F. (Getulio Vargas Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Warkov, S.

    1979-09-01

    Work on the prospects for alternative energy systems, especially solar and biomass, and the interrelationship of energy and rural development in the semi-arid areas of North-East Brazil is reported. The approach is interdisciplinary and raises questions about some economic and social costs and benefits that may be associated with energy-policy choices in this one sub-region of Brazil. Following an appraisal of fuel wood, solar cookers, irrigation and fertilizers in the context of energy and rural development, the social, demographic and cultural characteristics of the region are described. The drought-stricken area of the rural Northeast (Sertao) is the poorest in the country, with small land units, scarce surface water, subsistance agriculture, low capital formation, transportation deficiencies, resistance to change, high rates of out-migration and the like. The description of some regional development projects leads to a comparison of various technologies that might efficiently improve the supply of water. Work performed in the State of Paraiba on simple water distillation technology is reviewed and a social and economic cost/benefit study proposed. Factors affecting rural electrification are considered. A social impact analysis of viable alternatives to conventional electrical energy systems is put forward and the status of wind and solar generation of electricity is reviewed. A final section describes the current status of work in Brazil on biomass alternatives and compares the prospects for sugar cane and manioc plant alcohol. A proposal is made for a multi-disciplinary assessment of the socio-economic impacts of alternate energy sources. 42 references.

  5. Prospects for biomass as a of renewable energy source in rural areas in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to world-wide increasing energy demand during the last decades energy source stocks (petroleum, gas, the coal) becomes much less. Besides the use of specified sources of energy, the results in deterioration of ecological conditions. In connection with these the using of renewed sources of energy is very essential. Now in the world the wide experience on using of such renewed sources of energy as: a wind power, hydro power, tidal energy, energy of waves, energy of solar light, geothermal energy, biomass energy is developed. Opportunities for using of renewable energy sources depend on geographical and climatic conditions of an environment. It is obvious, that for Uzbekistan most effective from this viewpoint, are wind, solar, hydro power, and biomass energies. However, correct choice of the proper renewable energy source depending on the area is needed. In this context solar energy and energy of biomass are effective for any region of Uzbekistan. At the same time for using of geothermal energy, hydro power and wind power it is required selection of geographical places adequate to the special requirements. According to Ref. [1] there are enough natural potential of a solar energy, in Uzbekistan , since the average density of solar power flow is 4.5 kWh/m2 per day or 16 MG/m2 per day. For comparison, it is possible to estimate, that every kilogram of biomass on the average can produce energy the same order 12.5 MG/kg [2]. It is obvious, that use of a solar energy for transformation to electrical with using of solar cells based modules requires the rather large financial expenses for purchase of the appropriate equipment, which is not accessible to each farm and requires large time for recouping of the charges. At the same time equipment for producing of biogas is accessible almost to each farm engaged as by animal industries, poultry and cultivation of vegetative cultures. In addition, the construction of biogas devices does not require high

  6. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  7. Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The off grid electrification by utilizing Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) is proposed to satisfy the electrical and cooking needs of the seven-uneletrified villages in the Almora district of Uttarakhand state, India. Four different scenarios are considered during modeling and optimization of IRES to ensure reliability parameters such as energy index ratio (EIR) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). The optimum system reliability, total system cost and cost of energy (COE) have also been worked out by introducing the customer interruption cost (CIC). The four different renewable energy scenarios have been compared for the considered study area using the LINGO software version 10. The fourth renewable energy scenario accounting 44.99% micro hydropower (MHP), 30.07% biomass, 5.19% biogas and 4.16% solar energy along with the additional resources of wind (1.27%) and energy plantation (12.33%) has been found to be the best among the different options considered. Furthermore, the optimal reliability for the fourth IRES system has been found to be 0.95 EIR at the optimized cost of Rs 19.44 lacs with estimated COE of Rs 3.36 per kWh. The COE obtained using LINGO software and HOMER software has also been compared and briefly discussed for all the four scenarios. In order to verify feasibility and cost of system for different biomass fuel prices, a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out and it has been found that the fourth scenario is more sustainable than the other considered options. (author)

  8. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the lifestyle changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this lifestyle model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterize the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW method. The value of 1.51xBMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  9. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  10. Large-area detector for position and energy resolving detection of molecular fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study reactions like the dissociative recombination in laboratory environment, the MPI-K Heidelberg is building a cryogenic storage ring to prepare molecular ions in their rotational groundstate. The kinematics of these processes can be resolved by a position and energy sensitive detection of the produced molecule fragments. Previously, we described a magnetic calorimeter for position and energy sensitive detection of massive particles. The detector encompasses 16 large-area absorbers, the temperature of each is monitored by a paramagnetic sensor located at a short edge of the absorber. Due to the finite thermal diffusivity in the absorber material, the rise-time of the detector depends on the impact location of the particle. Now, we compare the expected energy resolution and position sensitivity of this detector to experimental results where energy was deposited at different positions. We investigate the impact of backscattering, sputtering and lattice damage effects on the instrumental linewidth by means of Monte Carlo simulations and measurements performed with a similar detector that was irradiated with ions and small molecules. We find that the degradation of energy resolution is less than predicted and show that molecular fragments differing by only 1 mass unit can clearly be resolved.

  11. Large-area detector for position and energy resolving detection of molecular fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamer, L.; Allgeier, S.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Pabinger, A.; Pies, C.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [KIP Heidelberg University (Germany); Krantz, C.; Wolf, A. [MPI-K Heidelberg (Germany); Novotny, O. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To study reactions like the dissociative recombination in laboratory environment, the MPI-K Heidelberg is building a cryogenic storage ring to prepare molecular ions in their rotational groundstate. The kinematics of these processes can be resolved by a position and energy sensitive detection of the produced molecule fragments. Previously, we described a magnetic calorimeter for position and energy sensitive detection of massive particles. The detector encompasses 16 large-area absorbers, the temperature of each is monitored by a paramagnetic sensor located at a short edge of the absorber. Due to the finite thermal diffusivity in the absorber material, the rise-time of the detector depends on the impact location of the particle. Now, we compare the expected energy resolution and position sensitivity of this detector to experimental results where energy was deposited at different positions. We investigate the impact of backscattering, sputtering and lattice damage effects on the instrumental linewidth by means of Monte Carlo simulations and measurements performed with a similar detector that was irradiated with ions and small molecules. We find that the degradation of energy resolution is less than predicted and show that molecular fragments differing by only 1 mass unit can clearly be resolved.

  12. Seasonal and Interannual Variation in Energy Balance in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Near surface energy budget changes have been proved to be induced by the land cover conversion through changing the surface physical properties, which can further impact the regional climate change. This study applies the DLS model to simulate the land cover under the business as usual (BAU scenario and then analyses the seasonal and interannual variation of energy balance in the semiarid grassland area of China based on the simulated land cover with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a growing trend under the BAU scenario. Downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation will all have small-scale increase with time going by, while the surface net radiation will decrease from 2030 to 2050. However, there is obvious seasonal variation. Summer has the highest downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation, followed by spring and autumn. The lowest are in winter. As for the net surface radiation, there is obvious decrease in southeast of study area due to returning cropland to grassland. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and relieving the effects of land cover change on climate change at the semiarid grassland area.

  13. Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Emerich, M.; Devolder, B.; Murphy, T. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Kalantar, D. H.; Regan, S. P.; Barrios, M. A.; Merritt, E. C.; Perry, T. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    A very large area (7.5 mm2) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 1014 W/cm2 illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ˜4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles.

  14. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  15. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  16. Electrical steel sheet for eco-design of electrical equipments; Denji gohan de eco dezain. Sho enerugi, soon teigen, jiki shirudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, T.; Fujikura, M.; Mizokami, M.; Ushigami, Y.

    1998-05-31

    Electrical steel sheet is a soft magnetic material used for cores of electrical equipments, such as generators, transformers, motors and so on. It is also used for magnetic shielding materials. The progress of not only material properties, but also performance assembled in electrical equipment and magnetic shielding are remarkable. Electrical steel sheet is going to develop as an eco-material for saving energy,reducing noise, and as a magnetic shielding. (author)

  17. Large-area imaging micro-well detectors for high-energy astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Hunter, S D; Jahoda, K; Owens, S M

    2002-01-01

    Micro-well detectors are pixelized imaging sensors that can be inexpensively fabricated in very large arrays. Owing to their intrinsic gain and operation at room temperature, they can be instrumented at very low power, per unit area, making them valuable for a variety of space-flight applications where wide-angle X-ray imaging or large-area particle tracking is required. For example, micro-well detectors have been chosen as the focal plane imager for Lobster-ISS, a proposed soft X-ray all-sky monitor. We have fabricated detectors which image X-rays with 200 mu m FWHM resolution at 3 keV. In agreement with other groups using similar geometries, we find nominal proportional counter energy resolution (20% at 6 keV in P-10), and stable operation at gas gains up to 30,000.

  18. Energy Efficient Aggregation and Reliable Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBAN, the data loss, security and reliability requirements are not handled in the existing literature works. This necessitates the technique that deals with slot allocation scheme, delay and other performance metrics. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient aggregation and reliable communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN. Initially, the aggregator nodes are chosen based on the nodes connectivity. During the data aggregation, the encryption key and the verification key is assigned to the nodes while transmitting data to the data aggregator. In order to enhance the reliability of data during transmission, the network coding methodology is considered. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique enhances the network performance.

  19. octanol/water partition coefficient using solvation free energy and solvent-accessible surface area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The regression model for octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow ), is founded with only two molecular descriptors available through quantum chemical calculations: solvation free energy (△ Gs ), and solvent-accessible surface area (SASA). For the properties of 47 organic compounds from 17 types, the model gives a oonection coefficient (adjusted for degrees of freedom) of 0.959 and a standard error of 0.277 log unit. It is a suitable way to predict the partition properties that are related to solute-solvent interactions in the water phase.

  20. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  1. Life cycle energy and GHG emission within the Turin metropolitan area urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zappone, Mariantonia; Fiore, Silvia; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the urban water cycle in the Turin Metropolitan Area (Northwestern Italy), with a focus on quantifying the annual life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The study made use Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment methods for a defined urban water cycle system (ATO3) operated by one water utility (SMAT S.p.A.), and examines all main sub-systems of the entire urban water cycle. The study quantified the annual direct and indirect e...

  2. Research on utilization of quantum beam in environment and energy areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current research activities of environment and industrial materials research division were reviewed from the viewpoint of social needs in environment and energy areas. We have investigated the researches on electrolyte membrane for fuel buttery, high-performance adsorbent for metal ions, modification of naturally occurring polymers, decomposition of persistent toxic organic-substrates, ceramic membrane for hydrogen separation, and evaluation of radiation effects of semiconductor devices. These researches are based on a lot of accumulated technical and analytical know-how using quantum beam such as electron beam, γ ray, and ion beam. (author)

  3. Low Energy Accelerator Laboratory Technical Area 53, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the Department of Energy (DOE) were to construct and operate a small research and development laboratory building at Technical Area (TA) 53 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. DOE proposes to construct a small building to be called the Low Energy Accelerator Laboratory (LEAL), at a previously cleared, bladed, and leveled quarter-acre site next to other facilities housing linear accelerator research activities at TA-53. Operations proposed for LEAL would consist of bench-scale research, development, and testing of the initial section of linear particle accelerators. This initial section consists of various components that are collectively called an injector system. The anticipated life span of the proposed development program would be about 15 years

  4. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  5. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given. PMID:21373804

  6. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between ∼6 and ∼13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of ∼2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  7. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  8. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  9. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  10. Energy production from renewable sources in Alpine protected areas; Conflicting interests and need for action as seen by protected areas management. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 3 No. 2 3 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Wallner, Astrid; Volken, Esther; Plassmann, Guido; Scheurer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for renewable energy, the conflict potential between energy production from renewable sources and maintaining protection targets is likely to increase. The study “Energy production from renewable sources in Alpine protected areas” examined the situation in Alpine parks today and the need for action from the viewpoint of park managements. Based on interviews with 21 Alpine protected areas in Austria, France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland, the study shows the conflicts ...

  11. Energy farming in Dutch desiccation abatement areas. Effects on break-even biomass price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures in Dutch nature areas to combat desiccation of nature areas often have effects on surrounding agricultural lands, or buffer areas. Generally, these soils become moister, which can lead to lower yields for most common crops. Cultivation of the flooding-tolerant energy crop willow may be an alternative. In this study, the performance of willow production is compared to that of grass for roughage, in buffer areas as well as in a hydrologically optimal situation. Financial consequences are evaluated by calculating the biomass price that makes willow equally competitive to grass (break-even). The effect of high groundwater tables on yields of both crops is estimated using the agro-hydrological model SWAP. The calculated price that gives break-even between willow and grass is lower on wet soils than in a hydrologically optimal situation. At a groundwater table class of II, a groundwater situation quite common in buffer areas, this break-even price is 20% lower. The physical yield of willow is lower than its optimum, but grass yields decrease stronger, making willow more competitive. The biomass price in a hydrologically optimal situation, as calculated in this study, is comparable to values found in other studies. However, this comparison is complicated by differences in assumptions in the cost calculations, and by the fact that grass as roughage has less value added than food crops such as potatoes and wheat. This study contains considerable uncertainties with respect to the data used and the methodology. A sensitivity analysis shows that several parameters with a strong influence on the biomass price have low uncertainties. An uncertain value with strong influence is the optimal willow yield, which could not be estimated on practical data. Methodological limitations of the study, both in the economic comparison between willow and grass and in the yield estimations, are also discussed. 50 refs

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Impulsive Forming Processes Using Various Energy Sources and Transmitting Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sabelkin, V.; Taran, V.; Vovk, A.; V. Vovk

    2006-01-01

    High-speed forming uses high explosives, gun powder, combustible gas mixes and compressed gases as sources of energy. Special mathematical models are used to take into account specific dynamic properties. Different technological processes of forming have been modeled in the work. They use liquid (water), elastic (polyurethane), and gaseous transmitting medium. The difference between impulse energy transference, load distribution on a blank and tool surface, and also wave propagation is sho...

  13. High pulse energy femtosecond large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YouJian; HU MingLie; ZHANG Chi; CHAI Lu; WANG ChingYue

    2008-01-01

    A high pulse energy femtosecond fiber laser based on a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. A segment of Yb-doped single-polarization large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber with extremely low nonlinearity is explored as gain media of this fiber laser, resulting in intrinsically environmentally stability. The fiber laser is based on a linear cavity with dispersion compensation free configuration, and the stable mode-locking is obtained by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The fiber laser directly generates 2.5 W of average power at a repetition rate of 51.4 MHz,corresponding to a single pulse energy of 50 nJ. The output pulse duration is 4.2 ps, which is dechirped to 410 fs after extracavity dispersion compensation. The nonlinear absorption of SESAM determines the pulse shaping at low output power, while the mode-locking mechanism is under the balance between spectrum broadening from self-phase-modulation and gain filtering at the high output power.

  14. Changing Surface-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Refreezing Capacity of the Lower Accumulation Area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, P.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Box, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present five years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station (AWS) data from the lower accumulation area (1840 m above sea level) of the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland ice sheet. The summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface runoff. The observed runoff was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented melt water from percolating to available pore space below. Analysis of the in situ data reveals a relatively low 2012 summer albedo of ~0.7 as melt water was present at the surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season the surface absorbed 30% (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than in 2010. We drive a surface energy balance model with the AWS data to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model is able to reproduce the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. While the drive for melt is solar radiation, year-to-year differences are controlled by terrestrial radiation, apart from 2012 when solar radiation dominated melt. Sensitivity tests reveal that 72% of the excess solar energy in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 40% (0.67 m) of the 2012 surface ablation. The remaining ablation (0.99 m) was primarily due to the relatively high atmospheric temperatures up to +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year in the lower accumulation area even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) suggest that 2012 was the first negative SMB year with the lowest albedo at this elevation on record. The warming conditions of the last years resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area. If the warming continues the lower accumulation area will be transformed into superimposed ice.

  15. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  16. Potential environmental conflicts in the area of the energy component of natural resource complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie.V. Khlobystov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to identify potential and probable factors of environmental conflicts (EC larger amount of energy component of natural resource complex (NRC. Development of natural resource complex occurs in several ways to use them, in particular, with the position of the energy component of these methods were not considered in modern ecological and economic studies. The use of NRC for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency may determine through the essence of the principles and approaches to identifing of the potential of EC that can be implemented by defining the opportunities for renewable energy, usage of recreational, balneological and assimilation functions of natural resource complex and expensive analysis of these features, given the potential conflict of territorial development. The results of the analysis. Natural resource conflicts are the result of conflicts caused by limited quantity and quality of natural resources as between entities within the territorial social and economic systems and between different territorial systems. Energy potential of NRC can be defined as a set of certain characteristics, situation and processes that form the state energy supply a certain area at the projected use of resources. Energy potential of NRC includes such elements as natural resources and environmental sustainability, capacities for production, processing and transportation of energy. At the same time this potential has the dualistic nature, being the component part of both natural recourses and productive potential of the region. It is necessary to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively potential minerals. Quantitative characteristic provides identification of stocks of raw materials or fuel in the field of NRC, which can be used. They are divided on two type’s balance and off-balance sheet. To balance belong reserves, production and processing of which are economically viable in the achieved

  17. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process. PMID:23853128

  18. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    The widespread of transport is recognized as a major contributor to an extensive range of undesirable side effects, covering all stages, from production to use and disposal. The transport sector is one of the major consumers of energy mainly fossil fuels and therefore contributes adverse emissions with local direct health effects as well as a significant share of 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs), which play a crucial role in determining the earth's climate. Moreover, the transportation sector is implicated in causing some social problems such as intensive use of public space. Present growth in vehicle ownership and use in urban areas, is unsustainable. Petroleum fuels, which are the main energy source for the transport sector, are essentially non-renewable. In short, the transportation system is unsustainable and is becoming more unsustainable. Measures need to be taken at a number of levels to mitigate the negative effects of transport and to reduce the increasing dependence on the fossil fuels as a main transportation energy soruce. The main objectives of this study are: (a) analyzing the transportation's role in the energy markets and its related environmental problems and defining the sustainable transport in urban areas, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies, (c) presenting a suggested procedure for sustainable develop ment of urban transport and energy consumption, (d) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Alexandria city, as a case study. The identification is based on evaluating four different scenarios for the year 2015 which are compared to each other, as well as with a business-as usual scenario (Do-Nothing Solution). These scenarios are based on the proposed sustainable transport and energy systems started from (Do-Minimum Solution) until (Do-Maximum Solution). To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called 'TraEnergy' is developed in the framework of this

  19. Potential of nano-technology for applications in the energy area; Potenziale der Nanotechnologien fuer Anwendungen im Energiebereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehener, K.; Moeckli, M.

    2002-07-01

    This short report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview on nano-technologies and reviews their potential for use in the energy area. Three categories - nano-materials, nano-structures and nano-structuring - are proposed and described. Illustrative examples for each category are given and their possible use in the materials, energy-efficiency and renewable energy areas are discussed. Reference is made to projects being carried out under the Swiss 'Top-Nano 21' programme including thermally protective coatings for gas-turbine components, cold-cathode fluorescent lamps and thin-film solar cells.

  20. Strategy for research, development and demonstration within the area of energy; Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration pae energiomraedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The Danish Advisory Energy Research Committee advises the Danish Energy Authority on strategies, frames and priorities as regards energy research, technological development and demonstration. This report presents the Danish Advisory Energy Research Committee's suggestion for a strategy for the joint research, development and demonstration effort within the area of energy. The main messages are firstly, that the efforts for demonstration of technologies, energy systems and concepts are targeted and upgraded. Secondly, the Committee focuses on research aimed at consortia of business enterprises and research institutions and on larger co-financed projects with fairly wide scopes. Thirdly, growth and market potentials are discussed. (BA)

  1. Strategic areas for non-electric application of nuclear energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to identify strategic areas, whereby non-electric application of nuclear energy may be justified. Subject to further evaluation, particularly on the economic aspects, non-electric application of nuclear energy in Indonesia may have justifiable strategic role in the long term sustainability of the development of the country. The key arguments are: (a) within not too far distant future, domestic resources constraints of oil and natural gas will strongly be felt, especially if the current trend in the rate of production of the two commodities has to be maintained to satisfy the growing demand for energy and to secure foreign exchange earning; (b) nuclear option, in concurrent with coal and biomass options, can provide the need for heat supply required to undertake strategic schemes for (i) improving oil production capacity; (ii) prolong the availability of oil and natural gas by displacing their uses as heat sources in industry, whenever appropriate; (iii) coal conversion to synthetic natural gas (SNG), or synthesis gas, to substitute or at least supplement the use of natural gas as industrial chemical feedstock; and (iv) sea water desalination by evaporation, to overcome shortage of fresh drinking and industrial water supply, as well as to secure its reliability and availability. In terms of carbon emission to the atmosphere, the nuclear option offers an interesting choice. In view of those, serious consideration for further technical assessment, and thorough evaluation on the economic viability and social acceptability for the option is recommended. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Smart City and Metropolitan Area: the Energy Component in the Case Studies of Genoa and Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Battarra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Smart City model is now considered one of the opportunities to rethink cities and, in general, the development of urban communities. One of the most relevant themes in the application of the Smart City paradigm is the city/energy relationship and Italian cities are fielding several actions to effectively cope with the energy issues. Nevertheless, actions and projects are often uncritically promoted as ‘smart’, but actually lack innovative contents and methods. Therefore, the aim of this research, of which we present the first findings, is the drafting of a survey, tested through field analysis, of the experimentations of Italian metropolitan areas on the Smart City topic. The in-depth analysis of two case studies, Genoa and Naples, allowed us to compare the actual state of the two cities. We have that they have undertaken a common path in the implementation of strategies to try to transform themselves into Smart Cities, focusing especially on the energy aspects.

  3. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  4. Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory

  5. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Yousaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE and the packet error rate (PER are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  6. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  7. Key Factors for Renewable Energy Promotion and Its Sustainability Values in Rural Areas: Findings from Japanese and Chinese Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Qianna, Wang; Lin, Peng; Martin Mwirigi, M’ikiugu; Isami, Kinoshita; Zhicong, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The use of Renewable Energy (RE) is becoming popular for its clean and safe characteristics. The development of RE is also one of the crucial steps for the future sustainable development of energy resources. Nowadays, rural areas are facing issues such as depopulation and economic decline. How to find solutions to these issues while aiming to achieve sustainable development is a challenging task. Rural areas with RE in Japan and China have been established recently, and there are a few practi...

