Phase object retrieval through scattering medium
Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Meijing; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai
2018-05-01
Optical imaging through a scattering medium has been an interesting and important research topic, especially in the field of biomedical imaging. However, it is still a challenging task due to strong scattering. This paper proposes to recover the phase object behind the scattering medium from one single-shot speckle intensity image using calibrated transmission matrices (TMs). We construct the forward model as a non-linear mapping, since the intensity image loses the phase information, and then a generalized phase retrieval algorithm is employed to recover the hidden object. Moreover, we show that a phase object can be reconstructed with a small portion of the speckle image captured by the camera. The simulation is performed to demonstrate our scheme and test its performance. Finally, a real experiment is set up, we measure the TMs from the scattering medium, and then use it to reconstruct the hidden object. We show that a phase object of size 32 × 32 is retrieved from 150 × 150 speckle grains, which is only 1/50 of the speckles area. We believe our proposed method can benefit the community of imaging through the scattering medium.
Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.
Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian
2017-02-22
Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.
Structural phase transitions and Huang scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yasusada
1980-01-01
The usefulness of the application of the concept of Huang scattering to the understandings of the origin of diffuse scatterings near structural phase transitions are discussed. It is pointed out that in several phase transitions, the observed diffuse scatterings can not be interpreted in terms of critical fluctuations of the order parameters associated with the structural phase transitions, and that they are rather interpreted as Huang scattering due to random distribution of individual order parameter which is 'dressed' by strain fields. Examples to show effective applications of this concept to analyze the experimental X-ray data and whence to understand microscopic mechanisms of structural phase transitions are presented. (author)
Phase statistics in non-Gaussian scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, Stephen M; Jakeman, Eric; Ridley, Kevin D
2006-01-01
Amplitude weighting can improve the accuracy of frequency measurements in signals corrupted by multiplicative speckle noise. When the speckle field constitutes a circular complex Gaussian process, the optimal function of amplitude weighting is provided by the field intensity, corresponding to the intensity-weighted phase derivative statistic. In this paper, we investigate the phase derivative and intensity-weighted phase derivative returned from a two-dimensional random walk, which constitutes a generic scattering model capable of producing both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fluctuations. Analytical results are developed for the correlation properties of the intensity-weighted phase derivative, as well as limiting probability densities of the scattered field. Numerical simulation is used to generate further probability densities and determine optimal weighting criteria from non-Gaussian fields. The results are relevant to frequency retrieval in radiation scattered from random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, H.; Lun, D.R.; Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.
1997-01-01
The requirements that the scattering functions for quantal scattering at energies below the first inelastic threshold be unitary and analytic have been used to establish a process that gives the complex scattering amplitudes from differential cross sections. From those amplitudes scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering amplitude, under conditions for which uniqueness and (numerical) stability of solutions are not assured, also have been developed to specify the scattering phase shifts can give stable nonspurious results. The scattering of electrons from He atoms for incident energies ranging from 1.5 to 19 eV are considered as an example of the procedure. Phase shift analyses of that data have been made with a variety of other techniques to allow a comparative study of these results and of sets with which are associated fits to cross sections that are statistically significant. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs
Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of ferroelectric phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolling, G.
1982-08-01
The subject of ferroelectric type phase transitions is introduced by means of examples of two main classes (a) displacive transitions, e.g. KNbO 3 , and (b) order-disorder transitions, e.g. NaNO 2 . The significance of crystal structure and crystal dynamics (i.e. the phonon dispersion relations) for ferroelectric behaviour is emphasized. The chief methods for structure determination are x-ray and neutron diffraction, while the most powerful of all techniques for studying phonon properties is that of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The most useful type of neutron spectrometer for phase transition studies, the triple axis crystal spectrometer, is discussed in detail. The history of the soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions, and its application to the antiferroelectric and 'almost ferroelectric' transitions in SrTiO 3 , provides an introduction to more recent developments in this area, including over-damped soft modes, central peaks and critical scattering, incommensurate phase transitions (e.g. K 2 SeO 4 ), amplitudons, phasons and finally solitions. The treatment throughout is descriptive and introductory, designed for graduate students
Inequalities for scattering phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.
1985-01-01
A recently developed method, which was used to derive bounds on energy levels, is applied to continuous spectra and gives relations between scattering phase shifts of various angular momenta. (Author)
Phase transitions and neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirane, G.
1993-01-01
A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. I have selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. I shall discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100 K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible. (author)
Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang
2006-01-01
Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)
Determination of Interfacial Area in Gas-Liquid Two Phase by Light Transmission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiasi, H.; Safekordi, A. A.; Babazadeh Shareh, F.
2012-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to develop light beam method to measurement of interfacial area in a rectangular gas-liquid bubble column. Total interfacial area can be determined in bubble column filled by transparent liquid by light transmission method. According to pervious researches, the fraction of parallel light is function of interfacial area and optical path length that these two parameters imply Transmission Number or N T . The drop diameters were measured in the range of 2.2 to 5 mm, and in this range, the specific area is found to depend only upon the light transmission. Three different systems with various liquid phases have been used in this work. It had been proved that light transmission method for dilute suspension or stationary gas phase has a good consequence. In this work, good agreement between actual and calculated interfacial area proves that light transmission method would be able to determine interfacial area in multiple scattering, and it is possible to use earlier mathematic model to measure interfacial area in multiple scattering in gas-liquid bubble columns.
Scattering of wave packets with phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karlovets, Dmitry V. [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Lenina Ave. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2017-03-09
A general problem of 2→N{sub f} scattering is addressed with all the states being wave packets with arbitrary phases. Depending on these phases, one deals with coherent states in (3+1) D, vortex particles with orbital angular momentum, the Airy beams, and their generalizations. A method is developed in which a number of events represents a functional of the Wigner functions of such states. Using width of a packet σ{sub p}/〈p〉 as a small parameter, the Wigner functions, the number of events, and a cross section are represented as power series in this parameter, the first non-vanishing corrections to their plane-wave expressions are derived, and generalizations for beams are made. Although in this regime the Wigner functions turn out to be everywhere positive, the cross section develops new specifically quantum features, inaccessible in the plane-wave approximation. Among them is dependence on an impact parameter between the beams, on phases of the incoming states, and on a phase of the scattering amplitude. A model-independent analysis of these effects is made. Two ways of measuring how a Coulomb phase and a hadronic one change with a transferred momentum t are discussed.
Using phase for radar scatterer classification
Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.
2017-04-01
Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.
Wrapped and unwrapped phase of radiation scattered by a discrete number of particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, Stephen M; Ridley, Kevin D
2007-01-01
This paper investigates wrapped and unwrapped phase differences generated by a non-Gaussian scattering model: the two-dimensional random walk. Mean square values for these quantities are obtained for one and two scatterers, as well as the large scatterer limit when the field constitutes a circular complex Gaussian process. Numerical simulation is used to investigate the phase under more general fluctuation conditions, and reveals that the wrapped phase difference correlation converges rapidly to that result predicted for a Gaussian speckle field. Analytical results for the unwrapped phase indicate that this quantity transitions from a stationary process for one and two scatterers to a non-stationary process in the large scatterer limit. The nature of this transition is examined using numerical simulation for arbitrary scatterer number. Phase correlations are of consequence in various phase sensitive detection systems, and this paper examines both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fields
Scattering phase shift for elastic two pion scattering and the rho resonance in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutzwiller, Simone
2012-10-08
In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute scattering phase shifts for elastic two-pion scattering in the isospin I=1 channel. Using Luescher's formalism, we derive the scattering phase shifts for different total momenta of the two-pion system in a non-rest frame. Furthermore we analyse the symmetries of the non-rest frame lattices and construct 2-pion and rho operators transforming in accordance with these symmetries. The data was collected for a 32{sup 3} x 64 and a 40{sup 3} x 64 lattice with N{sub f}=2 clover improved Wilson fermions at a pion mass around 290 MeV and a lattice spacing of about 0.072 fm.
Scattering phase shift for elastic two pion scattering and the rho resonance in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutzwiller, Simone
2012-01-01
In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute scattering phase shifts for elastic two-pion scattering in the isospin I=1 channel. Using Luescher's formalism, we derive the scattering phase shifts for different total momenta of the two-pion system in a non-rest frame. Furthermore we analyse the symmetries of the non-rest frame lattices and construct 2-pion and rho operators transforming in accordance with these symmetries. The data was collected for a 32 3 x 64 and a 40 3 x 64 lattice with N f =2 clover improved Wilson fermions at a pion mass around 290 MeV and a lattice spacing of about 0.072 fm.
Reichardt, J; Hess, M; Macke, A
2000-04-20
Multiple-scattering correction factors for cirrus particle extinction coefficients measured with Raman and high spectral resolution lidars are calculated with a radiative-transfer model. Cirrus particle-ensemble phase functions are computed from single-crystal phase functions derived in a geometrical-optics approximation. Seven crystal types are considered. In cirrus clouds with height-independent particle extinction coefficients the general pattern of the multiple-scattering parameters has a steep onset at cloud base with values of 0.5-0.7 followed by a gradual and monotonic decrease to 0.1-0.2 at cloud top. The larger the scattering particles are, the more gradual is the rate of decrease. Multiple-scattering parameters of complex crystals and of imperfect hexagonal columns and plates can be well approximated by those of projected-area equivalent ice spheres, whereas perfect hexagonal crystals show values as much as 70% higher than those of spheres. The dependencies of the multiple-scattering parameters on cirrus particle spectrum, base height, and geometric depth and on the lidar parameters laser wavelength and receiver field of view, are discussed, and a set of multiple-scattering parameter profiles for the correction of extinction measurements in homogeneous cirrus is provided.
Fitting phase shifts to electron-ion elastic scattering measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Per, M.C.; Dickinson, A.S.
2000-01-01
We have derived non-Coulomb phase shifts from measured differential cross sections for electron scattering by the ions Na + , Cs + , N 3+ , Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ at energies below the inelastic threshold. Values of the scaled squared deviation between the observed and fitted differential cross sections, χ 2 , for the best-fit phase shifts were typically in the range 3-6 per degree of freedom. Generally good agreement with experiment is obtained, except for wide-angle scattering by Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ . Current measurements do not define phase shifts to better than approx. 0.1 rad even in the most favourable circumstances and uncertainties can be much larger. (author)
Angular-dependent light scattering from cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle.
Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhou, Yong
2017-10-10
Cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle result in significant differences in light scattering properties. In order to harvest cancer cells in particular phases of the cell cycle, we cultured cancer cells through the process of synchronization. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to check the results of cell synchronization and prepare for light scattering measurements. Angular-dependent light scattering measurements of cancer cells arrested in the G1, S, and G2 phases have been performed. Based on integral calculations for scattering intensities from 5° to 10° and from 110° to 150°, conclusions have been reached. Clearly, the sizes of the cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle dominated the forward scatter. Accompanying the increase of cell size with the progression of the cell cycle, the forward scattering intensity also increased. Meanwhile, the DNA content of cancer cells in every phase of the cell cycle is responsible for light scattering at large scatter angles. The higher the DNA content of cancer cells was, the greater the positive effect on the high-scattering intensity. As expected, understanding the relationships between the light scattering from cancer cells and cell cycles will aid in the development of cancer diagnoses. Also, it may assist in the guidance of antineoplastic drugs clinically.
Light scattering at the semiconductor-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, K.A.; Mokerov, V.G.; Sarajkin, V.V.; Petrova, A.G.
1977-01-01
The temperature dependence of optical properties has been investigated of vanadium dioxide thin monocrystals at the phase transition (PT) semiconductor-metal. It is established, that the anomaly arising herein is caused by the light scattering effect. As a result of the study of the scattered light intensity angle distribution and direct investigation of the samples the picture of optical heterogeneities responsible for the given scattering is determined into the polarization optical microscope. It is shown that these heterogeneities are due to the VO 2 two phases co-existence in the PT range and the light scattering effect is caused by the substantial difference of their optical constants, i.e. represents the so-called ''transition'' opalescence. At the PT investigation within the limits of the separate embrios of the new phase it has been found, that the PT temperature in various embrios is different. This is used to explain the PT temperature ''washing out'' in the investigated samples. It is supposed, that formation of the new phase is caused by the presence of elastic stress fields, arising close to the defects
Applications of phase conjugate mirror to Thomson scattering diagnostics (invited)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatae, T.; Naito, O.; Nakatsuka, M.; Yoshida, H.
2006-01-01
A high performance phase conjugate mirror based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS-PCM) has been applied to the Thomson scattering system in the JT-60U tokamak for the first time in order to improve the measurement performance. A SBS-PCM realized a high reflectivity of 95% at a high input power of 145 W (2.9 J, 50 Hz). Using the SBS-PCM, two methods have been developed to increase the intensity of scattered light. For the first method, we have developed a new optical design to provide a double-pass scattering method with the SBS-PCM. A laser beam passing through the plasma is reflected by the SBS-PCM. The reflected beam passes the plasma again along the same path by means of the phase conjugation of the optically nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering process. The double-pass Thomson scattering method using the SBS-PCM has demonstrated an increase of the scattered light by a factor of 1.6 compared with the single-pass scattering method in JT-60U. A multipass Thomson scattering method in which the laser beam can be confined between a couple of SBS-PCMs is also proposed. It is estimated that the multipass scattering method generates the scattered light more than several times as large as that of the single-pass scattering method. For the second method, a high-average-power yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system has been developed using the SBS-PCM. The SBS-PCM effectively compensated thermal degradation at two amplifier lines, and the average power was increased by a factor of >8 from 45 W (1.5 J, 30 Hz) to 373 W (7.46 J, 50 Hz). A Nd:YAG laser (5 J, 100 Hz) for the edge Thomson scattering in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed based on the result
Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, L.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.; Wilson, J.W.
1983-01-01
A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used to determine eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are obtained by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for the latter are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections, using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles, are made and compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained although there are no arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory
Phase analysis of nano-phase materials using selected area electron diffraction in the TEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labar, J. L.
2002-01-01
In analogy to X-ray power diffraction (XRD), we are developing a method to help phase identification when examining a large number of grains simultaneously by electron diffraction. Although XRD is well established, it can not be used for small quantities of materials (volumes below 1 mm 3 ). Examining a usual TEM sample with thickness of 100 nm and using a selected area of 1 mm in diameter, the selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) carries information about several thousands of grains from a material with an average grain size of about 10 nm. The accuracy of XRD can not be attained by electron diffraction (ED). However, simultaneous visual observation of the nanostructure is an additional benefit of TEM (beside the small amount of needed material). The first step of the development project was the development of a computer program ('ProcessDiffraction') that processes digital versions of SAED patterns and presents them in an XRD-like form (intensity vs. scattering vector). In the present version (V2.0.3) phase identification is carried out by comparing the measured distribution to 'Markers', i.e. data of known phases. XRD data cards are used if the detailed structure of a phase is not known. Kinematic electron diffraction intensities are calculated for phases with known atomic positions (Author)
Light scattering near phase transitions
Cummins, HZ
1983-01-01
Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.
Analytical approximations to seawater optical phase functions of scattering
Haltrin, Vladimir I.
2004-11-01
This paper proposes a number of analytical approximations to the classic and recently measured seawater light scattering phase functions. The three types of analytical phase functions are derived: individual representations for 15 Petzold, 41 Mankovsky, and 91 Gulf of Mexico phase functions; collective fits to Petzold phase functions; and analytical representations that take into account dependencies between inherent optical properties of seawater. The proposed phase functions may be used for problems of radiative transfer, remote sensing, visibility and image propagation in natural waters of various turbidity.
Diode Laser Raman Scattering Prototype Gas-Phase Environmental Monitoring
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Benner, Robert
1999-01-01
We proposed developing a diode-laser-based, full spectrum Raman scattering instrument incorporating a multipass, external cavity enhancement cell for full spectrum, gas phase analysis of environmental pollutants...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanty, S.; Deo, B.B.; Mohapatra, J.K.
1986-01-01
A relatively stable method of phase shift analysis of hyperon-nucleon scattering is proposed and applied to Σ + p and Λp scattering. The analytic cut t-planes of analyticity of the helicity amplitudes are mapped into the interior of unifocal ellipses. The helicity amplitudes are then expressed as accelerated convergent expansions in the mapped variable. A definite economy is observed in the number of free parameters for fixed energy phase shift analysis of Σ + p and Λp scattering at 40 and 100 MeV and 100 MeV respectively. Twenty six more phase shifts and coupling parameters corresponding to higher J values are also predicted. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Artemyeva, Z.; Žigová, Anna; Kirillova, N.; Šťastný, Martin; Holubík, O.; Podrázský, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 63, č. 13 (2017), s. 1838-1851 ISSN 0365-0340 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : land use * aggregate stability * organo-clay complexes * dynamic light scattering * phase analysis light scattering * color coordinates Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.137, year: 2016
Ambiguities of the phase analysis of the proton-proton scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grebenyuk, O.G.; Shklyarevskij, G.M.
1980-01-01
Ambiguities of the phase analysis of the proton-proton scattering amplitude are analysed. It is shown that for five measurements of polarization parameters sets there are ambiguities similar to the Gersten ambiguities in the phase analysis of πN scattering. A problem on additional experiments needed to eliminate these ambiguities is investigated. It is shown that for this purpose it suffices to measure three total cross sections with polarized and nonpolarized protons, thus determining the imaginary parts of amplitudes at THETA=0 and polarization parameters
Charge-symmetry-breaking effects from phase-shift analysis of elastic πsup(+-4)He scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khankhasayev, M.Kh.; Nichitiu, F.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.
1986-01-01
A phase-shift analysis of elastic πsup(+-4)He scattering at energies 20-160 MeV was performed to determine pure hadronic phase shifts. No statistically significant difference between the hadronic phase shifts deduced from π +4 He and π -4 He scattering was observed. (orig.)
On the additivity of scattering phases in collisions of electrons on endohedrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M Ya; Chernysheva, L V
2015-01-01
It is demonstrated that an inner atom, either Ne or Ar, qualitatively affects the electron scattering phases upon an endohedral, in spite of the fact that the fullerene consists of 60 carbon atoms, while the atom staffed inside is only one. Calculations are performed in the one-electron Hartree-Fock (HF) and random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) for the inner atom while the fullerenes shell is substituted by static potential without and with the polarization potential. The total endohedral scattering phase is a sum of atomic, Ne or Ar, and fullerenes C 60 phases, contrary to the intuitive assumption that the total phases on C 60 and Ne@C 60 or Ar@C 60 has to be the same. (paper)
Phase separation process in FeCr alloys studied by neutron small angle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furusaka, Michihiro; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Sadae; Fujino, Yutaka.
1986-01-01
The very early stage as well as late stage of phase separation process in FeCr alloys (Fe-20, 30, 40, 60 at%Cr) have been studied by pulsed cold neutron small angle scattering instrument (SAN). At the early stage, scattering intensity I(q) obeys q -2 dependence at the high q side of the scattering function. The results are in accord with the theory of Langer et al. which takes into account nonlinear and thermal fluctuations effects. At the late stage where I(q) shows q -4 dependence, a dynamical scaling law holds, while it is not the case for the earlier stage. Phase diagram of FeCr system is also determined by critical scattering measurements. (author)
The impact of ice particle roughness on the scattering phase matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baum, Bryan A.; Yang Ping; Hu Yongxiang; Feng Qian
2010-01-01
The goal of this study is to explore the influence of ice particle habit (or shape) and surface roughness on the scattering phase matrix. As an example, reported here are the results for two wavelengths: 0.67 and 1.61 μm. For this effort, a database of single-scattering properties has been computed for a set of habits including hexagonal plates, hollow and solid columns, hollow and solid 3D bullet rosettes, droxtals, aggregates of solid columns, and aggregates of plates. The database provides properties for each of the habits at 101 wavelengths between 0.45 and 2.24 μm for smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened particles. At each wavelength, the scattering properties are provided at 233 discrete particle diameters ranging from 2 to 10,000 μm. A single particle size distribution from a very cold ice cloud sampled during the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign (T cld =-76 o C) is used to illustrate the influence of habit and roughness on the phase matrix. In all, four different habit mixtures are evaluated. The nonzero elements of the phase matrix are shown to be quite sensitive to the assumed habit, particularly in the case of -P 12 /P 11 that is associated with the degree of linear polarization of scattered radiation. Surface roughness is shown to smooth out maxima in the scattering phase function and in the other elements of the phase matrix, consistent with other studies. To compare with the theoretical simulations of the phase matrix for smooth and roughened particles, a full year of cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP) data from 2008 is analyzed to provide global statistics on the values of P 11 and P 22 /P 11 in the backscattering direction. In a comparison of two of the habit mixtures (one used for MODIS Collection 5 and another that incorporates new habits including hollow bullet rosettes and aggregates of plates) with the CALIOP data, the values for P 11 are higher regardless of the degree of particle surface roughness, and the
Asymptotic behaviour of the scattering phase for non-trapping metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, G.S.