  8. Triboelectric-Potential-Regulated Charge Transport Through p-n Junctions for Area-Scalable Conversion of Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian Song; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2016-01-27

    Regulation of charge-transport direction is realized through the coupling of triboelectrification, electrostatic induction, and semiconducting properties for area-scalable conversion of mechanical energy. The output current from each unit triboelectric generator can always constructively add up due to the unidirectional flow of electrons. This work proposes a practical and general route to area-scalable applications of the triboelectric generator and other energy-harvesting techniques. PMID:26611707

  9. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  10. Measurement of fluence distribution of large area irradiated by scanning high energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the JAERI cyclotron, the large area homogeneous irradiation by beam scanning system is used for the experiments on the research of space material, nuclear fusion material and biotechnology. The irradiation is accomplished by deflecting high energy ion beam in the horizontal and vertical directions using a pair of electromagnets. To investigate two-dimensional fluence distribution irradiated by this system, relative fluence distribution was measured with cellulose triacetate film dosimeters. The result showed that the distribution has the inhomogeneity caused by the distorted magnetic wave form of the system and the beam profile. To improve the homogeneity of the distribution, the information about the distribution must be obtained quickly. Therefore, a real time monitoring system of fluence distribution using a parallel plate avalanche counter is developed. The beam scanning system, the measurement of relative fluence distribution using a CTA dosimeter, the real time fluence distribution monitor system with a PPAC and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  11. A nonlinear nonconvex minimum total heat transfer area formulation for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a technical analysis of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system is performed. Specifically, we present a general mathematical framework for the synthesis of OTEC power generating systems. The overall synthesis task is to minimize heat exchange area requirements, while generating some fraction of the maximum net power recoverable from hot and cold ocean water. The resulting problem formulation yields a nonlinear, nonconvex mathematical program; however, we show that globally optimal solutions for this program are easily obtained explicitly through a direct optimization approach with minimal computational effort over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The proposed analysis is demonstrated on a case study involving the generation of hydrogen by an OTEC system with a pure ammonia working fluid

  12. Generating a quality management system for application in the field of management of nuclear energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual work has as a main objective to present the development of a quality management system to be applicable to the Nuclear Energy Management confines at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Argentina Republic. The GAEN Quality Management Section (SGC) has as main central tasks to streamline, collaborate and facilitate the development of activities and their applications on quality management systems in all the sections and projects belonging to GAEN. This achievement will tend to accredit, certificate and qualify them. Groups of work cooperating with each other integrate the GAEN. They are at present dealing with several tasks. Some outstanding ones are research activities, technology development, design, engineering, assembling, starting, services, and human resources development on Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Supplies, particularly on powerful nuclear reactors. In 2012, at the annual CNEA Presidential meeting, it was presented one of the several projects from the SGC. It consists in the development of a quality management system available to every area belonging to the GAEN. To carry this project out, it was first begun with the elaboration of Guide Documents which were available for everybody. The documents establish the criteria and general requirements for obtaining guaranteed quality results about the performed activities. At the same time, several areas, sections and Management groups of work have been working united and well-disposed towards the application on their own Management System using the Guide Documents and considering, in addition, some own regards. In conclusion, this first step shows that the developed work facilitates the implementation of Management Systems around the GAEN. (author)

  13. Connectivity of Marine Protected Areas and Its Relation with Total Kinetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Agostini, Andressa; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi

    2015-01-01

    The East Continental Shelf (ECS) of Brazil is a hotspot of endemism and biodiversity of reef biota in the South Atlantic, hosting a number of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Connectivity of MPAs through larval dispersal influences recruitment, population dynamics, genetic structure and biogeography in coral reef ecosystems. Connectivity of protected reef ecosystem in the ECS was investigated with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS) forcing an Individual Based Model (IBM—Ichthyop), and used groupers (genus Mycteroperca) as functional group. The hydrodynamic output from ROMS was compared with satellite data and showed good agreement with observed surface fields. Eggs were released, in IBM experiments, from April to September along six years (2002–2007) in five MPAs along the ECS. Intrannual variability in recruitment and self-recruitment of grouper larvae was observed, as well as a negative correlation of these population parameters with total Kinetic Energy (KE) used as a metric of the physical environment. Higher KE leads to increased offshore advection of larvae, reduced total recruitment and connectivity of MPAs. Our results indicate high and uni-directional connectivity between MPAs from north to south influenced by the Brazil Current flowing in the same direction. Results also showed that some MPAs act predominantly as “sink” while others are mainly “source” areas. PMID:26448650

  14. Analytical Method for Estimating Energy Output of Small Wind Turbines Integrated in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovac M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the analytical approach for estimating the wind energy potential at locations around buildings in urban areas that are suitable for installing Small Wind Turbines (SWT. This development is performed in three steps. In order to analyze the flow pattern in a typical urban geometry, the first step consisted of a series of numerical simulations, where an assumed urban configuration (specified building size and respective distances between the buildings was varied with an incremental value, and for each analyzed configuration different incoming wind conditions (different reference wind velocity were incrementally imposed. In the second step the velocity profiles in the characteristic cutlines around the central building under investigation were extracted from the respective realizations of urban flow numerical solutions, and an analytical expression was derived approximating all extracted velocity profiles to fit the best an assumed flow pattern. The derived analytical expression was cross-plotted with the results of a fully three-dimensional realistic urban flow numerical solution, and the obtained matching level was satisfactory. Finally, using the derived expression, in the third step the estimation of SWT energy output was defined based on the average wind velocity information at given location and the related urban configuration characteristics.

  15. Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marangoni Sérgio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing. Methods We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area – BA22p identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease. Results Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

  16. Enhanced cooperation in energy economics in the Baltic area: possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preussen Elektra has been researching the possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Baltic area. The Baltic states; Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, together with the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad were reliant on energy imports from Russia. The main local resource is oil shale in Estonia, although wood and peat have also been used on a smaller scale. Latvia has hydroelectricity, while Lithuania has a nuclear power plant at Ignalina and a masut oil-fired plant at Elektreinai. Kaliningrad relies on energy imports from Lithuania or St Petersburg. Natural gas is a possible future fuel, but will have to be imported from Russia, the very situation from which the Baltic states wish to escape. Imported coal could be used in power plants - these would need to be constructed as West/East joint ventures. Alternatively electricity could be imported direct from States in the western Baltic, at least a Baltic Ring should be started on, but the problems of transformation from a command economy should not be underestimated

  17. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  18. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize: part I: effect on the farmer's income

    OpenAIRE

    Thewys, Theo; Witters, Nele; Van Slycken, Stijn; Ruttens, Ann; Meers, Erik; Tack, Filip

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be supported by producing renewable energy through anaerobic digestion of energy maize, a crop that takes up onl...

  19. Positron astrophysics and areas of relation to low-energy positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I briefly review our general knowledge of positron astrophysics, focusing mostly on the theoretical and modelling aspects. The experimental/observational aspects of the topic have recently been reviewed elsewhere [E. Churazov et al., Mon. Nat. R. Astron. Soc. 411, 1727 (2011); N. Prantazos et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1001 (2011)]. In particular, I highlight the interactions and cross sections of the reactions that the positrons undergo in various cosmic media. Indeed, these must be of high interest to both the positron astrophysics community and the low-energy positron physics community in trying to find common areas of potential collaboration for the future or areas of research that will help the astrophysics community make further progress on the problem. The processes undergone by positrons from the moments of their birth to their annihilation (in the interstellar medium or other locations) are thus examined. The physics of the positron interactions with gases and solids (dust grains) and the physical conditions and characteristics of the environments where the processes of energy loss, positronium formation, and annihilation take place, are briefly reviewed. An explanation is given about how all the relevant physical information is taken into account in order to calculate annihilation rates and spectra of the 511 keV emission in the ISM; special attention is paid to positron interactions with dust and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, an attempt is made to show to what extent the interactions between positrons and interstellar dust grains are similar to laboratory experiments in which beams of low-energy positrons impinge upon solids and surfaces. Sample results are shown for the effect of dust grains on positron annihilation spectra in some phases of the ISM which, together with high resolution spectra measured by satellites, can be used to infer useful knowledge about the environment where the annihilation is predominantly taking place

  20. Turning soil survey data into digital soil maps in the Energy Region Eger Research Model Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Anna; Kürti, Lívia; Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária

    2015-04-01

    Agria-Innoregion Knowledge Centre of the Eszterházy Károly College has carried out targeted basic researches in the field of renewable energy sources and climate change in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV project. The project has covered certain issues, which require the specific knowledge of the soil cover; for example: (i) investigation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of natural and landscape resources; (ii) determination of local amount and characteristics of renewable energy sources; (iii) natural/environmental risk analysis by surveying the risk factors. The Energy Region Eger Research Model Area consists of 23 villages and is located in North-Hungary, at the Western part of Bükkalja. Bükkalja is a pediment surface with erosional valleys and dense river network. The diverse morphology of this area results diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. There was large-scale (1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scale) soil mappings in this area in the 1960's and 1970's which provided soil maps, but with reduced spatial coverage and not with fully functional thematics. To achive the recent tasks (like planning suitable/optimal land-use system, estimating biomass production and development of agricultural and ecomonic systems in terms of sustainable regional development) new survey was planned and carried out by the staff of the College. To map the soils in the study area 10 to 22 soil profiles were uncovered per settlement in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out according to the FAO Guidelines for Soil Description and WRB soil classification system was used for naming soils. According to the general goal of soil mapping the survey data had to be spatially extended to regionalize the collected thematic local knowledge related to soil cover. Firstly three thematic maps were compiled by digital soil mapping methods: thickness of topsoil, genetic soil type and rate of surface erosion. High resolution digital elevation model, Earth

  1. Energy distribution of cosmic rays in the Earth’s atmosphere and avionic area using Monte Carlo codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MOHAMED M OULD; DIB A S A; BELBACHIR A H

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic rays cause significant damage to the electronic equipments of the aircrafts. In this paper, we have investigated the accumulation of the deposited energy of cosmic rays on the Earth’s atmosphere, especially in the aircraft area. In fact, if a high-energy neutron or proton interacts with a nanodevice having only a few atoms, this neutron or proton particle can change the nature of this device and destroy it. Our simulation based on Monte Carlo using Geant4 code shows that the deposited energy of neutron particles ranging between 200MeV and 5 GeV are strongly concentrated in the region between 10 and 15 km from the sea level which is exactly the avionic area. However, the Bragg peak energy of proton particle is slightly localized above the avionic area.

  2. UnconStrained ShoUlder arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of 36unconstrained shoulder arthroplasties. Methods: In the series, 24 total and 12 hemiarthroplasties of the shoulders were performed with unconstrained shoulder prostheses in 29 patients who suffered from glenohumeral degenerative arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis and proximal fracture of humerus, respectively. Follow-up averaged 6.2years. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-operatively using the rating system of the Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons which assesses the severity of pain,strength of muscles around shoulder, stability, range of motion and functional activities of daily living. Radiolucent line and migration of prostheses were observed postoperatively on X-rays. Results: Postoperatively, the rate of pain relief was 91.3%, and active range of motion increased by 47° inforward flexion, 43° in abduction , 30° in external rotation,and 4 segments in internal rotation. Preoperatively the average points of 6 functional activities patients could perform was 0.8, and postoperatively 3.1. On postoperative X-ray, proximal migration of the humerus was seen in 8 shoulders, 6 of which had either a torn or absent rotator cuff. Radiolucent lines were seen around 1humeral component and 9 glenoid components. Onehumeral and 2 glenoid components loosened. Conclusions: These results suggest that unconstrained shoulder arthroplasty is a satisfactory and safe technique.

  3. 75 FR 11231 - Amendments to Regulation SHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... security.\\33\\ \\32\\ See id. \\33\\ See 2006 Price Test Elimination Proposing Release, 71 FR at 75069-75070....C. 78j(a). \\39\\ See id.; see also 2006 Price Test Elimination Proposing Release, 71 FR at 75068... restrictions in existence at that time. \\62\\ See 2006 Price Test Elimination Proposing Release, 71 FR at...

  4. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    The widespread of transport is recognized as a major contributor to an extensive range of undesirable side effects, covering all stages, from production to use and disposal. The transport sector is one of the major consumers of energy mainly fossil fuels and therefore contributes adverse emissions with local direct health effects as well as a significant share of 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs), which play a crucial role in determining the earth's climate. Moreover, the transportation sector is implicated in causing some social problems such as intensive use of public space. Present growth in vehicle ownership and use in urban areas, is unsustainable. Petroleum fuels, which are the main energy source for the transport sector, are essentially non-renewable. In short, the transportation system is unsustainable and is becoming more unsustainable. Measures need to be taken at a number of levels to mitigate the negative effects of transport and to reduce the increasing dependence on the fossil fuels as a main transportation energy soruce. The main objectives of this study are: (a) analyzing the transportation's role in the energy markets and its related environmental problems and defining the sustainable transport in urban areas, (b) analyzing alternative urban planning philosophies, (c) presenting a suggested procedure for sustainable develop ment of urban transport and energy consumption, (d) identifying the potential impacts of this procedure by being applied to Alexandria city, as a case study. The identification is based on evaluating four different scenarios for the year 2015 which are compared to each other, as well as with a business-as usual scenario (Do-Nothing Solution). These scenarios are based on the proposed sustainable transport and energy systems started from (Do-Minimum Solution) until (Do-Maximum Solution). To facilitate the calculations, an interactive computer program called 'TraEnergy' is developed in the framework of this

  5. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  6. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  7. Circuit area optimization in energy temporal sparse scenarios for multiple harvester powered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cid-Fuentes, Raül; Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José

    2014-01-01

    Multi-source energy harvesters are gaining interest as a robust alternative to power wireless sensors, since the sensor node can maintain its operation regardless of the fact that one of its energy sources might be temporarily unavailable. Interestingly, and less explored, when the energy availability of the energy sources present large temporal variations, combining multiple energy sources reduce the overall sparsity. As a result, the performance of a multiple energy harvester powered sensor...

  8. An IoT-Based Home Energy Management System over Dynamic Home Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jongbae Kim; Jinsung Byun; Daebeom Jeong; Myeong-in Choi; Byeongkwan Kang; Sehyun Park

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid (SG) has attracted great attention due to recent environmental problems. SG technologies enable users, such as energy system operators and consumers, to reduce energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, by changing energy infrastructure more efficiently. As a part of the SG, home energy management system (HEMS) has become increasingly important, because energy consumption of a residential sector accounts for a significant amount of total energy consumption. However,...

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Markarian 421: The Missing Piece of its Spectral Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Georganopoulos, M.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Yatsu, Y.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Chen, W. P.; Jordan, B.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; McBreen, B.; Larionov, V. M.; Lin, C. S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cassaro, P.; Cesarini, A.; Falcone, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hovatta, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Lister, M. L.; Moody, J. W.; Maccaferri, G.; Mori, Y.; Nestoras, I.; Orlati, A.; Pace, C.; Pagani, C.; Pearson, R.; Perri, M.; Piner, B. G.; Ros, E.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Tammi, J.; Zook, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ~3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  10. DOE feasibility report on Lake Calumet area refuse-to-energy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-18

    Site analyses and literature reviews were conducted to determine the feasibility of building an energy-producing municipal waste incinerator at Calumet Lake, Illinois. The amount of burnable waste produced within 5 and 10 miles of the near-Chicago site, the composition and heating value of this solid waste, and the air pollution impacts of waste incineration were determined, and the economic value of recovered material or of steam and electricity produced at the plant are discussed. It is concluded that there is sufficient refuse in the area to support a refuse processing center, that increasng landfill costs make such a center economically attractive, and that the Btu content of the refuse is adequate to produce steam for heat and power use. Replacing existing oil-fired power plants with this facility would result in an 88% reduction in current pollutant emission levels. There is a ready market for steam that could be produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to implement the establishment of the proposed waste processing center. (LCL)

  11. Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Libman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a typical body area network (BAN setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions. We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well.

  12. Geothermal concept for energy efficient improvement of space heating and cooling in highly urbanized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranjes Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New Belgrade is a highly urbanized commercial and residential district of Belgrade lying on the alluvial plane of the Sava and the Danube rivers. The groundwater of the area is a geothermal resource that is usable through geothermal heat pumps (GHP. The research has shown that the “heat island effect” affects part of the alluvial groundwater with the average groundwater temperature of about 15.5°C, i.e. 2°C higher than the one in less urbanized surroundings. Based on the measured groundwater temperatures as well as the appraisal of the sustainable aquifer yield, the available thermal power of the resource is estimated to about 29MWt. The increasing urbanization trend of the New Belgrade district implies the growing energy demands that may partly be met by the available groundwater thermal power. Taking into consideration the average apartment consumption of 80 Wm-2, it is possible to heat about 360,000 m2 and with the consumption efficiency of 50 Wm-2, it would be possible to heat over 570,000 m2. Environmental and financial aspects were considered through the substitution of conventional fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission as well as through the optimization of the resource use.

  13. Report on new energy vision at Hinase Town area; 2001 nendo Hinase cho chiiki shin energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    With an objective of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Hinase Town in Hyogo Prefecture, investigations and discussions were given on the energy demand, quantity of new energies available, and the new energy introduction projects for the town, thus a new energy vision was established. The estimated amount of energy consumption in Hinase Town is 242,814,320,000 kcal in fiscal 2000. The amount of carbon dioxide discharge associated therewith is 76.57 t-CO2/year. Regarding the energy consumption by departments, the industrial department consumes the most, followed by the transportation department, civil household department, and civil business department. The new energy introduction projects have discussed servicing of the bio-gas plant utilizing organic wastes and cogeneration, the new energy introduction projects for the Natural Energy Island at Kakui Island and the ocean ranch consisted of the use of solar heat water warmer, solar cell powered street lights, photovoltaic power generation, and electric cars for sightseeing visitors, the Eco-school promotion project for primary schools, introduction of energy saving devices into the town office, and the new energy proliferation and enlightenment project. (NEDO)

  14. Environmental compliance guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Air Act: nonattainment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to identify information requirements associated with air quality permit applications in areas for which ambient pollutant levels currently exceed the national ambient air quality standards (nonattainment areas). The manual is to be used by project managers at the US Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the DOE Environmental Compliance Guide, to provide preliminary estimates of information required to obtain air quality permits for DOE projects. An analysis of nonattainment area permitting found that permitting of all sources in such areas is done on the state or local levels; the Environmental Protection Agency does not grant permits in nonattainment areas. As a result, Federal information requirements for permitting in nonattainment areas are somewhat vague. To provide a more realistic picture of nonattainment area permitting, selected state and local regulations were surveyed, and were found to contain more detail on the information required for permit approval. The most potentially demanding information requirements associated with nonattainment area permitting are the determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate, the negotiation of external emission offsets, and the consideration of the environmental impacts of project alternatives in ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas. In any state, a few information requirements for nonattainment area permitting are likely to overlap with information requirements of other permitting processes, such as those in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration procedure. These requirements are emissions data and air quality modeling and its associated input data requirements (meteorology, topography, etc.).

  15. Polarization Maintaining, Very-Large-Mode Area, Er Fiber Amplifier for High Energy Pulses at 1572.3 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholoson, J. W.; DeSantolo, A.; Yan, M. F.; Wisk, P.; Mangan, B.; Puc, G.; Yu, A.; Stephen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first polarization maintaining, very-large-mode-area Er-doped fiber amplifier with 1000 square micron effective area. The amplifier is core pumped by a Raman fiber laser and is used to generate single frequency one microsecond pulses with pulse energy of 368 microJoules, M2 of 1.1, and polarization extinction greater than 20 dB. The amplifier operates at 1572.3 nm, a wavelength useful for trace atmospheric CO2 detection.

  16. Load Frequency Control of A Typical Two Area Interconnected Power System by Using Battery Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rajasekhar Chowdary; P. Santhoshi

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to maintain the constant frequency in two area interconnected power system by using Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) . When there is a variation in the load demand on a generating unit, there is a momenterial occurrence of unbalance between real power input and output. LFC helps in maintaining the scheduled system frequency and tie-line power interchange with the other areas within the prescribed limits .To control the load frequency and ...

  17. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Kleissl, J.; Allen, R.G.; W. G. M. Bastiaanssen; R. L. Scott; A. L. Steinwand

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is ...

  18. Variations of Near Surface Energy Balance Caused by Land Cover Changes in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Dynamics of Land System (DLS model to simulating the land cover under the designed scenarios and then analyzes the effects of land cover conversion on energy flux in the semiarid grassland area of China with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a steadily upgrowing trend under the coordinated environmental sustainability (CES scenario. Compared to the CES scenario, the rate of increase in grassland cover is lower, while the rate of increase in urban land cover will be higher under the rapid economic growth (REG scenario. Although the conversion from cropland to grassland will reduce the energy flux, the expansion of urban area and decreasing of forestry area will bring about more energy flux. As a whole, the energy flux of near surface will obviously not change under the CES scenario, and the climate therefore will not be possible to be influenced greatly by land cover change. The energy flux under the REG scenario is higher than that under the CES scenario. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and climate change adaptation in the semiarid grassland area of China.

  19. Thermal Resistances in the Everest Area derived from Satellite Imagery using a Nonlinear Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Debris cover has a large impact on sub-debris ablation rates and glacier evolution. A thin debris layer may enhance ablation by reducing albedo increasing radiation absorption, while thicker debris insulates the glacier causing ablation to decrease. Debris thickness, thermal conductivity, and meteorological conditions may be measured in the field, but they require extensive fieldwork (Brock et al., 2010; Nicholson and Benn, 2012). This has forced many simplifications and assumptions in models. Satellite imagery combined with an energy balance model has been used with to extract information about debris cover remotely (Nakawo and Rana, 1999; Zhang et al., 2011). The spatial distribution of thermal resistances derived from these studies have agreed well with field values; however, the values were considerably lower than the field values. The difference has been attributed to the mixed pixel effect. Foster et al. (2012) developed an energy balance model that agrees well with debris thickness measured in the field. The model requires knowledge of the thermal conductivity and utilizes a relationship between air and surface temperature to lower sensible heat fluxes. We derive thermal resistances of debris-covered glaciers from satellite imagery in the Everest area. Previous satellite studies have assumed a linear debris temperature gradient, which is valid for time periods of 24 hours or greater (Nicholson and Benn, 2006); however, gradients during the day are nonlinear (Nicholson and Benn, 2006; Reid and Brock, 2010). Landsat 7 imagery is used to account for the non-linear gradient, using the ratio of temperature gradient in the upper 10cm versus the entire debris thickness. These values are derived from temperature profiles on Ngozumpa Glacier (Nicholson, 2004). Meteorological data are obtained from the Pyramid Station. The derived thermal resistances agree well with those found on debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region. Brock, B., Mihalcea, C., Kirkbride, M

  20. Energy potential from the anaerobic digestion of food waste in municipal solid waste stream of urban areas in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoa Huu; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) was introduced in Vietnam more than 10 years ago, but at a small scale to deal with agricultural wastes, manure, etc. Despite its many advantages, AD does not yet make a significant contribution to resolving Vietnams urban waste issues due to a lack of information, data and experience. This paper, using an energy model of food waste digestion, provides a usable source of information regarding energy potential of food waste generated from urban areas in Vietnam in form...

  1. Energy fluxes and surface characteristics over a cultivated area in Benin: daily and seasonal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mamadou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Latent and sensible heat fluxes are known as key factors in the West African monsoon dynamics. However, few long-term observations of these land surface fluxes are available to document their impact in the climate variability of this region. The present study took advantage of the Sudanian site of the AMMA-CATCH (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis – Coupling the Tropical Atmosphere and Hydrological Cycle observatory where turbulent fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance technique. One full year of data of energy budget over a cultivated site located in northern Benin was examined. Four contrasted seasons were identified and detailed focusing on their corresponding daily cycles. The flux partitioning was investigated through the evaporative fraction (EF and the Bowen ratio (β at both seasonal and daily scales. Finally, the surface conductance (Gs and the decoupling coefficient (Ω were calculated and confronted with specific bare soil or canopy models to identify the main processes for each season. The results pointed out the contrasted seasonal variations of sensible and latent heat fluxes due to changing atmospheric and surface conditions. During the wet season, surface conditions barely affected EF, which remained in steady regime (EF = 0.75, while latent heat flux was dominant and β was about 0.4. During the transitional periods, both EF and β were highly variable. A low but significant evapotranspiration was measured in the dry season (EF = 0.08 attributed to few scattered bushes, distributed on a bare area, possibly fed by the water table. Nevertheless, sensible heat fluxes were largely dominant (β ~ 10 during dry season. Moreover, β revealed the ligneous vegetation flowering dynamics during the dry season. The results also showed a strong surface atmosphere coupling, which suggests a systematic mixing of the flow within the canopy with the atmospheric surface layer whatever the atmospheric conditions and vegetation

  2. Oil Crisis, Energy-Saving Technological Change and the Stock Market Crash of 1973-74

    OpenAIRE

    Alpanda, Sami; Peralta-Alva, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    The market value of U.S. corporations was nearly halved following the Oil Crisis of October 1973. Real energy prices more than doubled by the end of the decade, increasing energy costs and spurring innovation in energy-saving technologies by corporations. This paper uses a neo- classical growth model to quantify the impact of the increase in energy prices on the market value of U.S. corporations. In the model, corporations adopt energy-saving technologies as a response to the energy price sho...

  3. Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modelling urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lemonsu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow us to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The surface exchanges over vegetation are modelled with the well-known Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA model that is integrated in the TEB's code architecture in order to account for interactions between natural and built-up covers. The design of the code makes possible to plug and use any vegetation scheme. Both versions of TEB are confronted to experimental data issued from a field campaign conducted in Israel in 2007. Two semi-enclosed courtyards arranged with bare soil or watered lawn were instrumented to evaluate the impact of landscaping strategies on microclimatic variables and evapotranspiration. For this case study, the new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities (i.e., the street-level meteorological variables are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon scale.

  4. Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2009-04-01

    We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar

  5. Strategic Energy Planning (Area 1) Consultants Reports to Citizen Potawatomi Nation Federally Recognized Indian Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae

    2004-12-01

    The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production

  6. Concurrent Phosphorus Recovery and Energy Generation in Mediator-Less Dual Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells: Mechanisms and Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Almatouq; Akintunde O. Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus (P) recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells (MFC) during wastewater treatment. Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for 120 days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite when ammonium and magnesium chloride solutions were added to the cathode chamber. Monitoring data for chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and aeration flow rate sho...

  7. Optimization of renew able energy based power project for a remote area of Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significance of renewable energy has become more pronounced in the changing global energy scenario. The depleting nature of fossil fuels has forced all nations, but particularly developing nations, to promote and plan their development programs on increased use of renewable energy sources. Energy is vital for a healthy and dynamic rural growth, which can arrest the socio-political friction emanating from the mass migration of rural people to the urban centers. Traditional techniques of meeting this burgeoning energy demand are regressive in nature. Thus there is need to set up integrated systems by way of decentralized energy system at the village level or the rural energy centers The integration or matching of the appropriate resources/technologies vis-a-vis energy demand or a rural center necessitates employing rural energy planning using appropriate modeling. The present paper focuses on a rural energy planning exercise using an optimization Linear Programming (LP) model for village Katyar Gund in Badgam district of Jammu and Kashmir. Models have been prepared for a single basic end application, namely lighting. The results of the optimization exercise have been provided to illustrate the scope of such planning methodology for remote rural areas. (author)

  8. The replacement of solar energy in rural areas to prevent desertification : case study : Aran and Bidgol region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakikhani, M.S. [Islamic Azad Univ., Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feizinia, S. [Tehran Univ., Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasri, M. [Islamic Azad Univ., Ardestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, A. [Natural Resources, Esfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Wood is used as a primary fuel source in several regions of Iran, and is contributing to an increase in desertification. This study discussed the use of solar energy in rural areas of Iran in order to prevent desertification and environmental damage. Many regions of Iran receive between 5.2 to 5.4 Kw/h of sunlight. The study showed that solar water heaters will save significant amounts of energy in the country. The results of a pilot project conducted at rural communities in the Aran and Bidgol regions were used to demonstrate the importance of replacing fossil fuels with solar energy to prevent desertification.

  9. TYPOLOGY OF EMERGING PATTERNS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA IN THE ENERGY SECTOR: A TWO TIER APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia BISKA; Maria GIAOUTZI

    2012-01-01

    Energy poverty is intensely debated lately, mainly at the political level, both in the developed and developing world. The concept of energy poverty refers to issues such as lack of the necessary infrastructure that prevents citizens from having access to various sources of energy. In the Mediterranean region, there is a divergence among countries, regarding both the energy poverty patterns and the related policy framework. Apparent differences also appear between the EU countries and non-EU ...

  10. Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

  11. Impact of production method and production area on energy balance of rye consumed in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkkonen, Marko

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study show that production of fertilizers is the biggest factor in the rye production chain. Therefore organic rye tillage is not as intensive in energy usage as conventional practices. The energy consumed for transportation does not play a big role in total energy consumption of rye consumed in Helsinki.

  12. Photovoltaic panels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy sources in rural areas of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    India is the second fastest growing economy in the world. Presently, India is the world’s sixth greatest consumer of energy. The Indian energy consumption accounts for slightly more than 3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. The need for ener

  13. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2013-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy...

  14. Review of kerma-area product and total energy incident on patients in radiography, mammography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimated the energy incident on patients in radiography, mammography and CT using data related to X-ray beam quantity and quality. The total X-ray beam quantity is the average Air Kerma multiplied by the X-ray beam area and expressed as the Kerma-Area Product (Gy cm-2). The X-ray beam quality primarily depends on the target material (and anode angle), X-ray voltage (and ripple) as well as X-ray beam filtration. For any X-ray spectra, dividing total energy (fluence x mean energy) by the X-ray beam Kerma-Area Product yields the energy per Kerma-Area Product value (ε/KAP). Published data on X-ray spectra characteristics and energy fluence per Air Kerma conversion factors were used to determine 1/KAP factors. In radiography, ε/KAP increased from 6 mJ Gy-1 cm-2 at the lowest X-ray tube voltage (50 kV) to 25 mJ Gy-1 cm-2 at the highest X-ray tube voltage (140 kV). 1/KAP values ranged between 1 and 5 mJ Gy-1 cm-2 in mammography and between 24 and 42 mJ Gy-1 cm-2 in CT. Changes in waveform ripple resulted in variations in ε/KAP of up to 15 %, similar to the effect of changes resulting in the choice of anode angle. For monoenergetic X-ray photons, there was a sigmoidal-type increase in ε/KAP from 2 mJ Gy-1 cm-2 at 20 keV to 42 mJ Gy-1 cm-2 at 80 keV. However, between 80 and 150 keV, the ε/KAP shows variations with changing photon energy of <10 %. Taking the average spectrum energy to consist of monoenergetic X rays generally overestimates the true value of ε/KAP. This study illustrated that the energy incident on a patient in any area of radiological imaging can be estimated from the total X-ray beam intensity (KAP) when X-ray beam quality is taken into account. Energy incident on the patient can be used to estimate the energy absorbed by the patient and the corresponding patient effective dose. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Hong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico, San Pedro Basin (Arizona, and Owens Valley (California. We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  16. Evaluation of energy potential of Municipal Solid Waste from African urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    SCARLAT NICOLAE; MOTOLA VINCENZO; DALLEMAND Jean-Francois; MONFORTI-FERRARIO Fabio; MOFOR Linus

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a critical issue for Africa, where large number of people does not have access to energy and often rely on the traditional use of biomass. Energy recovery from waste can play a role in minimizing the impact of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on the environment with the additional benefit of providing a local source of energy. This study was carried out to assess, at the African level, the role which waste could play in providing energy to citizens and provides an estimate of the total p...

  17. Focusing on sustainable energy ambitions in the area development process. 2. ed.; Centraal stellen van duurzame energieambities in het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    Many local authorities have established firm energy ambitions. Making the built environment more sustainable, both by means of energy saving measures and by making the remaining energy use sustainable, are important focus points. The question rises how sustainable energy ambitions can be embedded in the area development process. Area developments related to new buildings or demolition/new building projects often involve lengthy and complex projects. Projects in which many parties and interests play a role, in which many instruments can be used and energy concepts can be applied. This report provides an overview of the area development process and the corresponding instruments and concepts. [Dutch] Veel gemeenten hebben stevige energieambities vastgesteld. Verduurzaming van de gebouwde omgeving, zowel door energiebesparingsmaatregelen als door het duurzaam invullen van het resterende energieverbruik, zijn daarbij belangrijke aangrijpingspunten. De vraag is hoe duurzame energieambities goed verankerd kunnen worden in het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces. Bij gebiedsontwikkeling van nieuwbouw of sloop/nieuwbouw projecten gaat het vaak om langdurige complexe projecten. Projecten waarbij vele partijen en belangen een rol spelen, diverse instrumenten kunnen worden gebruikt en energieconcepten kunnen worden toegepast. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces en de bijbehorende instrumenten en concepten.

  18. Energy Analysis of Contention Tree-Based Access Protocols in Dense Machine-to-Machine Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M area networks aim at connecting an M2M gateway with a large number of energy-constrained devices that must operate autonomously for years. Therefore, attaining high energy efficiency is essential in the deployment of M2M networks. In this paper, we consider a dense M2M area network composed of hundreds or thousands of devices that periodically transmit data upon request from a gateway or coordinator. We theoretically analyse the devices’ energy consumption using two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols which are based on a tree-splitting algorithm to resolve collisions among devices: the Contention Tree Algorithm (CTA and the Distributed Queuing (DQ access. We have carried out computer-based simulations to validate the accuracy of the theoretical models and to compare the energy performance using DQ, CTA, and Frame Slotted-ALOHA (FSA in M2M area networks with devices in compliance with the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. Results show that the performance of DQ is totally independent of the number of contending devices, and it can reduce the energy consumed per device in more than 35% with respect to CTA and in more than 80% with respect to FSA.

  19. Palm oil as a sustainable energy alternative in degraded areas of the Amazon region; O dende como alternativa energetica sustentavel em areas degradadas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Alberto Arruda

    2009-02-15

    Bio fuels are important tools in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG); however, to minimize the conflict with food crops, energy crops with high efficiency and capacity to absorb Co2, such as the oil palm, should be prioritized. The European Union intends to replace 10% of liquid fossil fuel demand with bio fuels by 2020. According to studies conducted by the European Commission, this will entail the annual import of more than 3 million tonnes of palm oil, the most produced and least expensive vegetable oil in the world. 87% of global production comes from Indonesia and Malaysia, where the relentless expansion of oil palm cultivation has caused extensive forest devastation, threatening biodiversity and increasing GHG emissions. The Netherlands, a large importer of oil palm products, developed a methodology (Cramer) for the certification of sustainable bio energy production, assessing economic, social, environmental aspects, as well as GHG emissions, throughout the supply chain. It sets a mandatory minimum 30% reduction of GHG emissions in the bio-energy chain for use in transport and 70% for use in heat and power generation, as compared to the chain of the fossil counterpart. This dissertation shows that oil and bio diesel (ethyl ester) from palm grown in the Amazon meets this GHG mitigation criterion when degraded areas are utilized for cultivation, but not when forests are razed for that purpose. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the double diffusion, enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting techniques, for the diagnosis of human hydatid disease in tropical areas Evaluación de las técnicas de Doble Difusión, Ensayo Inmunoenzimático e Inmunoblotting en el diagnóstico de la hidatidosis humana en áreas tropicales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Planchart; Carlos Botto; Belkis Alarcon de Noya; Rosario Bonifacino; Livia Vivas; Lilian Spencer; Sarai Vivas

    1994-01-01

    Hydatid disease in tropical areas poses a serious diagnostic problem due to the high frequence of cross-reactivity with other endemic helminthic infections. The enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the double diffusion arc 5 showed respectively a sensitivity of 73% and 57% and a specificity of 84-95% and 100%. However, the specificity of ELISA was greatly increased by using ovine serum and phosphorylcholine in the diluent buffer. The hydatic antigen obtained from ovine cyst fluid sho...

  1. Report on a new energy vision establishment project for the Kaimon Township area in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo Kaimonmachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports on new energy vision establishment for the Kaimon Township area located in the skirts of Mt. Kaimon standing at the southernmost tip of the Japanese main island. The available new energy amount may be estimated for solar energy at 10.08 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, solar heat at 5389 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year, wind power at 20.3 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wastes energy at 3111 x 10{sup 6} kcall/year, biomass forestry resources at 77 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year, and biomass stockbreeding resources at 27765 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year. Total energy available will be 30.38 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year for electric power generation, and 36342 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year for heat source. The area has more insolation than the national average, making potential high for solar energy power generation. Areas with annual average wind velocity of 5.5 m/s or higher are distributed widely, whereas wind power can correspond to 90% of the annual electric power consumed in the town. Geothermal temperatures are too low, making it difficult to be utilized for power generation, but could be used for heating hot spring water. Other energies, wastes and biomasses available in the town are not so great in quantity. The township will take the leadership in planning introduction of model type new energy facilities, and develop positively the enlightenment and proliferation activities for the time being. (NEDO)

  2. Results of testing the energy dispersive Si detector with large working area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolev, A. S.; Hampai, D.; Khusainov, A. Kh.; Zhukov, M. P.; Dabagov, S. B.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Liedl, A.; Polese, C.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the testing results for the spectrometer with a large sensitive area developed for the crystal monitoring station of modern hadron accelerator control systems used for the beam collimation are presented. The investigations were carried out at the XLab Frascati LNF laboratory aiming mostly in studying the detector sensitivity uniformity throughout the sensor area.

  3. Potential environmental conflicts in the area of the energy component of natural resource complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ie.V. Khlobystov; I.V. Segeda; A.I. Podolska

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to identify potential and probable factors of environmental conflicts (EC) larger amount of energy component of natural resource complex (NRC). Development of natural resource complex occurs in several ways to use them, in particular, with the position of the energy component of these methods were not considered in modern ecological and economic studies. The use of NRC for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency may determine through t...

  4. Ultralow Power Energy Harvesting Body Area Network Design: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chenyu Zheng; Kuhn, William B.; Balasubramaniam Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an energy harvesting wireless sensor network (EHWSN) architecture designed for use within an astronaut’s space suit. The contribution of this work spans both physical (PHY) layer energy harvesting transceiver design and low power medium access control (MAC) solutions. The architecture consists of a star topology with two types of transceiver nodes: a powered gateway radio (GR) node and multiple energy harvesting biosensor radio (BSR) nodes. To demonstrate the feasibility o...

  5. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh-An innovation system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh.

  6. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  7. Guaranteed Packet Transfer in MANET In and Out of Coverage Areas and Energy Saving Using Random Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. S.Gomathi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective analysis of packet loss in coverage area and less coverage area and reduced packet loss and increase the reliability in MANET . Each node on its neighborhood information is updated in a timely manner to achieve guaranteed coverage . The main Challenge inmobile networks is increase the reliability,Packet deliver ratio, reduce the load balancing and reduce therless consume power. MANET supports the power consumption and energy efficient and collision free.To determine a small set of forward nodes to ensure full coverage and less coverage areas. This reduces broadcast redundancy, battery power, increase guaranteed coverage area in and out.. Nowadays, there is a huge increase of handled devices. Laptops, mobile phones and PDAs take an important place in the everyday life. Hence, the challenge is now to make all these devices communicatetogether in order to build a network. Obviously, this kind of networks has to be wireless. Indeed, the wireless topology allows flexibility and mobility.

  8. Examples of Small-scale Urban Area. Experiment Energy Leap Built Environment; Voorbeeldenboek Kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. Experiment Energiesprong Gebouwde Omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch government considers the transition process to be necessary and stimulates investments in energy innovations in the built environment. This innovation effort is the programme 'Energy Leap' (Energiesprong), which is being carried out by the Steering Group Experimental Housing (SEV) on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK). The programme is derived from the Innovation Agenda for Energy in the Built Environment. The examples in this book are intended to inspire (potential) participants in the Experiment Energy Leap for Small-scale Urban Areas. The examples focus explicitly on the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas, and thus, in addition to CO2 reduction on a building level, the aspects of energy supply, (local) energy production and the energy infrastructure [Dutch] Het SEV-programma Energiesprong (SEV is Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) beoogt een substantiele bijdrage te leveren aan de condities waaronder de energietransitie effectief tot stand kan komen. In dit basisplan wordt uiteengezet hoe de markt daartoe moet kunnen komen en welke activiteiten daarvoor worden ondersteund, opgezet en/of uitgevoerd vanuit Energiesprong. Het SEV-programma Energiesprong wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) uitgevoerd. Het programma is afgeleid van de Innovatie Agenda energie Gebouwde Omgeving. Dit voorbeeldenboek dient ter inspiratie van (potentiele) deelnemers aan het Experiment Energiesprong kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. De voorbeelden richten zich expliciet op de CO2-reductie van binnenstedelijke gebieden en daarmee, naast de CO2-reductie op woning- en gebouwniveau, op de aspecten energievoorziening, (locale) energieopwekking en energie-infrastructuur.

  9. Optimum Crop Productivity in Rain Fed Area of Thana Boula Khan, Sindh, by Application of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Hameem Memon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy and food security are crisis at global level. Various sources for generating energy are under exploitation but except of renewable energy are almost costly. Hence, proper exploration and exploitation renewable energy is cheaper in comparison of fossil fuels source. In this connection, wind energy source mostly is available in the southern region of Sindh province of Pakistan. Renewable energy and agricultural farming are a winning combination. Wind, solar, and biomass energy can be harvested forever, providing farmers with a long-term source of income. The net farm returns can significantly be enhanced if available stronger winds are effectively utilized as an alternative energy resource. The project has successfully been introduced by locally manufactured windmill driven pumping units. The wind speed probability analysis based upon limited data availability indicated that during almost 92% of operational time, a wind speed of 2.5 m/s (9 km/hr or more was available in project area. The operational analysis of windmill during 2007 indicated average 9.38 liter/min discharge was extracted, with role of 95.5 m 3 of water was pumped in Kharif season, which is sufficient to irrigate 0.096 hectare of land through surface irrigation method by maintaining 10 cm depth of applied water. However, modern and efficient irrigation methods like drip and sprinkler be employed alongside windmill introduction for getting optimum agricultural productivity.

  10. Technical review of US Department of Energy draft area recommendation report for the crystalline repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foth and Van Dyke and Associates Inc. was retained by the Stockbridge-Munsee Community to evaluate the DOE's screening process for selection of candidate areas in crystalline rock terranes, and critically review the geologic and environmental factors utilized by the DOE in selecting the NC-3 area as a potentially acceptable site (PAS). We have reviewed the DOE's Draft Area Recommendation Report (ARR) issued in January 1986, and prepared our comments. In addition, geologic and environmental data pertaining to the Stockbridge-Munsee community and vicinity that was not included in the Draft ARR is presented. 24 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Periodical public opinion survey on nuclear energy. Inhabitants living in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (Fukushima accident) has brought about a great change in many people's perceptions about nuclear power plant safety. When discussing future energy options for Japan, it is important to have a full grasp of the attitude of a large number of people towards nuclear energy. The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has conducted annual questionnaire survey of 500 adults who live within 30 kilometers of Tokyo Station. The aim of this survey is to assess trends in public attitude towards nuclear energy. The authors that designed the questionnaire entries of this survey have been managing questionnaire data as members of the Data Management Working Group under the Social and Environmental Division of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. We confirmed the change in public attitude towards nuclear energy through this periodical survey after the Fukushima accident. In particular, public concerns about the use of nuclear energy increased after the Fukushima accident, and many people have raised doubts over the use of nuclear energy in the future. (author)

  12. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  13. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-30

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  14. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities

  15. The integrated resource planning of the energy sector as a basis to water management in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto de Martino Jannuzzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Resources Planning in use doesn´t diverges substantially from the Traditional Energy Planning. With the energy crisis occurred at Brazil in 2001 the blackout possibility shows that the impact on the society might happen at any time. The same occurs to the water because of its scarcity. The Integrated Resource Planning (IRP was diffused as a way of fully managing a resource by the supply and demand sizes and can be considerated a viable option for the conventional planning. This composition is meant to do a study of the specific bibliography about the energy IRP and the Water Resource Management. Utilizing conceptions of the energy area, Water Integrated Resource Planning has been created to be used at the public utilities. The Water Integrated Resource Planning conducts the Water Integrated Management through this resource saving, joining this to a different tax and increasing the supply with alternative options such as the wastewater and the rainwater use.

  16. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  17. Infusing Energy into "Jiangbei"Area——Instight into Jingsu Costal Area Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Taditionally, Chinese people regard Jiangsu as a rich area with long-lasting elegant culture manifested with typical picture of small bridge, flowing brook and graceful young lady.However, it is not the whole picture.

  18. A Study on Energy Consumption Pattern in Developing Areas of Western Himalayan State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on energy consumption and carbon emission in growth oriented Dharmpur block of Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. The energy consumption pattern revealed that fuelwood consumption contributed highest (80.43% proportion of total energy mix followed by electricity (11.55%, kerosene (2.87%, dung cake (2.79%, LPG (2.31% and diesel (0.08%. The daily energy consumption pattern in kg of coal equivalent for fuelwood, electricity, kerosene, dung cake, LPG and diesel was worked to be as 10.09, 1.45, 0.36, 0.35, 0.29 and 0.01, respectively. The per capita annual energy consumption of electricity was estimated to be 160 kWh, kerosene (1.29 liters, dung cake (0.07 tonnes and fuelwood (0.76 tonnes. Annual CO2 emission from households in Dharmpur block was estimated as 86,603 tonnes out of which 74,275 tonnes (80.64% was emitted from the fuelwood consumption only. The annual per capita energy consumption from all sources for Dharmpur block was estimated to be 12.5 tonnes of coal equivalent. The per capita CO2 emission from different energy sources in Dharmpur block was 1.1 tonnes.

  19. Identifying solar energy potentials and intensifying the climate-friendly use of photovoltaics within urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, N.

    2016-04-01

    Limited non-renewable fossil energy reserves and the essential ideas of sustainability have caused an increase in the demand for solar energy. The intensified use of renewable energy in Germany is primarily encouraged by the German renewable-energy-law. Solar panels mounted on roofs generate electricity using the energy radiated from the sun by taking advantage of the photovoltaic effect. However, not every roof is usable for power generation through solar energy. Therefore, web-based solar energy registers for multiple regions in Germany have been developed that provide detailed information on roofs suitable for carrying solar panels. The analyses are based on a digital object model derived from airborne laser scanning data of high accuracy and a fully automated technology to classify the points. First, roof points are separated according to their single roof sides and are converted into polygons. Then, exposure, slope, size of the roof, and particularly shading effects are computed to calculate the solar potential of each roof side. The web-GIS provides detailed information about the roof's suitability, such as the installable capacity and the expected generation of electricity. Thus, it helps house owners to calculate their investment and later revenues.

  20. The energy investment decision in the nonresidential building sector: Research into the areas of influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and to characterize the decision process in the nonresidential building sector as well as the variables influencing energy investment decisions, both of which impact the development of R and D agendas for the Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). The report reviews the available information on the factors that influence energy investment decisions and identifies information gaps where additional research is needed. This report focuses on variables and combinations of these variables (descriptive states) that influence the non residential energy investment decision maker. Economic and demographic descriptors, energy investment decision maker characteristics, and variables affecting energy investments are identified. This response examines the physical characteristics of buildings, characteristics of the legal environment surrounding buildings, demographic factors, economic factors, and decision processes, all of which impact the nonresidential energy investment market. The emphasis of the report is on providing possible methodologies for projecting the future of the nonresidential energy investment market, as well as, collecting the data necessary for such projections. The use of alternate scenarios is suggested as a projection tool and suggestions for collecting the appropriate data are made in the recommendations.

  1. ACOUSTIC RADIATION ENERGY AT A VARIATION OF THE COMPOSITE MECHANICAL DESTRUCTION AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Filonenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The technological parameters of composite materials machining and also cutting tool state determine deforming and destruction of their surface layers conditions. Change of this conditions results to appearance of miscellaneous defects, loss of quality and produced items reliability. Therefore, optimization, control, diagnosis and monitoring of composite materials machining technological parameters are directed on obtaining the items given quality. For the solution of these problems tasks carry out researches of technological processes with usage of different methods. One of such methods is the acoustic emission method. Methods: The simulation and analysis of acoustic radiation energy parameters is carried out at change of composite material machining depth for prevailing mechanical destruction its surface layer. Results: We showed that to composite material machining the acoustic radiation energy has continuous nature. The ascending of composite material machining depth results to increase of acoustic emission statistical energy parameters. The regularity of acoustic emission energy parameters change are obtained and described. Is showed, that acoustic radiation most sensing parameter is the acoustic emission signals energy average level dispersion. Discussion: The outcomes researches demonstrate regularity influencing of composite material machining depth on acoustic emission energy parameters. Thus the analysis of acoustic emission signals energy average level dispersion can be used at mining methods of diagnostic, monitoring and control of composite materials machining technological parameters.

  2. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  3. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  4. Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hammerle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria. The main findings of the study were: (i Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; (ii When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; (iii There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003.