1982-01-01
The asymptotic behaviour of the scattering phase is considered at infinity for an elliptic, self-adjoint, second order differential operator H, defined either in Rsup(n) or in an unbounded domain Ω contains Rsup(n) with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. The operator H has the form H=- δsub(g)+hD+V where δsub(g) is the Laplace-Beltrami operator related to a Riemann metric g in anti Ω. Provided a non-trapping hypothesis is fulfilled and H coincides with the Laplace operator δ in a neighbourhood of infinity, an asymptotic development of the scattering phase s(lambda) is obtained for lambda → infinity. The first coefficients in this development are found
Scattering phase functions of horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Guang; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2006-01-01
Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) solutions are first compared with the corresponding T-matrix results for light scattering by circular cylinders with specific orientations. The FDTD method is then utilized to study the scattering properties of horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates at two wavelengths, 0.55 and 12 μm. The phase functions of horizontally oriented ice plates deviate substantially from their counterparts obtained for randomly oriented particles. Furthermore, we compute the phase functions of horizontally oriented ice crystal columns by using the FDTD method along with two schemes for averaging over the particle orientations. It is shown that the phase functions of hexagonal ice columns with horizontal orientations are not sensitive to the rotation about the principal axes of the particles. Moreover, hexagonal ice crystals and circular cylindrical ice particles have similar optical properties, particularly, at a strongly absorbing wavelength, if the two particle geometries have the same length and aspect ratio defined as the ratio of the radius or semi-width of the cross section of a particle to its length. The phase functions for the two particle geometries are slightly different in the case of weakly absorbing plates with large aspect ratios. However, the solutions for circular cylinders agree well with their counterparts for hexagonal columns
Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, I. P.
2013-01-01
We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter ρ(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.
Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, I. P. [IFPA, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, batiment B5a, 4000 Liege, Belgium Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2013-04-15
We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter {rho}(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.
Burov, V. A.; Morozov, S. A.
2001-11-01
Wave scattering by a point-like inhomogeneity, i.e., a strong inhomogeneity with infinitesimal dimensions, is described. This type of inhomogeneity model is used in investigating the point-spread functions of different algorithms and systems. Two approaches are used to derive the rigorous relationship between the amplitude and phase of a signal scattered by a point-like acoustic inhomogeneity. The first approach is based on a Marchenko-type equation. The second approach uses the scattering by a scatterer whose size decreases simultaneously with an increase in its contrast. It is shown that the retarded and advanced waves are scattered differently despite the relationship between the phases of the corresponding scattered waves.
Phase-shift analysis of neutron-209Bi scattering and its comparison to neutron-208Pb scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Z.P.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.
1995-01-01
Published n- 209 Bi elastic differential cross-section, analyzing power, and total cross-section data in the energy range from 1.5 to 14 MeV were analyzed via a phase-shift analysis in order to find out whether these data show similar, unexplained resonance structures as observed recently for n- 208 Pb scattering. Although the n- 209 Bi and n- 208 Pb data are very similar, some of the phase shifts are quite different for the two systems. Only one resonancelike structure was observed for n- 209 Bi scattering in the excitation energy range from 9 to 18 MeV compared to eleven in the n- 208 Pb system, implying that n- 209 Bi data are probably more suitable than the classical n- 208 Pb system for detailed mean-field analyses approached through dispersion-relation optical models
Nonlinear diffuse scattering of the random-phased wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Yoshiaki; Arinaga, Shinji; Mima, Kunioki.
1983-01-01
First experimental observation of the nonlinear diffuse scattering is reported. This new effect was observed in the propagation of the random-phased wave through a nonlinear dielectric medium. This effect is ascribed to the diffusion of the wavevector of the electro-magnetic wave to the lateral direction due to the randomly distributed nonlinear increase in the refractive index. (author)
Phase function of a spherical particle when scattering an inhomogeneous electromagnetic plane wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
2018-01-01
of the complex hypergeometric function 2F1 for every term of a series expansion. In this work, I develop a simpler solution based on associated Legendre functions with argument zero. It is similar to the solution for homogeneous plane waves but with new explicit expressions for the angular dependency of the far......In absorbing media, electromagnetic plane waves are most often inhomogeneous. Existing solutions for the scattering of an inhomogeneous plane wave by a spherical particle provide no explicit expressions for the scattering components. In addition, current analytical solutions require evaluation......-field scattering components, that is, the phase function. I include recurrence formulae for practical evaluation and provide numerical examples to evaluate how well the new expressions match previous work in some limiting cases. The predicted difference in the scattering phase function due to inhomogeneity...
Phase retrieval with the reverse projection method in the presence of object's scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang
2017-01-01
X-ray grating interferometry can provide substantially increased contrast over traditional attenuation-based techniques in biomedical applications, and therefore novel and complementary information. Recently, special attention has been paid to quantitative phase retrieval in X-ray grating interferometry, which is mandatory to perform phase tomography, to achieve material identification, etc. An innovative approach, dubbed “Reverse Projection” (RP), has been developed for quantitative phase retrieval. The RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and is thus advantageous in terms of higher efficiency and reduced radiation damage. Therefore, it is expected that this novel method would find its potential in preclinical and clinical implementations. Strictly speaking, the reverse projection method is applicable for objects exhibiting only absorption and refraction. In this contribution, we discuss the phase retrieval with the reverse projection method for general objects with absorption, refraction and scattering simultaneously. Especially, we investigate the influence of the object's scattering on the retrieved refraction signal. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments are performed. The results show that the retrieved refraction signal is the product of object's refraction and scattering signals for small values. In the case of a strong scattering, the reverse projection method cannot provide reliable phase retrieval. Those presented results will guide the use of the reverse projection method for future practical applications, and help to explain some possible artifacts in the retrieved images and/or reconstructed slices. - Highlights: • Accurate phase retrieval by the reverse projection method without object's scattering. • Retrieved refraction signal contaminated by the object's scattering. • Refraction signal underestimated by the reverse projection method. • Guide the use of the reverse projection method for
Nucleon-Nucleon Potentials and Computation of Scattering Phase Shifts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jhasaketan Bhoi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available By judicious exploitation of supersymmetry formalism of quantum mechanics higher partial wave nucleon-nucleon potentials are generated from its ground state interactions. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding ground state wave function with the parameters of Arnold and MacKellar are used as the starting point of our calculation. We compute the scattering phase shifts for our constructed potentials through Phase Function Method to examine the merit of our approach to the problem.
Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie; Liu, Zhan-Wei
2018-01-01
The relations between the baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shifts and the two-particle energy spectrum in the elongated box are established. We studied the cases with both the periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition in the center of mass frame. The framework is also extended to the system of nonzero total momentum with periodic boundary condition in the moving frame. Moreover, we discussed the sensitivity functions σ (q ) that represent the sensitivity of higher scattering phases. Our analytical results will be helpful to extract the baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shifts in the continuum from lattice QCD data by using elongated boxes.
Application of neutron scattering in polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, C.C.
2003-01-01
Full text: Neutron scattering offers many opportunities in sciences and technology. This is particularly true in the field of polymer sciences and materials. It is mainly because that the scattering length scales (q -1 ) and scattering contrast (scattering cross-sections) makes neutron a perfect tool for polymer studies. Several examples will be used to illustrate the importance of the small angle neutron scattering and the neutron reflection studies in polymer physics. These include the determination of phase diagram, interaction parameter, and spinodal decomposition kinetics by SANS. In the dynamics area, examples will be given to illustrate the critical temperature shift and mixing of polymer blends under shear flow. Also, the confinement effect on the phase separated structure of polymer blend films will be used to demonstrate the importance of the neutron reflectivity measurement
Phase function of a spherical particle when scattering an inhomogeneous electromagnetic plane wave.
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
2018-04-01
In absorbing media, electromagnetic plane waves are most often inhomogeneous. Existing solutions for the scattering of an inhomogeneous plane wave by a spherical particle provide no explicit expressions for the scattering components. In addition, current analytical solutions require evaluation of the complex hypergeometric function F 1 2 for every term of a series expansion. In this work, I develop a simpler solution based on associated Legendre functions with argument zero. It is similar to the solution for homogeneous plane waves but with new explicit expressions for the angular dependency of the far-field scattering components, that is, the phase function. I include recurrence formulas for practical evaluation and provide numerical examples to evaluate how well the new expressions match previous work in some limiting cases. The predicted difference in the scattering phase function due to inhomogeneity is not negligible for light entering an absorbing medium at an oblique angle. The presented theory could thus be useful for predicting scattering behavior in dye-based random lasing and in solar cell absorption enhancement.
Bounds for phase-shifts and deductions in potential scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidharth, B.G.
1979-01-01
Starting from the radial Schroedinger equation and using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, expressions have been derived for bounds for phase-shifts in potential scattering and the deductions are verified in special cases such as the spherically symmetric square-well potential, where exact solutions are already known. (K.B.)
Extracting scattering phase shifts in higher partial waves from lattice QCD calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luu, Thomas; Savage, Martin J.
2011-06-01
Lüscher’s method is routinely used to determine meson-meson, meson-baryon, and baryon-baryon s-wave scattering amplitudes below inelastic thresholds from lattice QCD calculations—presently at unphysical light-quark masses. In this work we review the formalism and develop the requisite expressions to extract phase shifts describing meson-meson scattering in partial waves with angular momentum l≤6 and l=9. The implications of the underlying cubic symmetry, and strategies for extracting the phase shifts from lattice QCD calculations, are presented, along with a discussion of the signal-to-noise problem that afflicts the higher partial waves.
Hemphill, Ashton S.; Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V.
2017-11-01
In biological applications, optical focusing is limited by the diffusion of light, which prevents focusing at depths greater than ˜1 mm in soft tissue. Wavefront shaping extends the depth by compensating for phase distortions induced by scattering and thus allows for focusing light through biological tissue beyond the optical diffusion limit by using constructive interference. However, due to physiological motion, light scattering in tissue is deterministic only within a brief speckle correlation time. In in vivo tissue, this speckle correlation time is on the order of milliseconds, and so the wavefront must be optimized within this brief period. The speed of digital wavefront shaping has typically been limited by the relatively long time required to measure and display the optimal phase pattern. This limitation stems from the low speeds of cameras, data transfer and processing, and spatial light modulators. While binary-phase modulation requiring only two images for the phase measurement has recently been reported, most techniques require at least three frames for the full-phase measurement. Here, we present a full-phase digital optical phase conjugation method based on off-axis holography for single-shot optical focusing through scattering media. By using off-axis holography in conjunction with graphics processing unit based processing, we take advantage of the single-shot full-phase measurement while using parallel computation to quickly reconstruct the phase map. With this system, we can focus light through scattering media with a system latency of approximately 9 ms, on the order of the in vivo speckle correlation time.
Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.
2013-12-01
We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.
Phase separation temperatures of a liquid mixture: Dynamic light scattering technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dangudom, K.; Wongtawatnugool, C.; Lacharojana, S.
2010-01-01
Light scattering intensity measurements and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) techniques were employed in an investigation of liquid-liquid phase separation behaviour of a mixture of cyclohexane and methanol at seven different compositions. It was found that, except for one composition (29% methanol), the temperature at which the scattering intensity was a maximum did not coincide with the one where the diffusion coefficient was a minimum, as would be for the case of a vapour-liquid system. The difference may be explained in terms of the local density fluctuation and the random walk problem responsible for the peak intensity and the minimum in the diffusion coefficient, respectively. The definition of phase separation temperature, as determined from diffusion process, was also proposed in this work.
Small angle neutron scattering form polymer melts: structural investigation and phase behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertugrul, O.
2004-01-01
The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) techniques have been used to study the structural properties and phase behavior of polymer melts. A model based on Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is proposed to predict the experimental data. By fitting the model to data we could be able to obtain radius of gyration (a measure of size of a polymer) and phase transition for the sample. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Liu
Full Text Available The crystal structures of two proteins, a putative pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase from the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans (SmPncA and the human caspase-6 (Casp6, were solved by de novo arsenic single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (As-SAD phasing method. Arsenic (As, an uncommonly used element in SAD phasing, was covalently introduced into proteins by cacodylic acid, the buffering agent in the crystallization reservoirs. In SmPncA, the only cysteine was bound to dimethylarsinoyl, which is a pentavalent arsenic group (As (V. This arsenic atom and a protein-bound zinc atom both generated anomalous signals. The predominant contribution, however, was from the As anomalous signals, which were sufficient to phase the SmPncA structure alone. In Casp6, four cysteines were found to bind cacodyl, a trivalent arsenic group (As (III, in the presence of the reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT, and arsenic atoms were the only anomalous scatterers for SAD phasing. Analyses and discussion of these two As-SAD phasing examples and comparison of As with other traditional heavy atoms that generate anomalous signals, together with a few arsenic-based de novo phasing cases reported previously strongly suggest that As is an ideal anomalous scatterer for SAD phasing in protein crystallography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1996-01-01
Levinson close-quote s theorem relates the zero-energy phase shift δ for potential scattering in a given partial wave l, by a spherically symmetric potential that falls off sufficiently rapidly, to the number of bound states of that l supported by the potential. An extension of this theorem is presented that applies to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. As suggested by Swan [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 228, 10 (1955)], the extended theorem differs from that derived for potential scattering; even in the absence of composite bound states δ may differ from zero as a consequence of the Pauli principle. The derivation given here is based on the introduction of a continuous auxiliary open-quote open-quote length phase close-quote close-quote η, defined modulo π for l=0 by expressing the scattering length as A=acotη, where a is a characteristic length of the target. Application of the minimum principle for the scattering length determines the branch of the cotangent curve on which η lies and, by relating η to δ, an absolute determination of δ is made. The theorem is applicable, in principle, to single-channel scattering in any partial wave for e ± -atom and nucleon-nucleus systems. In addition to a knowledge of the number of composite bound states, information (which can be rather incomplete) concerning the structure of the target ground-state wave function is required for an explicit, absolute, determination of the phase shift δ. As for Levinson close-quote s original theorem for potential scattering, no additional information concerning the scattering wave function or scattering dynamics is required. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Understanding of phase modulation in two-level systems through inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfeld, A.; Hammes, S.L.; Warren, W.S.
1988-01-01
Analytical and numerical calculations describe the effects of shaped radiation pulses on two-level systems in terms of quantum-mechanical scattering. Previous results obtained in the reduced case of amplitude modulation are extended to the general case of simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation. We show that an infinite family of phase- and amplitude-modulated pulses all generate rectangular inversion profiles. Experimental measurements also verify the theoretical analysis
Universal scattering response across the type-II Weyl semimetal phase diagram
Rüßmann, P.; Weber, A. P.; Glott, F.; Xu, N.; Fanciulli, M.; Muff, S.; Magrez, A.; Bugnon, P.; Berger, H.; Bode, M.; Dil, J. H.; Blügel, S.; Mavropoulos, P.; Sessi, P.
2018-02-01
The discovery of Weyl semimetals represents a significant advance in topological band theory. They paradigmatically enlarged the classification of topological materials to gapless systems while simultaneously providing experimental evidence for the long-sought Weyl fermions. Beyond fundamental relevance, their high mobility, strong magnetoresistance, and the possible existence of even more exotic effects, such as the chiral anomaly, make Weyl semimetals a promising platform to develop radically new technology. Fully exploiting their potential requires going beyond the mere identification of materials and calls for a detailed characterization of their functional response, which is severely complicated by the coexistence of surface- and bulk-derived topologically protected quasiparticles, i.e., Fermi arcs and Weyl points, respectively. Here, we focus on the type-II Weyl semimetal class in which we find a stoichiometry-dependent phase transition from a trivial to a nontrivial regime. By exploring the two extreme cases of the phase diagram, we demonstrate the existence of a universal response of both surface and bulk states to perturbations. We show that quasiparticle interference patterns originate from scattering events among surface arcs. Analysis reveals that topologically nontrivial contributions are strongly suppressed by spin texture. We also show that scattering at localized impurities can generate defect-induced quasiparticles sitting close to the Weyl point energy. These give rise to strong peaks in the local density of states, which lift the Weyl node, significantly altering the pristine low-energy spectrum. Remarkably, by comparing the WTe2 and the MoTe2 cases we found that scattering response and topological transition are not directly linked. Visualizing the existence of a universal microscopic response to scattering has important consequences for understanding the unusual transport properties of this class of materials. Overall, our observations provide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinyuk, V V; Sheberstov, S V
2017-01-01
We calculate the total transmission coefficient (transmittance) of a disordered medium with large (compared to the light wavelength) inhomogeneities. To model highly forward scattering in the medium we take advantage of the Gegenbauer kernel phase function. In a subdiffusion thickness range, the transmittance is shown to be sensitive to the specific form of the single-scattering phase function. The effect reveals itself at grazing angles of incidence and originates from small-angle multiple scattering of light. Our results are in a good agreement with numerical solutions to the radiative transfer equation. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Gorshkov, B G [OOO ' Petrofaiber' , Russia, Tula region, Novomoskovsk (Russian Federation)
2015-10-31
Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is studied for the first time. An expression is derived for an average power of a useful signal at the interferometer output under external harmonic perturbations in a signal fibre of the interferometer. It is shown that the maximum sensitivity of the scattered-light interferometer depends on the dispersion of the interferogram intensity. An average signal-to-noise ratio is determined theoretically and experimentally at the output of the interferometer at different amplitudes of external perturbations. Using the measured dependences of the signal-to-noise ratio, the threshold sensitivity of the fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is found. The results obtained can be used to optimise characteristics of optical time-domain reflectometers and to design individual phase-sensitive fibre-optic sensors. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Diffusion of Hydrogen in the beta-Phase of Pd-H Studied by Small Energy Transfer Neutron Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelin, G; Skoeld, K
1974-07-01
The diffusion of hydrogen in beta-PdH has been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering. It is shown that the diffusion occurs through jumps between adjacent octahedral interstitial sites. The observed integrated quasielastic intensities cannot be described by a simple Debye-Waller factor. The phase transition from the beta-phase to the alpha-phase has also been studied. No dramatic changes in the scattering patterns were observed. It is concluded that the diffusion mechanism is remarkably similar between the low concentration alpha-phase and the high concentration beta-phase
Neutron scattering studies of pretransitional phenomena in structural phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, S.M.
1979-03-01
Materials exhibiting structural phase transformations are well known to possess pretransitional phenomena. Below the transition temperature, T/sub c/, an order parameter appears and the pretransitional effects are associated with the fluctuations of the order parameter. Neutron scattering techniques have proved invaluable in studying the temporal and spatial dependence of these fluctuations. SrTiO 3 is the prototypical example of a structural phase transformation exhibiting features observable in other transformations such as martensitic and order-disorder. The experimental evolution of the understanding of the phase transformation in SrTiO 3 will be reviewed and the features observed will be shown to typify other systems
Phase conjugation with random fields and with deterministic and random scatterers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gbur, G.; Wolf, E.
1999-01-01
The theory of distortion correction by phase conjugation, developed since the discovery of this phenomenon many years ago, applies to situations when the field that is conjugated is monochromatic and the medium with which it interacts is deterministic. In this Letter a generalization of the theory is presented that applies to phase conjugation of partially coherent waves interacting with either deterministic or random weakly scattering nonabsorbing media. copyright 1999 Optical Society of America
Wang, Congsi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhihai; Wang, Meng; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weifeng
2018-04-01
It is well known that calculating and reducing of radar cross section (RCS) of the active phased array antenna (APAA) are both difficult and complicated. It remains unresolved to balance the performance of the radiating and scattering when the RCS is reduced. Therefore, this paper develops a structure and scattering array factor coupling model of APAA based on the phase errors of radiated elements generated by structural distortion and installation error of the array. To obtain the optimal radiating and scattering performance, an integrated optimisation model is built to optimise the installation height of all the radiated elements in normal direction of the array, in which the particle swarm optimisation method is adopted and the gain loss and scattering array factor are selected as the fitness function. The simulation indicates that the proposed coupling model and integrated optimisation method can effectively decrease the RCS and that the necessary radiating performance can be simultaneously guaranteed, which demonstrate an important application value in engineering design and structural evaluation of APAA.
Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Askoura, Mohamed Lamine
2017-06-01
Red and near-Infrared light is often used as a useful diagnostic and imaging probe for highly scattering media such as biological tissues, fruits and vegetables. Part of diffusively reflected light gives interesting information related to the tissue subsurface, whereas light recorded at further distances may probe deeper into the interrogated turbid tissues. However, modelling diffusive events occurring at short source-detector distances requires to consider both the distribution of the light sources and the scattering phase functions. In this report, a modified Monte Carlo model is used to compute light transport in curved and multi-layered tissue samples which are covered with a thin and highly diffusing tissue layer. Different light source distributions (ballistic, diffuse or Lambertian) are tested with specific scattering phase functions (modified or not modified Henyey-Greenstein, Gegenbauer and Mie) to compute the amount of backscattered and transmitted light in apple and human skin structures. Comparisons between simulation results and experiments carried out with a multispectral imaging setup confirm the soundness of the theoretical strategy and may explain the role of the skin on light transport in whole and half-cut apples. Other computational results show that a Lambertian source distribution combined with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function provides a higher photon density in the stratum corneum than in the upper dermis layer. Furthermore, it is also shown that the scattering phase function may affect the shape and the magnitude of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) exhibited at the skin surface.