  5. International comparison of energy standards in the building area; Internationaler Vergleich von Energiestandards im Baubereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Balthasar, A. [Institut fuer Politikstudien Interface GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Eichhammer, W.; Reichert, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the creation, implementation and effectiveness of energy standards in Switzerland and the four European countries Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark. The results of the research, which was based on interviews, documents and the literature available, are presented and commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the development of energy-standards and regulations proved to be most difficult in Switzerland as a result of heavily decentralised legislation competencies. Developments in Europe are discussed. As far as the 'sharpness' of legislation is concerned, large differences can be found between the five countries looked at. The possible export of the Swiss 'MINERGIE' standard in other European countries is examined. Recommendations are made for the further development of energy standards.

  6. Energy potential of municipal solid waste incineration in urban areas of China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Chinese cities from 1996 to 2020. In China, with improving the standard of living recently, the extreme increase of the municipal solid waste generation (MSWG)

  7. Strategic area : energy and petroleum - resources and environment : annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Energy is needed to provide for essential human needs like food, housing, clothing, transportation, health and recreation - in short what is needed to live a good life on this planet. By the end of this century, emission of greenhouse gases needs to be curbed. At the same time around 6 billion new citizens may join in at the global dinner table. How to produce sufficient amounts of clean energy for a future peaceful and sustainable society is today's largest challenge. There will be a great demand for new knowledge, new technology and new solutions. This is a global challenge which will involve a lot of people in many countries. NTNU, together with SINTEF, wants to play an active and productive role to supply the necessary scientific input to the global transformation processes needed to achieve a sustainable future. The overall goal is to develop new knowledge and educate the people who can turn that knowledge into clean energy solutions. A successful transition to clean and sustainable energy systems will depend on global innovation processes. Although the solutions that will be implemented will reflect local resources and conditions, they will emerge from the application of a mixture of key technologies with which NTNU and SINTEF are actively working: 1. Efficient and sustainable generation, transport and end-user utilization of energy, including oil and gas. 2. Carbon dioxide capture and storage. 3. Renewable energy. Probably, electricity and hydrogen will be the main energy carriers of the future, together with biofuels and biomass. Yet, it is important to propose - within the same time frame - a variety of possible technological solutions to allow for social choices and local concerns. Norway may be considered an 'energy country'. Thus, NTNU and SINTEF have established substantial energy related activity. Today, more than 750 scientists are involved in the efforts to create a cleaner future. This 'family' includes 170 professors and

  8. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... prepared for training purposes.Finally, some methodological thoughts based on our practical experiences will be presented and our future work will be briefly discussed....

  9. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  10. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    OpenAIRE

    Protic Sonja Maria; Pasicko Robert

    2014-01-01

    Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems off...

  11. Estimation of wind energy and wind assessments in some area in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of wind characteristics is considered as the first essential step to evaluate a wind energy project based on information about all aspects of the implementation and operation of the project. It's therefore necessary to have detailed knowledge of the wind to select the suitable wind turbine for a certain zone and also estimate its performance accurately. Various parameters need to be know of the wind, including the mean wind speed, directional data, various about the mean in the short term (gusts), daily, seasonal and annual variations, and variations with height. These parameters are highly site specific and can only be determined with sufficient accuracy by measurements at a particular site over a sufficiently long period. This paper study the wind energy and wind assessment in some selected sites such as Shahat, Derna, Tubrk, Agedabia, Jaghboub, Jalo, Tazerbo, and Elkufra. This paper first provides background information about wind power and its resource, including a review of available data, which are obtained from the representative meteorological stations. For each location, recalculated to represent the actual wind speed at hub height. The mean wind speed, the Weibull distribution, annual energy and annual capacity factor are calculated for each site. The annual energy and annual capacity factor calculation are based on specification of wind turbine know as Ventis v-12 which has a power curve as shown in Figure 10. This study indicates that wind energy is available in some sites in Libya, and Derna has the maximum power, annual energy and capacity factor.(Author)

  12. Canada's clean energy technology and the Bay area market : a needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to develop market intelligence related to clean energy technologies in Northern California, including both commercial and demonstration technologies. The study was developed as a tool for exploring engagement between Canadian and Californian businesses and partnering opportunities. The study examined technologies for solar power and photovoltaics; hydrogen and fuel cells; and waste-to-energy. A list of more than 150 organizations, government agencies, business associations, and utilities was prepared. The survey also included the establishment of contact points with large facilities, public spaces, bus fleets, and major capital projects. Fifty-nine interviews were also conducted as part of the study. Results of the study indicated that the biggest challenge concerning most individuals was the need to reduce energy consumption while maintaining reliability. Many interviewees expressed an interest in operating waste-to-energy facilities. Fifty interviewees indicated that they were planning to use or already used solar technologies. An analysis of clean energy needs was also included. The study indicated that many local governments are reluctant to embrace new, highly visible technologies. Only sophisticated organizations with unique energy demands have considered the use of fuel cell technologies. 1 fig

  13. Museum of water, green and the sun - Marumori. New energy vision of the Marumori Town area; 2001 nendo Marumori machi shin energy vision hokokusho. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo (Mizu to midori nto taiyo no hakubutsukan Marumori)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In Marumori Town, Miyagi Prefecture, a 'new energy vision of the area' was worked out which indicated the assessment of the energy reserved in the town and the course of new energy to be determined in the future. The energy consumption amount of Marumori Town in FY 1999 was estimated at 47,535 kL in crude oil conversion. By sector, the energy consumption amount was the largest in the order of the industrial sector, the transportation sector and the commercial/residential sector. The availability of new energy in Maruyama Town was estimated at approximately 480,585 GJ, of which the solar energy utilization was the largest, 53.1%. The photovoltaic power generation was the next largest, 25.4%, followed by the temperature difference energy (underground water), 8.9%, clean energy car, 7.8%, etc. As a plan for the first introduction of new energy, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation facilities to the Marumori Town Office, introduction of new energy to public facilities around the Fudoson Park, introduction of wind power generation facilities to the town-run pasture, construction of the Marumori-type biogas plant, construction of a mini hydroelectric power plant, introduction of clean energy car to public vehicles, introduction of new energy facilities to the area of Kawa-no-Eki (station of the river), etc. (NEDO)

  14. Mixed waste focus area Department of Energy technology development needs identification and prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US DOE initiated a new approach in August, 1993 to environmental research and technology development. The key features of this new approach included establishment of five focus areas and three crosscutting technology programs, which overlap the boundaries of the focus areas. The five focus areas include the Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation; Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal; High-Level Waste Tank Remediation, Landfill Stabilization, and Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Areas. The three crosscutting technologies programs include Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology; Efficient Separations and Processing; and Robotics. The DOE created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes. To accomplish this goal, the technology deficiencies must be identified and categorized, the deficiencies and needs must be prioritized, and a technical baseline must be established that integrates the requirements associated with these needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. These steps are described

  15. Modifications in energy demand in urban areas as a result of climate changes: an assessment for the southeast Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of climate changes on the urban environment may be assessed by calculating the modifications in energy production and consumption for such daily operations as heating and cooling. In this study climate changes in the southeastern Mediterranean (the area of Greece) were simulated for the year 2030 on the basis of specially constructed climatic scenarios which describe potential reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases, and were, thereafter, used to calculate the heating and cooling degree days for the same year. The results show that the cumulative amount of heating and cooling degree days will decrease and increase, respectively, as compared to the respective amounts for the year 1990. In terms of the cooling degree days, it was found that the areas most affected were the Attica and central Macedonia regions, the Aegean islands and Crete, whereas in terms of the heating degree days, it was found that a large part of the country will require less energy for heating. (author)

  16. Assessing and managing health and environmental risks from energy complex industrial systems in the Zagreb area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex industrial systems have associated health and environmental risks. In order to evaluate such risks, data on environmental/health impacts should be collected and integrated into the structure of a data base. In this paper the investigation of the possibility of organizing an information support system to assist studies for a risk management project in Zagreb area is presented. As initial phase in risk management it is necessary to form a unique register (cadastre) of all existing hazardous activities and substances in the investigated area. Additionally, a register of air pollutants in the Zagreb area will include information on the increased concentrations of sulfur dioxide and solid particles. Evaluating emissions by categories will be presenting results in tabular form, allowing data to be accessed by models in view of short term forecasts of emissions. (author). 1 fig

  17. Biomass residues for energy production and habitat preservation. Case study in a montado area in Southwestern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Malico, Isabel; Carrajola, João; Pinto-Gomes, Carlos; Lima, João

    2016-01-01

    The use of forest and agricultural residues for energy production presents multiple benefits, but the link between bioenergy and the environment is complex and not all of the energetic options have the same impacts. This work evaluates the net positive effect of valorizing residual biomass in the context of a rural area of Portugal, Estremoz. It focuses on the combined assessment of biomass availability, techno-economic feasibility and environmental aspects of utilizing forest and agricultura...

  18. Optimization and Cost of Energy of Renewable Energy System in Health Clinic Building for a Coastal Area in Tamil Nadu, India Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Suresh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy potential of coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, India ranks along with the utmost in the world. This study proposes optimization and cost of energy of different hybrid renewable energy system to power a health clinic in that building. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL optimization computer model for distributed power, “HOMER,” is used to estimate the optimization and its cost of energy. The implementation of RE systems to supply Rural Health Clinics will contribute to reduce both electricity generation cost and to reduce the consumption of fuel while improving health care and quality of life in these isolated coastal regions. We conclude that using the PV+Wind+Diesel+Battery system for these types of applications in justified on technical and economic grounds. The experimental results show that the least cost of energy at Rs 5.00/KWh, is obtained from above said system and also experiment result shows that the COE decreases with 0% of interest. It is noted, that the PV+Wind+Diesel+Battery hybrid system shows the lowest COE and high amount of Renewable energy.

  19. Energy Efficient MAC for QoS Traffic in Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anil K. Jacob; Lillykutty Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Lifetimes and latencies of devices in wireless body area networks (WBANs) that monitor the health conditions of patients largely determine their utility under such a setup. It is seen that the medium access method used in the body area network can play a significant role in determining the quality of service such medical devices can provide. IEEE 802.15.6 standard for WBAN includes different types of medium access, namely, CSMA/CA, scheduled, and polling access schemes, or a combination of th...

  20. Greenhouse systems with integrated water desalination for arid areas based on solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaibi, M.Thameur

    2003-01-01

    The limited water resources in arid areas have led to the use of low-quality irrigation water in agriculture which may reduce crop yields and damage the environment. This study is focused on a greenhouse concept with integrated water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations in areas where only saline water is available. In this greenhouse the roof light transmission is reduced as solar radiation is absorbed by a layer of flowing water on a glass covered by a to...

  1. Model of complex integrated use of alternative energy sources for highly urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of population and continuous development of highly urbanized territories poses new challenges to experts in the field of energy saving technologies. Only a multifunctional and autonomous system of building engineering equipment formed by the principles of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness meets the needs of modern urban environment. Alternative energy sources, exploiting the principle of converting thermal energy into electrical power, show lack of efficiency, so it appears to be necessary for reaching a visible progress to skip this middle step. A fuel cell, converting chemical energy straight into electricity, and offering a vast diversity of both fuel types and oxidizing agents, gives a strong base for designing a complex integrated system. Regarding the results of analysis and comparison conducted among the most types of fuel cells proposed by contemporary scholars, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is approved to be able to ensure the smooth operation of such a system. While the advantages of this device meet the requirements of engineering equipment for modern civil and, especially, dwelling architecture, its drawbacks do not contradict with the operating regime of the proposed system. The article introduces a model of a multifunctional system based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and not only covering the energy demand of a particular building, but also providing the opportunity for proper and economical operation of several additional sub-systems. Air heating and water cooling equipment, ventilating and conditioning devices, the circle of water supply and preparation of water discharge for external use (e.g. agricultural needs included into a closed circuit of the integrated system allow evaluating it as a promising model of further implementation of energy saving technologies into architectural and building practice. This, consequently, will positively affect both ecological and economic development of urban environment.

  2. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field

  3. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela@ufpr.br; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field.

  4. Integration of non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of energy-crops in the agricultural sector is hampered by a number of factors. Within the EU AIR programme a concerted action has been initiated to contribute to a better understanding of the several aspects of introducing energy corps in the rural sector. A standard methodology to assess the economic and technical viability of energy crops for three identified niche markets was developed. Technical viability of biomass production, pretreatment and conversion to energy is a necessary condition for implementation of such a project, however, it is not a sufficient condition. Non-technical constraints can either hamper or stimulate a successful introduction. Technical issues will be dealt with in other papers. This paper will, therefore concentrate on the non-technical issues. In section 2 the major issues are described. Opportunities on how to improve biomass energy introduction are provided in section 3. As a case study, the non-technical issues of a combined heat and power plant, planned to be fired on arboricultural and short rotation willow, in the municipality of Groningen in the Netherlands will be presented. The paper ends with general conclusions. (Author)

  5. Research and Development in the Energy Area; Forskning och utveckling inom energiomraadet. Resultatredovisning 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Anita; Lundborg, Anna; Lundqvist, David; Westin, Paul; Oefverbeck, Lena; Aafelt, Sten

    2003-01-01

    The report gives a review of the Swedish energy research and how it has developed since 1975. In this period 1,200 million SEK (about 150 million USD) has been spent on governmentally funded energy research (excluding the supplementary financing by the businesses). The criteria used in evaluation and follow-up are reported, and the usefulness, efficiency and quality of energy research to society are discussed. Five case-studies are described, showing which factors are important in the development and giving insight in the process of technology development from research, development and demonstration up to market introduction. Beside the case-studies, a short review of the research connected with buildings is given. The case-studies are: Biofuel-based energy systems, Transport (Biofuels, Efficient engines, Electric drives), Power production and Power technology (Hydro power, Wind power, Solar cells, Power transmission and distribution), Industry (Energy efficient metal and paper processes), Support systems - fans, pumps, compressed air and lighting, Buildings (Heating, Cooling, Lighting)

  6. Resting Energy Expenditure and Its Relationship With Patterns of Obesity and Visceral Fat Area in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; MING YANG; XIN-YU SHAO; YU-QIAN BAO; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and patterns of obesity/regional fat parameters in Chinese adults. Methods Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed in 109 Chinese adults (52 men and 57 women), and their abdominal visceral adipose tissue area (VA) and subcutaneous fat area (SA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry and compared with normal and obese subjects. Multivariate analysis was used to study the factors related to REE. Results The resting energy expenditure per kilogram of body weight (REE/kg) was closely related with the area of abdominal visceral fat measured with MRI. REE/kg was significantly lower in overweight/obesity subjects than in normal-weighted subjects, and significantly lower in subjects with abdominal obesity (VA≥100 cm2) than in subjects with non-abdominal obesity (VA< 100 cm2, BMI≥25 kg/m2). In the stepwise regression analysis of REE/kg on regional fat parameters, VA in men and women and SA in women were independent factors reversely related to REE/kg. Conclusion REE/kg is associated with the visceral fat area and more prominent in men. REE/kg can be used as an index in the pathophysiology of intra-abdominal obesity.

  7. Area Specific Stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Byström, Sören;

    By the Area Specific Stripping (ASS) method for NaI gamma detectors it is possible in a simple way obtain the parameters (stripping factors) that are needed for being able to discern between natural radioactivity signals and signals from manmade radioactivity and radiation anomalies in general. The...

  8. ΔE-E telescope with high energy resolution large sensitive area ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and the performances of ΔE-E telescope with active thick 11 cm and window area 1600 mm2 are described. ΔE detector is a Frisch ionization chamber. The performances of ΔE detector utilizing 239Pu-α source is tested. The optimum ΔE resolution obtained is 4.6%

  9. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Huang, L.; Massé, F.; Tsekoura, I.; Ashouei, M.; Catthoor, F.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Dolmans, G.; Penders, J.; Groot, H. de

    2011-01-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating

  10. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  11. Capacity building for the effective adoption of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Experience of India NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, R. [Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA), New Delhi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The experience of NGO network in the promotions of biogas and other low cost RET gadgets, devices, equipments and machines in the rural areas of India, for over two decades, have shown that there are serveral problems yet challenging opportunities in the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies in villages. First of all, the field and extension organizations should recognise that these technologies are new and aliens to the rural people, therefore like any other technologies, developed outside the rural environment, RETs are first view with skepticism by the rural community. Even if 100 units of a RE technology are successfully demonstrated, failure of even one could create negative impact within a radius of 30-50 KMs, and its shortcomings are spread like a wild fire. The appropriate technology demonstration backed by systematic capacity building of different stakeholders/actors/players (i.e. Energy Producers, Energy Service Providers and the Energy End Users) is a must for the acceptance and large-scale adoption of RETs in rural areas of the developing countries. The programme funds for the promotion and implementation of RETs should have good percentage earmarked for the capacity building as well as supporting infrastructure for awareness, motivation, promotional and post installation services activities by local field level organizations and NGOs on a long term basis. (orig.)

  12. A ctivation measurement of neutron distribution in intermediate energy heavy ion target area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGui-Sheng; WangJing; 等

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of neutrons produced by the reaction of 50MeV/u 12C-ion on a thick Cu target are studied.The neutrons are measured with threshold activation detectors.Al.F,C,Al and In activation samples were used to measure neutrons with energy greater than 7,11,20,50MeV and thermal neutrons,respectively,The fluence rate,energy and angular distributions of neutrons,total neutron yield of 12C-ion and the emission rate in the forward direction of neutrons over 11 and 20MeV were obtained.

  13. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize. Part I: effect on the farmer's income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewys, T; Witters, N; Van Slycken, S; Ruttens, A; Meers, E; Tack, F M G; Vangronsveld, J

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the economic viability of using energy maize as a phytoremediation crop in a vast agricultural area moderately contaminated with metals. The acceptance of phytoremediation as a remediation technology is, besides the extraction rate, determined by its profitability, being the effects it has on the income of the farmer whose land is contaminated. This income can be supported by producing renewable energy through anaerobic digestion of energy maize, a crop that takes up only relatively low amounts of metals, but that can be valorised as a feedstock for energy production. The effect on the income per hectare of growing energy maize instead of fodder maize seems positive, given the most likely values of variables and while keeping the basic income stable, originating from dairy cattle farming activities. We propose growing energy maize aiming at risk-reduction, and generating an alternative income for farmers, yet in the long run also generating a gradual reduction of the pollution levels. In this way, remediation is demoted to a secondary objective with sustainable risk-based land use as primary objective. PMID:21166274

  14. Development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was supported as a Concerted Action under the EC DGVI AIR programme from 1993-1996. It has successfully developed a standard methodology to help integrate non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. The methodology was used to compare the costs of different energy crop production and conversion options across the six participating nations. The partners provide a representative cross-section of European agriculture and energy expertise. All partners agreed on three niche markets favourable for biomass and biofuels: small-scale heat markets (less than 1 MW th) for agro-industry, domestic and commercial buildings, medium-scale heat markets (1-10MWth), including cogeneration for light industry and district heating, and liquid biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels in transport, heat and power applications. (Author)

  15. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  16. Energy Drinks: Topical Domain in the Emerging Literature and Neglected Areas of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…

  17. Optimisation of Working Areas in Discrete Hydraulic Power Take off-system for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    be a limiting factor for wave energy. Therefore, a secondary controlled force system has been proposed as PTO element for WEC’s. This paper investigates the configuration of a multi-chamber cylinder utilising two common pressure lines. By usage of model based optimisation an optimal number and size...

  18. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, C.; Van As, D.; Box, J. E.;

    2015-01-01

    negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ∼ 0...... lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first...... strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a...

  19. AID: An Energy Efficient Decoding Scheme for LDPC Codes in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Rehman, O.; Alrajeh, N.; Khan, Z A; Manzoor, B.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is to prolong the lifetime of network. Traditional research work focuses on minimizing transmit power, however, in the case of short range communication the consumption power in decoding is significantly larger than transmit power. This paper investigates the minimization of total power consumption by reducing the decoding power consumption. For achieving a desired Bit Error Rate (BER), we introduce some fundamental results on...

  20. The Department of Energy Nevada Test Site Remote Area Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Area Monitoring System was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for DOE test directors at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to verify radiological conditions are safe after a nuclear test. In the unlikely event of a venting as a result of a nuclear test, this system provides radiological and meteorological data to Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) computers where mesoscale models are used to predict downwind exposure rates. The system uses a combination of hardwired radiation sensors and satellite based data acquisition units with their own radiation sensors to measure exposure rates in remote areas of the NTS. The satellite based data acquisition units are available as small, Portable Remote Area Monitors (RAMs) for rapid deployment, and larger, Semipermanent RAMs that can have meteorological towers. The satellite based stations measure exposure rates and transmit measurements to the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) where they are relayed to Direct Readout Ground Stations (DRGS) at the NTS and Los Alamos. Computers process the data and display results in the NTS Operations Coordination Center. Los Alamos computers and NTS computers are linked together through a wide area network, providing remote redundant system capability. Recently, LANL, expanded the system to take radiological and meteorological measurements in communities in the western United States. The system was also expanded to acquire data from Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) that transmit through GOES. The addition of Portable and Semipermanent RAMs to the system has vastly expanded monitoring capabilities at NTS and can be used to take measurements anywhere in this hemisphere

  1. Remote sensing parameterization of the processes of energy and water cycle over desertification areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Yaoming(马耀明); Tsukamoto; Osamu; Ishikawa; Hirohiko

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction over de-sertification area, it is indispensable to utilize of satellite remote sensing. Two scenes of LandsatTM were used to produce a set of maps of surface reflectance, MSAVI, vegetation coverage, sur-face temperature, net radiation, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux. Statisticalanalysis based on these maps revealed some quantitative significant land surface characteristics.Future developments of the method are also discussed.

  2. Reliable and Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Latré, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) various sensors are attached on clothing, on the body or are even implanted under the skin. The wireless nature of the network and the wide variety of sensors offers numerous new, practical and innovative applications. A motivating example can be found in the world of health monitoring. The sensors of the WBAN measure for example the heartbeat, the body temperature or record a prolonged electrocardiogram. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater p...

  3. High-speed use of CCD area sensors as high energy particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A position sensitive detector for minimum ionizing particles is described. It is based on charge coupled devices (CCDs) area image sensors with single pixel sizes of 22 x 22 μm2. The operating frequency is 6.75 MHz and the total readout time for 2.3 x 105 pixels is about 40 ms. The devices are operated close to room temperature. (orig.)

  4. Energy Harvesting-Aware Resource Management for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Ramirez, Ernesto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for a telemedicine system is the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for the remote transmission of biomedical data and the remote control of biomedical equipment, in order to improve the provided health service. The integration of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) in telemedicine systems does not only achieve significant improvements in the patient’s healthcare, but also enhances their quality of life. However, the potential benefits provided by these netwo...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement-Growth Management and Housing Planning for Approved Designated Energy Impacted Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt.... (ii) Contribute to development of a State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas. (iii... (iv) Objectives established for the next reporting period. (e) All Grantees except States shall...

  6. Area and energy efficient high-performance ZnO wavy channel thin-film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-09-01

    Increased output current while maintaining low power consumption in thin-film transistors (TFTs) is essential for future generation large-area high-resolution displays. Here, we show wavy channel (WC) architecture in TFT that allows the expansion of the transistor width in the direction perpendicular to the substrate through integrating continuous fin features on the underlying substrate. This architecture enables expanding the TFT width without consuming any additional chip area, thus enabling increased performance while maintaining the real estate integrity. The experimental WCTFTs show a linear increase in output current as a function of number of fins per device resulting in (3.5×) increase in output current when compared with planar counterparts that consume the same chip area. The new architecture also allows tuning the threshold voltage as a function of the number of fin features included in the device, as threshold voltage linearly decreased from 6.8 V for planar device to 2.6 V for WC devices with 32 fins. This makes the new architecture more power efficient as lower operation voltages could be used for WC devices compared with planar counterparts. It was also found that field effect mobility linearly increases with the number of fins included in the device, showing almost \\\\(1.8×) enhancements in the field effect mobility than that of the planar counterparts. This can be attributed to higher electric field in the channel due to the fin architecture and threshold voltage shift. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. Tidal elevation, current, and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Dwi Susanto, R.; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Fan, Bin; Setiawan, Agus; Li, Shujiang; Wang, Yonggang; Gao, Xiumin

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents, and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2, and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in the Karimata and Gaspar straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The semi-major axes lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semidiurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semidiurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the antinodal band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semidiurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  8. Water and energy balance in the cultivated and bake soil in a montane area in Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002

  9. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  10. THE USAGE OF MICROWAVE ENERGY IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AREA AND PREPERATION OF CATALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    KUŞLU, Soner; Feyza ÇAVUŞ

    2008-01-01

    In this article, microwave energy, because of its excellent properties, has been used in the analytical chemistry applications such as sample digestion, solvent extraction, sample drying, the measurement of moisture, analyt desorption and adsorption, sample clean-up, chromogenic reaction, speciation and nebulization of analytical samples, the effect of microwaves on catalysis preperation used in industry, the hypotesis and the ideas written on this matter and the examples concerned with the p...

  11. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbritt David W; Dibley Michael J; Huynh Dieu TT; Tran Hanh TM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline ...

  12. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  13. Promotion of energy conservation in developing countries through the combination of ESCO and CDM: A case study of introducing distributed energy resources into Chinese urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of an energy service company (ESCO) project in developing countries may result not only in reduced energy cost but also in considerable environmental benefits, including the reduction of CO2 emissions, which can be assessed in an economic manner under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In this way, the economic and environmental benefits of energy conservation activities can be enjoyed by both the investor and the end-user, which can reduce the investment risk and realize a rational profit allocation. This study presents a numerical analysis of the introduction of distributed energy resources (DER) into a Chinese urban area. An optimization model is developed to determine the energy system combination under the constraints on the electrical and thermal balances and equipment availability. According to the simulation results, the introduction of DER systems possesses considerable potential to reduce CO2 emissions, especially when considering that the economic profit of the CO2 credit will increase the incentive to adopt DER systems to an even greater extent. Furthermore, by sharing the energy cost savings with the investors under an ESCO framework, the investment risk can be further reduced, and the conditions required for the project to qualify for CDM can be relaxed. Highlights: ► An investor focused analytical model is developed to aid the investment of a DER system. ► The combination of ESCO and CDM enhances the incentive to introduce energy conservation measures. ► Electricity buy-back is effective in boosting the DER system adoption under the proposed framework. ► The increased energy cost savings allocated to the investor promotes the DER system adoption. ► The rational allocation of CER credits is of vital importance to the success of the project.

  14. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  15. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshul Majumdar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling, processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.

  16. Tratamiento del síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) asociado a síndrome de hipoventilación-obesidad (SHO): presión positiva continua (CPAP) versus ventilación con presión positiva BI-nivel (BIPAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vázquez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVOS. El objetivo principal es valorar la eficacia del tratamiento con BiPAP en comparación con CPAP sobre la disminución de la pCO2 en pacientes con SAOS y SHO, a los 3 y 12 meses del inicio de su aplicación. Los objetivos secundarios son comparar la evolución de los pacientes tratados con BiPAP con la de los tratados con CPAP en términos de mejoría de la pO2 diurna, cambios en la pruebas de función respiratoria (FEV1 y FVC), control de la somnolencia que conlleva el SAOS medida mediant...

  17. Land surface temperature representativeness in a heterogeneous area through a distributed energy-water balance model and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corbari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature is the link between soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes and soil water content through the energy water balance. This paper analyses the representativeness of land surface temperature (LST for a distributed hydrological water balance model (FEST-EWB using LST from AHS (airborne hyperspectral scanner, with a spatial resolution between 2–4 m, LST from MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thermal infrared radiometric ground measurements that are compared with the representative equilibrium temperature that closes the energy balance equation in the distributed hydrological model.

    Diurnal and nocturnal images are analyzed due to the non stable behaviour of the thermodynamic temperature and to the non linear effects induced by spatial heterogeneity.

    Spatial autocorrelation and scale of fluctuation of land surface temperature from FEST-EWB and AHS are analysed at different aggregation areas to better understand the scale of representativeness of land surface temperature in a hydrological process.

    The study site is the agricultural area of Barrax (Spain that is a heterogeneous area with a patchwork of irrigated and non irrigated vegetated fields and bare soil. The used data set was collected during a field campaign from 10 to 15 July 2005 in the framework of the SEN2FLEX project.

  18. Energy-efficient hybrid system for Wireless Body Area Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, Simon; Harwin, William

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a number of miniaturized wearable or implanted sensor nodes that are employed to monitor vital parameters of a patient over long duration of time. These sensors capture physiological data and wirelessly transfer the collected data to a local base station in order to be further processed. Almost all of these body sensors are expected to have low data-rate and to run on a battery. Since recharging or replacing the battery is not a simple task speci...

  19. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    general is positive in DH systems, decreasing the production from CHPs and boilers and thereby fuel consumption. This however, is not the case in systems where the heat demand in summer months is covered by solar thermal already. By adding seasonal heat storages to the DH systems, the situation can be...... perspective, looking into how the overall heat production within DH areas is affected by the NZEBs excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The resource consumption, primarily biomass, is used as an overall indicator of the effect on the DH system. The main findings are that the heat mismatch in...

  20. Economic and energy efficiency of salvaging biomass from wildfire burnt areas for bioenergy production in northwestern Ontario: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfire burnt forest biomass can be salvaged as feedstock for bioenergy power generating stations. Despite availability of such forest biomass in northwestern Ontario, its procurement has generally been considered uneconomic and no studies have looked into the cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting the burnt material for bioenergy production. In order to meet the demand of biomass for proposed and existing power generating stations using renewable fuels, a standard costing model is used to determine the feasibility of procuring biomass from burnt areas using a full-tree to roadside, roadside grinder to mill system. The case-study was conducted at the Hogarth Plantations near Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The total cost incurred for processing and delivery of biomass from wildfire burnt area with a hauling distance of 7 km and total trip cycle time of 2.55 h was found to be $29.65 gt-1, with net energy content of 11.4 GJ gt-1. The total procurement cost depends on the hauling distance and a linear relationship between the two was established. The energy analysis found a net energy output to input ratio of 35:1 for the operation.

  1. An overall index of environmental quality in coal mining areas and energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatalis, K.I.; Kaliampakos, D.C. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-15

    An approach to measuring environmental quality and trends in coal mining and industrial areas was attempted in this work. For this purpose, the establishment of a reference scale characterizing the status of environmental quality is proposed by developing an Environmental Quality Index (EQI). The methodology involves three main components: social research, the opinion of environmental experts, and the combination of new or existing indices. A survey of public opinion was carried out to identify the main environmental problems in the region of interest. Environmental experts carried out a survey, and the weights of specific environmental problems were obtained through a fuzzy Delphi method and pairwise comparison. The weight attributed to each environmental problem was computed, using new or existing indices (subindices) in the relevant literature. The EQI comprises a combination of the subindices with their own weights. The methodology was applied to a heavily industrialized coal basin in northwestern Macedonia, Greece. The results show that the new index may be used as a reliable tool for evaluating environmental quality in different areas. In addition, the study of EQI trends on an interannual basis can provide useful information on the efficiency of environmental policies already implemented by the responsible authorities.

  2. Sustainable energy supply in rural areas. Availability and competitivity in the Danish wood pellet branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of wood fuels availability on the Danish market is proposed. In this case wood fuels are limited to wood pellets as those are the most important industrial waste wood resource. Demand, supply, attitudes and barriers with regard to renewable energy sources are analyzed. Wood pellets are the most suitable fuel form for use, storage, maintenance of boilers, stokers systems etc. The Danish wood pellet branch has been interviewed in May 1996. This report is based on the responses concerning competitivity, demand and price situation for wholesale as well as for retailers. (EG)

  3. Carbon dioxide degassing and thermal energy release in the Monte Amiata volcanic-geothermal area (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quaternary volcanic complex of Mount Amiata is located in southern Tuscany (Italy) and represents the most recent manifestation of the Tuscan Magmatic Province. The region is characterised by a large thermal anomaly and by the presence of numerous CO2-rich gas emissions and geothermal features, mainly located at the periphery of the volcanic complex. Two geothermal systems are located, at increasing depths, in the carbonate and metamorphic formations beneath the volcanic complex. The shallow volcanic aquifer is separated from the deep geothermal systems by a low permeability unit (Ligurian Unit). A measured CO2 discharge through soils of 1.8 x 109 mol a-1 shows that large amounts of CO2 move from the deep reservoir to the surface. A large range in δ13CTDIC (-21.07 to +3.65) characterises the waters circulating in the aquifers of the region and the mass and isotopic balance of TDIC allows distinguishing a discharge of 0.3 x 109 mol a-1 of deeply sourced CO2 in spring waters. The total natural CO2 discharge (2.1 x 109 mol a-1) is slightly less than minimum CO2 output estimated by an indirect method (2.8 x 109 mol a-1), but present-day release of 5.8 x 109 mol a-1 CO2 from deep geothermal wells may have reduced natural CO2 discharge. The heat transported by groundwater, computed considering the increase in temperature from the infiltration area to the discharge from springs, is of the same order of magnitude, or higher, than the regional conductive heat flow (>200 mW m-2) and reaches extremely high values (up to 2700 mW m-2) in the north-eastern part of the study area. Heat transfer occurs mainly by conductive heating in the volcanic aquifer and by uprising gas and vapor along fault zones and in those areas where low permeability cover is lacking. The comparison of CO2 flux, heat flow and geological setting shows that near surface geology and hydrogeological setting play a central role in determining CO2 degassing and heat transfer patterns.

  4. Operational Impacts of Wind Energy Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration Control Area - Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai

    2008-07-15

    This report presents a methodology developed to study the future impact of wind on BPA power system load following and regulation requirements. The methodology uses historical data and stochastic processes to simulate the load balancing processes in the BPA power system, by mimicking the actual power system operations. Therefore, the results are close to reality, yet the study based on this methodology is convenient to conduct. Compared with the proposed methodology, existing methodologies for doing similar analysis include dispatch model simulation and standard deviation evaluation on load and wind data. Dispatch model simulation is constrained by the design of the dispatch program, and standard deviation evaluation is artificial in separating the load following and regulation requirements, both of which usually do not reflect actual operational practice. The methodology used in this study provides not only capacity requirement information, it also analyzes the ramp rate requirements for system load following and regulation processes. The ramp rate data can be used to evaluate generator response/maneuverability requirements, which is another necessary capability of the generation fleet for the smooth integration of wind energy. The study results are presented in an innovative way such that the increased generation capacity or ramp requirements are compared for two different years, across 24 hours a day. Therefore, the impact of different levels of wind energy on generation requirements at different times can be easily visualized.

  5. Effectiveness of a San Francisco Bay area community education program on reducing home energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ellen M.

    In order to promote the adoption of home energy reduction practices and mitigate the climate impact of the collective greenhouse gas emissions generated by consumers, it is critical to identify an effective educational approach. A community-based educational intervention model that employs norms, information, commitment, feedback, and face-to-face communication strategies was examined for its ability to motivate changes in everyday energy-use behavior in two communities compared to a control group. A follow up study was also conducted to evaluate whether behaviors adopted as a result of the intervention were long lasting, and whether the community-focused features of the intervention were motivating to participants. Results showed that a greater number of individuals participated in the intervention over its five-month duration, reported significantly higher numbers of adopted behaviors, and maintained more adopted behaviors post-intervention than did people in the control group. In addition, intervention participants reported that some of the community-based features of the intervention motivated their behavior changes. These findings lend support to a number of social and community psychology theories about how to design effective interventions by leveraging social awareness and support.

  6. Benefits from flywheel energy storage for area regulation in California - demonstration results : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-01

    This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an 'ancillary service' needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system's manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems ability to provide 'rapid-response' regulation. Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources. The performance of the flywheel storage system demonstrated was generally consistent with requirements for a possible new class of regulation resources - 'rapid-response' energy-storage-based regulation - in California. In short, it was demonstrated that Beacon Power Corporation's flywheel system follows a rapidly changing control signal (the ACE, which changes every four seconds). Based on the results and on expected plant cost and performance, the Beacon Power flywheel storage system has a good chance of being a financially viable regulation resource. Results indicate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 to 1.8 using what may be somewhat conservative assumptions. A benefit/cost ratio of one indicates that, based on the financial assumptions used, the investment's financial returns just meet the investors target.

  7. Towards New Renewable Energy Policies in Urban Areas: the Re-Definition of Optimum Inclination of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Weissenbacher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum inclination and orientation of fixed photovoltaic (PV panels has long been defined in terms of maximizing the annual electricity yield per capacity installed according to the hemisphere and latitude where the PV system is located. Such optimum setup would thus also maximize the output per system cost, but it would not maximize the output per unit of available area, and it would not necessarily optimize the contribution of photovoltaic electricity vis-à-vis overall electricity demand patterns. This study seeks to draw the attention of policy-makers to the fact that incentivizing lower-than-optimum PV panel tilt angles can be an inexpensive strategy to substantially increase the renewable electricity yield in a given area. It also discusses how such strategy can be incorporated into an overall supply/demand grid management and renewable energy integration plan.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office quality assurance program document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of TRU waste, and establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. To help in fulfilling this mission and to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are identified and minimized, and that safety, reliability, and performance are optimized, CAO`s policy is to establish and maintain an effective quality assurance (QA) program that supports compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOE orders and requirements. This document establishes QA program requirements for all programs, projects, and activities sponsored by CAO.

  9. Infusing Energy into "Jiangbei" Area——Insight into Jingsu Costal Area Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Traditionally, Chinese people regard Jiangsu as a rich area with long-lasting elegant culture manifested with typical picture of small bridge, flowing brook and graceful young lady. However, it is not the whole picture. "We Jiangsu province is divided into two parts: north Jiangsu and south Jiangsu" said Miss Xu who denied to show name and her hometown is Suzhou city, where the art ot gardening is worldwide renown, when I was a little girl, my mom always scared me with the words that don't cry, Jiangbei (short term for North Jiangsu) Wideman will catch you, and I would stop crying. Actually, it has the same effect with the big wolf will come."

  10. Financial analysis as a marketing tool in the process of awareness increase in the area of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative sources of energy represent a great area of progress nowadays. The trend of the 21. century is energetically demanding with an increaming tendency to use fossil fuels, sources of which are however limited. The article will deal with an inevitability of the use of marketing tools with the aim to increase the share of these energetic resources on the Slovak market. The result will be obtaining of some financial advantage for future users on one side and the increase of volume of sales for vendors on the other side. (authors)

  11. Endogenous leptin signaling in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius and area postrema is required for energy balance regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Matthew R.; Skibicka, Karolina P; Leichner, Theresa M.; Guarnieri, Douglas J; DiLeone, Ralph J; Bence, Kendra K.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2010-01-01

    Medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) neurons express leptin receptors (LepR) and intramNTS delivery of leptin reduces food intake and body weight. Here, the contribution of endogenous LepR signaling in mNTS neurons to energy balance control was examined. Knockdown of LepR in mNTS and area postrema (AP) neurons of rats (LepRKD) via adeno-associated virus short hairpin RNA-interference (AAV-shRNAi) resulted in significant hyperphagia for chow, high-fat and sucrose diets, yielding increased ...

  12. Land use Planning in Ireland: a Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Recent Residential Development in the Greater Dublin Area

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Aidan

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: One third of the total housing stock in the Republic of Ireland has been built in 10 years up to and including 2006 and of this approximately 34% was built in the Greater Dublin Area (GDA). Much of the housing was low-density with poor public transport links leading to doubts over its sustainability—particularly in terms of energy use. Although the country is committed to reducing greenhouse gases to 13% above 1990 levels by the period 2008–2012, by 2005, emissions...

  13. Investigations concerning nuclear energy in the combined production of electricity and heat in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of producing the base load of both electricity and district heat for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) utilizing nuclear energy has been investigated since 1968. At every stage of the study, it has been concluded that district heating utilizing nuclear power in combined electricity and heat productions is the most economical way of heating the main part of the HMA. The studies have dealt with the economy of energy production and heat transmission as well as nuclear safety. According to the latest results, the optimum of the heat output of a 1000-MW(electric) unit is approximately 800 MW if the plant is situated 50 km away from the heat load center. For further studies and realization of the plans, the cities of the HMA and the state-owned power company, the Imatra Power Company, have formed a common company for the nuclear power plant project

  14. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN OPEN-LOOP GROUND-WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Baccino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multidisciplinary methodology for analyzing the opportunities for exploitation of open-loop groundwater heat pump is proposed. The approach starts from a model for calculation of a time profile of thermal requirements (heat and domestic hot water. This curve is then coupled with a model of the control system in order to determine the heat pump operation, which includes its energy performances (primary energy consumption as well as profiles of water discharge to the aquifer in terms of mass flow rate and temperature. Then the thermo-fluid dynamics of the aquifer is performed in order to determine the system impact on the environment as on possible other systems. The application to a case study in the Piedmont region, in Italy, is proposed. Energy analysis of the system shows that ground-water heat pumps constitute an interesting option in areas with small housing density, where there is not district heating. In comparison with typical heating/cooling systems, environmental benefits are related with reduction in global emissions. These benefits may be significantly enhanced using renewables as the primary energy source to produce electricity. The analysis also shows that possible issues related with the extension of the subsurface thermal plume may arise in the case of massive utilization of this technology.

  15. Multi area and multistage expansion-planning of electricity supply with sustainable energy development criteria: a multi objective model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsihuay-Vila, Clodomiro; Marangon-Lima, J.W.; Souza, A.C Zambroni de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], emails: clodomirounsihuayvila @gmail.com, marangon@unifei.edu.br, zambroni@unifei.edu.br; Perez-Arriaga, I.J. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)], email: ipa@mit.edu

    2010-07-01

    A novel multi objective, multi area and multistage model to long-term expansion-planning of integrated generation and transmission corridors incorporating sustainable energy developing is presented in this paper. The proposed MESEDES model is a multi-regional multi-objective and 'bottom-up' energy model which considers the electricity generation/transmission value-chain, i.e., power generation alternatives including renewable, nuclear and traditional thermal generation along with transmission corridors. The model decides the optimal location and timing of the electricity generation/transmission abroad the multistage planning horizon. The MESEDES model considers three objectives belonging to sustainable energy development criteria such as: a) the minimization of investments and operation costs of : power generation, transmission corridors, energy efficiency (demand side management (DSM) programs) considering CO2 capture technologies; b) minimization of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions (LC GHG); c) maximization of the diversification of electricity generation mix. The proposed model consider aspects of the carbon abatement policy under the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism or European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed framework. (author)

  16. Search for high energy gamma-ray emission from tidal disruption events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Feng-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Massive black holes at galaxy center may tear apart a star when the star passes occasionally within the disruption radius, which is the so-called tidal disruption event(TDE). Most TDEs radiate with thermal emission resulted from the acceleration disk, but three TDEs have been detected in bright non-thermal X-ray emission, which is interpreted as arising from the relativistic jets. Search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from one relativistic TDE (Swift J164449.3+573451) with the \\textsl{Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) has yielded non-detection. In this paper, we report the search for high energy emission from the other two relativistic TDEs (Swift J2058.4+0516 Swift J1112.2-8238) during the flare period. No significant GeV emission is found, with an upper limit fluence in LAT energy range being less than $1\\%$ of that in X-rays. Compared with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and blazars, these TDEs have the lowest flux ratio between GeV emission and X-ray emission. The non-detection of high-energy emission from re...

  17. ASSOCIATION OF ENERGY BALANCE AND PROTEIN INTAKE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A RURAL AREA OF HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of impressive gain in the field of health and nutrition, significant proportion of adolescent girls in our country is under - nourished. Often health and nutritional status of adolescent girls are direct reflection of the cumulative effects of various factors. One of the important parameters that causes under nutrition in adolescent girls is an increased risk of low protein and energy intake but high energy expenditure. Hence the problems related to adolescent girls deserve special attention. OBJECTIVE: (a To assess nutritional status of study subjects, (b To study energy balance and prot ein intake of adolescent girls in a rural area, (c To find out the association of energy balance and protein intake with the nutritional status of adolescent girls. STUDY DESIGN : Community based cross - sectional study. SETTING: Primary Health Centre, Agroh a , Haryana. PARTICIPANTS: 273 adolescent girls between 10 - 19 years of age. SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION: Based on the extent of under nutrition in adolescent girls. 39 adolescent girls were selected by simple random sampling from each of the 7 villages covered u nder PHC, Agroha. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The primary tools in this study were predesigned and pretested interview and examination schedule. Nutritional status of study subjects, was assessed on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI. Their protein and energy i ntake was computed by 24 hours recall oral questionnaire method. Estimation of energy expenditure was based on physical activity which was noted by 24 hours activity recall questionnaire method. Energy balance of e ach subject was obtained by sub tracting en ergy expenditure from energy intake. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions and X 2 test. RESULTS: Two third of the adolescent girls were under weight. Under - nutrition was 68.50% and 57.53% in subjects with negative and positive energy balance, respectively. There existed significant (P<0.01 association between protein intake and

  18. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and surrounding area Amarillo, Texas. Date of survey: October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and Pantex Lake areas in October, 1979. The Pantex Plant survey covered an area of approximately 64 km2. The Pantex Lake survey area was approximately 2 km2. Both areas were surveyed at an altitude of 46 m (150 feet) with lines spaced at 91 m (300 foot) intervals. Several passes were also made over the shipping areas at the Amarillo International Airport. An array of sodium iodide detectors were mounted in a helicopter to collect gamma ray spectral data. As expected, the spectral data indicated the presence of several areas containing man-made sources

  19. Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modeling urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lemonsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands, and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form, and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The development is performed so that any vegetation model can be used to represent the vegetation part. Here the ISBA model is used. The model results are compared to microclimatic and evaporation measurements performed in small courtyards in a very arid region of Israel. Two experimental landscaping strategies – bare soil or irrigated grass in the courtyard – are observed and simulated. The new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon scale.

  20. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  1. Impacts of renewable energy on landscape. Alternative of offshore wind in marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Moraci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects determined in the landscape by plants powered by renewable sources represent some unresolved issues in terms of visual and landscape impact mitigation in general. These aspects relate to the landscape are recognized in all types of impact with due attention to the various components and dynamics involved identifiable in the landscape of reference.The wind power plants, in particular, while making unquestionable environmental benefits thanks to the production of energy from renewable sources, but imposes a significant cost to the landscape with the installation of wind turbines in contexts necessarily favorable to impact,  interrupting the skyline, creating territorial discontinuities, "subtracting" and altering the landscape in the absence of effective mitigation works.The environmental compatibility of the proposed solutions depends primarily on the location of wind farms.Is necessary indicate  an overall strategy, a shared model of planning and land management, as in other European countries such as Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom where the choice of locating wind farms has resulted in a new draft territory, construction and redesign of the landscape.

  2. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  3. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring.

  4. Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, Elisabeth; Joseph, Wout; Latré, Benoît; Braem, Bart; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid; Blondia, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies. PMID:19789118

  5. A review of protocol implementations and energy efficient cross-layer design for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laurie; Wang, Xinheng; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring. PMID:23202185

  6. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The access to energy by the populations remains a primary preoccupation for the Government of Upper Volta (currently Burkina Faso). Due to this reason, a seminar on the utilization of renewable energy in rural area has been organized under the sponsorship of the Economic Community of West Africa (CEAO), the Canadian Agency of International Expansion and the Scout Movement. The goal of this seminar was to teach participants of several countries on how to put into practice the use of new sources of energy such as the cooker with closed fire, biological gas, the solar water-heater and the solar drier. The adoption of these new sources of energy by the populations would help mitigate problems of desertification caused by the intensive deforestation in the country. All the participants in this meeting are thus sensitized so that they will be able to positively contribute, along with their community, for a better conservation of the available natural resources. This can be done through the erection of closed fire cookers which can help get two sources of energy. This type of cooker is of easy construction and can be usable only three days after its construction. It helps avoid the loss of energy which has characterized the traditional way of cooking (around 95% of energy loss); this comes to rhyme with consuming less wood while ensuring an output of about 60 to 70%. It was question for the participants in this seminar to be initiated to the installation of gas by following Chinese and Indian models. They have been thus initiated to the realization of technologies of biological gas production throughout mastering the general diagram of the process of discontinuous fermentation. In the same way, they have acquired the know-how on the techniques of installation of the solar-fired heater by solar furnace and the solar drier. These tools help not only save energy but also the solar drier is a conservation tool which allows a bigger storage capacity of dry products and a

  7. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Huang; Zuoqi Chen; Bin Wu; Liang Chen; Weiqing Mao; Feng Zhao; Jianping Wu; Junhan Wu; Bailang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, espe...