Perim de Faria, Julia; Bundke, Ulrich; Onasch, Timothy B.; Freedman, Andrew; Petzold, Andreas
2016-04-01
The necessity to quantify the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate forcing is already well known; assessing this impact requires continuous and systematic measurements of the aerosol optical properties. Two of the main parameters that need to be accurately measured are the aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo (SSA, defined as the ratio of particulate scattering to extinction). The measurement of single scattering albedo commonly involves the measurement of two optical parameters, the scattering and the absorption coefficients. Although there are well established technologies to measure both of these parameters, the use of two separate instruments with different principles and uncertainties represents potential sources of significant errors and biases. Based on the recently developed cavity attenuated phase shift particle extinction monitor (CAPS PM_{ex) instrument, the CAPS PM_{ssa instrument combines the CAPS technology to measure particle extinction with an integrating sphere capable of simultaneously measuring the scattering coefficient of the same sample. The scattering channel is calibrated to the extinction channel, such that the accuracy of the single scattering albedo measurement is only a function of the accuracy of the extinction measurement and the nephelometer truncation losses. This gives the instrument an accurate and direct measurement of the single scattering albedo. In this study, we assess the measurements of both the extinction and scattering channels of the CAPS PM_{ssa through intercomparisons with Mie theory, as a fundamental comparison, and with proven technologies, such as integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption monitors. For comparison, we use two nephelometers, a TSI 3563 and an Aurora 4000, and two measurements of the absorption coefficient, using a Particulate Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). We also assess the indirect absorption coefficient
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics, phase equivalence, and low energy scattering anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.
1991-01-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics links two Hamiltonians with the same scattering (phase equivalence) but different number of bound states. We examine the Green's functions for these Hamiltonians as a prelude to embedding the two-body dynamics in a many-body system. We study the effect of the elimination of a two-body bound state near zero energy for the Efimov effect and Beg's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruk, Yulii M; Voloshchuk, Aleksandr N
2012-01-01
The functional Pais equation for scattering phases with nonzero orbital momenta is solved in the case of low-energy particles. For short-range screened potentials, in particular, Yukawa or Thomas-Fermi potentials, the Pais equation is shown to reduce to transcendental equations. For the potentials varying ∼r - n , n > 0, simple algebraic equations are obtained for determining the phases δ l , l≠0. Possible applications of the Pais approximation to the problem of finding resonance regimes in the scattering of low-energy particles with nonzero orbital momenta are discussed. (methodological notes)
Some neutron scattering studies on magnetic and molecular phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bevaart, L.
1978-01-01
In this thesis neutron-scattering investigations on two different systems are described. The first study is concerned with the magnetic ordering phenomena in pseudo two-dimensional (d = 2), two-component antiferromagnets K 2 Mnsub(1-x)Msub(x)F 4 (M = Fe, Co), as a function of the composition x and temperature T. For one of the samples in this series, K 2 Musub(0.978)Fesub(0.022)F 4 , the influence of an external magnetic field on the ordering characteristics was studied in addition. The second study deals with the rotational motions of the NH 4 + groups in NH 4 ZnF 3 in relation with the structural phase transition at Tsub(c) = 115.1 K. The experimental techniques were chosen according to the requirements of each of these two subjects. The former study was carried out by observing the elastic magnetic neutron scattering with a double-axis diffractometer, whereas for the latter study time-of-flight (TOF) techniques were applied to observe the inelastic and quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering by the protons of the rotating NH 4 + groups. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katano, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
Neutron scattering experiments in our group on strongly correlated electron systems are reviewed Metal-insulator transitions caused by structural phase transitions in (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}) MnO{sub 3}, a novel magnetic transition in the CeP compound, correlations between antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and so forth are discussed. Here, in this note, the phase transition of Mn-oxides was mainly described. (author)
Phase-preserving wavefront amplification at 590 nm by stimulated Raman scattering
Wick, D. V.; Gruneisen, M. T.; Peterson, P. R.
1998-03-01
This paper presents an experimental demonstration of high-gain optical-wavefront amplification by stimulated Raman scattering near the D 1 resonance in atomic sodium vapor. Single-pass weak-field gain of nearly 400 is achieved with only 800 mW of pump power. Through judicious focusing, the weak wavefront is confined to the central region of the focused pump wave where saturation of the dispersion profile minimizes phase distortions due to self-focusing effects. Phase-preserving amplification is demonstrated by interferometric measurements of an amplified TEM 00 wavefront.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guennadi Saiko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnecke, Florian
2009-01-19
In this thesis we have studied the threshold behaviour od scattering phases in attactive, singular potentials proportional to -1/r{sup {alpha}}, {alpha}>2, in two and three dimensions. Total absorption on the surface was described by incoming boundary condition in form of WKB waves, so that the scattering phase {delta}(k) is because of the particle loss a complex quantity and the S matrix no longer unitary. As application example we use the scattering behaviour of ultracold atoms on an absorbing sphere. The parameters were so chosen that they correspond to those of metastable helium (2{sup 3}S) atoms respectively sodium atoms in the ground state and a radius of the sphere of 200 respectively 2000 a. u. The final chapter presents a survey about the scattering on a circularly symmetric potential in two dimensions.
A new moving frame to extract scattering phases in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Xu; Muenster Univ.; Jansen, Karl; Renner, Dru B.
2011-04-01
We present a derivation of the finite-size formulae in a moving frame with total momentum P=(2π/L)(e 1 +e 2 ). These formulae allow us to calculate the S-wave and P-wave scattering phases at more energies with a fixed lattice size and thus help us to determine the resonance parameters precisely. (orig.)
A new moving frame to extract scattering phases in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Xu [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jansen, Karl; Renner, Dru B. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC
2011-04-15
We present a derivation of the finite-size formulae in a moving frame with total momentum P=(2{pi}/L)(e{sub 1}+e{sub 2}). These formulae allow us to calculate the S-wave and P-wave scattering phases at more energies with a fixed lattice size and thus help us to determine the resonance parameters precisely. (orig.)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roos, TH
2014-06-01
Full Text Available large sphere scattering phase function distributions of interest for packed bed radiative heat transfer: the analytic distribution for a diffusely reflecting sphere (a backscattering test case) and the distribution for a transparent sphere (n = 1...
Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollet, D.
1983-01-01
The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meneau, F.; Greaves, G.N.
2005-01-01
In situ experiments following the thermal amorphisation of zeolites reveal massive increases in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), persisting well beyond the stage where wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) can detect that any crystalline phase is present. This heterogeneity in the amorphised phase is attributed to the transition from a low density amorphous phase (LDA) to a high density amorphous phase (HDA) at the glass transition. The fractions of zeolite, LDA and HDA phases obtained from SAXS analysis are discussed in the context of non-linear changes detected in 29 Si solid state NMR during zeolite amorphisation. Whilst the HDA phase is chemically disordered, the LDA phase exhibits much of the Al-Si ordering present in the starting zeolite. These findings are considered in the context of perfect glasses predicted to occur when super strong liquids are supercooled
Phase-shift analysis in pion-/sup 4/He elastic scattering. [60 to 260 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falomkin, I V; Nichitiu, F; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shcherbakov, YU A [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR); Balestra, F; Bollini, E [Turin Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica
1978-02-21
An energy-independent phase-shift analysis (PSA) of the elastic scattering of pions on /sup 4/He, in the energy range 60 to 260 MeV has been performed. All possible solutions, arising from the phase-shift analysis ambiguity, have been analyzed. Particular care has been taken in the choice of the physical solution. The calculated phase shifts have been compared with the results of the energy-dependent phase-shift analysis (EDPSA) and with the optical-model predictions.
Anikin, A. S.
2018-06-01
Conditional statistical characteristics of the phase difference are considered depending on the ratio of instantaneous output signal amplitudes of spatially separated weakly directional antennas for the normal field model for paths with radio-wave scattering. The dependences obtained are related to the physical processes on the radio-wave propagation path. The normal model parameters are established at which the statistical characteristics of the phase difference depend on the ratio of the instantaneous amplitudes and hence can be used to measure the phase difference. Using Shannon's formula, the amount of information on the phase difference of signals contained in the ratio of their amplitudes is calculated depending on the parameters of the normal field model. Approaches are suggested to reduce the shift of phase difference measured for paths with radio-wave scattering. A comparison with results of computer simulation by the Monte Carlo method is performed.
Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Sparenberg, J.-M.
2017-09-01
We introduce a simplified effective-range function for charged nuclei, related to the modified K matrix but differing from it in several respects. Negative-energy zeros of this function correspond to bound states. Positive-energy zeros correspond to resonances and "echo poles" appearing in elastic-scattering phase-shifts, while its poles correspond to multiple-of-π phase shifts. Padé expansions of this function allow one to parametrize phase shifts on large energy ranges and to calculate resonance and bound-state properties in a very simple way, independently of any potential model. The method is first tested on a d -wave 12C+α potential model. It is shown to lead to a correct estimate of the subthreshold-bound-state asymptotic normalization constant (ANC) starting from the elastic-scattering phase shifts only. Next, the 12C+α experimental p -wave and d -wave phase shifts are analyzed. For the d wave, the relatively large error bars on the phase shifts do not allow one to improve the ANC estimate with respect to existing methods. For the p wave, a value agreeing with the 12C(6Li,d )16O transfer-reaction measurement and with the recent remeasurement of the 16Nβ -delayed α decay is obtained, with improved accuracy. However, the method displays two difficulties: the results are sensitive to the Padé-expansion order and the simplest fits correspond to an imaginary ANC, i.e., to a negative-energy "echo pole," the physical meaning of which is still debatable.
Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori
2015-11-01
To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xuezhen; Lai, Jiancheng; Song, Yang; Li, Zhenhua
2018-05-01
It is generally recognized that circularly polarized light is preferentially maintained over linearly polarized light in turbid medium with Mie scatterers. However, in this work, the anomalous depolarization anisotropy is reported in the backscattering area near the point of illumination. Both experimental and Monte Carlo simulations show preferential retention of linear polarization states compared to circular polarization states in a specific backscattering area. Further analysis indicates that the anomalous depolarization behavior in the specific area is induced by lateral scattering events, which own low circular polarization memory. In addition, it is also found that the size of the anomalous depolarization area is related to the transport mean free path of the turbid medium.
Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei
2016-05-26
Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.
Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H
2008-07-21
Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vanko, Gy. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Research Group for Nuclear Techniques in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences at Eoetvoes L. University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Bottyan, L. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Deak, L. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fetzer, Cs. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Juhasz, G. [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Eoetvoes L. University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Leupold, O. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Molnar, B. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rueter, H.D. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, D.L. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: nagy@rmki.kfki.hu
2005-09-29
The phase transition associated with orbital-ground-state inversion of high-spin Fe{sup 2+} in [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} was studied with nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron radiation (SR). The sudden change in the {sup 57}Fe{sup 2+} quadrupole interaction results in a change of the quantum-beat frequencies. Quantum-beat patterns taken at the phase transition of [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} are in accordance with mainly coherent rather than with incoherent sums of the scattering amplitudes of the high- and low-quadrupole-interaction phases, a fact supporting the real co-existence of the two phases.
Quasiparticle scattering by quantum phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlebnikov, S.
2004-01-01
Quantum phase slips (QPS) in narrow superfluid channels generate momentum by unwinding the supercurrent. In a uniform Bose gas, this momentum needs to be absorbed by quasiparticles (phonons). We show that this requirement results in an additional exponential suppression of the QPS rate (compared to the rate of QPS induced by a sharply localized perturbation). In BCS-paired fluids, momentum can be transferred to fermionic quasiparticles, and we find an interesting interplay between quasiparticle scattering on QPS and on disorder
Real space multiple scattering description of alloy phase stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been recently developed to study phase stability properties of substitutional alloys, including order-disorder phenomena and structural transformations. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method first introduced by Ducastelle and Gautier, within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method. The viability and the predictive power of such a scheme will be illustrated by a few examples, among them: the ground state properties of alloys, in particular the ordering tendencies for a series of equiatomic bcc-based alloys, the computation of alloy phase diagrams with the case of fcc and bcc-based Ni-Al alloys, the calculation of antiphase boundary energies and interfacial energies, and the stability of artificial ordered superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Chunhui; Luo, Yanhong; Guo, Xiaozhi; Li, Dongmei [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Mi, Jianli; So, Lasse; Hald, Peter [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Meng, Qingbo, E-mail: qbmeng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Iversen, Bo B., E-mail: bo@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)
2012-12-15
Phase-pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized by a continuous supercritical fluid process have been first used for fabricating mesoporous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Due to the small size (11 nm) of the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in the aggregates, the mesoporous photoanode provides a high specific surface area, 80 m{sup 2}/g, which ensures high dye loading. At the same time, the submicrometer-sized aggregates endow the mesoporous photoanode with strong light scattering effect. Therefore, the light harvesting efficiency of the photoanode is increased. With an improved short-circuit current density, a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.65% (100 mW/cm{sup 2}, AM 1.5) is achieved without additional scattering layers, 12% enhanced compared with the DSCs fabricated from commercial Degussa P25 with exactly the same procedures. In addition, this supercritical fluid process is scalable and rapid (less than one minute) for TiO{sub 2} aggregates synthesis, which will push the commercialization of DSCs in the future. - Graphical abstract: Due to the special morphology and structure, the photoanode of DSCs provides high specific surface area and strong light scattering at the same time, which results in high conversion efficiencies of the DSCs. Table of contents: Thanks to the synchronous realization of high specific surface area and strong light scattering, a high efficiency of 8.65% was achieved based on a novel mesoporous TiO{sub 2} aggregates photoanode for DSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2} aggregate photoanode provides a possible route for highly efficient DSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoanode with high dye loading and light scattering is successfully fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} synthesized by a supercritical fluid process is first applied to DSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis method and high efficiency will push the commercialization of DSCs.
Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering
Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.
2015-07-01
Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.
Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin
2016-04-18
The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7.
I = 2 ππ scattering phase shift from the HAL QCD method with the LapH smearing
Kawai, Daisuke; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Iritani, Takumi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Miyamoto, Takaya; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji
2018-04-01
Physical observables, such as the scattering phase shifts and binding energy, calculated from the non-local HAL QCD potential do not depend on the sink operators used to define the potential. In practical applications, the derivative expansion of the non-local potential is employed, so that physical observables may receive some scheme dependence at a given order of the expansion. In this paper, we compare the I=2ππ scattering phase shifts obtained in the point-sink scheme (the standard scheme in the HAL QCD method) and the smeared-sink scheme (the LapH smearing newly introduced in the HAL QCD method). Although potentials in different schemes have different forms as expected, we find that, for reasonably small smearing size, the resultant scattering phase shifts agree with each other if the next-to-leading-order (NLO) term is taken into account. We also find that the HAL QCD potential in the point-sink scheme has a negligible NLO term for a wide range of energies, which implies good convergence of the derivative expansion, while the potential in the smeared-sink scheme has a non-negligible NLO contribution. The implications of this observation for future studies of resonance channels (such as the I=0 and 1ππ scatterings) with smeared all-to-all propagators are briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goerigk, G.; Huber, K.; Mattern, N.; Williamson, D.L.
2012-01-01
In the last years Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering became a precise quantitative method resolving scattering contributions two or three orders of magnitude smaller compared to the overall small-angle scattering, which are related to the so-called pure-resonant scattering contribution. Additionally to the structural information precise quantitative information about the different constituents of multi-component systems like the fraction of a chemical component implemented into the materials nano-structures are obtained from these scattering contributions. The application of the Gauss elimination algorithm to the vector equation established by ASAXS measurements at three X-ray energies is demonstrated for three examples from chemistry and solid state physics. All examples deal with the quantitative analysis of the Resonant Invariant (RI-analysis). From the integrals of the pure-resonant scattering contribution the chemical concentrations in nano-scaled phases are determined. In one example the correlated analysis of the Resonant Invariant and the Non-resonant Invariant (NI-analysis) is employed. (authors)
Effects of recent measurements on phase shift analysis of nucleon--nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.
1977-01-01
Four recent measurements in pp and np scattering below 250 MeV are used to indicate the substantial influence that new experiments can have upon phase parameters derived from the expanded data base. The cases are described separately, and the collective effect upon energy dependent analyses is discussed. It is indicated that the types of change are far from negligible. 7 refs
Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers
Prihartato, Perdana; Irigoien, Xabier; Genton, Marc G.; Kaartvedt, Stein
2016-01-01
© Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.
Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers
Prihartato, PK
2016-01-18
© Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.
1996-01-01
We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs
Characterisation of ultrasonic structural noise in multiple scattering media using phased arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedetti, T; Dorval, V; Jenson, F; Derode, A
2013-01-01
The ultrasonic inspection of multiple scattering media gives rise to structural noise which makes it difficult to detect potential damage or crack inside the component. In order to predict the performances of ultrasonic inspection over such complex media, scattering models can be used. Such models rely on specific key parameters describing the multiple scattering process, which can be determined by specific measurements and post-processing techniques. Such experiments were carried out on stainless steel plates using linear phased-arrays. They consist in recording the response matrix constituted by impulse responses between all the elements of the array. By conducting post-processing on this matrix, we measure the elastic mean free path l e and the correlation distance d c of the recorded noise. Additionally, the dynamic behaviour of the coherent backscattering effect was studied in order to measure the diffusion constant D. Plane-wave beamforming has been applied to the response matrix to improve the angular resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered intensity. Details of postprocessing techniques will be shown
Crosetto, M.; Budillon, A.; Johnsy, A.; Schirinzi, G.; Devanthéry, N.; Monserrat, O.; Cuevas-González, M.
2018-04-01
A lot of research and development has been devoted to the exploitation of satellite SAR images for deformation measurement and monitoring purposes since Differential Interferometric Synthetic Apertura Radar (InSAR) was first described in 1989. In this work, we consider two main classes of advanced DInSAR techniques: Persistent Scatterer Interferometry and Tomographic SAR. Both techniques make use of multiple SAR images acquired over the same site and advanced procedures to separate the deformation component from the other phase components, such as the residual topographic component, the atmospheric component, the thermal expansion component and the phase noise. TomoSAR offers the advantage of detecting either single scatterers presenting stable proprieties over time (Persistent Scatterers) and multiple scatterers interfering within the same range-azimuth resolution cell, a significant improvement for urban areas monitoring. This paper addresses a preliminary inter-comparison of the results of both techniques, for a test site located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain), where interferometric Sentinel-1 data were analysed.
Raman scattering temperature measurements for water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastasia, C.M.; Neti, S.; Smith, W.R.; Chen, J.C.
1982-09-01
The objective of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using Raman scattering as a nonintrusive technique to measure vapor temperatures in dispersed two-phase flow. The Raman system developed for this investigation is described, including alignment of optics and optimization of the photodetector for photon pulse counting. Experimentally obtained Raman spectra are presented for the following single- and two-phase samples: liquid water, atmospheric nitrogen, superheated steam, nitrogen and water droplets in a high void fraction air/water mist, and superheated water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin
2015-01-01
We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)
A Prototype Large Area Detector Module for Muon Scattering Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steer, C.A.; Boakes, J.; Burns, J.; Snow, S.; Stapleton, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Quillin, S. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)
2015-07-01
Abstract-Shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) are of concern as some fissile isotopes have low gamma and neutron emission rates. These materials are also easily shielded to the point where their passive emissions are comparable to background. Consequently, shielded SNM is very challenging for passive radiation detection portals which scan cargo containers. One potential solution for this is to utilise the natural cosmic ray muon background and examine how these muons scatter from materials inside the container volume, terms; the muon scattering tomography (MST) technique measures the three-dimensional localised scattering at all points within a cargo container, providing a degree of material discrimination. There is the additional benefit that the MST signal increases with the presence of more high density shielding materials, in contrast to passive radiation detection. Simulations and calculations suggest that the effectiveness of the technique is sensitive to the tracking accuracy amongst other parameters, motivating the need to develop practical detector systems that are capable of tracking cosmic ray muons. To this end, we have constructed and tested a 2 m by 2 m demonstration module based on gaseous drift chambers and triggered by a large area scintillator-based detector, which is readout by wavelength shifting fibres. We discuss its design, construction, characterisation and operational challenges. (authors)
On calculating phase shifts and performing fits to scattering cross sections or transport properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hepburn, J.W.; Roy, R.J. Le
1978-01-01
Improved methods of calculating quantum mechanical phase shifts and for performing least-squares fits to scattering cross sections or transport properties, are described. Their use in a five-parameter fit to experimental differential cross sections reduces the computer time by a factor of 4-7. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, B; Celeste, W; Christian, H; Wolfgang, S; Norman, M
2007-01-01
This feasibility study sought to demonstrate several necessary steps in a research program whose ultimate goal is to detect coherent scattering of reactor antineutrinos in dual-phase noble liquid detectors. By constructing and operating a Argon gas-phase drift and scintillation test-bed, the study confirmed important expectations about sensitivity of these detectors, and thereby met the goals set forth in our original proposal. This work has resulted in a successful Lab-Wide LDRD for design and deployment of a coherent scatter detector at a nuclear reactor, and strong interest by DOE Office of Science. In recent years, researchers at LLNL and elsewhere have converged on a design approach for a new generation of very low noise, low background particle detectors known as two-phase noble liquid/noble gas ionization detectors. This versatile class of detector can be used to detect coherent neutrino scattering-an as yet unmeasured prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. Using the dual phase technology, our group would be the first to verify the existence of this process. Its (non)detection would (refute)validate central tenets of the Standard Model. The existence of this process is also important in astrophysics, where coherent neutrino scattering is assumed to play an important role in energy transport within nascent neutron stars. The potential scientific impact after discovery of coherent neutrino-nuclear scattering is large. This phenomenon is flavor-blind (equal cross-sections of interaction for all three neutrino types), raising the possibility that coherent scatter detectors could be used as total flux monitors in future neutrino oscillation experiments. Such a detector could also be used to measure the flavor-blind neutrino spectrum from the next nearby (d ∼ 10kpc) type Ia supernova explosion. The predicted number of events [integrated over explosion time] for a proposed dual-phase argon coherent neutrino scattering detector is 10000 nuclear
Modifications of Geometric Truncation of the Scattering Phase Function
Radkevich, A.
2017-12-01
Phase function (PF) of light scattering on large atmospheric particles has very strong peak in forward direction constituting a challenge for accurate numerical calculations of radiance. Such accurate (and fast) evaluations are important in the problems of remote sensing of the atmosphere. Scaling transformation replaces original PF with a sum of the delta function and a new regular smooth PF. A number of methods to construct such a PF were suggested. Delta-M and delta-fit methods require evaluation of the PF moments which imposes a numerical problem if strongly anisotropic PF is given as a function of angle. Geometric truncation keeps the original PF unchanged outside the forward peak cone replacing it with a constant within the cone. This approach is designed to preserve the asymmetry parameter. It has two disadvantages: 1) PF has discontinuity at the cone; 2) the choice of the cone is subjective, no recommendations were provided on the choice of the truncation angle. This choice affects both truncation fraction and the value of the phase function within the forward cone. Both issues are addressed in this study. A simple functional form of the replacement PF is suggested. This functional form allows for a number of modifications. This study consider 3 versions providing continuous PF. The considered modifications also bear either of three properties: preserve asymmetry parameter, provide continuity of the 1st derivative of the PF, and preserve mean scattering angle. The second problem mentioned above is addressed with a heuristic approach providing unambiguous criterion of selection of the truncation angle. The approach showed good performance on liquid water and ice clouds with different particle size distributions. Suggested modifications were tested on different cloud PFs using both discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo methods. It was showed that the modifications provide better accuracy of the radiance computation compare to the original geometric truncation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biton, Y.; Shuker, R.
1999-01-01
Raman spectra of Hydrogenated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x + H y , where y = 0.45 and 0.19 is the number of Hydrogen atoms per units cell. The spectra exhibit important changes in the electronic scattering. Upon progressive doping with Hydrogen two magnon scattering features emerge. This coincides with the transition of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7x +H y from superconducting to antiferromagnetic phase. Exchange energy values were obtained from two magnon Raman scattering of the y = 0.45 material. It has been found that for y= 0.19 the sample has not lost its superconductivity, and indeed two-magnon scattering has not been observed. However, the situation changed substantially when the doping of the Hydrogen atoms was 0.45. The two-magnon scattering has been observed at different temperatures down to 20K. The two-magnon energy density exhibits two peak values around 2100cm -1 and 3000cm -1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krupp, H.
1986-01-01
In the framework of the study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction neutron-proton scattering experiments were performed at the neutron collimator POLKA of the Karlsruhe cyclotron. Neutrons were produced by the source reaction D(d,n)X in the energy range between 17 and 50 MeV. Measured were the differential cross section, the analyzing power, and the spin correlation coefficient of the elastic n-p scattering. By means of the new data the knowledge of the isospin T=0 scattering phases could be improved. It is for the first time possible to determine the scattering phases for T=1 independently from n-p and p-p data with comparable accuracy. (orig./HSI) [de
Studies in small angle scattering techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moellenbach, K.
1980-03-01
Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF 4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Lisowski, P.W.; Byrd, R.C.; Walter, R.L.
1977-01-01
Data for the analyzing power A/sub y/(theta) for n-p scattering at 16.9 MeV have been measured for the range from 50 to 145 0 (c.m.). Eleven values are reported to an accuracy of about +- 0.002, the highest overall precision ever obtained in any fast-neutron polarization experiment. Predictions based on phase-shift sets obtained from global analyses of nucleon-nucleon scattering disagree significantly with the new data. The data are sufficiently precise to show a dependence on the f-wave spin-orbit phase parameter
Large area window on vacuum chamber surface for neutron scattering instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kenji; Suzuki, Junichi; Teraoku, Takuji; Tsuchiya, Masao
2012-01-01
The feasibility of a large area window using a thin aluminum plate on the surface of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments at a pulsed neutron source was investigated. In the prototype investigation for a window with an area of 1m×1.4m and a thickness of 1 mm, the measured pressure dependence of the displacement agreed well with a calculation using a nonlinear strain–stress curve up to the plastic deformation region. In addition, we confirmed the repetition test up to 2000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which is sufficient for the lifetime of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments. Based on these investigations, an actual model of the window to be mounted on the vacuum chamber of the High Resolution Chopper Spectrometer (HRC) at J-PARC was designed. By using a calculated stress distribution on the window, the clamping structure capable of balancing the tension in the window was determined. In a model with a structure identical to the actual window, we confirmed the repetition test over more than 7000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which shows a lifetime long enough for the actual usage of the vacuum chamber on the HRC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd
2011-01-01
We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, L.S.; Natkaniec, I.; Savenko, B.N.
2002-01-01
The x - T phase diagram of Rb 1-x (NH 4 ) x I is studied using samples with the ammonium concentration 0.01< x<0.77 over a wide temperature region of 15 to 300 K by neutron powder diffraction and inelastic incoherent neutron scattering. The results of powder diffraction studies show that at low temperatures a phase transition from α-phase to β-phase is observed at ammonium concentrations x = 0.50 and x = 0.66. Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering detects a region of the orientional glass state at ammonium concentrations 0.29< x,0.40
Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the phonon spectra of Chevrel-phase superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bader, S.D.; Sinha, S.K.; Shelton, R.N.
1976-01-01
Phonon spectra are obtained using inelastic neutron scattering by polycrystals of the Chevrel-phase superconductors SnMo 6 S 8 , PbMo 6 S 8 , Mo 6 Se 8 , and Pb 1 . 2 Mo 6 Se 8 . Modes associated primarily with Sn (or Pb) atomic displacements are clearly identified. Acoustic softening on cooling is noted for SnMo 6 S 8 . Anharmonicity and the superconductivity are discussed utilizing the molecular-crystal concept
A high-resolution multiwire area detector for X-ray scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faruqi, A R; Andrews, H [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK). Lab. of Molecular Biology
1989-11-10
A high-resolution multiwire area detector has been developed for recording X-ray scattering from biological specimens. The detector is 100x100 mm{sup 2} and, under the present operating conditions, has a spatial resolution of about 250 {mu}m in both directions. The detector is set up on a double-mirror focusing camera on a rotating anode X-ray generator and has been used in a number of small-angle experiments, two of which are described in this paper. (orig.).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maetz, J; Butt, N M; Jex, H; Muellner, M [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik
1979-01-01
The critical scattering near the phase transition of RbCaF/sub 3/ from its cubic to the tetragonal structure at Tsub(c)=196 K is investigated. Moessbauer diffraction is applied to separate elastic and inelastic scattering intensities with energy resolution of 60 neV. The influence of domains is shown from X-ray diffraction.
Analysis on Vertical Scattering Signatures in Forestry with PolInSAR
Guo, Shenglong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jingjing; Hong, Wen
2014-11-01
We apply accurate topographic phase to the Freeman-Durden decomposition for polarimetric SAR interferometry (PolInSAR) data. The cross correlation matrix obtained from PolInSAR observations can be decomposed into three scattering mechanisms matrices accounting for the odd-bounce, double-bounce and volume scattering. We estimate the phase based on the Random volume over Ground (RVoG) model, and as the initial input parameter of the numerical method which is used to solve the parameters of decomposition. In addition, the modified volume scattering model introduced by Y. Yamaguchi is applied to the PolInSAR target decomposition in forest areas rather than the pure random volume scattering as proposed by Freeman-Durden to make best fit to the actual measured data. This method can accurately retrieve the magnitude associated with each mechanism and their vertical location along the vertical dimension. We test the algorithms with L- and P- band simulated data.
Inelastic neutron scattering from cerium under pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainford, B.D.; Buras, B.; Lebech, B.
1976-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering from Ce metal at 300K was studied both below and above the first order γ-α phase transition, using a triple axis spectrometer. It was found that (a) there is no indication of any residual magnetic scattering in the collapsed α phase and (b) the energy width of the paramagnetic scattering in the γ-phase increases with pressure. (Auth.)
Magnetic phase diagram of MnSi near critical temperature studied by neutron small angle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Yoshikazu; Arai, Masatoshi
1984-01-01
The magnetic phase diagram of MnSi near the critical temperature T sub(N)=29.5K has been studied by neutron small angle scattering at KENS. It has been found that the anomalous new phase predicted by various methods to exist around at 28 K and 2 kOe is the paramagnetic phase where the magnetic correlations exhibit the same characteristics as those found at 29.5 K and zero magnetic field. This phenomenon, together with the sharp decrease of the magnetic phase boundary at T sub(N) and the substantial increase of the satellite Q vector at this temperature, has been found not to be interpreted by the current theories. (author)
Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang
2013-02-01
It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the α-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.
Raman scattering study of the structural phase transition in single crystal KDy(MoO4)2
Peschanskii, A. V.
2017-11-01
Raman scattering of light in single-crystal KDy(MoO4)2 is studied at frequencies of 3-1000 cm-1 for temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K, including that of a structural phase transition of the cooperative Jahn-Teller type (TC ˜ 14.5 K). During the transition to the low-temperature phase, a series of additional phonon lines corresponding to the Ag, B1g, B2g, and B3g modes is observed which indicates a doubling of the unit cell during the phase transition. An analysis of the symmetry of the phonon modes shows that the low-temperature phase has a predominantly monoclinic symmetry with conservation of a second order axis along the crystallographic b direction, i.e., perpendicular to the layers. Excitations are discovered which correspond to low-energy electronic transitions between levels of the ground-state 6H15/2 multiplet of the Dy3+ ion, which is split in the crystal field with a C2 symmetry. In the vicinity of the first excited Kramers doublet of the Dy3+ ion in crystalline KDy(MoO4)2, the scattered spectrum contains four lines [16.5, 21.0, 24.9, and 29.1 cm-1 (2 K)] at low temperatures, instead of a single line [18.3 cm-1 (25 K)] above the phase transition temperature (14.5 K). This indicates the existence of four nonequivalent dysprosium ions in the low-temperature phase.
Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehls, John F.
2006-04-01
It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors
Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehls, John F [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)
2006-04-15
It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of
Regge-pole description of potential scattering by means of the phase-integral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaha, A.
1992-01-01
The application of Regge-pole theory to different atomic and molecular scattering has shown to have promising interpretational power in the differential cross sections. Differential cross sections can be analysed in terms of interference between the 'background' amplitude and a few Regge-pole positions of the scattering matrix (S matrix) representing surface waves around the interaction region. By the analytic continuation of the radial Schroedinger differential equation into the complex plane of angular momentum one can determine the analytic properties of the S matrix which contains the physical information in the scattering processes. For interaction potentials fulfilling certain properties, the study of the S matrix leads to the study of the F matrix introduced by Froeman and Froeman for the treatment of connection problems for phase-integral solutions of the differential equation. In this thesis the quantum mechanical scattering problem is analysed in the framework of Regge-pole theory with the use of the complex-angular-momentum formalism. To determine the S matrix, the relevant F matrix elements which give the stokes constants are derived and their properties are studied. The poles of the S matrix for particular complex values of the angular momentum quantum number are the Regge-poles. Using the Regge-pole positions and residues together with the background integral, the differential cross sections are calculated and compared with corresponding partial-wave representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel
2009-01-01
An increased gain in a fibre-optical parametric amplifier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated by applying a temperature distribution along the fibre for a fixed phase modulation of the pump. The temperature distribution slightly impacts the gain spectrum....
Scattering phases for meson and baryon resonances on general moving-frame lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Lage, M.; Rusetsky, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Meissner, U.G. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Center for Hadron Physics and JARA - High Performance Computing; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics
2012-06-15
A proposal by Luescher enables one to compute the scattering phases of elastic two-body systems from the energy levels of the lattice Hamiltonian in a finite volume. In this work we generalize the formalism to S-, P- and D-wave meson and baryon resonances, and general total momenta. Employing nonvanishing momenta has several advantages, among them making a wider range of energy levels accessible on a single lattice volume and shifting the level crossing to smaller values of m{sub {pi}}L.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwinski, Z.R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1986-01-01
For potential scattering, with delta/sub L/(k) the phase shift modulo π for an incident wave number k, Levinson's theorem gives delta/sub L/(0)-delta/sub L/(infinity) in terms of N/sub L/, the number of bound states of angular momentum L, for delta/sub L/(k) assumed to be a continuous function of k. N/sub L/ also determines the number of nodes of the zero-energy wave function u/sub L/(r). A knowledge of the nodal structure and of the absolute value of delta/sub L/(0) is very useful in theoretical studies of low-energy potential scattering. Two preliminary attempts, one formal and one ''physical,'' are made to extend the above results to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. The nodal structure will be of greater interest to us here than an extension of Levinson's theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert de Mello Koch
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.
Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on Bragg scattering in the low-conversion regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Cargill, D. S.; McKinstrie, C. J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation on frequency conversion by four-wave mixing (Bragg scattering) in the low-conversion regime. We derive the Green functions for this process using the time-domain collision method, for partial collisions, in which the four fields...... interact at the beginning or the end of the fiber, and complete collisions, in which the four fields interact at the midpoint of the fiber. If the Green function is separable, there is only one output Schmidt mode, which is free from temporal entanglement. We find that nonlinear phase modulation always...... chirps the input and output Schmidt modes and renders the Green function formally nonseparable. However, by pre-chirping the pumps, one can reduce the chirps of the Schmidt modes and enable approximate separability. Thus, even in the presence of nonlinear phase modulation, frequency conversion...
Compton scattering on the γ-α phase transition in cerium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornstaedt, U.
1979-07-01
Compton profiles for γ- and α-Cer were measured using Cr51 as a γ-radiation source. The experimental profiles have been corrected for multiple scattering by Monte-Carlo techniques. The corrected profiles are compared with theoretical profiles which are calculated on the basis of the renormalized free atom model for 6s electrons and the tight-binding model of 4f and 5d electrons. The experimental results show clearly that the promotional model is not valid. Instead a possible explanation for the observed phase transition may be a Mott transition. To better determine this, improved electron wave functions, such as might be obtained by band structure calculations, are needed. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melchert, O; Scheid, W; Apagyi, B
2006-01-01
The Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy has been generalized to treat complex phase shifts derived from experiments. New formulae for relating phase shifts to shifted angular momenta are derived. The method is applied to phase shifts of known potentials in order to test its quality and stability and, further, it is used to invert experimental n-α and n- 12 C phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, F.S.; Koehler, W.C.; Wignall, G.D.; Fetters, L.J.
1986-12-01
A well characterized binary mixture of normal (protonated) and perdeuterated monodisperse 1,2 polybutenes has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For scattering wavevectors q greater than the inverse radius-of-gyration R/sub g/ -1 , the SANS intensity is quantitatively predicted by the random phase approximation (RPA) theory of deGennes over all measured values of the segment-segment interaction parameter Chi. In the region (Chi s-Chi)Chi s -1 > 0.5 the interaction parameter determined using the RPA theory for q > R/sub g/ -1 is greater than that calculated from the zero-angle intensity based on an Ornstein-Zernike plot, where Chi s represents the limit of single phase stability. These findings indicate a correlation between the critical fluctuation length ξ and R/sub g/ which is not accounted for by the RPA theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matkin, L. S.; Watson, S. J.; Gleeson, H. F.; Pindak, R.; Pitney, J.; Johnson, P. M.; Huang, C. C.; Barois, P.; Levelut, A.-M.; Srajer, G.
2001-01-01
Resonant x-ray scattering has been used to investigate the interlayer ordering of the antiferroelectric and ferrielectric smectic C * subphases in a device geometry. The liquid crystalline materials studied contain a selenium atom and the experiments were carried out at the selenium K edge allowing x-ray transmission through glass. The resonant scattering peaks associated with the antiferroelectric phase were observed in two devices containing different materials. It was observed that the electric-field-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric transition coincides with the chevron to bookshelf transition in one of the devices. Observation of the splitting of the antiferroelectric resonant peaks as a function of applied field also confirmed that no helical unwinding occurs at fields lower than the chevron to bookshelf threshold. Resonant features associated with the four-layer ferrielectric liquid crystal phase were observed in a device geometry. Monitoring the electric field dependence of these ferrielectric resonant peaks showed that the chevron to bookshelf transition occurs at a lower applied field than the ferrielectric to ferroelectric switching transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, A.
1991-01-01
This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text
Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Aoki, Teruo; Masuda, Kazuhiko
2018-04-01
Sizes and shapes of snow particles were determined from X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) images, and their single-scattering properties were calculated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths using a Geometrical Optics Method (GOM). We analyzed seven snow samples including fresh and aged artificial snow and natural snow obtained from field samples. Individual snow particles were numerically extracted, and the shape of each snow particle was defined by applying a rendering method. The size distribution and specific surface area distribution were estimated from the geometrical properties of the snow particles, and an effective particle radius was derived for each snow sample. The GOM calculations at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.242 μm revealed that the realistic snow particles had similar scattering phase functions as those of previously modeled irregular shaped particles. Furthermore, distinct dendritic particles had a characteristic scattering phase function and asymmetry factor. The single-scattering properties of particles of effective radius reff were compared with the size-averaged single-scattering properties. We found that the particles of reff could be used as representative particles for calculating the average single-scattering properties of the snow. Furthermore, the single-scattering properties of the micro-CT particles were compared to those of particle shape models using our current snow retrieval algorithm. For the single-scattering phase function, the results of the micro-CT particles were consistent with those of a conceptual two-shape model. However, the particle size dependence differed for the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor.
Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Aziz, Haliza Abdul; Idris, Zainab
2018-01-01
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods via evaporative light scattering (ELS) and refractive index (RI) detectors are used by the local palm oil industry to monitor the TAG profiles of palm oil and its fractions. The quantitation method used is based on area normalization of the TAG components and expressed as percentage area. Although not frequently used, peak-area ratios based on TAG profiles are a possible qualitative method for characterizing the TAG of palm oil and its fractions. This paper aims to compare these two detectors in terms of peak-area ratio, percentage peak area composition, and TAG elution profiles. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition for palm oil and its fractions were analysed under similar HPLC conditions i.e. mobile phase and column. However, different sample concentrations were used for the detectors while remaining within the linearity limits of the detectors. These concentrations also gave a good baseline resolved separation for all the TAGs components. The results of the ELSD method's percentage area composition for the TAGs of palm oil and its fractions differed from those of RID. This indicates an unequal response of TAGs for palm oil and its fractions using the ELSD, also affecting the peak area ratios. They were found not to be equivalent to those obtained using the HPLC-RID. The ELSD method showed a better baseline separation for the TAGs components, with a more stable baseline as compared with the corresponding HPLC-RID. In conclusion, the percentage area compositions and peak-area ratios for palm oil and its fractions as derived from HPLC-ELSD and RID were not equivalent due to different responses of TAG components to the ELSD detector. The HPLC-RID has a better accuracy for percentage area composition and peak-area ratio because the TAG components response equally to the detector.
Yura, H T; Thrane, L; Andersen, P E
2000-12-01
Within the paraxial approximation, a closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function is derived for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium. This solution is based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle for the optical field, which is widely used in studies of wave propagation through random media. The results are general in that they apply to both an arbitrary small-angle volume scattering function, and arbitrary (real) ABCD optical systems. Furthermore, they are valid in both the single- and multiple-scattering regimes. Some general features of the Wigner phase-space distribution function are discussed, and analytic results are obtained for various types of scattering functions in the asymptotic limit s > 1, where s is the optical depth. In particular, explicit results are presented for optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. On this basis, a novel way of creating OCT images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase-space distribution is suggested, and the advantage over conventional OCT images is discussed. Because all previous published studies regarding the Wigner function are carried out in the transmission geometry, it is important to note that the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the ABCD matrix formalism may be used successfully to describe this geometry (within the paraxial approximation). Therefore for completeness we present in an appendix the general closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function in ABCD paraxial optical systems for direct propagation through random media, and in a second appendix absorption effects are included.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klug, D.D.; Tulk, C.A.; Svensson, E.C.; Loong, C.