  8. LAMBDA: Large Area Modular BaF{sub 2} Detector Array for the measurement of high energy {gamma} rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Srijit [Department of Physics, Darjeeling Government College, Darjeeling 734101 (India); Pandit, Deepak; Ray, A.; Pal, Surajit; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); De, A. [Department of Physics, Raniganj Girls' College, Raniganj 713347 (India); Banerjee, S.R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)], E-mail: srb@veccal.ernet.in

    2007-11-21

    A large BaF{sub 2} detector array along with its dedicated CAMAC electronics and VME based data acquisition system has been designed, constructed and installed successfully at VECC, Kolkata for studying high energy {gamma} rays (>8MeV). The array consists of 162 detector elements. The detectors were fabricated from bare barium fluoride crystals (each measuring 35 cm in length and having cross-sectional area of 3.5x3.5cm{sup 2}). The basic properties of the detectors (energy resolution, time resolution, efficiency, uniformity, fast to slow ratio, etc.) were studied exhaustively. Complete GEANT3 Monte Carlo simulations were performed to optimize the detector design and also to generate the response function. The detector system has been used successfully to measure high energy photons from {sup 113}Sb, formed by bombarding 145 and 160 MeV {sup 20}Ne beams on a {sup 93}Nb target. The measured experimental spectra are in good agreement with those from a modified version of the statistical model code CASCADE. In this paper, we present the complete description of this detector array along with its in-beam performance.

  9. Energy-Delay Tradeoff and Dynamic Sleep Switching for Bluetooth-Like Body-Area Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Eric; Molisch, Andreas F

    2012-01-01

    Wireless technology enables novel approaches to healthcare, in particular the remote monitoring of vital signs and other parameters indicative of people's health. This paper considers a system scenario relevant to such applications, where a smart-phone acts as a data-collecting hub, gathering data from a number of wireless-capable body sensors, and relaying them to a healthcare provider host through standard existing cellular networks. Delay of critical data and sensors' energy efficiency are both relevant and conflicting issues. Therefore, it is important to operate the wireless body-area sensor network at some desired point close to the optimal energy-delay tradeoff curve. This tradeoff curve is a function of the employed physical-layer protocol: in particular, it depends on the multiple-access scheme and on the coding and modulation schemes available. In this work, we consider a protocol closely inspired by the widely-used Bluetooth standard. First, we consider the calculation of the minimum energy functio...

  10. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  11. Energy-Efficient Technologies and the Building’s Saleable Floor Area: Bust or Boost for Highly-Efficient Green Construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Hintze

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the external measurements of a building are fixed, an increase in external wall thickness caused by additional insulation, for example, will lead to loss of saleable floor area. This issue has to be taken into account in the evaluation of investment profitability. This paper examines how technologies used in energy-efficient residential building construction affect the available saleable floor area and how this impacts profitability of investment. Using a modeled building and an analysis of the average construction cost, we assessed losses and gains of saleable floor area in energy-efficient buildings. The analysis shows that the impact of potential losses or gains of saleable floor area should be taken into account when comparing investment alternatives: building energy-efficient green dwellings or building conventional ones. The results indicate that constructing energy-efficient buildings and introducing very energy-efficient technologies may be energy- and cost-effective even compared with conventional buildings. Employing new products in energy-efficient construction allows benefit to be drawn from lower energy consumption during the life cycle of the building, but also from the increase in saleable floor area.

  12. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P. R.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  13. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Sala, P R

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first 7 years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  14. Environmental Conservation Simulation for Tianjin in China (III) -Introduction of environmental and energy technology suitable for city and agricultural area-(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yuji; Nakano, Satoshi; KITO Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the environmental and energy technologies suitable for both city and rural area in China are introduced and the effects of environmental improvement due to the installation of these technologies are evaluated. Tianjin city are selected as the area that have both city and rural area and simple wet desulfurization equipment, coal bio-briquette, heat supply system (heat pump), and biogas digester are selected as environmental technologies. The effect of salt-affected soil ameli...

  15. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Meiţă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO, the biosphere reserves including human settlements should be managed such that they could constitute an example for what sustainable development means. Starting from the spatial dimension added to the traditional socioeconomic, ecological and cultural pillars of sustainable development, the paper examines planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria that could substantiate a sustainable development model applicable to the Danube Delta, and counter the effects of clime change in the area. The results suggest that the traditional practices of the inhabitants could offer sustainable solutions and help preserving the natural and cultural diversity of the region.

  16. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  17. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month-1 in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month-1. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: →The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. → Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. → Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).→ Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.→ The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  18. Development of large area polycrystalline diamond detectors for fast timing application of high-energy heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of electrode fabrication and detector capacitance on the time resolution of large area electronic grade polycrystalline chemical vapour deposited diamond sensors that are suitable for time of flight measurements of heavy ions at relativistic velocities. Sensors were prepared both in house, with Al or Au metal contacts, and commercially fabricated with Au/diamond-like carbon contacts. 3He, 40Ar and a mixture of 20Ne and 16O beams at 16.3, 33.5 and 21–23 MeV/u, respectively were used on these devices whilst arranged in transmission geometry. Signal processing only began over one meter away from the sensors. The present approach, where we have large-area/large capacitance multi-strip detectors with processing electronics at some distance from the target, is compatible with anticipated space limitations in particle-identification and tracking setups at existing and planned nuclear fragmentation facilities. In a systematic study under these conditions, we demonstrate that the time resolution is limited by detector capacitance and energy deposition in the sensors. An intrinsic time resolution σt = (44±5) ps was achieved for a diamond detector of ∼ 14 pF capacitance. We conclude that, once further refinements are made, a large area time of flight detection system using polycrystalline diamond detectors would be able to provide time resolutions better than 40 ps, approaching the requirement for particle-identification in relativistic fragmentation experiments, such as those at the facility for antiproton and ion research, FAIR.

  19. Development of large area polycrystalline diamond detectors for fast timing application of high-energy heavy-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirru, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Scruton, L.; Bentley, M. A.; Fox, S. P.; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Banu, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Simmons, E.; Alharbi, A. A.; Trache, L.; Freer, M.; Parker, D.

    2012-05-01

    We have studied the effects of electrode fabrication and detector capacitance on the time resolution of large area electronic grade polycrystalline chemical vapour deposited diamond sensors that are suitable for time of flight measurements of heavy ions at relativistic velocities. Sensors were prepared both in house, with Al or Au metal contacts, and commercially fabricated with Au/diamond-like carbon contacts. 3He, 40Ar and a mixture of 20Ne and 16O beams at 16.3, 33.5 and 21-23 MeV/u, respectively were used on these devices whilst arranged in transmission geometry. Signal processing only began over one meter away from the sensors. The present approach, where we have large-area/large capacitance multi-strip detectors with processing electronics at some distance from the target, is compatible with anticipated space limitations in particle-identification and tracking setups at existing and planned nuclear fragmentation facilities. In a systematic study under these conditions, we demonstrate that the time resolution is limited by detector capacitance and energy deposition in the sensors. An intrinsic time resolution σt = (44±5) ps was achieved for a diamond detector of ~ 14 pF capacitance. We conclude that, once further refinements are made, a large area time of flight detection system using polycrystalline diamond detectors would be able to provide time resolutions better than 40 ps, approaching the requirement for particle-identification in relativistic fragmentation experiments, such as those at the facility for antiproton and ion research, FAIR.

  20. The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey HELLAS, III testing synthesis models for the X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Comastri, A; Vignali, C; Matt, G; Perola, G C; La Franca, F

    2001-01-01

    The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) has surveyed several tens of square degrees of the sky in the 5--10 keV band down to a flux of about 5 10^-14 erg cm-2 s-1. The extrapolation of the HELLAS logN--logS towards fainter fluxes with an euclidean slope is consistent with the first XMM measurements, in the same energy band, which are a factor 20 more sensitive. The source counts in the hardest band so far surveyed by X-ray satellites are used to constrain XRB models. It is shown that in order to reproduce the 5--10 keV counts over the range of fluxes covered by BeppoSAX and XMM a large fraction of highly absorbed (logN_H = 23--24 cm-2), luminous (L_X > 10^44 erg s-1) AGN is needed. A sizeable number of more heavily obscured, Compton thick, objects cannot be ruled out but it is not required by the present data. The model predicts an absorption distribution consistent with that found from the hardness ratios analysis of the so far identified HELLAS sources. Interestingly enough, there is evidence of...

  1. Economic viability of phytoremediation of a cadmium contaminated agricultural area using energy maize: part II: economics of anaerobic digestion of metal contaminated maize in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Thewys, Theo; Witters, Nele; Meers, Erik; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with remediation of the Campine soil, an agricultural area diffusely contaminated with metals where most farmers raise dairy cattle and grow fodder maize. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of switching from fodder to energy maize on the farmer's income. Selling this energy maize as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce renewable energy could lead to a significant increase in his income. This paper explores the economic opportunities for the farmer of digest...

  2. A flexible methodology to integrate energy issue in strategic asset management in social housing: the ECOSIM French experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacarriere, Bruno; Bourges, Bernard (Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)); Jallet, Paul (Le Toit Angevin, Angers (France))

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the efforts to reduce energy use in the Social Housing sector, the IEE-ESAM project (completed in December 2008) aimed to develop adequate tools to integrate the issue of energy in strategic asset management (SAM) processes. The present work details a methodology built with the aim of a sufficient flexibility to be adaptable of the different Social Housing Operators (SHO) situations. The paper illustrates this methodology by a successful experience of development. The objective was to develop a tool satisfying the practical expectations of the Social Housing Operators. Examples of the difficulties that had to be overcome include difficulties in knowing in detail some technical properties of the housing stock (thermal properties, glazing properties, history of refurbishment) and lack of internal skills in thermal modelling to evaluate the different possible actions. The final tool developed can be used for one particular building, a set of buildings or at the whole stock scale. The tool does not use an integrated thermal calculation core but external databases and/or feedback based on experience. It offers a description of the energy performance level of the stock, points out the worst-performing elements, evaluates solutions to improve the energy performance (for building envelopes and equipments) and quantifies the gains (energy and carbon saved, financial) and the costs (investment) of these solutions. The tool assists the SHO in taking decisions (regarding priorities for investment) which include energy efficiency parameters in addition to classical SAM parameters. The success of the approach has been demonstrated by the SHO that manages the stock used as a field test for this project. They are currently using the tool developed from the methodology to plan stock investment actions.

  3. Green Energy Solutions in Chinese Rural Areas - A Pilot Study on Promoting the Utilization of Local Renewable Energy Sources and Increased Energy Efficiency For Improved Living Conditions and Environment on The Chinese Countryside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bjoern R.; Solvang, Wei Deng; Riise, Raymond; Roman, Elisabeth (Narvik Univ. College, N-8505 Narvik (Norway)). e-mail: brs@hin.no; Lysfjord, Torfinn (Reinertsen AS (Norway))

    2008-10-15

    The project Green energy solutions in Chinese rural areas was initiated in the beginning of 2007, and started with the organizing of an international forum for 'Comprehensive utilization of Energy Resources in China'. The first conference of the forum was held in Beijing in April 2007. In parallel to there were practical surveys and registrations in various sites in the country side around Beijing, as well as visits to energy related facilities in the area. The 4 year spanned project is carried out in collaboration with Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology (BIPT) and Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, School of Economics and Management (IMUST) together with professionals from business life from both Norway and China. It is financed by Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). This paper gives a detailed introduction to status, further plans and expectations, together with a preliminary evaluation of the impacts from the various measures. The main part of Chinas population (around 80%) lives in rural areas. Living conditions are quite different form those in the cities, and the potential for and needs for improvements are huge. One of the most indigent Chinese provinces (Inner Mongolia) has been selected as a pilot for capacity building, know-how transfer and implementation of various low cost, yet high impact measures (by using mostly well known technology) to improve on energy conditions and lowering emissions to the environment. The autonomous region of Inner Mongolia is the third largest province in China. Some of the measures that are being assessed are increased use of bio fuels and solar energy, improved energy efficiency, giving lowered coal consumption

  4. 'Cluster'-development and effects in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency in buildings; Cluster-Bildung und -Effekte in den Bereichen Erneuerbare Energie und Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, S.; Simmen, H. [Ecoplan, Berne (Switzerland); Ohler, F.; Joerg, L. [Technopolis Austria, Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from an analysis of the formation of so called 'clusters' of companies acting in related fields with the aim of enhancing innovation in their business areas. This is achieved by promoting the exchange of knowledge to encourage learning processes. The report discusses the pros and cons of the 'cluster' theory as well as experience gained in this area in various European countries. It also suggests measures to be taken to aid the formation and further development of clusters in Switzerland. The measures looked at include political ones on the demand side such as levies, energy standards, export promotion and the setting of examples by authorities and - to a lesser degree - measures on the supply side such as the support of research. In particular, the successful use of the 'cluster' method in Austria is looked at.

  5. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

    2012-08-01

    fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

  6. The low attenuation area on dual-energy perfusion CT: Correlation with the pulmonary function tests and quantitative CT measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kunihiro, Yoshie; Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sano, Yuichi; Yuasa, Yuuki; Narazaki, Akiko; Kudomi, Shohei; Koike, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate the distribution of the low attenuation area (LAA) on dual energy perfusion CT (DEpCT) in comparison with the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and quantitative CT measurements. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients (15 male and 13 female; mean age: 62.21 years) underwent DEpCT and PFTs within a 1-month interval. The ranges of the LAA on DEpCT were classified into six groups with attenuation values of 0–3, 0–5, 0–8, 0–10, 0–13 and 0–15 HU and the ratios of LAA in each group were compared with the percentage of forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (%FEV{sub 1.0}), FEV{sub 1.0}/forced vital capacity (FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC) and the relative area of the lung with attenuation coefficients lower than −950 HU (RA{sub −950}). Results: The LAAs on the DEpCT images were significantly correlated with the RA{sub −950}, %FEV{sub 1.0} and FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC, and the regression analysis showed that the best values of LAA on DEpCT were 0–10 HU with RA{sub −950} (r = 0.63), 0–8 HU with %FEV{sub 1.0} (r = −0.52) and 0–8 HU with FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC (r = −0.61) per patient. Conclusion: The iodine disturbance on DEpCT had a moderate correlation with the results of the PFTs and RA{sub −950}, but further examination would be needed for evaluation of iodine distribution.

  7. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Management in a Solar Powered Adaptive Fuzzy Control Model for Ground Water Conservation in Suburban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a novel scheme of water level management of a storage tank, adaptive to varying water consumption by an end user, has been designed. This system proposes the control of water supply from a solar powered pump for the optimal use of ground water in suburban areas. It has been simulated and validated, for its satisfactory performance, by fuzzy control logic. The proposed system optimizes water consumption, leading to improvement in the ground-water life cycle and increasing the life of submersible pumps and bore wells. Moreover, it reduces water wastage, maintains the water table and avoids damaging conditions for pump due to muddy water, without any inconvenience to the user. In the proposed system, keeping in view the poor grid availability in suburban areas, a solar-powered submersible pump raises ground water to an overhead storage water tank which is also connected to a reservoir water tank. The reservoir regularly supplies water in time schedule to the storage tank to fulfill the demand for water. In the absence of the reservoir, or when the supply from the reservoir is insufficient tomeet the demand, a submersible pump, operating on PV energy, acts as a supplementary system. It pumps water to the storage tank in accordance to the demand/consumption of water. This has been achieved with a fuzzy controller, which senses the varying level of water in the storage tank and the end user requirement, and fills up the storage tank from the reservoir tank and/or the submersible pump accordingly.

  8. Method for the study of the inelastic cross section for high energy protons by means of shower arrays with the large calorimetric area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton initiated showers could be reliably separated from showers initiated by cosmic ray nuclei by means of arrays with large calorimetric area, using distributions of energy fractions for EAS electromagnetic muon and hadron components. Proton initiated showers penetrate deeper into the atmosphere and have relatively lower energy fraction in muons. Distribution of that energy fraction is sensitive to the value of the proton inelastic cross section. It is shown that the analysis of this distribution allows one distinguish between log sup 2 S -rise and log S -rise of the cross section at energies above 10 to the 15th power eV

  9. The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey HELLAS, II Number counts and X-ray spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, F; Vignali, C; Comastri, A; Matt, G; Perola, G C; La Franca, F; Molendi, S; Tamburelli, F; Antonelli, L A

    2001-01-01

    The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) has surveyed about 85 deg^2 of sky in the 5-10 keV band down to a flux of 4-5 10^-14 erg cm-2 s-1. The source surface density of 16.9+-6.4 deg$^{-2}$ at the survey limit corresponds to a resolved fraction of the 5-10 keV X-ray background (XRB) of the order of 20-30 %. Hardness ratios analysis indicates that the spectra of a substantial fraction of the HELLAS sources (at least one third) are harder than a alpha_E = 0.6 power law. This hardness may be due to large absorbing columns. The hardness ratio analysis also indicates that many HELLAS sources may have a spectrum more complex than a single absorbed power law. A soft component, superimposed to a strongly cut-off power law, is likely to be present in several sources.

  10. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  11. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  12. A Method to Use Solar Energy for the Production of Gas from Marine Hydrate-Bearing Sediments: A Case Study on the Shenhu Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Tang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed that uses renewable solar energy to supply energy for the exploitation of marine gas hydrates using thermal stimulation. The system includes solar cells, which are installed on the platform and a distributor with electric heaters. The solar module is connected with electric heaters via an insulated cable, and provides power to the heaters. Simplified equations are given for the calculation of the power of the electric heaters and the solar battery array. Also, a case study for the Shenhu area is provided to illustrate the calculation of the capacity of electric power and the solar cell system under ideal conditions. It is shown that the exploitation of marine gas hydrates by solar energy is technically and economically feasible in typical marine areas and hydrate reservoirs such as the Shenhu area. This method may also be used as a good assistance for depressurization exploitation of marine gas hydrates in the future.

  13. Giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops in producing energy by anaerobic digestion, reducing surface area and costs: A full-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Luca; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Arundo donax L. (Giant cane) was used in a full-scale anaerobic digester (AD) plant (power of 380kWhEE) in partial substitution for corn to produce biogas and electricity. Corn substitution was made on a biomethane potential (BMP) basis so that A. donax L. after substitution accounted for 15.6% of the total mix-BMP (BMPmix) and corn for 66.6% BMPmix. Results obtained indicated that Giant cane was able to substitute for corn, reducing both biomass and electricity production costs, because of both higher biomass productivity (Mg total solid Ha(-1)) and lower biomass cost (€Ha(-1)). Total electricity biogas costs were reduced by 5.5%. The total biomass cost, the total surface area needed to produce the energy crop and the total cost of producing electricity can be reduced by 75.5%, 36.6% and 22%, by substituting corn completely with Giant cane in the mix fed to the full-scale plant. PMID:27428299

  14. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  15. Promotion of sustainable forms of renewable energy key to poverty eradiction strategies among poor people in rural areas of Kenya. A call for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Githinji, M.M. [Rural Friends Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2004-07-01

    Energy is very essential for sustainable development in rural areas. Electricity supply in Kenya is confined mostly in major urban centres only. Poor people rely on unsustainable forms of energy sources mainly burning of wood for domestic needs such as lighting resulting in serious environmental and health consequences among them, desertification and internal pollution. The latter is a pre-cursor of prevalent asthmatic conditions. There is therefore an urgent and greater need to provide sustainable and affordable forms of renewable energy to poor people in rural areas for household use and to help stimulate development activities in information technology and other light agro-industries. We propose a credit scheme through a revolving fund to enable poor people access solar technology to meet their energy needs. We appeal for support from the international community in this initiative. (orig.)

  16. Designing, building, and testing a solar thermoelectric generation, STEG, for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    New alternatives and inventive renewable energy techniques which encompass both generation and power management solutions are fundamental for meeting remote residential energy supply and demand today, especially if the grid is quasi-inexistent. Solar thermoelectric generators can be a cost-effective alternative to photovoltaics for a remote residential household power supply. A complete solar thermoelectric energy harvesting system is presented for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions. To this end, the entire system was built, modeled, and then validated with LTspice simulator software via thermal-to-electrical analogy schemes. Valuable data in conjunction with two novel LTspice circuits were obtained, showing the achievability of analyzing transient heat transfer with the Spice simulator. Hence, the proposed study begins with a comprehensive method of extracting thermal parameters that appear in thermoelectric modules. A step-by-step procedure was developed and followed to succinctly extract parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal conductivity needed to model the system. Data extracted from datasheet, material properties, and geometries were successfully utilized to compute the thermal capacities and resistances necessary to perform the analogy. In addition, temperature variations of the intrinsic internal parameters were accounted for in this process for accuracy purposes. The steps that it takes to simulate any thermo-electrical system with the LTspice simulator are thoroughly explained in this work. As a consequence, an improved Spice model for a thermoelectric generator is proposed. Experimental results were compiled in the form of a lookup table and then fed into the Spice simulator using the piecewise linear (PWL) command in order to validate the model. Experimental results show that a temperature differential of 13.43°C was achievable whereas the simulation indicates

  17. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hao Fan; Hongwen He; Deng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB). In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator) model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area ne...

  18. Reconstruction algorithm and full area energy resolution of the scientific prototype of the high pressure gas scintillation proportional counter on board the SAX satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the following paper we describe an event position reconstruction and energy correction technique that is being implemented on the High Pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (HPGSPC), that will be flown aboard the Italian Satellite for X-ray astronomy, SAX. We discuss how this technique will greatly enhance the spectroscopic performances of the detector and we report some results regarding the full area energy resolution of the scientific model of the HPGSPC. ((orig.))

  19. The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement and the Norwegian energy policy; EOES-avtalen og norsk energipolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Claes, Dag Harald

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian energy policy has a long tradition of strong public management. Already in the early 1900s the state ensured the right of first refusal to any new power stations and ensured that the privately owned power plant should go without charge back to the state after 60 years. The development of the petroleum sector Since 1970 the number of the corresponding manner largely been controlled by the state through public companies and stronger regulations, which (in conjunction with Norwegian and foreign private companies) to ensure employment, skills and added value would get 'the whole nation as a whole.' The goals were national and the funding were interventionistic from the public side. EU internal market represents in turn a far more liberal ideology, and promotes neutral nation competition for the benefit of the whole of the European Economic cooperation area (EEA). In the internal market the state's role is largely limited to being regulator of economic activities undertaken by private actors. Here are the goal European and the the funds are regulatory. The two models are met through the EEA agreement, both in terms of who the policy is going to work for and how it should be exercised. On the energy policy area these two major challenges creates for Norway: firstly, as a producer and exporter of oil and gas, economic and political interests are not always in line with the EU's interests as a consumer and importer of energy, for the second we have a tradition of a stronger governance of the energy sector than the EU internal market calls for. While not exist EEA Agreement in a vacuum.The changes in the petroleum regime in 2001-2002 through partial privatization of Statoil, the first gas directive and the case against the Gas Negotiating Committee (GFU) must be seen in context. Change is due to the mature of the petroleum sector, market development,development of the infrastructure and general international liberal economic trends that EEA

  20. Analysis of financial measures in the energy area; Analyse finanzieller Massnahmen im Energiebereich: Theoretische Reflexion der Wirkungsweise und Auswertung empirischer Studien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Haefeli, U.

    2008-10-15

    This final report for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) analyses financial measures that can be taken in the energy area. Based on 17 years of experience with the use of financial measures for the support of energy policy in Switzerland, the mechanisms involved and the effects obtained are discussed. Financial measures are looked at in the light of theoretical economics and applied psychology. The so-called 'deadweight' effect, i.e. that part of activities that would have taken place anyway, is looked at in detail. Finally, the importance of measures is examined and the strengths and weaknesses of financial measures and subvention mechanisms are commented on.