1999-01-01
Incoherent-inelastic neutron scattering data are obtained over the energy range of lattice and internal vibrations of water molecules in phases of ice prepared by pressure-induced amorphization (high-density amorphous ice, hda), by thermal annealing of hda (low-density amorphous ice, lda), and by rapidly cooling water, as well as in ice Ih and Ic . Hydrogen bonding interactions in lda differ significantly from those in the glass obtained by rapid quenching, which has hydrogen-bond interactions characteristic of highly supercooled water. Hydrogen-bond interactions in hda are weaker than in the low-density phases. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahmen, Bernd
1994-01-01
A systematic method to obtain strong coupling expansions for scattering quantities in hamiltonian lattice field theories is presented. I develop the conceptual ideas for the case of the hamiltonian field theory analogue of the Ising model, in d space and one time dimension. The main result is a convergent series representation for the scattering states and the transition matrix. To be explicit, the special cases of d=1 and d=3 spatial dimensions are discussed in detail. I compute the next-to-leading order approximation for the phase shifts. The application of the method to investigate low-energy scattering phenomena in lattice gauge theory and QCD is proposed. ((orig.))
A surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treacy, M.M.J.; Van Dyck, D.
2012-01-01
A standard textbook derivation for the scattering of electrons by a weak potential under the first Born approximation suggests that the far-field scattered wave should be in phase with the incident wave. However, it is well known that waves scattered from a weak phase object should be phase-shifted by π/2 relative to the incident wave. A disturbing consequence of this missing phase is that, according to the Optical Theorem, the total scattering cross section would be zero in the first Born approximation. We resolve this mystery pedagogically by showing that the first Born approximation fails to conserve electrons even to first order. Modifying the derivation to conserve electrons introduces the correct phase without changing the scattering amplitude. We also show that the far-field expansion for the scattered waves used in many texts is inappropriate for computing an exit wave from a sample, and that the near-field expansion also give the appropriately phase-shifted result. -- Highlights: ► The first Born approximation is usually invoked as the theoretical physical basis for kinematical electron scattering theory. ► Although it predicts the correct scattering amplitude, it predicts the wrong phase; the scattered wave is missing a prefactor of i. ► We show that this arises because the standard textbook version of the first Born approximation does not conserve electrons. ► We show how this can be fixed.
Neutron scattering studies of the phase-transitions of ices by thermal-annealing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Kolesnikov, A.; Li, J.C.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering was used to study the phase-transition process of high-density amorphous (hda) ice produced by pressurising ice-Ih at 16 kbar and 77 K to low-density amorphous (Ida) ice, ice-Ic and ice-Ih by thermobaric treatments. The results show that when annealing temperature is lower than 136 K no obvious phase-transition was observed and transformation of the hda to the lda ice occurs between 136 and 144 K which is very closed to the theoretically calculated value 135 K (1). Comparing the lda spectrum with the vapour deposited low-density amorphous ice (2) shows a number of differences in the translational and vibrational regions, such as the low energy cut off of the vibrational band. On the other hand, the recovered lda from the hda ice has a similar spectrum as ice-Ih. (author)
Neutron scattering study of the phase transformation of LaNi3 induced by hydriding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan Jinghui; Zeng Xiangxin; Niu Shiwen
1994-01-01
The phase transformation of LaNi 3 induced by hydriding and de-hydriding is investigated using the neutron diffraction and the neutron inelastic scattering. The results show that the hydriding sample, LaNi 3 H x , is transformed from crystalline state of the LaNi 3 into amorphous state with a microcrystalline characteristic of LaNi 5 , and the de-hydriding sample produced by LaNi 3 H x dehydrated at 600 degree C is decomposed into new crystalline states composed by LaNi 5 -and La-hydrides. The procedure of phase transformation is that the result of the transformation of LaNi 3 induced by hydriding shows the properties of LaNi 5 -H 2 system
Regularization method for solving the inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, A.M.; Krylov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger radial equation consisting in determining the potential according to the scattering phase is considered. The problem of potential restoration according to the phase specified with fixed error in a finite range is solved by the regularization method based on minimization of the Tikhonov's smoothing functional. The regularization method is used for solving the problem of neutron-proton potential restoration according to the scattering phases. The determined potentials are given in the table
Scattering Properties of Ground-State 23Na Vapor Using Generalized Scattering Theory
Al-Harazneh, A. A.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Joudeh, B. R.; Ghassib, H. B.
2018-04-01
The scattering properties of ground-state 23Na vapor are investigated within the framework of the Galitskii-Migdal-Feynman formalism. Viewed as a generalized scattering theory, this formalism is used to calculate the medium phase shifts. The scattering properties of the system—the total, viscosity, spin-exchange, and average cross sections—are then computed using these phase shifts according to standard recipes. The total cross section is found to exhibit the Ramsauer-Townsend effect as well as resonance peaks. These peaks are caused by the large difference between the potentials for electronic spin-singlet and spin-triplet states. They represent quasi-bound states in the system. The results obtained for the complex spin-exchange cross sections are particularly highlighted because of their importance in the spectroscopy of the Na2 dimer. So are the results for the scattering lengths pertaining to both singlet and triplet states. Wherever possible, comparison is made with other published results.
Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing
Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun
2017-06-01
This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers.
Semiclassical series solution of the generalized phase shift atom--diatom scattering equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Squire, K.R.; Curtiss, C.F.
1980-01-01
A semiclassical series solution of the previously developed operator form of the generalized phase shift equations describing atom--diatom scattering is presented. This development is based on earlier work which led to a double series in powers of Planck's constant and a scaling parameter of the anisotropic portion of the intermolecular potential. The present solution is similar in that it is a double power series in Planck's constant and in the difference between the spherical radial momentum and a first order approximation. The present series solution avoids difficulties of the previous series associated with the classical turning point
Double Bounce Component in Cross-Polarimetric SAR from a New Scattering Target Decomposition
Hong, Sang-Hoon; Wdowinski, Shimon
2013-08-01
Common vegetation scattering theories assume that the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) cross-polarization (cross-pol) signal represents solely volume scattering. We found this assumption incorrect based on SAR phase measurements acquired over the south Florida Everglades wetlands indicating that the cross-pol radar signal often samples the water surface beneath the vegetation. Based on these new observations, we propose that the cross-pol measurement consists of both volume scattering and double bounce components. The simplest multi-bounce scattering mechanism that generates cross-pol signal occurs by rotated dihedrals. Thus, we use the rotated dihedral mechanism with probability density function to revise some of the vegetation scattering theories and develop a three- component decomposition algorithm with single bounce, double bounce from both co-pol and cross-pol, and volume scattering components. We applied the new decomposition analysis to both urban and rural environments using Radarsat-2 quad-pol datasets. The decomposition of the San Francisco's urban area shows higher double bounce scattering and reduced volume scattering compared to other common three-component decomposition. The decomposition of the rural Everglades area shows that the relations between volume and cross-pol double bounce depend on the vegetation density. The new decomposition can be useful to better understand vegetation scattering behavior over the various surfaces and the estimation of above ground biomass using SAR observations.
Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.
Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G
2013-01-15
We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.
Directed seed dispersal towards areas with low conspecific tree density by a scatter-hoarding rodent
Hirsch, Ben T.; Kays, Roland; Pereira, Veronica E.; Jansen, Patrick A.
2012-01-01
Scatter-hoarding animals spread out cached seeds to reduce density-dependent theft of their food reserves. This behaviour could lead to directed dispersal into areas with lower densities of conspecific trees, where seed and seedling survival are higher, and could profoundly affect the spatial
Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah
2017-01-01
The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.
Interfacial area measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veteau, J.-M.
1979-08-01
A thorough understanding of two-phase flow requires the accurate measurement of the time-averaged interfacial area per unit volume (also called the time-averaged integral specific area). The so-called 'specific area' can be estimated by several techniques described in the literature. These different methods are reviewed and the flow conditions which lead to a rigourous determination of the time-averaged integral specific area are clearly established. The probe technique, involving local measurements seems very attractive because of its large range of application [fr
Inverse scattering with supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baye, Daniel; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc
2004-01-01
The application of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverse scattering problem is reviewed. The main difference with standard treatments of the inverse problem lies in the simple and natural extension to potentials with singularities at the origin and with a Coulomb behaviour at infinity. The most general form of potentials which are phase-equivalent to a given potential is discussed. The use of singular potentials allows adding or removing states from the bound spectrum without contradicting the Levinson theorem. Physical applications of phase-equivalent potentials in nuclear reactions and in three-body systems are described. Derivation of a potential from the phase shift at fixed orbital momentum can also be performed with the supersymmetric inversion by using a Bargmann-type approximation of the scattering matrix or phase shift. A unique singular potential without bound states can be obtained from any phase shift. A limited number of bound states depending on the singularity can then be added. This inversion procedure is illustrated with nucleon-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehnelt, H.
1975-01-01
We discuss a few properties of scattering amplitudes proved within the framework of the field theory and their significance in the derivation of quantitative statements. The state of the boundaries for the scattering lengths is to be especially discussed as well as the question as to how far it is possible to exclude various solutions from phase displacement analyses. (orig./LH) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graczykowski, B; Mielcarek, S; Mroz, B; Breczewski, T; No, M L; San-Juan, J
2013-01-01
The paper presents the influence of the martensitic phase transition on hypersonic thermally excited surface acoustic waves propagating in Cu–14%Al–4%Ni (wt%) shape memory alloy. Non-destructive and non-contact testing using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy permitted determination of the elastic constants of austenite versus temperature. Experimental results obtained for martensite were interpreted using the proposed model of the cubic to orthorhombic martensitic phase transition based on the Landau model of a first-order phase transition. Additionally we adopted the approximation of the domain structure of martensite by a polycrystalline sample using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill procedure of averaging the elastic constants. (paper)
Neutron scattering and magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackintosh, A.R.
1983-01-01
Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)
Scattering and extinction by spherical particles immersed in an absorbing host medium
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.
2018-05-01
Many applications of electromagnetic scattering involve particles immersed in an absorbing rather than lossless medium, thereby making the conventional scattering theory potentially inapplicable. To analyze this issue quantitatively, we employ the FORTRAN program developed recently on the basis of the first-principles electromagnetic theory to study far-field scattering by spherical particles embedded in an absorbing infinite host medium. We further examine the phenomenon of negative extinction identified recently for monodisperse spheres and uncover additional evidence in favor of its interference origin. We identify the main effects of increasing the width of the size distribution on the ensemble-averaged extinction efficiency factor and show that negative extinction can be eradicated by averaging over a very narrow size distribution. We also analyze, for the first time, the effects of absorption inside the host medium and ensemble averaging on the phase function and other elements of the Stokes scattering matrix. It is shown in particular that increasing absorption significantly suppresses the interference structure and can result in a dramatic expansion of the areas of positive polarization. Furthermore, the phase functions computed for larger effective size parameters can develop a very deep minimum at side-scattering angles bracketed by a strong diffraction peak in the forward direction and a pronounced backscattering maximum.
Spin wave scattering and interference in ferromagnetic cross
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nanayakkara, Kasuni; Kozhanov, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Center for Nano Optics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Jacob, Ajey P. [Exploratory Research Device and Integration, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)
2015-10-28
Magnetostatic spin wave scattering and interference across a CoTaZr ferromagnetic spin wave waveguide cross junction were investigated experimentally and by micromagnetic simulations. It is observed that the phase of the scattered waves is dependent on the wavelength, geometry of the junction, and scattering direction. It is found that destructive and constructive interference of the spin waves generates switching characteristics modulated by the input phase of the spin waves. Micromagnetic simulations are used to analyze experimental data and simulate the spin wave scattering and interference.
Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts
Apagyi, B; Scheid, W
2003-01-01
A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure.
Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apagyi, Barnabas; Harman, Zoltan; Scheid, Werner
2003-01-01
A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure
Smirnov, L S; Savenko, B N
2002-01-01
The x - T phase diagram of Rb sub 1 sub - sub x (NH sub 4) sub x I is studied using samples with the ammonium concentration 0.01
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Shibayama
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the local incidence angle dependence of several polarimetric indices corresponding to landslides in forested areas. Landslide is deeply related to the loss of human lives and their property. Various kinds of remote sensing techniques, including aerial photography, high-resolution optical satellite imagery, LiDAR and SAR interferometry (InSAR, have been available for landslide investigations. SAR polarimetry is potentially an effective measure to investigate landslides because fully-polarimetric SAR (PolSAR data contain more information compared to conventional single- or dual-polarization SAR data. However, research on landslide recognition utilizing polarimetric SAR (PolSAR is quite limited. Polarimetric properties of landslides have not been examined quantitatively so far. Accordingly, we examined the polarimetric scattering properties of landslides by an assessment of how the decomposed scattering power components and the polarimetric correlation coefficient change with the local incidence angle. In the assessment, PolSAR data acquired from different directions with both spaceborne and airborne SARs were utilized. It was found that the surface scattering power and the polarimetric correlation coefficient of landslides significantly decrease with the local incidence angle, while these indices of surrounding forest do not. This fact leads to establishing a method of effective detection of landslide area by polarimetric information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Queen, N.M.
1978-01-01
This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)
The equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R.; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States)
1998-06-01
The equivalent field relationship between square and circular fields for the head scatter factor was evaluated at the source plane. The method was based on integrating the head scatter parameter for projected shaped fields in the source plane and finding a field that produced the same ratio of head scatter to primary dose on the central axis. A value of {sigma}/R{approx_equal}0.9 was obtained, where {sigma} was one-half of the side length of the equivalent square and R was the radius of the circular field. The assumptions were that the equivalent field relationship for head scatter depends primarily on the characteristics of scatter from the flattening filter, and that the differential scatter-to-primary ratio of scatter from the flattening filter decreases linearly with the radius, within the physical radius of the flattening filter. Lam and co-workers showed empirically that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula, when applied to an equivalent square formula at the flattening filter plane, gave an accurate prediction of the head scatter factor. We have analytically investigated the validity of the area-to-perimeter ratio formula. Our results support the fact that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula can also be used as the equivalent field formula for head scatter at the source plane. The equivalent field relationships for wedge and tertiary collimator scatter were also evaluated. (author)
The equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R.; Zhu, Timothy C.
1998-01-01
The equivalent field relationship between square and circular fields for the head scatter factor was evaluated at the source plane. The method was based on integrating the head scatter parameter for projected shaped fields in the source plane and finding a field that produced the same ratio of head scatter to primary dose on the central axis. A value of σ/R≅0.9 was obtained, where σ was one-half of the side length of the equivalent square and R was the radius of the circular field. The assumptions were that the equivalent field relationship for head scatter depends primarily on the characteristics of scatter from the flattening filter, and that the differential scatter-to-primary ratio of scatter from the flattening filter decreases linearly with the radius, within the physical radius of the flattening filter. Lam and co-workers showed empirically that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula, when applied to an equivalent square formula at the flattening filter plane, gave an accurate prediction of the head scatter factor. We have analytically investigated the validity of the area-to-perimeter ratio formula. Our results support the fact that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula can also be used as the equivalent field formula for head scatter at the source plane. The equivalent field relationships for wedge and tertiary collimator scatter were also evaluated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, C.; Wermeille, D.; Goldman, A. I.; Canfield, P. C.; Rhee, J. Y.; Harmon, B. N.
2001-01-01
Resonant magnetic x-ray scattering measurements have been performed on a single crystal of TbNi 2 B 2 C to uniquely determine the modulation wave vector in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. Below the transition temperature of 14.4(±0.1)K, two magnetic satellite peaks develop, centered on (h00) orth charge reflections. Our study shows that the longitudinal modulation of the magnetic moment is along the longer basal plane axes of the orthorhombic phase. Power law fits to the temperature dependence of the structural distortion, a/b-1, and the magnetic scattering intensity result in the same exponent, β, and transition temperature evidencing explicitly that the structural phase transition is magneto-elastic in origin
Bloem, Robbert; Garrett-Roe, Sean; Strzalka, Halina; Hamm, Peter; Donaldson, Paul
2010-12-20
We demonstrate how quasi-phase-cycling achieved by sub-cycle delay modulation can be used to replace optical chopping in a box-CARS 2D IR experiment in order to enhance the signal size, and, at the same time, completely eliminate any scattering contamination. Two optical devices are described that can be used for this purpose, a wobbling Brewster window and a photoelastic modulator. They are simple to construct, easy to incorporate into any existing 2D IR setup, and have attractive features such as a high optical throughput and a fast modulation frequency needed to phase cycle on a shot-to-shot basis.
An inverse-scattering approach to the physics of transition metals ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A method is developed for the deduction of a transition metal ion potential from a knowledge of the phase-shift. The method used is based the distorted plane – wave scattering approximation for the deduction of non singular potentials from scattering phase shifts in an inverse scattering approach. The resulting electron ...
Radiative heat transfer in strongly forward scattering media using the discrete ordinates method
Granate, Pedro; Coelho, Pedro J.; Roger, Maxime
2016-03-01
The discrete ordinates method (DOM) is widely used to solve the radiative transfer equation, often yielding satisfactory results. However, in the presence of strongly forward scattering media, this method does not generally conserve the scattering energy and the phase function asymmetry factor. Because of this, the normalization of the phase function has been proposed to guarantee that the scattering energy and the asymmetry factor are conserved. Various authors have used different normalization techniques. Three of these are compared in the present work, along with two other methods, one based on the finite volume method (FVM) and another one based on the spherical harmonics discrete ordinates method (SHDOM). In addition, the approximation of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function by a different one is investigated as an alternative to the phase function normalization. The approximate phase function is given by the sum of a Dirac delta function, which accounts for the forward scattering peak, and a smoother scaled phase function. In this study, these techniques are applied to three scalar radiative transfer test cases, namely a three-dimensional cubic domain with a purely scattering medium, an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure containing an emitting-absorbing-scattering medium, and a three-dimensional transient problem with collimated irradiation. The present results show that accurate predictions are achieved for strongly forward scattering media when the phase function is normalized in such a way that both the scattered energy and the phase function asymmetry factor are conserved. The normalization of the phase function may be avoided using the FVM or the SHDOM to evaluate the in-scattering term of the radiative transfer equation. Both methods yield results whose accuracy is similar to that obtained using the DOM along with normalization of the phase function. Very satisfactory predictions were also achieved using the delta-M phase function, while the delta
Neutron elastic scattering at very small angles
2002-01-01
This experiment will measure neutron-proton elastic scattering at very small angles and hence very small four-momentum transfer, |t|. The range of |t| depends on the incident neutron momentum of the events but the geometrical acceptance will cover the angular range 0.025 < $\\Theta_{lab}$ < 1.9 mrad. The higher figure could be extended to 8.4 mrad by changing the geometry of the experiment in a later phase. \\\\ \\\\ The neutron beam will be highly collimated and will be derived from a 400 GeV external proton beam of up to $4 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per pulse in the SPS North Area Hall 1. The hydrogen target will be gaseous, operating at 40 atm. pressure and acts as a multiwire proportional chamber to detect the recoil protons. The forward neutron will be detected and located by interaction in a neutron vertex detector and its energy measured by a conventional steel plate calorimeter. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment will cover the angular region of nucleon-nucleon scattering which is dominated by Coulomb scattering ...
S-matrix formulation of thermodynamics with N-body scatterings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lo, Pok Man [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)
2017-08-15
We apply a phase space expansion scheme to incorporate the N-body scattering processes in the S-matrix formulation of statistical mechanics. A generalized phase shift function suitable for studying the thermal contribution of N → N processes is motivated and examined in various models. Using the expansion scheme, we revisit how the hadron resonance gas model emerges from the S-matrix framework, and consider an example of structureless scattering in which the phase shift function can be exactly worked out. Finally we analyze the influence of dynamics on the phase shift function in a simple example of 3- and 4-body scattering. (orig.)
Luo, Chengtao; Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Winn, Barry; Ren, Yang; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu; Delaire, Olivier
2017-11-01
Neutron and x-ray scattering measurements were performed on (N a1 /2B i1 /2 ) Ti O3-x at %BaTi O3 (NBT-x BT ) single crystals (x =4 , 5, 6.5, and 7.5) across the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), as a function of both composition and temperature, and probing both structural and dynamical aspects. In addition to the known diffuse scattering pattern near the Γ points, our measurements revealed new, faint superlattice peaks, as well as an extensive diffuse scattering network, revealing a short-range ordering of polar nanoregions (PNR) with a static stacking morphology. In samples with compositions closest to the MPB, our inelastic neutron scattering investigations of the phonon dynamics showed two unusual features in the acoustic phonon branches, between the superlattice points, and between the superlattice points and Γ points, respectively. These critical elements are not present in the other compositions away from the MPB, which suggests that these features may be related to the tilt modes coupling behavior near the MPB.
Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals
Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou
2018-03-01
Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.
Phase-locked loops. [in analog and digital circuits communication system
Gupta, S. C.
1975-01-01
An attempt to systematically outline the work done in the area of phase-locked loops which are now used in modern communication system design is presented. The analog phase-locked loops are well documented in several books but discrete, analog-digital, and digital phase-locked loop work is scattered. Apart from discussing the various analysis, design, and application aspects of phase-locked loops, a number of references are given in the bibliography.
Jankowska-Sumara, Irena; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Podgórna, Maria; Oh, Soo Han; Majchrowski, Andrzej
2017-09-01
Raman light scattering was used to detect the sequence of transitions in a PbHf1-xSnxO3 (PHS) single crystal with x = 0.30 in a temperature range of 77-873 K. Changes of Raman spectra were observed in the vicinity of structural phase transitions: between the antiferroelectric (AFE1)-antiferroelectric (AFE2)—intermediate—paraelectric phases. Light scattering and dielectric investigations were used to find out the nature and sequence of the phase transition, as well as the large dielectric permittivity values measured at the phase transition, by searching for the soft-phonon-mode behavior. The experimentally recorded spectra were analyzed in terms of the damped-harmonic oscillator model for the phonon bands. It is demonstrated that the structural phase transformations in PHS can be considered as the result of softening of many modes, not only the ferroelectric one. It was also proved that locally broken symmetry effects are present at temperatures far above the Curie temperature and are connected with the softening of two optic modes of different nature.
Multimodal method for scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic flow
Kooijman, G.; Testud, P.; Aurégan, Y.; Hirschberg, A.
2008-03-01
The scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic mean flow has been modelled with a multimodal method. Technological applications are for instance internal combustion engine exhaust silencers and silencers in industrial duct systems. Both two-dimensional (2D) rectangular and 2D cylindrical geometry and uniform mean flow as well as non-uniform mean flow profiles are considered. Model results for the scattering of plane waves in case of uniform flow, in which case an infinitely thin shear layer is formed downstream of the area expansion, are compared to results obtained by other models in literature. Generally good agreement is found. Furthermore, model results for the scattering are compared to experimental data found in literature. Also here fairly good correspondence is observed. When employing a turbulent pipe flow profile in the model, instead of a uniform flow profile, the prediction for the downstream transmission- and upstream reflection coefficient is improved. However, worse agreement is observed for the upstream transmission and downstream reflection coefficient. On the contrary, employing a non-uniform jet flow profile, which represents a typical shear layer flow downstream of the expansion, gives worse agreement for the downstream transmission- and the upstream reflection coefficient, whereas prediction for the upstream transmission and downstream reflection coefficient improves.
Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt
2007-01-01
In optical Doppler measurements, the path length of the light is unknown. To facilitate quantitative measurements, we develop a phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with separate fibers for illumination and detection. With this setup, path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.
2004-07-30
Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Kim, Tae Hyun [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Jankowska-Sumara, Irena [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Kojima, Seiji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Phase transition mechanisms were studied in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3.} • Acoustic phonons showed anomalies at 472 and 426 K due to phase transitions. • Brillouin data showed evidence for presence of polar clusters in paraelectric phase. • An order-disorder mechanism of the PE to AFE2 transition was proved. - Abstract: Specific heat, dielectric, powder X-ray diffraction and Brillouin scattering studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3} crystal were performed. The specific heat data revealed clear anomalies at T{sub 1} = 473.5 and T{sub 2} = 426.3 K on cooling, which could be attributed to onset of first order phase transitions from the paraelectric (PE) phase to an intermediate antiferroelectric phase (AFE2) and the AFE2 phase to another antiferroelectric phase (AFE1), respectively. The estimated entropy changes at T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pointed to mainly an order-disorder and displacive character of these transitions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data showed a complex superstructure of the intermediate phase with a = 11.895(6) Å, b = 11.936(4) Å, c = 8.223(3) Å at 453 K. Brillouin studies revealed pronounced softening of longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in the PE phase associated with its broadening. The broadening and softening exhibited maximum values at T{sub 1}. Additional acoustic anomalies, that is, abrupt frequency shifts for LA and transverse acoustic (TA) modes were also observed at T{sub 2}. Brillouin scattering data also showed presence of a broad central peak (CP) that exhibited highest intensity at T{sub 1}. The observed temperature dependences of acoustic modes and CP indicate order-disorder character of the FE to AFE2 phase transition and importance of polar precursor clusters in the PE phase. The obtained data also suggest that the intermediate antiferroelectric phases in Sn{sup 4+} doped PbHfO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3} may have very similar structures
Basic equations of interfacial area transport in gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, I.; Yoshida, K.; Naitoh, M.; Okada, H.; Morii, T.
2011-01-01
The rigorous and consistent formulations of basic equations of interfacial area transport were derived using correlation functions of characteristic function of each phase and velocities of each phase. Turbulent transport term of interfacial area concentration was consistently derived and related to the difference between interfacial velocity and averaged velocity of each phase. Constitutive equations of turbulent transport terms of interfacial area concentration were proposed for bubbly flow. New transport model and constitutive equations were developed for churn flow. These models and constitutive equations are validated by experimental data of radial distributions of interfacial area concentration in bubbly and churn flow. (author)
Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xin; Chen Ying; Meng Guozhan; Feng Xu; Gong Ming; He Song; Li Gang; Liu Chuan; Liu Yubin; Ma Jianping; Meng Xiangfei; Shen Yan; Zhang Jianbo
2007-01-01
We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Luescher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume
Multimodal method for scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic flow
Kooijman, G.; Testud, P.; Aurégan, Y.; Hirschberg, A.
2008-01-01
The scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic mean flow has been modelled with a multimodal method. Technological applications are for instance internal combustion engine exhaust silencers and silencers in industrial duct systems. Both two-dimensional (2D) rectangular
Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); McEachran, R. P. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2015-04-21
The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.
Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.
2015-01-01
The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies
Ultrafast x-ray scattering on nanoparticle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plech, A; Ibrahimkutty, S; Issenmann, D; Kotaidis, V; Siems, A
2013-01-01
Pulsed X-ray scattering is used for the determination of structural dynamics of laser-irradiated gold particles. By combining several scattering methods such as powder scattering, small angle scattering and diffuse wide angle scattering it is possible to reconstruct the kinetics of structure evolution on several lengths scales and derive complementary information on the particles and their local environment. A generic structural phase diagram for the reaction as function of delay time after laser excitation and laser fluence can be constructed.
Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak
2011-06-01
Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.
No surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lentzen, M.
2014-01-01
In a recent article it is argued that the far-field expansion of electron scattering, a pillar of electron diffraction theory, is wrong (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). It is further argued that in the first Born approximation of electron scattering the intensity of the electron wave is not conserved to first order in the scattering potential. Thus a “mystery of the missing phase” is investigated, and the supposed flaw in scattering theory is seeked to be resolved by postulating a standing spherical electron wave (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). In this work we show, however, that these theses are wrong. A review of the essential parts of scattering theory with careful checks of the underlying assumptions and limitations for high-energy electron scattering yields: (1) the traditional form of the far-field expansion, comprising a propagating spherical wave, is correct; (2) there is no room for a missing phase; (3) in the first Born approximation the intensity of the scattered wave is conserved to first order in the scattering potential. The various features of high-energy electron scattering are illustrated by wave-mechanical calculations for an explicit target model, a Gaussian phase object, and for a Si atom, considering the geometric conditions in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: Treacy and Van Dyck (2012) argue that the far-field expansion of electron scattering is wrong. The chief theses of that former work are wrong. There is no room for the missing phase proposed by Treacy and Van Dyck. There is no violation of the intensity conservation to first order in the scattering potential. Calculations for a phase object and an atomic target confirm traditional scattering theory
Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun
2017-01-01
This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers. - Highlights: • Radiative transfer on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer is modeled. • Spectral reflectance of the printed samples are measured and calculated. • The hue changes with dot area rate because of the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks.
Petta, V.; Pharmakakis, N.; Papatheodorou, G. N.; Yannopoulos, S. N.
2008-06-01
We present a detailed dynamic light scattering study of the phase separation in the ocular lens emerging during cold cataract development. Cold cataract is a phase separation effect that proceeds via spinodal decomposition of the lens cytoplasm with cooling. The intensity autocorrelation functions of the lens protein content are analyzed with the aid of two methods, providing information on the populations and dynamics of the scattering elements associated with cold cataract. It is found that the temperature dependence of many measurable parameters changes appreciably at the characteristic temperature ˜16±1°C which is associated with the onset of cold cataract. By extending the temperature range of this work to previously inaccessible regimes, i.e., well below the phase separation or coexistence curve at Tcc , we have been able to accurately determine the temperature dependence of the collective and self-diffusion coefficients of proteins near the spinodal. The analysis showed that the dynamics of proteins bears some resemblance to the dynamics of structural glasses, where the apparent activation energy for particle diffusion increases below Tcc , indicating a highly cooperative motion. Application of ideas developed for studying the critical dynamics of binary protein-solvent mixtures, as well as the use of a modified Arrhenius equation, enabled us to estimate the spinodal temperature Tsp of the lens nucleus. The applicability of dynamic light scattering as a noninvasive, early-diagnostic tool for ocular diseases is also demonstrated in light of the findings of the present paper.
Spectrometer for Particle Characterization With a New Multiple-Scattering Theory, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are two major commercial types of light-scattering particle size analyzers: Static Light Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering. They are expensive, delicate,...
Freedman, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Renbaum-Wollf, L.; Lambe, A. T.; Davidovits, P.; Kebabian, P. L.
2015-12-01
Accurate, as compared to precise, measurement of aerosol absorption has always posed a significant problem for the particle radiative properties community. Filter-based instruments do not actually measure absorption but rather light transmission through the filter; absorption must be derived from this data using multiple corrections. The potential for matrix-induced effects is also great for organic-laden aerosols. The introduction of true in situ measurement instruments using photoacoustic or photothermal interferometric techniques represents a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. However, measurement artifacts caused by changes in humidity still represent a significant hurdle as does the lack of a good calibration standard at most measurement wavelengths. And, in the absence of any particle-based absorption standard, there is no way to demonstrate any real level of accuracy. We, along with others, have proposed that under the circumstance of low single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption is best determined by difference using measurement of total extinction and scattering. We discuss a robust, compact, field deployable instrument (the CAPS PMssa) that simultaneously measures airborne particle light extinction and scattering coefficients and thus the single scattering albedo (SSA) on the same sample volume. The extinction measurement is based on cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) techniques as employed in the CAPS PMex particle extinction monitor; scattering is measured using integrating nephelometry by incorporating a Lambertian integrating sphere within the sample cell. The scattering measurement is calibrated using the extinction measurement of non-absorbing particles. For small particles and low SSA, absorption can be measured with an accuracy of 6-8% at absorption levels as low as a few Mm-1. We present new results of the measurement of the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot generated by an inverted methane diffusion flame at 630 nm. A value
Scattering cross section for various potential systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myagmarjav Odsuren
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.
Scattering cross section for various potential systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
2017-08-15
We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.
A scattering model for rain depolarization
Wiley, P. H.; Stutzman, W. L.; Bostian, C. W.
1973-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the amount of depolarization caused by precipitation for a propagation path. In the model the effects of each scatterer and their interactions are accounted for by using a series of simplifying steps. It is necessary only to know the forward scattering properties of a single scatterer. For the case of rain the results of this model for attenuation, differential phase shift, and cross polarization agree very well with the results of the only other model available, that of differential attenuation and differential phase shift. Calculations presented here show that horizontal polarization is more sensitive to depolarization than is vertical polarization for small rain drop canting angle changes. This effect increases with increasing path length.
Marston, Philip L; Zhang, Likun
2017-05-01
When investigating the radiation forces on spheres in complicated wave-fields, the interpretation of analytical results can be simplified by retaining the s-function notation and associated phase shifts imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, as taken to be the case in the present investigation, there is an additional simplification in that partial-wave phase shifts become real numbers that vanish when the partial-wave index becomes large and when the wave-number-sphere-radius product vanishes. By restricting attention to monopole and dipole phase shifts, transitions in the axial radiation force for axisymmetric wave-fields are found to be related to wave-field parameters for traveling and standing Bessel wave-fields by considering the ratio of the phase shifts. For traveling waves, the special force conditions concern negative forces while for standing waves, the special force conditions concern vanishing radiation forces. An intermediate step involves considering the functional dependence on phase shifts. An appendix gives an approximation for zero-force plane standing wave conditions. Connections with early investigations of acoustic levitation are mentioned and some complications associated with viscosity are briefly noted.
The pion form factor and δ11-phase of ππ-scattering in the quark confinement model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.; Mashnik, S.G.
1988-01-01
The pion form factor F π 1 (t) in the space- and time-like regions, p-wave phase of the ππ-scattering σ 1 1 (t) and the pion electromagnetic radius r π 2 =0.43 fm 2 are calculated in the quark confinement model. The comparison with experimental data and other approaches is performed. The agreement with experimental data in the region -10 GeV 2 2 is obtained
Interfacial structures and area transport in upward and downward two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, S. S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.
2003-01-01
An experimental study has been carried out for upward and downward two-phase flow to study local interfacial structures and interfacial area transport. The flow studied, is an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, two-phase flow, in 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm ID test sections. Flow regime map is obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology. A four sensor conductivity probe is used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, in bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development reveal the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provides a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along a flow field. An interfacial area transport equation is used for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration are compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. The differences in the interfacial structures and interfacial area transport in co-current downward and upward two-phase flows are studied
Fluid temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, Jeong Soo; Yang, Sun Kyu; Min, Kyung Ho; Chung, Moon Ki; Choi, Young Don
1999-06-01
Temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering was developed for the liquid water at temperature of 20 - 90 degree C and atmospheric pressure. Strong relationship between Raman scattering characteristics and liquid temperature change was observed. Various kinds of measurement techniques, such as Peak Intensity, Peak Wavelength, FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum), PMCR ( Polymer Monomer Concentration RAte), TSIR (Temperature Sensitive Intensity Ratio), IDIA (Integral Difference Intensity Area) were tested. TSIR has the highest accuracy in mean error or 0.1 deg C and standard deviation of 0.1248 deg C. This report is one of the results in developing process of Raman temperature measurement technique. Next research step is to develop Raman temperature measurement technique at the high temperature and high pressure conditions in single or two phase flows. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 38 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, H.P.
1993-01-01
The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for continuum wave functions has been used to calculate the scattering length and phase shifts over extremely low energies ranging from 0 to 1 eV very accurately for electron-helium scattering. The scattering length is calculated very accurately with wave functions computed exactly at zero energy, resulting in an upper bound of 1.1784. The electron correlation and polarization of the target by the scattering electron, which are very important in these calculations, have been taken into account in an accurate ab initio manner through the configuration-interaction procedure by optimizing both bound and continuum orbitals simultaneously at each kinetic energy of the scattered electron. Detailed results for scattering length, differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections obtained from the phase shifts are presented. The present scattering length is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result of Andrick and Bitsch [J. Phys. B 8, 402 (1975)] and the theoretical result of O'Malley, Burke, and Berrington [J. Phys. B 12, 953 (1979)]. There is excellent agreement between the present total cross sections and the corresponding experimental measurements of Buckman and Lohmann [J. Phys. B 19, 2547 (1986)]. The present momentum-transfer cross sections also show remarkable agreement with the experimental results of Crompton, Elford, and Robertson [Aust. J. Phys. 23, 667 (1970)
Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob
1986-01-01
With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...... to distinguish charge and magnetic scattering is described....
Proposal for the design of a small-angle neutron scattering facility at a pulsed neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kley, W.
1980-01-01
The intensity-resolution-background considerations of an optimized small angle neutron scattering facility are reviewed for the special case of a pulsed neutron source. In the present proposal we conclude that for 'true elastic scattering experiments' filters can be used instead of expensive neutron guide tubes since low background conditions can be achieved by a combined action of filters as well as a proper time gating of the twodimensional detector. The impinging neutron beam is monochromatized by phasing a disk chopper to the neutron source pulses and in the scattered beam a second disk chopper is used to eliminate the inelastically scattered neutrons. Therefore, no time of fligh analysis is necessary for the scattered neutron intensity and true-elastic conditions are obtained by simply gating the two-dimensional detector. Considering a 4 m thick shield for the pulsed neutron source and choosing for optimum conditions a detector area element of (2.5 cm) 2 and a sample area of (1.25 cm) 2 , than for a minimum sample-detector-distance of 1.5 m, a maximum neutron source diameter of 6.67 cm is required in order to maintain always the optimum intensity- and resolution requirements
Light scattering from crystals, glasses and liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbaswamy, K.R.
1984-09-01
The theory of inelastic light scattering from a model system in the crystalline, disordered and liquid phases is analyzed. The roles of disorder induced first order scattering and second order scattering are clarified in the context of the classical liquid. The correlation functions appropriate for the various contributions are identified and useful ways of processing experimental data are pointed out. (author)
How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1974-01-01
The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)
Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Chung, Euiheon; Yang, Changhuei
2014-01-01
Light scattering in biological tissue significantly limits the accessible depth for localized optical interrogation and deep-tissue optical imaging. This challenge can be overcome by exploiting the time-reversal property of optical phase conjugation (OPC) to reverse multiple scattering events or suppress turbidity. However, in living tissue, scatterers are highly movable and the movement can disrupt time-reversal symmetry when there is a latency in the OPC playback. In this paper, we show that the motion-induced degradation of the OPC turbidity-suppression effect through a dynamic scattering medium shares the same decorrelation time constant as that determined from speckle intensity autocorrelation – a popular conventional measure of scatterer movement. We investigated this decorrelation characteristic time through a 1.5-mm-thick dorsal skin flap of a living mouse and found that it ranges from 50 ms to 2.5 s depending on the level of immobilization. This study provides information on relevant time scales for applying OPC to living tissues. PMID:25657876
Elastic ππ scattering to two loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bijnens, J.; Colangelo, G.; Gasser, J.; Ecker, G.; Sainio, M.E.
1995-11-01
We evaluate analytically the elastic ππ scattering amplitude to two loops in chiral perturbation theory and give numerical values for the two S-wave scattering lengths and for the phase shift difference δ 0 0 -δ 1 1 . (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dianoux, A.J.; Volino, F.; Heidemann, A.; Hervet, H.
1975-01-01
Neutron quasi-elastic scattering experiments in the smectic H, C and A phases of TBBA are presented, using the high resolution backscattering technique. The data are analyzed in terms of translational motion and are characterized by an apparent self diffusion coefficient Dsub(ap). The physical meaning of Dsub(ap) is discussed in terms of the true bulk self diffusion tensor and other kinds of translational motions [fr
Scattering engineering in continuously shaped metasurface: An approach for electromagnetic illusion
Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Shao, Liyang
2016-07-01
The control of electromagnetic waves scattering is critical in wireless communications and stealth technology. Discrete metasurfaces not only increase the design and fabrication complex but also cause difficulties in obtaining simultaneous electric and optical functionality. On the other hand, discontinuous phase profiles fostered by discrete systems inevitably introduce phase noises to the scattering fields. Here we propose the principle of a scattering-harness mechanism by utilizing continuous gradient phase stemming from the spin-orbit interaction via sinusoidal metallic strips. Furthermore, by adjusting the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal metallic strip, the scattering characteristics of the underneath object can be greatly changed and thus result in electromagnetic illusion. The proposal is validated by full-wave simulations and experiment characterization in microwave band. Our approach featured by continuous phase profile, polarization independent performance and facile implementation may find widespread applications in electromagnetic wave manipulation.
Neutron scattering studies on phase transitions in (CD3ND3)2CuCl4 and MnCl2.4H2O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steijger, J.J.M.
1982-10-01
In this thesis the results of neutron scattering experiments and measurements of the susceptibility on some compounds which display magnetic and/or structural phase transitions, are described. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 shows that neutron scattering can be used as a tool for unravelling problems in crystallographic and magnetic structure. The qualitative different scattering patterns for scatters are described. In chapters 3 and 4 an investigation on the layered ferromagnets (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 and (CD 3 ND 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 is described. In these materials the copper ions, which carry the magnetic moment, are more closely spaced in the ab-planes, and consequently the magnetic interactions in these planes are stronger than those in the direction perpendicular to these planes by about a factor of 10 5 . Chapter 5 presents a discussion and a calculation of demagnetizing and dipole fields. The second part of this thesis is concerned with the transition from the antiferromagnetic to the paramagnetic phase in MnCl 2 .4H 2 O in the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the preferred direction of the magnetic moments. The theory is reviewed in chapter 6 and in chapter 7 the correction procedure for inhomogeneous internal fields is applied to the measurements on MnCl 2 .4H 2 O. (Auth./C.F.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natkaniec, I.; Smirnov, L.S.; Shuvalov, L.A.