  1. Large-area xenon gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) with timing information for the detection of low energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Arb, H.P.; Boecklin, J.; Dittus, F.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Hofer, H.; Kottmann, F.; Schaeren, R.; Taqqu, D.; Waelchli, M. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Hochenergiephysik)

    1983-04-01

    A large area xenon gas scintillation proportional counter has been developed for the study of low energy X-rays. A time resolution of 40 ns (fwhm) at 5.5 keV was obtained by producing secondary scintillation light in the drift space. A simple model of the processes leading to secondary light production describes the measured time distributions and their energy dependence. The energy resolution at 5.9 keV was 8.8% (fwhm) for collimated X-rays. For a uniform irradiation over the sensitive area of 314 cm/sup 2/, a resolution of 9.5% is obtained after correcting for the pulse height dependence on the position of X-ray absorption. The reduction of pulse height due to small H/sub 2/O and O/sub 2/ contaminations was measured.

  2. A large-area xenon gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) with timing information for the detection of low energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large area xenon gas scintillation proportional counter has been developed for the study of low energy X-rays. A time resolution of 40 ns (fwhm) at 5.5 keV was obtained by producing secondary scintillation light in the drift space. A simple model of the processes leading to secondary light production describes the measured time distributions and their energy dependence. The energy resolution at 5.9 keV was 8.8% (fwhm) for collimated X-rays. For a uniform irradiation over the sensitive area of 314 cm2, a resolution of 9.5% is obtained after correcting for the pulse height dependence on the position of X-ray absorption. The reduction of pulse height due to small H2O and O2 contaminations was measured. (orig.)

  3. A Case Study of Damage Energy Analysis and an Early Warning by Microseismic Monitoring for Large Area Roof Caving in Shallow Depth Seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow depth coal seams are widely spread in Shendong mining area, which is located in the Northwestern region of China. When working face is advanced out of concentrated coal pillar in upper room and pillar goaf, strong strata behaviors often cause support crushing accidents, and potentially induce large area residual pillars instability and even wind blast disaster. In order to predict the precise time when the accident happens, guaranteeing life-safety of miner, microseismic monitoring system was for the first time applied in shallow coal seam. Based on damage mechanics correlation theory, the damage energy model is established to describe relationship between damage level and cumulative energy of microseismic events. According to microseismic monitoring data of two support crushing accidents, the damage energy model is verified and an effective early warning method of these accidents is proposed. The field application showed that the early warning method had avoided miners suffering from all support crushing accidents in Shigetai coal mine.

  4. Seasonal and interannual variation of radiation and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Yu, Ye; Chen, Jinbei; Zhang, Tangtang; Li, Zhenchao

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the land-atmosphere interactions over the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau is important due to its special climate and unique underlying surface. In this study, two years' micrometeorological and energy flux observations from the Pingliang Land Surface Process & Severe Weather Research Station, CAS were used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of radiation budget and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, with an emphasis on the influence of rain, soil moisture and agricultural production activities (such as crop type and harvest time) on the energy partitioning as well as the surface energy balance. The results revealed large annual variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation, which gave rise to significant seasonal and interannual variations in soil moisture. Soil moisture was the main factor affecting radiation budget and energy partitioning. There was a negatively linear relationship between the albedo and the soil moisture. The main consumer of available energy varied among months and years with an apparent water stress threshold value of ca. 0.12 m3 m- 3, and the evapotranspiration was suppressed especially during the growing season. On an annual scale, the largest consumer of midday net radiation was sensible heat flux in 2010-2011, while it was latent heat flux in 2011-2012, which accounted for about 35% and 40% of the net radiation, respectively. The agricultural activity altered the sensitivity and variability of albedo to soil moisture, as well as energy partitioning patterns. The surface energy budget closures during Dec. 2010-Nov. 2011 and Dec. 2011-Nov. 2012 were 77.6% and 73.3%, respectively, after considering the soil heat storage. The closure was comparable to other sites in ChinaFLUX (49% to 81% of 8 sites). The patterns of energy partitioning and the water stress threshold found in the semi-arid cropland could be used to evaluate and improve land surface models.

  5. Development of the business area construction and energy of EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Transfer from project management to a regional network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association EnergieRegion Nuernberg is a regional authority network, which is employed with the promotion of sustainable handling of the factor energy in the region Nuernberg and with the proliferation of this region as internationally recognized location for energy engineering, energy industry and energy science. The intention is to use the important industrial, service-oriented and scientific potential optimally. For this reason a functional co-ordination and communication platform had to be created for the cross-linking of the appropriate participants from economics, research and public administration. Therefore, the author of the contribution under consideration accompanies the development process of the business field construction and energy of this association in the background of the current trends in the construction and energy sector in the region Nuernberg. Under this aspect, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Success factors of the project management in a regional network; (b) Operationalisation of the success of the project by means of a model; (c) Analysis of the different aspects of energetic measures; (d) Determination of chances and risks of the range building and energy in the region Nuernberg; (e) Comparison of the success of the model projects with the model for the determination of project success; (f) Determination of strengths and weaknesses of the project management in the business field construction and energy of the energy region Nuernberg

  6. Potential of the City of Belgrade’s urban areas and establishment of institutional, strategic and planning framework for utilization of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency within the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the potential of renewable energy sources within the area of City of Belgrade, and explores the possibilities of their further implementation in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, in line with mandatory EU Directives. A synergetic approach has been proposed in the recommendations for the implementation of goals/targets and policies in the fields of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency in the City of Belgrade. They put an emphasis on the importance of implementation of the strategic documents of the City. Recommendations on have been provided regarding the required institutional preconditions that have to be met in order for these goals to be achieved, as well as urbanistic and building design-related measures/standards in achieving energy efficiency.

  7. BASIC APPROACHES TO THE RESEARCH OF RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AS THE ENERGY POTENTIAL OF TERRITORIES AND BUILT-UP AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Poddaeva Olga Igorevna; Dunichkin Ilya Vladimirovich; Kochanov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the energy potential of the Russian regions based on the planning of territories through the employment of renewable sources of energy, their incorporation into architectural solutions applicable to buildings and structures. The authors also provide their comparative analysis of different sources of renewable energy, of which windmills are covered in more detail. Urban development of Russia is accompanied by environmental changes and substantial growth of power c...

  8. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a small scale hybrid solar heating, chilling and power generation system, including parabolic trough solar collector with cavity receiver, a helical screw expander and silica gel-water adsorption chiller, etc., was proposed and extensively investigated. The system has the merits of effecting the power generation cycle at lower temperature level with solar energy more efficiently and can provide both thermal energy and power for remote off-grid regions. A case study was carried out to evaluate an annual energy and exergy efficiency of the system under the climate of northwestern region of China. It is found that both the main energy and exergy loss take place at the parabolic trough collector, amount to 36.2% and 70.4%, respectively. Also found is that the studied system can have a higher solar energy conversion efficiency than the conventional solar thermal power generation system alone. The energy efficiency can be increased to 58.0% from 10.2%, and the exergy efficiency can be increased to 15.2% from 12.5%. Moreover, the economical analysis in terms of cost and payback period (PP) has been carried out. The study reveals that the proposed system the PP of the proposed system is about 18 years under present energy price conditions. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the interest rate decreases to 3% or energy price increase by 50%, PP will be less than 10 years.

  9. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  10. 77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within..., The Conservation Fund would develop a regional framework of conservation lands to be used as a... coordination with our planning partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species...

  11. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a small scale hybrid solar heating, chilling and power generation system, including parabolic trough solar collector with cavity receiver, a helical screw expander and silica gel-water adsorption chiller, etc., was proposed and extensively investigated. The system has the merits of effecting the power generation cycle at lower temperature level with solar energy more efficiently and can provide both thermal energy and power for remote off-grid regions. A case study was carried out to evaluate an annual energy and exergy efficiency of the system under the climate of northwestern region of China. It is found that both the main energy and exergy loss take place at the parabolic trough collector, amount to 36.2% and 70.4%, respectively. Also found is that the studied system can have a higher solar energy conversion efficiency than the conventional solar thermal power generation system alone. The energy efficiency can be increased to 58.0% from 10.2%, and the exergy efficiency can be increased to 15.2% from 12.5%. Moreover, the economical analysis in terms of cost and payback period (PP) has been carried out. The study reveals that the proposed system the PP of the proposed system is about 18 years under present energy price conditions. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the interest rate decreases to 3% or energy price increase by 50%, PP will be less than 10 years. (author)

  12. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question G2: Where are areas of potential development (e.g., under lease), including renewable energy sites and transmission corridors and where are potential conflicts with CEs?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows conservation element summaries within areas of potential near-term and long-term energy development. These summaries help highlight areas of...

  13. High energy, 1572.3 nm pulses for CO2 LIDAR from a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area, Er-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J W; DeSantolo, A; Yan, M F; Wisk, P; Mangan, B; Puc, G; Yu, A W; Stephen, M A

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate the first polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area, Er-doped fiber amplifier with ~1100 μm2 effective area. The amplifier is core pumped by a Raman fiber laser and is used to generate single-frequency, one-microsecond, pulses with pulse energy of 541 μJ, peak power of 700 W, M2 of 1.1, and polarization extinction > 20 dB. The amplifier operates at 1572.3 nm, a wavelength useful for trace atmospheric CO2 detection. PMID:27557271

  14. Executive summary. Wind-energy assessment studies in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco areas. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R W; Wade, J E; Persson, P O.G.; Katz, R W

    1981-12-01

    Work performed in FY81 on Wind Energy Assessment Studies in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco Areas is summarized. The research centers on defining the extent of the wind resource at site specific locations that have been documented earlier as having good wind power potential. The work consists of spatial wind surveys in the Goodnoe Hills and Cape Blanco area, wind turbine generator wake measurements at the Goodnoe Hills site, and developing a methodology for sampling the wind flow using a kite anemometer. (LEW)

  15. Energy extracted from underground rock area by using a horizontal closed loop system in Mutah University/Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The ground can be used as a storage tank to store hot or cooled water in Jordan. ► The stored energy in rocks was utilized to provide heating cooling, and hot water for homes. ► The underground geothermal horizontal loop in rocks was technically approved. ► It can extract up to six times the heat energy that used in electrical energy. ► Its low capital cost and zero environmental emissions. - Abstract: Earth Energy Systems (EESs) utilize the thermal energy that is stored in rocks and ground water under the earth’s surface to provide homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities with heating, cooling, and hot water. Solar energy is absorbed by the earth’s surface which stores up to 50% of the sun’s energy that radiates on it. Consequently, the earth and groundwater’s temperature is relatively constant compared to that of the surface air. The earth’s temperature is generally warmer than the surface temperature during the colder months of the year, while it is generally cooler than the surface temperature during the hot months of the year. In this study, energy was extracted from the underground rocks at Mutah University in Jordan by using the geothermal horizontal closed loop system. Two-meter holes were drilled into the earth’s surface; copper pipes were inserted for liquid to pass through them into the heat exchange system. Then, the liquid was circulated back into the ground. Several temperature differences were measured and reported in the cold and hot months. The experimental results showed that thermal energy stored in rocks can be used to provide homes with heating, cooling, and hot water with low capital cost and zero environmental emissions.

  16. BASIC APPROACHES TO THE RESEARCH OF RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AS THE ENERGY POTENTIAL OF TERRITORIES AND BUILT-UP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddaeva Olga Igorevna

    2012-10-01

    renewable sources of energy include water, sun, and wind. Wind power engineering best fits the conditions of the Russian territories. However, experts believe that the wind power is to be backed by other sources due to the irregularity of its generation. This approach to the power generation and planning of territories coupled with the integration of renewable energy technologies into architectural designs of buildings and structures will make it possible to identify the prerequisites for the energy generation specialization of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of their climatic conditions and urban development patterns. Private investments into renewable sources of energy will assure sustainable population settlement patterns and optimal energy generation and consumption.

  17. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  18. Energy resolution and light yield non-proportionality of pure NaI scintillator studied with large area avalanche photodiodes at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Moszynski, M; Kapusta, M; Szawlowski, M; Klamra, W; Schotanus, P

    2002-01-01

    The pure NaI crystal has been studied using a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) at near liquid nitrogen (LN sub 2) temperatures. The study showed a high light output of 44 000+-4000 photons/MeV (ph/MeV), the energy resolution of 5.9+-0.2% for 661.6 keV gamma-rays from a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source and a good proportionality of the light yield versus gamma-ray energy. It has been shown also that a cooled LAAPD is an excellent photodetector to study scintillators at near LN sub 2 temperatures.

  19. Energy resolution and light yield non-proportionality of pure NaI scintillator studied with large area avalanche photodiodes at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pure NaI crystal has been studied using a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) at near liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. The study showed a high light output of 44 000±4000 photons/MeV (ph/MeV), the energy resolution of 5.9±0.2% for 661.6 keV γ-rays from a 137Cs source and a good proportionality of the light yield versus γ-ray energy. It has been shown also that a cooled LAAPD is an excellent photodetector to study scintillators at near LN2 temperatures

  20. Optimized sizing model for renewable energy systems in rural areas; Modelo de dimensionamento otimizado para sistemas energeticos renovaveis em ambiente rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos E.C. [UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas]. E-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans H. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology for sizing integrated renewable energy systems, useful for rural areas, using simulation and optimization tools developed in MATLAB 6.0. The sizing model produces a system with minimum cost and high reliability level, based on the concept of loss of power supply probability (LPSP) for consecutive hours. An optimization model is presented and three different sizing scenarios are calculated and compared, showing flexibility in the elaboration of different project conceptions. The obtained results show a complete sizing of the energy conversion devices and a long-term cost evaluation. (author)

  1. Energy-efficient routing control algorithm in large-scale WSN for water environment monitoring with application to Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24741360

  2. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – Area IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, Brad [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hay, Scott [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wondolleck, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorrels, Earl [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rutherford, Phil [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dassler, David [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  3. Low Enthalpy Geothermal Open Loop Heat Pumps: a suitable tool for thermal energy supply in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Russo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps represent an interesting technology that is expected to contribute significantly to the reduction of primary energy use for heating and cooling and meet the targets set by the European Union. Additional benefits of this technology are related to the integration with discontinuous energy resources, in particular wind, combining heat and power. The replacement of conventional heating systems such as boilers, with heat pump systems allows the de-localization of emissions of...

  4. Operating manual and design report of a 5000A quench switch for Energy Doubler magnets in experimental area beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryogenic west bend in Proton's enclosure H consists of five 21' Energy Doubler magnets fed from a 5000A power supply via watercooled bus. The stored energy of the magnets will be dumped in a resistor R/sub D/, when S1, S2, are shut off. Magnet heaters will be fired if S1, S2, fail to open (dump failure). These heaters are strictly used for backup protection. The interlock flow diagram is shown

  5. The importance of decision-making aids in the energy area: from planning to the management of disorder and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to situate decision-making aids in the energy area in France and show how the tools have changed over time as a function of the changing economic and political context. The challenges faced, already important in the post-war era due to reconstruction, are now huge due to supply constraints and global warming. While it is the State's responsibility to address these issues, as the players in the energy area currently are mainly in the private sphere, we look at decisions taken both by the State and by companies. Schematically, we compare two major periods: that of post-war planning through the eighties, and that of risk management, which has been current practice since market deregulation. From the methodological standpoint, we show that decision-making aids borrow tools from varied disciplines ranging from economics through management to futurology and long range planning. (author)

  6. Evaluating photovoltaic/energy storage/diesel hybrid power systems for remote area power supplies in the Amazon region of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1997, an international memorandum of understanding was signed between the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) in Peru, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). This agreement seeks to evaluate the potential for remote area power supplies (RAPS) for electrification of rural villages in the Amazon region. This study, funded by ILZRO, was the first major activity conducted under the aegis of this agreement. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary engineering design and feasibility study to assess the potential for Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) in the Amazon Region of Peru. This paper presents the results of this preliminary engineering study. (author)

  7. Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells Using High Surface Area Mesoporous Carbon Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new counter electrode materials is vital for commercialization of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs process. Research on DSCs has been focused mainly on using platinum as counter electrode, which makes them expensive. In this paper, we report DSCs fabricated with high surface area mesoporous carbon thin film with uniform spherical particles as counter electrode. An overall light-to-electricity efficiency as high as 7.6% has been achieved under illumination of air mass (AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mW/cm2. In comparison with activated carbon, high surface area mesoporous carbon shows superior performance. Our results show that mesoporous carbon with high specific surface area and uniform pore size distribution proved to be better efficient electrode material for DSCs.

  8. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  9. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  10. Suitability assessment of building energy saving technologies for office buildings in cold areas of China based on an assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An assessment method considering economy, environment and technology is proposed. • Office buildings are classified into 3 types and weights are calculated respectively. • BESTs were summed up as 3 suitability levels. • Recommendations are proposed for adopting in design stage. - Abstract: Blind application and extensive copy of building energy saving technologies have been found very common through investigation in China. Emphases should be put on the suitability assessment when selecting and optimizing building energy saving technologies. This paper created an assessment method, namely an assessment framework to assess the suitability level of building energy saving technologies from a holistic point of view. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was adopted. 3 factors and 8 sub-factors were included in the framework. The office buildings were classified into 3 types to calculate weights of factors and sub-factors. The assessment framework was established for each type of office buildings. 20 energy saving technologies from surveyed cases was selected as case study. Ranks of suitability level of the assessment objects were obtained for each type of office buildings. The assessment results could be referred when selecting building energy saving technologies in the design stage

  11. Harmonization efforts within the area of EEC energy taxation, what opportunities will remain for national freedom of action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The representative from the Danish Ministry of Energy generally describes the Single Market within the European Communities, especially with regard to the energy market. The harmonization of taxation within the EEC is discussed in relation to the various directive-proposals in this field. The abolishment of fiscal boundaries, the problem of cross-border trade, loss of provenue and the disadvantages of energy taxation with regard to the commercial sector are considered. The views of the Danish government are explained and short descriptions of reports and recommendations sent out by the Commission on this subject are briefly dealt with. It is stated that the European Commission's harmonization proposals poses significant problems for the Danish government. Attention is drawn to the fact that Denmark can exercise its right of veto. Denmark gives high priority to environmental protection. The country does not see the necessity of harmonizing energy taxes in the case of private consumers, and stresses the influence of tariffs on the goals related to energy and the protection of the environment. (AB)

  12. Highly Enhanced Electromechanical Stability of Large-Area Graphene with Increased Interfacial Adhesion Energy by Electrothermal-Direct Transfer for Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangheon; Kim, Gi Gyu; Kim, Soohyun; Jung, Wonsuk

    2016-09-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice structure, has been extensively investigated for research and industrial applications as a promising material with outstanding electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. To fabricate graphene-based devices, graphene transfer to the target substrate with a clean and minimally defective surface is the first step. However, graphene transfer technologies require improvement in terms of uniform transfer with a clean, nonfolded and nontorn area, amount of defects, and electromechanical reliability of the transferred graphene. More specifically, uniform transfer of a large area is a key challenge when graphene is repetitively transferred onto pretransferred layers because the adhesion energy between graphene layers is too low to ensure uniform transfer, although uniform multilayers of graphene have exhibited enhanced electrical and optical properties. In this work, we developed a newly suggested electrothermal-direct (ETD) transfer method for large-area high quality monolayer graphene with less defects and an absence of folding or tearing of the area at the surface. This method delivers uniform multilayer transfer of graphene by repetitive monolayer transfer steps based on high adhesion energy between graphene layers and the target substrate. To investigate the highly enhanced electromechanical stability, we conducted mechanical elastic bending experiments and reliability tests in a highly humid environment. This ETD-transferred graphene is expected to replace commercial transparent electrodes with ETD graphene-based transparent electrodes and devices such as a touch panels with outstanding electromechanical stability. PMID:27564120

  13. Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

  14. The integrated resource planning of the energy sector as a basis to water management in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto de Martino Jannuzzi; Ricardo da Silva Manca

    2008-01-01

    The Water Resources Planning in use doesn´t diverges substantially from the Traditional Energy Planning. With the energy crisis occurred at Brazil in 2001 the blackout possibility shows that the impact on the society might happen at any time. The same occurs to the water because of its scarcity. The Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) was diffused as a way of fully managing a resource by the supply and demand sizes and can be considerated a viable option for the conventional planning. This com...

  15. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation; Land unter Strom. Die Energiewende als Chance fuer den laendlichen Raum. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredenbeck, Martin; Gotzmann, Inge (comps.)

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors. [German] Die Energiewende betrifft die laendlichen Raeume Deutschlands in besonderem Masse. Welche Chancen und Risiken sie dort bringt, zeigt eine Neuerscheinung des Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (BHU). Der Bundesverband der Heimatverbaende, Heimat- und Buergervereine widmet sich der Frage, wie zum konventionellen Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien innovative Optionen hinzutreten koennen. Eine breite Aufstellung von Energienutzungen, die Weiterentwicklung historischer Nutzungsformen und die raeumliche Differenzierung sind dabei wichtige Faktoren.

  16. Report on the survey for working out the new energy vision of the Urugi village area; 2001 nendo Urugi mura chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it at Urugi Village, Nagano Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of characteristics of the natural environment/characteristics of social economy of the village, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. Urugi Village is 800 meters above sea level and in the riches of the Nature being surrounded by mountains on all sides. The population of the village was 734 as of March 1993, which is decreasing by 14-15/y. The aging rate was very high, 32.3%. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: 10kW class photovoltaic power generation facilities to be installed at Furusato-kan and by the road of Hiraya Pass, 2.5kW class wind power generation facilities to be installed at Hiraya Pass for education of new energy, installation of a 10kW class mini hydroelectric power plant supplying power to the auto-camping site, stockbreeding biomass cogeneration which conducts fermentation of the methane from animal feces and garbage generated in Urugi Village, ligneous biomass cogeneration, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  18. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  19. Uniform irradiation of high-energy intense ion beams to large area by two-dimensional beam scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI AVF cyclotron is equipped with ion beam scanners for large area irradiation. The cyclotron beam is two-dimensionally scanned by using a pair of laminated electromagnets. Cellulose triacetate (CTA) film dosimeter has been successfully applied as an integral method to measurement of the two-dimensional relative fluence distributions of the scanned ion beams, proton, He, C, Ar and Kr. The measured result showed that the fluence was not uniform within the scanned area. We have developed a beam scanning simulator to evaluate fluence distribution by calculation, and the simulation result was compared with the measured distribution. The un-uniformity was found to result from the distortion of the current wave form of the scanner. On the basis of this result, the power supply of the scanner was improved. A good uniformity of fluence distribution was available within ±4%. (author)

  20. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  1. THE-FAME: THreshold based Energy-efficient FAtigue MEasurment for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks using Multiple Sinks

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, S.; Javaid, N.; Tauqir, A.; Rao, A; Mohammad, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is a technology employed mainly for patient health monitoring. New research is being done to take the technology to the next level i.e. player's fatigue monitoring in sports. Muscle fatigue is the main cause of player's performance degradation. This type of fatigue can be measured by sensing the accumulation of lactic acid in muscles. Excess of lactic acid makes muscles feel lethargic. Keeping this in mind we propose a protocol \\underline{TH}reshold b...

  2. Energy, transport network and financial issues: PR perspectives for economic development in time of Euro-Med area change

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that cons...

  3. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Meiţă; Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor; Emil-Sever Georgescu

    2014-01-01

    The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious) diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of t...

  4. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Xinheng Wang; Laurie Hughes

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote managem...

  5. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Management in a Solar Powered Adaptive Fuzzy Control Model for Ground Water Conservation in Suburban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Singh,; Monika,; K. Pallavi Jha,; Madhu Bala

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel scheme of water level management of a storage tank, adaptive to varying water consumption by an end user, has been designed. This system proposes the control of water supply from a solar powered pump for the optimal use of ground water in suburban areas. It has been simulated and validated, for its satisfactory performance, by fuzzy control logic. The proposed system optimizes water consumption, leading to improvement in the ground-water life cycle and increasing...