2002-01-01
The effect of temperature and concentration on the lattice parameters and amplitude-weighted phonon density of states in mixed salts of ammonium-potassium halides is investigated by neutron powder diffraction and incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. In the disordered α-phase (NaCl type) ammonium ions exhibit a fast stochastic reorientation at phonon frequency rates down to ca. 80 K. At 10 K, the incoherent inelastic neutron scattering spectra display four distinct ammonium excitations: two (resonant) modes below and two (localized) above the Debye cut-off energy of potassium halides. High-frequency localized modes correspond to translational and librational vibrations of NH 4 ions. These modes are typical for the ordered phases of ammonium halides. The effect of ammonium concentration on localized and resonant modes is studied for the K 1-x (NH 4 ) x I mixed salts. The harmonic excitations of ammonium in a hypothetical low-temperature α-phase of NH 4 I are approximated to ca. 30, 95, 155 and 250 cm -1 . In a real low-temperature ordered γ-phase of NH 4 I, translational ammonium vibrations are observed at ca. 140-160 cm -1 and librational vibrations at ca.300 cm -1
Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology
Kostorz, G
1979-01-01
Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and
Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays
Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan
2016-01-01
This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seonhyeop Shin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The elastic properties of KF-substituted perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3 were investigated by dielectric measurements and Brillouin light scattering. The ferroelectric phase transition occurred at substantially lower temperature due to KF substitution, which was attributed to the modification of the covalency in Pb–O and Ti–O bonds. The longitudinal acoustic (LA mode of KF-substituted PbTiO3 showed a frequency softening in the paraelectric phase, which was accompanied by increasing acoustic damping. This indicated that polarization fluctuations responsible for the acoustic anomalies were enhanced by KF substitution.
Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Rozanov, Vladimir V.
2012-01-01
A numerical accuracy analysis of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) solution based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth parts is presented. The analysis uses three different algorithms based on the discrete ordinate method (DOM). Two methods, DOMAS and DOM2+, that do not use the truncation of the phase function, are compared against the TMS-method. DOMAS and DOM2+ use the Small-Angle Modification of RTE and the single scattering term, respectively, as an anisotropic part. The TMS method uses Delta-M method for truncation of the phase function along with the single scattering correction. For reference, a standard discrete ordinate method, DOM, is also included in analysis. The obtained results for cases with high scattering anisotropy show that at low number of streams (16, 32) only DOMAS provides an accurate solution in the aureole area. Outside of the aureole, the convergence and accuracy of DOMAS, and TMS is found to be approximately similar: DOMAS was found more accurate in cases with coarse aerosol and liquid water cloud models, except low optical depth, while the TMS showed better results in case of ice cloud.
Anomalous and resonance small-angle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.
1988-01-01
Significant changes in the small-angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous-dispersion terms for the scattering factor (X-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous-dispersion terms is first discussed before consideration of how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous-scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with X-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analog experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scattering are discussed. (orig.)
Inelastic light scattering in crystals
Sushchinskii, M. M.
The papers presented in this volume are concerned with a variety of problems in optics and solid state physics, such as Raman scattering of light in crystals and disperse media, Rayleigh and inelastic scattering during phase transitions, characteristics of ferroelectrics in relation to the general soft mode concept, and inelastic spectral opalescence. A group-theory approach is used to classify the vibrational spectra of the crystal lattice and to analyze the properties of idealized crystal models. Particular attention is given to surface vibrational states and to the study of the surface layers of crystals and films by light scattering methods.
Ultrasound scatter in heterogeneous 3D microstructures: Parameters affecting multiple scattering
Engle, B. J.; Roberts, R. A.; Grandin, R. J.
2018-04-01
This paper reports on a computational study of ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous metal microstructures. Random spatial fluctuations in elastic properties over a range of length scales relative to ultrasound wavelength can give rise to scatter-induced attenuation, backscatter noise, and phase front aberration. It is of interest to quantify the dependence of these phenomena on the microstructure parameters, for the purpose of quantifying deleterious consequences on flaw detectability, and for the purpose of material characterization. Valuable tools for estimation of microstructure parameters (e.g. grain size) through analysis of ultrasound backscatter have been developed based on approximate weak-scattering models. While useful, it is understood that these tools display inherent inaccuracy when multiple scattering phenomena significantly contribute to the measurement. It is the goal of this work to supplement weak scattering model predictions with corrections derived through application of an exact computational scattering model to explicitly prescribed microstructures. The scattering problem is formulated as a volume integral equation (VIE) displaying a convolutional Green-function-derived kernel. The VIE is solved iteratively employing FFT-based con-volution. Realizations of random microstructures are specified on the micron scale using statistical property descriptions (e.g. grain size and orientation distributions), which are then spatially filtered to provide rigorously equivalent scattering media on a length scale relevant to ultrasound propagation. Scattering responses from ensembles of media representations are averaged to obtain mean and variance of quantities such as attenuation and backscatter noise levels, as a function of microstructure descriptors. The computational approach will be summarized, and examples of application will be presented.
Cho, Hsun-Wei; Liao, Kuo-Lun; Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen
2018-05-01
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the anatase TiO2 films hydrothermally grown on the seeded fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are examined in this work. Structural characterizations of the TiO2 films were conducted using Raman scattering spectroscopy. Although there is no obvious rutile peak appearing, an asymmetrical peak centered at ∼399 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of the TiO2 films deposited either on the low-temperature-formed seed layers or with low concentrations of Ti precursor. The asymmetrical Raman shift can be deconvoluted into the B1g mode of anatase and Eg mode of rutile TiO2 peaks centered at ∼399 cm-1 and ∼447 cm-1, respectively. Therefore, a minute quantity of rutile phase was inspected in the anatase film using Raman scattering spectroscopy. With the same light harvesting ability, we found that the PEC performance of the anatase TiO2 film was significantly enhanced as the minute quantity of rutile phase existing in the film. It is ascribed to the formation of the anatase/rutile heterojunction which is beneficial to the charge separation in the photoanode.
Light Focusing through Scattering Media by Particle Swarm Optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Hui-Ling; Chen Zi-Yang; Sun Cun-Zhi; Liu Ji-Lin; Pu Ji-Xiong
2015-01-01
We demonstrate light focusing through scattering media by introducing particle swarm optimization for modulating the phase wavefront. Light refocusing is simulated numerically based on the angular spectrum method and the circular Gaussian distribution model of the scattering media. Experimentally, a spatial light modulator is used to control the phase of incident light, so as to make the scattered light converge to a focus. The influence of divided segments of input light and the effect of the number of iterations on light intensity enhancement are investigated. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical analysis for light refocusing. (paper)
Kinetics of the stress induced phase transition in quartz by real-time neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibhardt, H.; Eckold, G.; Guethoff, F.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The stability regime of the incommensurate phase of quartz is influenced by uniaxial stress. Hence, the phase transition can be induced under isothermal conditions by the application of external mechanical forces. Using real-time neutron scattering the time evolution of structural changes is investigated id detail during stress variations. The time dependent behaviour of the satellite reflection is compared with that one of the fundamental Bragg reflection which - via primary extinction - gives information about the perfection of the crystal. On increasing stress the perfection of the lattice is destroyed immediately while the modulated structure is built up with a delay of about 1 s. Decreasing the stress leads to a reverse behaviour. Moreover, there is evidence that under periodical load residual non-relaxed strain fields survive leading to a different temperature dependence as compared to static conditions. This finding is compatible with pronounced hysteresis effects observed under cycling stress. It is argued that these residual strains are associated with non-relaxed topological 4-line defects, that drive the structural changes in quartz (1). (author)
Nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bryan, R.
1978-01-01
Here are presented 0 to 800 MeV nucleon-nucleon elastic and inelastic phase parameters derived by several groups: Arndt and Roper; Hoshizaki; Bugg; Bystricky, Lechanoine, and Lehar; and Bryan, Clark, and VerWest. Resonant-like behavior appears in the 1 D 2 and 3 F 3 states above the inelastic threshold in Hoshizaki's analysis but not in Arndt and Roper's. The np data are inadequate to permit determination of the I = O phase parameters above 600 MeV. 27 references
Meson-meson scattering in lattice QED2+1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiebig, H.R.; Woloshyn, R.M.
1993-01-01
Scattering phase shifts of a meson-meson system in staggered 3-dimensional lattice QED are computed. The main task of the simulation is to obtain a discrete set of two-body energy levels. These are extracted from a 4-point time correlation matrix and then used to obtain scattering phase shifts. The results for the l = 0 and l = 2 partial waves are consistent with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction of the residual meson-meson interaction. (orig.)
Some results on inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramm, A.G.
2008-01-01
A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)
Light-scattering evolution from particles to regolith
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Videen, Gorden; Muinonen, Karri
2015-01-01
The radiative-transfer coherent-backscattering (RT–CB) model is unique among light-scattering methodologies as it can be used to calculate accurate light-scattering properties of sparsely populated particle volumes with sizes ranging from subwavelength to infinity. We use the RT–CB model to examine the evolution of light-scattering properties as a volume of particles increases from wavelength-sized to several hundreds of wavelengths. We examine the evolution of light-scattering intensity phase function and polarization, as well as linear and circular polarization ratios. We confirm the expected trends for backscattering features to shift to smaller phase angles as the volume increases. In addition, we also see the amplitude of these features increases to some maximum for volumes having size parameters kR∼100, before decaying to less than half this amplitude as their volumes approach infinity. - Highlights: • We use the RT–CB method to examine how gross light-scattering properties evolve as particle size increases. • The transition from a wavelength-sized particle to a large particle is not monotonic. • Backscattering properties associated with the CB mechanism appear to have a peak value before decaying asymptotically
Light Scattering by Ice Crystals Containing Air Bubbles
Zhang, J.; Panetta, R. L.; Yang, P.; Bi, L.
2014-12-01
The radiative effects of ice clouds are often difficult to estimate accurately, but are very important for interpretation of observations and for climate modeling. Our understanding of these effects is primarily based on scattering calculations, but due to the variability in ice habit it is computationally difficult to determine the required scattering and absorption properties, and the difficulties are only compounded by the need to include consideration of air and carbon inclusions of the sort frequently observed in collected samples. Much of the previous work on effects of inclusions in ice particles on scattering properties has been conducted with variants of geometric optics methods. We report on simulations of scattering by ice crystals with enclosed air bubbles using the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) and improved geometric optics method (IGOM). A Bouncing Ball Model (BBM) is proposed as a parametrization of air bubbles, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that air inclusions lead to a smoothing of variations in the phase function, weakening of halos, and a reduction of backscattering. We extend these studies by examining the effects of the particular arrangement of a fixed number of bubbles, as well as the effects of splitting a given number of bubbles into a greater number of smaller bubbles with the same total volume fraction. The result shows that the phase function will not change much for stochastic distributed air bubbles. It also shows that local maxima of phase functions are smoothed out for backward directions, when we break bubbles into small ones, single big bubble scatter favors more forward scattering than multi small internal scatters.
Carey, Ralph; Lucchese, Robert R.; Gianturco, F. A.
2013-05-01
We present scattering calculations of electron collisions with the platinum-containing compound cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), commonly known as cisplatin, between 0.5 eV and 6 eV, and the corresponding isolated Pt atom from 0.1 eV to 10 eV. We find evidence of resonances in e--CDDP scattering, using an ab initio description of the target. We computed scattering matrix elements from equations incorporating exchange and polarization effects through the use of the static-exchange plus density functional correlation potential. Additionally, we made use of a purely local adiabatic model potential that allows Siegert eigenstates to be calculated, thereby allowing inspection of the possible resonant scattering wave functions. The total cross section for electron scattering from (5d10) 1S Pt displays a large magnitude, monotonic decay from the initial collision energies, with no apparent resonance scattering features in any scattering symmetry. By contrast, the e--CDDP scattering cross section shows a small feature near 3.8 eV, which results from a narrow, well localized resonance of b2 symmetry. These findings are then related to the possible electron-mediated mechanism of the action of CDDP on DNA replication as suggested by recent experiments.
Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.
2010-01-01
The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e + -Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126±42 meV, with a scattering length of A scat =(14.2±2.1)a 0 , while the threshold annihilation parameter, Z eff , was 93.9±26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Z eff of 91±17 at a collision energy of about 490±50 meV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.
2013-01-01
The optimal orientation averaging scheme (regular lattice grid scheme or quasi Monte Carlo (QMC) method), the minimum number of orientations, and the corresponding computing time required to calculate the average single-scattering properties (i.e., asymmetry parameter (g), single-scattering albedo (ω o ), extinction efficiency (Q ext ), scattering efficiency (Q sca ), absorption efficiency (Q abs ), and scattering phase function at scattering angles of 90° (P 11 (90°)), and 180° (P 11 (180°))) within a predefined accuracy level (i.e., 1.0%) were determined for four different nonspherical atmospheric ice crystal models (Gaussian random sphere, droxtal, budding Bucky ball, and column) with maximum dimension D=10μm using the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation at λ=0.55, 3.78, and 11.0μm. The QMC required fewer orientations and less computing time than the lattice grid. The calculations of P 11 (90°) and P 11 (180°) required more orientations than the calculations of integrated scattering properties (i.e., g, ω o , Q ext , Q sca , and Q abs ) regardless of the orientation average scheme. The fewest orientations were required for calculating g and ω o . The minimum number of orientations and the corresponding computing time for single-scattering calculations decreased with an increase of wavelength, whereas they increased with the surface-area ratio that defines particle nonsphericity. -- Highlights: •The number of orientations required to calculate the average single-scattering properties of nonspherical ice crystals is investigated. •Single-scattering properties of ice crystals are calculated using ADDA. •Quasi Monte Carlo method is more efficient than lattice grid method for scattering calculations. •Single-scattering properties of ice crystals depend on a newly defined parameter called surface area ratio
Light scattering in glass-ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendy, S.C.
2002-01-01
Full text: Glass-ceramic materials with microstructures comprised of dispersed nanocrystallites in a residual glass matrix show promise for many new technological applications. In particular, transparent glass-ceramics offer low thermal expansion and stability, in addition to the prospect of novel non-linear optical properties that can arise from the nanocrystallites. Good transparency requires low optical scattering and low atomic absorption. Light scattering in the glass-ceramic arises primarily from the glass-crystallite interface. The attenuation due to scattering (turbidity) will depend upon the difference in refractive index of the two phases and the size and distribution of nanocrystallites in the glass. Here we consider models of glass-ceramic structure formation and look at scattering in these model structures to increase our understanding of the transparency of glass-ceramics
Classical trajectory in non-relativistic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, A.C.
1978-01-01
With the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics as a guide, the classical trajectory is incorporated into quantum scattering theory. The Feynman path integral formalism is used as a starting point, and classical transformation theory is applied to the phase of the wave function so derived. This approach is then used to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude for potential scattering. It is found that the amplitude can be expressed in an impact parameter representation similar to the Glauber formalism. Connections are then made to the Glauber approximation and to semiclassical approximations derived from the Feynman path integral formalism. In extending this analysis to projectile-nucleus scattering, an approximation scheme is given with the first term being the same as in Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Higher-order approximations, thus, are found to give corrections to the fixed scatterer form of the impulse approximation inherent in the Glauber theory
Modeling and measurement of interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, Sidharth; Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, Takashi
2010-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling approaches in characterizing interfacial structures in gas-liquid two-phase flow. For the modeling of the interfacial structure characterization, the interfacial area transport equation proposed earlier has been studied to provide a dynamic and mechanistic prediction tool for two-phase flow analysis. A state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe technique has been developed to obtain detailed local interfacial structure information in a wide range of flow regimes spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flows. Newly obtained interfacial area data in 8 x 8 rod-bundle test section are also presented. This paper also reviews available models of the interfacial area sink and source terms and existing databases. The interfacial area transport equation has been benchmarked using condensation bubbly flow data.
Small-angle scattering studies of the fully hydrated phospholipid DPPC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mason, P.C.; Gaulin, B.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (CANADA); Epand, R.M. [Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (CANADA); Wignall, G.D.; Lin, J.S. [Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
1999-01-01
Small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering studies have been carried out on fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles. This system is known to exhibit two distinct ripple (P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}}) phases, which depend on sample history, at temperatures intermediate to its high-temperature liquid crystalline (L{sub {alpha}}), phase, and its low-temperature gel (L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}}), phase. On cooling from the L{sub {alpha}} phase, the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase displays a complex multipeak diffraction pattern that differs significantly from the diffraction pattern seen in the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase obtained on warming from the L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase. Examining the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase on cooling using small-angle neutron scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques leads to the conclusion that this phase is characterized by a long wavelength ripple ({lambda}{sub r}{approximately}330thinsp{Angstrom}) and a highly monoclinic unit cell ({gamma}{approximately}125{degree}). As the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase is traversed in temperature, the ripple wavelength changes significantly while the monoclinicity remains unchanged. Ripples from the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase are seen to persist into the L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase on cooling, leading to increased small-angle scattering characteristic of a disordered stacking of the lamellae. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Hybrid Theory of Electron-Hydrogenic Systems Elastic Scattering
Bhatia, A. K.
2007-01-01
Accurate electron-hydrogen and electron-hydrogenic cross sections are required to interpret fusion experiments, laboratory plasma physics and properties of the solar and astrophysical plasmas. We have developed a method in which the short-range and long-range correlations can be included at the same time in the scattering equations. The phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the scattering lengths have rigorous upper bounds. The phase shifts in the resonance region can be used to calculate very accurately the resonance parameters.
Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of the Specific Features of the Phase Transitions in (NH4)2WO2F4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, Lev S.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Flerov, I.N.; Laptash, N.M.
2009-01-01
Oxyfluoride (NH4)2WO2F4 has been studied by the inelastic neutron scattering method over a wide temperature range 10 300 K at two initial neutron energies of 15 and 60 meV. The role of tetrahedral ammonium groups in the mechanism of sequential phase transitions at T1 = 201 K and T2 = 160 K has been discussed
Swiftly moving focus points and forming shapes through the scattering media
Tran, Vinh; Sahoo, Sujit Kumar; Tang, Dongliang; Dang, Cuong
2018-02-01
Propagation of light through scattering media such as ground glass or biological tissue limits the quality and intensity of focusing point. Wave front shaping technique which uses spatial light modulator (SLM) devices to reshape the field profile of incoming light, is considered as one of the most effective and convenient methods. Advanced biomedical or manufacturing applications require drawing various contours or shapes quickly and precisely. However, creating each shape behind the scattering medium needs different phase profiles, which are time consuming to optimize or measure. Here, we demonstrate a technique to draw various shapes or contours behind the scattering medium by swiftly moving the focus point without any mechanical movements. Our technique relies on the existence of speckle correlation property in scattering media, also known as optical memory effect. In our procedure, we first modulate the phase-only SLM to create the focus point on the other side of scattering medium. Then, we digitally shift the preoptimized phase profile on the SLM and ramp it to tilt the beam accordingly. Now, the incoming beam with identical phase profile shines on the same scattering region at a tilted angle to regenerate the focus point at the desired position due to memory effect. Moreover, with linear combination of different field patterns, we can generate a single phase profile on SLM to produce two, three or more focus points simultaneously on the other side of a turbid medium. Our method could provide a useful tool for prominent applications such as opto-genetic excitation, minimally invasive laser surgery and other related fields.
Scattering of the field of a multi-element phased array by human ribs
Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.
2012-03-01
The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of invasiveness and risk of harmful side effects. Despite its advantages, however, there are a number of significant challenges currently hindering its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes. Multielement random arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successfully treating a patient for liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the ribcage. A mesh of quadratic pressure patches was generated using CT scan data for ribs nine to twelve on the right side. A boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used, in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array past the ribs at both intercostal and transcostal treatment locations. This method has the advantage of accounting for full effects of scattering and diffraction in three dimensions under continuous wave excitation.
A Theory of Radar Scattering by the Moon
Senior, T. B. A.; Siegel, K. M.
1959-01-01
A theory is described in which the moon is regarded as a "quasi-smooth" scatterer at radar frequencies. A scattered pulse is then composed of a number of individual returns each of which is provided by a single scattering area. In this manner it is possible to account for all the major features of the pulse, and the evidence in favor of the theory is presented. From a study of the measured power received at different frequencies, it is shown that the scattering area nearest to the earth is the source of a specular return, and it is then possible to obtain information about the material of which the area is composed. The electromagnetic constants are derived and their significance discussed.
van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.
2016-05-01
We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.
Chapter 8. Elementary notions on the quantum theory of potential scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1977-01-01
Elementary notions in quantum theory of potential scattering are exposed: stationary states of scattering, calculus of cross section, scattering by central potential, phase shift method. In complement, these questions are studied: free particle (stationary states of well defined kinetic momentum); phenomenological description of collisions with absorption; elementary examples of application of the scattering theory [fr
State-to-state inelastic and reactive molecular beam scattering from surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lykke, K.R.; Kay, B.D.
1990-01-01
Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) laser spectroscopic and molecular beam-surface scattering techniques are coupled to study inelastic and reactive gas-surface scattering with state-to-state specificity. Rotational, vibrational, translational and angular distributions have been measured for the inelastic scattering of HCI and N 2 from Au(111). In both cases the scattering is direct-inelastic in nature and exhibits interesting dynamical features such as rotational rainbow scattering. In an effort to elucidate the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring on surfaces we have extended our quantum-resolved scattering studies to include the reactive scattering of a beam of gas phase H-atoms from a chlorinated metal surface M-CI. The nascent rotational and vibrational distributions of the HCI product are determined using REMPI. The thermochemistry for this reaction on Au indicates that the product formation proceeding through chemisorbed H-atoms is slightly endothermic while direct reaction of a has phase H-atom with M-CI is highly exothermic (ca. 50 kcal/mole). Details of the experimental techniques, results and implications regarding the scattering dynamics are discussed. 55 ref., 8 fig
Markov chain solution of photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs.