  6. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  7. Possible transfer of traditional energy intensive industries towards developing countries. Offers of energy resource in the CIER [Comision de Integracion Electrica Regional] area in relation to this transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the steep rise in oil prices in the early 1970s, South American countries became aware of the advisability of developing their abundant and renewable hydroelectric resources. The second energy crisis of 1979 pushed up oil prices still further and the consequences in the South American electricity sector included contractions in markets, overcapacity, and difficult financial circumstances. Increases in exports were seen as a way to reduce the burden of those countries' heavy debts and to improve economic conditions. To harmonize the interests of development of highly energy intensive industries in developed countries and the economic development of developing countries, the possibility of marketing energy as an industrial input should be considered. Evidence of the advantages that South American countries can offer to such industrial transfers is presented. These countries offer a source of plentiful hydropower from installations in operation, under construction, or projected as major developments. These installations are already largely interconnected through high- and extra-high-voltage power transmission networks. Technical information is given on the installed generating capacities, including thermal reserve plants; utilization levels; transmission line interconnections; and remaining renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Considerations regarding the political and financial implications of industrial transfers are discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs

  8. Report on the survey for working out the new energy vision of the Neba village area; 2001 nendo Neba mura chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Neba Village, Nagano Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of characteristics of the natural environment/characteristics of social economy of the village, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. Neba Village is surrounded by 1,000m class height mountains and wedge valleys with a lot of undulations and has a key road running through the village. The population was 1,532 as of April 1996, which continues decreasing. The problem on the decrease in number of child is conspicuous. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation facilities to city/farm village interchange facilities (Nebaland), introduction of photovoltaic power generation facilities to kindergarten/elementary school/junior high school for educational purposes, introduction of small wind power generation facilities to pottery facilities and lodging facilities, introduction of mini-hydroelectric power generation along the Neba River and electric power supply to wood processing facilities, methane gas fermentation cogeneration using stockbreeding waste and garbage, ligneous biomass cogeneration using waste wood, etc. (NEDO)

  9. Modeling and simulation of the fixed-speed WECS (wind energy conversion system): Application to the Algerian Sahara area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Belhamel, Maiouf; Nouredine, Said [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62, Bouzareah, Alger 16340 (Algeria); Haddadi, Mourad [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Hadji, Seddik [Laboratoire des Technologies Industrielle et de l' information, Universite A. Mira de Bejaia, Targa Ouzemour, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    The present paper aims at modeling and simulating a WTIG (wind turbine and an induction generator) system as an electricity source in the southern parts of Algeria. System simulation has been done using a program developed employing the MATLAB-SIMULINK software package. The power delivered by the WTIG system and the related C{sub p} quality have been sampled at 1 h time intervals and then statistically compared with those given by the manufacturer. The obtained results have then been validated by the HOMER software confirming the effectiveness of the developed program while deriving a slightly lower estimation of per kWh energy cost than the rate applied by the local Electricity Board which shows evidence of the incentives to investing in this sector as an alternative to the domestically available natural gas (whose prices are subsidized). A significant decrease in the pollutant emissions is also predicted as a consequence of the wind energy electrical power injection into grid. (author)

  10. Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy in the Magallanes area for consumption in the central zone of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy proposal of this research suggests the use of places with abundant wind resources for the production of H2 on a large scale to be transported and used in the central zone of Chile with the purpose of diversifying the country's energy matrix in order to decrease its dependence on fossil fuels, increase its autonomy, and cover the future increases in energy demand. This research showed that the load factor of the proposed wind park reaches a value of 54.5%, putting in evidence the excellent wind conditions of the zone. This implies that the cost of the electricity produced by the wind park located in the Chilean Patagonia would have a cost of 0.0213 US$ kWh-1 in the year 2030. The low prices of the electricity obtained from the park, thanks to the economy of scale and the huge wind potential, represent a very attractive scenario for the production of H2 in the future. The study concludes that by the year 2030 the cost of the H2 generated in Magallanes and transported to the port of Quinteros would be 18.36 US$ MBTU-1, while by that time the cost of oil would be about 17.241 US$ MBTU-1, a situation that places H2 in a very competitive position as a fuel. (author)

  11. Energy, transport network and financial issues: PR perspectives for economic development in time of Euro-Med area change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that consider the social politics able to improve the so defined social problems. These associations thought that by collecting different kind of data regarding these problems they would reach a clear insight on the directions the state should follow in the framework of different politics and reforms. As a result, the national research capacity is of the highest importance to the ability of a state to invent and implement successfully its politics based on evidences that concern and come as a reaction to the concerns and issues of the social problems as a whole. In this article I will be presenting first of all an overview of the scientific research in Albania in the area of the social sciences by pointing out the main areas that deserve to be the prior ones in the contest of developing activities that aim the implementation of the research in Social Sciences. Also, a great number of Institutions has been contacted with the aim of receiving official information and data on the functioning and on the potential problems that can be faced during the research processes. These institutions have been selected based on their involvement at the area of the scientific research of the social sciences. At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able

  12. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops → crop residues → ''Bread'' forage → cattle → cattle dung → biogas digester → biogas/digester residues → green fertilizers → crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m3 biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO2 emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m3 biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO2 emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO2 emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon emission goal of the Chinese government on Climate Conference in Copenhagen in 2009. (author)

  13. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  14. Operating and impact of the compensation mechanism of the electric utility charges on the energy offer in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the law of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electric utility, the France adopted a mechanism aiming to compensate the costs subjected by EDF and other suppliers providing a public utility mission in the domain of the electricity production and distribution. This document takes stock on the organization, the evaluation and the economical and environmental consequences of the implementing of a compensation system of costs bond to the electricity production in non connected areas. (A.L.B.)

  15. Status and Benefits of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: A Case Study on Improved Cooking Stoves and Biogas Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.

  16. Evaluation of the shallow geothermal energy in the Xuchang area%许昌市浅层地热能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪念明; 涂良权; 王鑫; 胡继华; 陈瑾; 涂金飞

    2011-01-01

    以线热源理论为基础,通过对许昌市城区不同区域岩土体进行垂直埋管试验,测试获取各岩土层热物性参数,计算浅层地热能可利用量和地热能储存量,为许昌市推广和发展土壤源热泵这一极具节能与环保潜力的浅层地热能应用提供理论基础和技术支撑.同时,通过刘许昌市浅层地热能评价方法的介绍,为同类城市浅层地热能评价提供可借鉴的方法.%Shallow geothermal energy, which exists widely in shallow underground soil and ground water, is a kind of low grade and renewable energy. In this paper, on the basis of line heat source theory, the vertical pipe-burying method of soil heat exchanger is used to obtain different thermo-physical parameters of the rock and soil layers. The shallow geothermal energy storage and available quantity are calculated. The results can also provide theoretical base and technical support for the popularization and development of shallow geothermal energy application in the GSHP system, which is of potential significance in energy saving and environmental protection. Furthermore, according to the introduction of the evaluation methods of shallow geothermal energy in the Xuchang area, the results can also provide referential method for shallow geothermal energy evaluation of similar cities.

  17. Federal Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  18. An assessment of the sea breeze energy potential using small wind turbines in peri-urban coastal areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Bueso, Jordi; Rojas Gregorio, José Ignacio; Jou, Jordi; Valle, Aaron; Olmeda, David; Sanchez,Carlos

    2015-01-01

    From wind speed data recorded hourly at 2 m high during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula), wind speed distributions at 10 m high were computed for the whole year and for the sea breeze period (from March 1 to September 30, from 10 to 19 local time). Weibull probability density functions fitted to the distributions were used to assess the wind energy generated by two off-grid small wind turbines: the IT-PE-100 and th...

  19. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 3: Special reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report (Part 3: Special reports) is the third in a series of four reporting the results of the eNERGIA project. The first report presents the eight countries examined in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The second report deals mainly with selected renewable energy technologies, which are discussed from different perspectives. The fourth report provides a summary of the whole project. The present report summarises the SWOT analyses of the Nordic countries and the eNERGIA workshops, and presents case studies of good practice. (Author) refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  20. Opening up electricity markets: contributions of research in the energy economics area - Proceedings of the conference on 22 November 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) that took place on the 22nd of November 2001 present nine papers on various topics involved in the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market. The topics covered include the labelling of electricity to indicate its source, whereby the problems to be overcome in connection with the import of electrical power are examined, and the results of a focus-group survey on the labelling of electricity that covers the requirements of consumers. Further, a paper on the fundamentals for the definition of charges for the use of the electricity grid for the transport of energy by third parties as well as two papers on the benchmarking of Swiss electricity grids are presented. Two further papers discuss the billing of costs between grids operating at different voltage levels and the regulation of prices in the distribution grids at the start of liberalisation. The conditions for hydropower in a liberalised Swiss electricity market and the importance of water taxation and its possible differentiation by location are discussed in two further papers

  1. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-05-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  2. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  3. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  4. Economic Feasibility of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Hybrid with Bioenergy from Anaerobic Digestion for Electrification of Remote Area of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy systems (HRES are gaining importance throughout the world because of the finite sources of oil and gas reservoirs. These have the great ability in the production of electrical energy and cleaning the environment. It is difficult to get grid electricity in the remote areas where no infrastructure exists. The utilization of renewable sources is the ultimate solution for the generation of electricity. In this paper, the economic modeling of Hybrid system consisting of Wind/biomass is explored for the remote area ‘Jangiah’ of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Anaerobic Digestion of biomass is used to get biogas. This source is used to complement the uncertainties in the wind production. Homer is used to simulate the hybrid model. Economic analysis is performed to get the net present value (NPV and cost of energy. It is observed that wind/biomass alone is capable to meet the demand of community which consumes 60 kW peak daily along with the storage backup. This system is the most economical with COE equal to 0.118 US$/kWh following the hybrid biomass/wind/diesel system with COE 0.202 US$/kWh. The sensitivity analysis is carried out and shows that the proposed system is sensitive to the prices of fossil fuel and project lifespan. The net present value increases as the lifetime of the project increases from 15 years to 30 years. It can also be concluded that if the price of the diesel drops below 0.8 US$/liter, the traditional system using fossil fuels will become the most suitable system for the generation of electricity in remote areas.

  5. A large-area xenon gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with timing information for the detection of low energy muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-area xenon filled gas scintillation proportional counter has been developed and used for the study of the 2 keV K X-ray spectra of muonic hydrogen. An 80 cm long xenon filled light pipe permits operation at a magnetic field of 10 kG. Good time resolution (110 ns at 2 keV) could be obtained by producing secondary scintillation in the first drift space. Preliminary measurements give an energy resolution of 26% at 2 keV. (orig.)

  6. Perceived problems, challenges and needs in the area: Long term needs of nuclear data of innovative materials for fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved nuclear data are essential to support new initiatives such as the international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (e.g. INPRO of the IAEA) that aim to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation-resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs (7 billion population now and growing) of the 21st century. The detailed pursuit of development of Generation IV nuclear energy systems that offer advantages in the areas of economics, safety, reliability and sustainability require significantly improved nuclear data. Design and safe operation of long burnup innovative reactor systems also need improved data and covariances for a larger number of fission products and minor actinides

  7. Energy-Efficient Shaping of Contemporary Buildings and Their Surroundings as an Essential Element of Modernization of Built-Up Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocheński, Stanisław; Bocheńska-Skałecka, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive design of a building along with the development of a surrounding land may counterbalance the tendency of housing estates comprising houses built on the basis of "ready-made projects" - which have no references to the existing urban tissue and which do not create a new one. In the first place, the energy intensity of buildings using the so-called passive methods should be lowered, and only then active systems should be applied, considering economic balance. The problem should be considered from two different perspectives i.e. for intensively and for less urbanised areas. The article results in the formulation of guidelines for energy-efficient modernization of contemporary buildings and their surroundings.

  8. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grezes, C.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Wang, K. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebrahimi, F.; Khalili Amiri, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Inston, Inc., Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Katine, J. A. [HGST, Inc., San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Langer, J.; Ocker, B. [Singulus Technologies AG, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memory and logic integrated circuits.

  9. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memory and logic integrated circuits

  10. High-Energy Four-Wave Mixing, with Large-Mode-Area Higher-Order Modes in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Steinvurzel, P. E.; Chen, Y.; Yan, L.; Demas, J. D.; Grogan, M. D. W.; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K.; Rottwitt, Karsten; Ramachandran, S.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, four-wave mixing, in the 1-μm spectral regime, in an LMA silica fiber. Pumping a 618-μm2 LP07 mode (λo = 1038.4 nm) with a 1064.6-nm Nd:YAG laser results in the generation of modulation instability, and multiple Stokes/anti-Stokes lines, opening up the prospect...... of high-energy parametric processes with fibers.......We demonstrate, for the first time, four-wave mixing, in the 1-μm spectral regime, in an LMA silica fiber. Pumping a 618-μm2 LP07 mode (λo = 1038.4 nm) with a 1064.6-nm Nd:YAG laser results in the generation of modulation instability, and multiple Stokes/anti-Stokes lines, opening up the prospect...

  11. Rural energy and the quality of air : with special reference to a tribal area in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not much attention has been paid to rural energy and its related environmental problems; and studies on air pollution due to burning of fuelwood for cooking purpose seem to be inadequate. The present study aims to measure the amount of fuelwood used by households and to estimate the amount of pollutants emitted from burning of firewood for cooking. For the present study, 85 households in a tribal panchayat called Sittillngi in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu state, were surveyed. Results indicate that the sampled households burn 254 tonnes of fuelwood annually. Correlation analysis shows that annual income and firewood consumption of households are negatively correlated (r=-0.11) or the income and pollutants are negatively correlated . Some suggestions are given to minimize air pollution resulting from fuelwood burning. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Biomass and energy production of catch crops in areas with deficiency of precipitation during summer period in central Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass production dynamics of catch crops, volunteers and weeds in dependence on precipitation and air temperature, was studied in central Bohemia from 2004 to 2006. The cover of individual components of the growth was monitored during the same period. Also measured were energy and efficiency of utilization of global radiation by catch crops and volunteers. The catch crops included the following species: Brassica napus, Lolium multiflorum, Lolium perenne, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba, Trifolium incarnatum, Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis and Trifolium subterraneum. The highest biomass production and the highest cover of catch crops were observed in treatments with S. alba (1382.0 kg ha-1, 47.8%). The average biomass production (sum of catch crops, volunteers and weeds) was highest in treatments with S. alba, R. sativus, and P. tanacetifolia and lowest in treatments with B. napus, L. multiflorum and L. perenne. It was demonstrated that an increase in the percentage share of volunteers caused a decrease in the biomass production of catch crops. The average energy production ranged from 0.31 to 2.37 MJ m-2 in treatments with catch crops, and from 0.25 to 0.89 MJ m-2 in treatments with cereal volunteers. The highest effectivity of global radiation utilization, was determined in treatments with S. alba (0.11-0.47%). Based on regression analysis the closest dependence between biomass production from all treatments on the experimental site and precipitation was observed from 1st May till the time of sowing and the average air temperatures from the sowing period till the time of the last biomass production assessment.

  13. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  14. STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND ENERGY RESOURCES IN TWO TIPICAL AREAS IN CHINA%中国典型地区风能资源特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 宋丽莉; 黄浩辉; 刘爱君; 范绍佳

    2011-01-01

    利用西北地区和东南沿海地区具有代表性的测风塔资料,对比分析其风能资源特性差异,结果发现:①即使西北和东南沿海地区的年平均风速相同,西北地区的年平均风功率密度和年风能密度均显著大于东南沿海地区,其风功率密度可大1~2个等级,造成这种显著差异的关键因子是西北地区"大风速"的出现频率较东南沿海地区多;②西北地区和东南沿海地区的风向变化主要以小角度变化为主,但两地区的风向变化特征明显不同:西北地区的小风向变差角出现频率略少于东南沿海地区,而较大的风向变差角出现频率明显多于东南沿海地区.两类地区不同的风资源特性将影响风电场选址和设计、风电机组选型以及建成后的运行管理模式,具有重要的现实意义和使用价值.%Northwest China and southeast coast of China are the two typical areas which are affluent in wind-energy resources in our country. A comparative study was carried out on characteristics of wind-energy resources by analyzing the observational data obtained from towers which are representative in the two areas. The results showed that even if the annual mean wind speed in the northwest China is the same as that in the southeast coast of China, the annual mean wind power density and the annual wind energy density in the northwest China are significantly Larger than those in the southeast coastal area of China, with the scale of one to two order larger for the wind power density. Such significant differences may be attributed to the key factor that the frequency of gale force winds in the northwest China is higher than that in the southeast coastal area of China, and changes of wind directions are dominated by small variations of directional angles of winds in both areas, with differences in frequency of wind direction changes that may be revealed by that frequency of wind direction changes is less evident for small angle

  15. Comparison of methods for area-averaging surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces using high-resolution non-hydrostatic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Günther; Kerschgens, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The quantification of subgrid land surface heterogeneity effects on the scale of climate and numerical weather prediction models is of vital interest for the energy budget of the atmospheric boundary layer and for the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle. This paper focuses on heterogeneity effects for the exchange processes between land surfaces and the atmosphere. The results are based on high-resolution non-hydrostatic model simulations for the LITFASS area near Berlin. This area represents a highly heterogeneous landscape of 20 × 20 km2 around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service (DWD). Model simulations were carried out using the non-hydrostatic model FOOT3DK of the University of Köln with resolutions of 1 km and 250 m.The performance of different area-averaging methods for the turbulent surface fluxes was tested for the LITFASS area, namely the aggregation, mosaic and tile methods. For one tile method (station-tile), the experimental setup of the surface energy balance stations of the LITFASS98 experiment was investigated. Two different simulation types are considered: (1) realistic topography and idealized synoptic forcing; (2) realistic topography and realistic synoptic forcing for LITFASS98 cases. A double one-way nesting procedure is used for nesting FOOT3DK in Lokalmodell of the DWD.The mosaic method shows good results, if the wind speed is sufficiently high. During weak-wind convective conditions, errors are particularly large for the latent heat flux on the 20 × 20 km2 scale. The aggregation method yields generally higher errors than the mosaic method, which even increase for higher wind speeds. The main reason is the strong surface heterogeneity associated with the lakes and forests in the LITFASS area. The main uncertainty of the station-tile method is the knowledge of the area coverage in combination with the representativity of the stations for the land-use type and surface conditions. The results of

  16. Survey report on the environment harmonizing type energy community survey project for the coastal area in the Kawasaki ward in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo Kawasakiku rinkaibu chiiki kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In energy utilization in the 'Kawasaki Zero Emission Industrial Complex', optimal regional heat supply systems were discussed. The discussion was made from the viewpoints of introduction of saving-type energies, new energies and renewable energies, and environment preservation performance. The coastal area in the Kawasaki ward is planned of developing an industrial complex with an area of 8.4 ha for operation of about twenty companies. In the assumption of heat demand, four companies only were taken up as the object of the discussion, who utilize heat supply from steam as process heat source for their factories. The total heat demand quantity and heat demand pattern used for the discussion were assumed by hearing and actual record submitted from each company. Optimal systems were discussed on heat supply systems utilizing steam produced by steel mills, with the discussion made on waste heat recovered steam in processes and steam extracted from thermal electric power plants in the steel mills. As a result of the discussion, heat supply utilizing the steel mill steam was found capable of being provided with much lower price level as the estimated unit price than general direct steam supply, leading to a judgement that the system has business feasibility. (NEDO)

  17. Low Energy Wireless Body-Area Networks for Fetal ECG Telemonitoring via the Framework of Block Sparse Bayesian Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhilin; Makeig, Scott; Rao, Bhaskar D

    2012-01-01

    Fetal ECG (FECG) telemonitoring is an important branch in telemedicine. The design of a telemonitoring system via a low-power wireless body-area network for ambulatory use is highly desirable. As an emerging technique, compressed sensing (CS) shows great promise in compressing data with low power consumption. However, due to some specific characteristics of FECG recordings such as non-sparsity and strong noise contamination, current CS algorithms generally fail in this application. In this work we utilize the block sparse Bayesian learning (bSBL) framework, a recently developed framework solving the CS problems. To illustrate the ability of the bSBL methods, we apply it to two representative FECG datasets. In one dataset the fetal heartbeat signals are visible, while in the other dataset are barely visible. The experiment results show that the bSBL framework is capable of compressing FECG raw recordings and successfully reconstructing them. These successes rely on two unique features of the bSBL framework; on...

  18. Thermal resistances in the Everest Area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from satellite imagery using a nonlinear energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, D. R.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Debris thickness is an important characteristic of many debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region of the Himalayas. The debris thickness controls the melt rates of the glaciers, which has large implications for hydrologic models, the glaciers response to climate change, and the development of glacial lakes. Despite its importance, there is little knowledge of how the debris thickness varies over these glaciers. This paper uses an energy balance model in conjunction with Landsat7 ETM+ satellite imagery to derive thermal resistances, which is the debris thickness divided by the thermal conductivity. The developed model accounts for the nonlinear temperature gradient in the debris cover to derive accurate thermal resistances. Fieldwork performed on Lhotse Shar/Imja glacier in September 2013 was used to validate the satellite-derived thermal resistances. Results indicate that accounting for the nonlinear temperature gradient is crucial. Furthermore, correcting the incoming shortwave radiation term for the effects of topography and including the turbulent heat fluxes is imperative to derive accurate thermal resistances. Since the topographic correction is important, the model will improve with the quality of the DEM. The main limitation of this work is the poor resolution (60 m) of the satellite's thermal band. The derived thermal resistances are accurate at this resolution, but are unable to derive trends related to slope and aspect on a finer scale. Nonetheless, the study finds this model derives accurate thermal resistances on this scale and is transferable to other debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region.

  19. Cloud effects on surface energy and mass balance in the ablation area of Brewster Glacier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, J. P.; Cullen, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of clouds on glacier surface energy balance (SEB) has received increased attention in the last decade, but how clouds interact with other meteorological forcing to influence surface mass balance (SMB) is not as well understood. This paper resolves the SEB and SMB at a site in the ablation zone of Brewster Glacier over a 22-month period, using high-quality radiation data to carefully evaluate SEB terms and define clear-sky and overcast conditions. A fundamental change in glacier SEB in cloudy conditions was driven by increased effective sky emissivity and surface vapour pressure, rather than a minimal change in air temperature and wind speed. During overcast conditions, positive net long-wave radiation and latent heat fluxes allowed melt to be maintained through a much greater length of time compared to clear-sky conditions, and led to similar melt in each sky condition. The sensitivity of SMB to changes in air temperature was greatly enhanced in overcast compared to clear-sky conditions due to more frequent melt and changes in precipitation phase that created a strong albedo feedback. During the spring and autumn seasons, the sensitivity during overcast conditions was strongest. To capture these processes, future attempts to explore glacier-climate interactions should aim to resolve the effects of atmospheric moisture (vapour, cloud, and precipitation) on melt as well as accumulation, through enhanced statistical or physically based methods.

  20. A surface energy-budget model coupled with a Skewed Puff Model for investigating the dispersion of radionuclides in a sub-tropical area of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air pollution model (Skewed Puff Model, SPM) based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was applied to investigate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides at Ipero' in Brazil, the location of a nuclear industrial installation. The SPM numerical simulation were carried out using an input 5-minute averaged wind speed and direction observed at 11. m, friction velocity and the Monin-Obukhov length supplied by the surface energy-budget model, along with PBL height, estimated for the daytime. The agreement between the observed and simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes, friction velocity and the Monin-Obukhov length, within a level of confidence of 99.9% indicates that the internal parameters chosen for the surface energy-budget model are representative of the interface soil-vegetation conditions at Ipero'. The mean concentration field at the surface was estimated assuming that a hypothetical accident at Ipero' produced a continuous emission from a 10 m high point source for 18 hours during the summer of 1993 and of 36 hours during the winter of 1992. The results indicated that, in the case of an accident, the highest concentration values are located near to the source and most of the contaminated area is within a 5 km range, in both seasons. The shape of the contaminated area is defined by the wind and speed pattern