Lin, Ying; Northrop, William F; Li, Xuesong
2016-11-14
This work introduces a Markov Chain solution to model photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs via anisotropic scattering process, i.e., Mie scattering. Results show that the proposed Markov Chain model agree with commonly used Monte Carlo simulation for various mediums such as medium with non-uniform phase functions and absorbing medium. The proposed Markov Chain solution method successfully converts the complex multiple scattering problem with practical phase functions into a matrix form and solves transmitted/reflected photon angular distributions by matrix multiplications. Such characteristics would potentially allow practical inversions by matrix manipulation or stochastic algorithms where widely applied stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations usually fail, and thus enable practical diagnostics reconstructions such as medical diagnosis, spray analysis, and atmosphere sciences.
Optimisation of anomalous scattering and structural studies of proteins using synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helliwell, J.R.
1979-01-01
Measurements from crystalline protein samples using SR can be conveniently divided into two classes. Firstly, small samples, large unit cells, the rapid collection of accurate high resolution data and dynamical studies can all benefit from the high intensity. Secondly, an important extension of the classical methods of protein structure determination arises from use of the tunability of SR for optimization of anomalous scattering and subsequent phase determination. This paper concentrates on this area of application. (author)
Upper and lower bounds in nonrelativistic scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darewych, J.W.; Pooran, R.
1980-01-01
We consider the problem of determining rigorous upper and lower bounds to the difference between the exact and approximate scattering phase shift, for the case of central potential scattering. The present work is based on the Kato identities and the phase-amplitude formalism of potential scattering developed by Calogero. For nonstationary approximations, a new first-order (in small quantities) bound is established which is particularly useful for partial waves other than s waves. Similar, but second-order, bounds are established for approximations which are stationary. Some previous results, based on the use of the Lippman--Schwinger equation are generalized, and some new bounds are established. These are illustrated, and compared to previous results, by a simple example. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the present results in comparison to those derived previously. Finally, we present the generalization of some of the present formalism to the case of many-channel scattering involving many-particle systems, and discuss some of the difficulties of their practical implementation
Laser light scattering basic principles and practice
Chu, Benjamin
1994-01-01
Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.
Electron microscope phase enhancement
Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.
2010-06-15
A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.
Practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eloranta, E.W.
1998-01-01
An equation to predict the intensity of the multiply scattered lidar return is presented. Both the scattering cross section and the scattering phase function can be specified as a function of range. This equation applies when the cloud particles are larger than the lidar wavelength. This approximation considers photon trajectories with multiple small-angle forward-scattering events and one large-angle scattering that directs the photon back toward the receiver. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations, exact double-scatter calculations, and lidar data demonstrate that this model provides accurate results. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.
1996-06-01
This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and 137 Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of 137 Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations
Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dennison, B.
1987-01-01
Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources. 14 references
3D Tomographic SAR Imaging in Densely Vegetated Mountainous Rural Areas in China and Sweden
Feng, L.; Muller, J. P., , Prof
2017-12-01
3D SAR Tomography (TomoSAR) and 4D SAR Differential Tomography (Diff-TomoSAR) exploit multi-baseline SAR data stacks to create an important new innovation of SAR Interferometry, to unscramble complex scenes with multiple scatterers mapped into the same SAR cell. In addition to this 3-D shape reconstruction and deformation solution in complex urban/infrastructure areas, and recent cryospheric ice investigations, emerging tomographic remote sensing applications include forest applications, e.g. tree height and biomass estimation, sub-canopy topographic mapping, and even search, rescue and surveillance. However, these scenes are characterized by temporal decorrelation of scatterers, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion and an open issue regarding possible height blurring and accuracy losses for TomoSAR applications particularly in densely vegetated mountainous rural areas. Thus, it is important to develop solutions for temporal decorrelation, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion.We report here on 3D imaging (especially in vertical layers) over densely vegetated mountainous rural areas using 3-D SAR imaging (SAR tomography) derived from data stacks of X-band COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight and L band ALOS-1 PALSAR data stacks over Dujiangyan Dam, Sichuan, China and L and P band airborne SAR data (BioSAR 2008 - ESA) in the Krycklan river catchment, Northern Sweden. The new TanDEM-X 12m DEM is used to assist co - registration of all the data stacks over China first. Then, atmospheric correction is being assessed using weather model data such as ERA-I, MERRA, MERRA-2, WRF; linear phase-topography correction and MODIS spectrometer correction will be compared and ionospheric correction methods are discussed to remove tropospheric and ionospheric delay. Then the new TomoSAR method with the TanDEM-X 12m DEM is described to obtain the number of scatterers inside each pixel, the scattering amplitude and phase of each scatterer and finally extract
Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids
Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin
2017-10-01
For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John
2011-01-01
The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.
Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gas-cluster plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singhal, H.; Arora, V.; Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.
2005-01-01
An experimental study is presented on scattering of laser light from argon gas clusters irradiated by multipicosecond Nd:glass laser pulses at moderate intensity of 10 15 W/cm 2 . Space-resolved side-scattered laser light has a predominantly blueshifted and broadened spectrum (up to ∼8 nm). The scattered signal intensity and average blueshift exhibit a marked dependence on the backing pressure of the gas. The results are explained by self-phase modulation of the laser radiation due to changing polarizability as the heated clusters pass through resonance at 3 times the critical density during which intense absorption and scattering occurs. The observed blueshift may be useful in diagnostics of this important phase of laser-cluster interactions
Chaotic scattering and quantum dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doron, Eyal.
1992-11-01
The main concern of this thesis is the application of the semiclassical approximation to quantum chaotic scattering systems. We deal with two separate, although interconnected, subjects. The first subject dealt with is the semiclassical characterization of the fluctuations of the S matrix. A particular important parameter is the magnetic field B, and we show how the correlation length and line shape of S matrix elements under a change of B may be derived. An effect which is present in many physical wave systems is absorption of energy flux. We show how absorption affects both the reflectivity and the scattering phase and time delay of a scattering system. In the second part of the thesis, we show how the formalism and results obtained from chaotic scattering can be applied to the investigation of closed chaotic systems, and in particular to chaotic billiards. The semiclassical expansion for billiards is presented. In the last part of the thesis we deal with the statistics of S matrices of chaotic scattering systems. The main message of this work is that scattering matrix, and its classical counterpart the Poincare Scattering Map can be used to yield a powerful formulation of the quantum mechanical dynamics of bounded systems. (author)
Phase shift analysis of pion-nucleon elastic scattering from the threshold to 2.5 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayed, Rachid.
1976-10-01
An energy-independent phase-shift analysis of pion-nucleon elastic scattering is performed from threshold to 2.5 GeV/c 2 masses. It uses a coherent set of data (cross sections and polarizations for the 3 final states: π + p, π - p and π 0 n) constructed from a considerable number (approximately 30000) of experimental points. Empirical criteria of smoothness behavior with energy of the partial waves allowed to obtain a unique solution, i.e. one set of phases shifts (up to I waves) at each energy. The consistency of the solution has been checked by a dispersion relation on the B invariant amplitude. The partial amplitudes obtained have been fitted separately, as a function of energy, in order to extract resonance from background. New resonances of small elasticity have been identified. Parameters (mass, width and elasticity) of all resonant states are given. A dynamical interpretation of the resonance is discussed and their recurrence in the Chew-Frautschi plot are shown [fr
Continuum multiple-scattering approach to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.
1979-01-01
The multiple-scattering approach to the electronic continuum of molecules is described. The continuum multiple-scattering model (CMSM) was developed as a survey tool and, as such was required to satisfy two requirements. First, it had to have a very broad scope, which means (i) molecules of arbitrary geometry and complexity containing any atom in the periodic system, (ii) continuum electron energies from 0-1000 eV, and (iii) capability to treat a large range of processes involving both photoionization and electron scattering. Second, the structure of the theory was required to lend itself to transparent, physical interpretation of major spectral features such as shape resonances. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the continuum multiple scattering method is presented, as well as its applications to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization. Highlights of recent applications in these two areas are reviewed. The major impact of the resulting studies over the last few years has been to establish the importance of shape resonances in electron collisions and photoionization of practically all (non-hydride) molecules
High-precision positioning of radar scatterers
Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.
2016-01-01
Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy
Two-phase interfacial area and flow regime modeling in FLOWTRAN-TF code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, F.G. III; Lee, S.Y.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.
1992-01-01
FLOWTRAN-TF is a new two-component, two-phase thermal-hydraulics code to capture the detailed assembly behavior associated with loss-of-coolant accident analyses in multichannel assemblies of the SRS reactors. The local interfacial area of the two-phase mixture is computed by summing the interfacial areas contributed by each of three flow regimes. For smooth flow regime transitions, the code uses an interpolation technique in terms of component void fraction for each basic flow regime
Two-body Dirac equations for nucleon-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Bin; Crater, Horace
2003-01-01
We investigate the nucleon-nucleon interaction by using the meson exchange model and the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics. This approach to the two-body problem has been successfully tested for QED and QCD relativistic bound states. An important question we wish to address is whether or not the two-body nucleon-nucleon scattering problem can be reasonably described in this approach as well. This test involves a number of related problems. First we must reduce our two-body Dirac equations exactly to a Schroedinger-like equation in such a way that allows us to use techniques to solve them already developed for Schroedinger-like systems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Related to this, we present a new derivation of Calogero's variable phase shift differential equation for coupled Schroedinger-like equations. Then we determine if the use of nine meson exchanges in our equations gives a reasonable fit to the experimental scattering phase shifts for n-p scattering. The data involve seven angular momentum states including the singlet states 1 S 0 , 1 P 1 , 1 D 2 and the triplet states 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , 3 S 1 , 3 D 1 . Two models that we have tested give us a fairly good fit. The parameters obtained by fitting the n-p experimental scattering phase shift give a fairly good prediction for most of the p-p experimental scattering phase shifts examined (for the singlet states 1 S 0 , 1 D 2 and triplet states 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 ). Thus the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics present us with a fit that encourages the exploration of a more realistic model. We outline generalizations of the meson exchange model for invariant potentials that may possibly improve the fit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguen Suan Khan; Pervushin, V.N.
1975-01-01
An eikonal representation has been obtained for the amplitude of the πN-scattering in the asymptotic form into account the anomalous nucleon magnetic moment leads to the introduction of the additive term in to the eikonal phase which is responsible for the spin flip in the scattering process. The Coulomb interference is considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canto, L F [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics
1977-03-21
The elastic scattering of two /sup 16/O nuclei is studied by the generator coordinate method. Phase shifts are calculated and compared to the results of calculations by the resonating group method. A method to include absorption in the generator coordinate method is suggested and 13 and 19 MeV angular distributions are calculated. The agreement with experiment is appreciably improved.
Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret
2013-01-01
In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)
Small-angle and surface scattering from porous and fractal materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, S. K.
1998-09-18
We review the basic theoretical methods used to treat small-angle scattering from porous materials, treated as general two-phase systems, and also the basic experimental techniques for carrying out such experiments. We discuss the special forms of the scattering when the materials exhibit mass or surface fractal behavior, and review the results of recent experiments on several types of porous media and also SANS experiments probing the phase behavior of binary fluid mixtures or polymer solutions confined in porous materials. Finally, we discuss the analogous technique of off-specular scattering from surfaces and interfaces which is used to study surface roughness of various kinds.
Scattering state solutions of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation with the Varshni potential model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oluwadare, O.J. [Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Department of Physics, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria); Oyewumi, K.J. [Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Minna, Niger State (Nigeria)
2017-02-15
The scattering state of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation with the Varshni potential was studied. The asymptotic wave function, the scattering phase shift and normalization constant were obtained for any J states by dealing with the centrifugal term using a suitable approximation. The analytical properties of the scattering amplitude and the bound state energy were obtained and discussed. Our numerical and graphical results indicate that the scattering phase shift depends largely on total angular momentum J, screening parameter β and potential strengths a and b. (orig.)
Fazio, Marco; De Siena, Luca; Benson, Phillip
2016-04-01
Seismic attenuation and scattering are two attributes that can be linked with porosity and permeability in laboratory experiments. When measuring these two quantities using seismic waveforms recorder at lithospheric and volcanic scales the areas of highest heterogeneity, as batches of melt and zones of high deformation, produce anomalous values of the measured quantities, the seismic quality factor and scattering coefficient. When employed as indicators of heterogeneity and absorption in volcanic areas these anomalous effects become strong indicators of magma accumulation and tectonic boundaries, shaping magmatic chambers and conduit systems. We perform attenuation and scattering measurements and imaging using seismic waveforms produced in laboratory experiments, at frequencies ranging between the kHz and MHz. As attenuation and scattering are measured from the shape of the envelopes, disregarding phases, we are able to connect the observations with the micro fracturing and petrological quantities previously measured on the sample. Connecting the imaging of dry and saturated samples via these novel attributes with the burst of low-period events with increasing saturation and deformation is a challenge. Its solution could plant the seed for better relating attenuation and scattering tomography measurements to the presence of fluids and gas, therefore creating a novel path for reliable porosity and permeability tomography. In particular for volcanoes, being able to relate attenuation/scattering measurements with low-period micro seismicity could deliver new data to settle the debate about if both source and medium can produce seismic resonance.
Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering studies of self-assembled nano structured materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sung Min
2009-01-01
Full text: Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering are very powerful techniques to investigate nano structured materials. In this presentation, examples of nano structured materials investigated by neutron and x-ray scattering will be presented. Part I: The unique anisotropic physical properties of columnar discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications as electronic devices. For many practical applications, however, it is crucial to obtain uniaxially oriented and highly ordered columnar superstructures of DLC molecules covering macroscopic area. Here, we present a simple and straight-forward approach to fabricate uniaxially oriented and highly ordered columnar superstructures of cobalt octa(n-decylthio) porphyrazine (CoS 1 0), a discotic supra-molecule, in bulk and on substrates [1] over a macroscopic length scale, utilizing an applied magnetic field and the interaction of CoS 1 0 with an OTS-functionalized substrate. The details of the oriented and ordered columnar nano-structures are investigated by SANS and GISAXS. Part II: Self-assembly of one-dimensional (1D) nanoparticles with metallic or semiconducting properties into highly ordered superstructures using various interactions has been of great interest as a route towards materials with new functionalities. Here, we report a new phase diagram of negatively charged 1D nanoparticle (cROD) and cationic liposome (CL) complexes in water which exhibit three different highly ordered phases [2]. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering measurements show that the cROD-CL complexes exhibit three different highly ordered phases, intercalated lamellar, doubly intercalated lamellar and centered rectangular phases, depending on particle curvature and electrostatic interactions. The new phase diagram can be used to understand and design new highly ordered self-assemblies of 1D nanoparticles in soft matter which provide new functionalities. (author)
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safaeinili, A.
1994-01-01
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion
Introducing Scattering Theory with a Computer
Merrill, John R.
1973-01-01
Discusses a new method of presenting the scattering theory, including classical explanation of cross sections, quantum mechanical expressions for phase shifts, and use of a computer to solve problems. (CC)
Turbulence Scattering of High Harmonic Fast Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M. Ono; J. Hosea; B. LeBlanc; J. Menard; C.K. Phillips; R. Wilson; P. Ryan; D. Swain; J. Wilgen; S. Kubota; and T.K. Mau
2001-01-01
Effect of scattering of high-harmonic fast-magnetosonic waves (HHFW) by low-frequency plasma turbulence is investigated. Due to the similarity of the wavelength of HHFW to that of the expected low-frequency turbulence in the plasma edge region, the scattering of HHFW can become significant under some conditions. The scattering probability increases with the launched wave parallel-phase-velocity as the location of the wave cut-off layer shifts toward the lower density edge. The scattering probability can be reduced significantly with higher edge plasma temperature, steeper edge density gradient, and magnetic field. The theoretical model could explain some of the HHFW heating observations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
Neutron scattering study of the magnetism in a nanocrystalline/amorphous material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosov, N.
1995-01-01
Recently developed nanocrystalline magnetic systems are of considerable interest fundamentally as well as technologically. One such material is Fe 73.5 B 9 Si 13.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 , which can be produced by heat treating the amorphous precursor. This forms a noncrystalline phase with typical dimension of 350 angstrom as determined by neutron diffraction. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been employed to investigate the properties of the nanocrystallized material over the temperature range from 10 K to 725 K, a regime where no significant structural changes are expected to occur. In zero field and low temperature (10 K) the authors obtained an isotropic scattering pattern. The application of a relatively modest field to sweep out the domains changed the scattering to a butterfly wings pattern typical of patterns dominated by magnetic elastic intensity. Up to 450 K this pattern changed only modestly, while for substantially higher temperatures the ratio of inelastic to elastic scattering increased rapidly as the magnetic phase transition of the intergranular component (≅ 575 K) was approached. Triple axis inelastic measurements showed that the majority of the magnetic inelastic scattering was from the nanocrystalline phase
Neutron scattering study of the magnetism in a nanocrystalline/amorphous material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosov, N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Reactor Radiation Div.; Lynn, J.W. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Reactor Radiation Div.]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fish, G.E. [Allied Signal Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States)
1995-12-31
Recently developed nanocrystalline magnetic systems are of considerable interest fundamentally as well as technologically. One such material is Fe{sub 73.5}B{sub 9}Si{sub 13.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}, which can be produced by heat treating the amorphous precursor. This forms a noncrystalline phase with typical dimension of 350 {angstrom} as determined by neutron diffraction. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been employed to investigate the properties of the nanocrystallized material over the temperature range from 10 K to 725 K, a regime where no significant structural changes are expected to occur. In zero field and low temperature (10 K) the authors obtained an isotropic scattering pattern. The application of a relatively modest field to sweep out the domains changed the scattering to a butterfly wings pattern typical of patterns dominated by magnetic elastic intensity. Up to 450 K this pattern changed only modestly, while for substantially higher temperatures the ratio of inelastic to elastic scattering increased rapidly as the magnetic phase transition of the intergranular component ({approx_equal} 575 K) was approached. Triple axis inelastic measurements showed that the majority of the magnetic inelastic scattering was from the nanocrystalline phase.
Electron scattering in large water clusters from photoelectron imaging with high harmonic radiation.
Gartmann, Thomas E; Hartweg, Sebastian; Ban, Loren; Chasovskikh, Egor; Yoder, Bruce L; Signorell, Ruth
2018-06-06
Low-energy electron scattering in water clusters (H2O)n with average cluster sizes of n < 700 is investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using high harmonic radiation at photon energies of 14.0, 20.3, and 26.5 eV for ionization from the three outermost valence orbitals. The measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron anisotropy parameter β as a function of cluster size. A remarkably steep decrease of β with increasing cluster size is observed, which for the largest clusters reaches liquid bulk values. Detailed electron scattering calculations reveal that neither gas nor condensed phase scattering can explain the cluster data. Qualitative agreement between experiment and simulations is obtained with scattering calculations that treat cluster scattering as an intermediate case between gas and condensed phase scattering.
Ross, David S; Thurston, George M; Lutzer, Carl V
2008-08-14
In this paper we present a method for determining the free energies of ternary mixtures from light scattering data. We use an approximation that is appropriate for liquid mixtures, which we formulate as a second-order nonlinear partial differential equation. This partial differential equation (PDE) relates the Hessian of the intensive free energy to the efficiency of light scattering in the forward direction. This basic equation applies in regions of the phase diagram in which the mixtures are thermodynamically stable. In regions in which the mixtures are unstable or metastable, the appropriate PDE is the nonlinear equation for the convex hull. We formulate this equation along with continuity conditions for the transition between the two equations at cloud point loci. We show how to discretize this problem to obtain a finite-difference approximation to it, and we present an iterative method for solving the discretized problem. We present the results of calculations that were done with a computer program that implements our method. These calculations show that our method is capable of reconstructing test free energy functions from simulated light scattering data. If the cloud point loci are known, the method also finds the tie lines and tie triangles that describe thermodynamic equilibrium between two or among three liquid phases. A robust method for solving this PDE problem, such as the one presented here, can be a basis for optical, noninvasive means of characterizing the thermodynamics of multicomponent mixtures.
Rost, S.; Earle, P.S.
2010-01-01
We detect seismic scattering from the core-mantle boundary related to the phase PKKP (PK. KP) in data from small aperture seismic arrays in India and Canada. The detection of these scattered waves in data from small aperture arrays is new and allows a better characterization of the fine-scale structure of the deep Earth especially in the southern hemisphere. Their slowness vector is determined from array processing allowing location of the heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary using back-projection techniques through 1D Earth models. We identify strong scattering at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath the Caribbean, Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula as well as beneath southern Africa. An analysis of the scattering regions relative to sources and receivers indicates that these regions represent areas of increased scattering likely due to increased heterogeneities close to the CMB. The 1. Hz array data used in this study is most sensitive to heterogeneity with scale lengths of about 10. km. Given the small size of the scatterers, a chemical origin of the heterogeneities is likely. By comparing the location of the fine-scale heterogeneity to geodynamical models and tomographic images, we identify different scattering mechanisms in regions related to subduction (Caribbean and Patagonia) and dense thermo chemical piles (Southern Africa). ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Hyperon-Nulceon Scattering from Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Thomas Luu; Konstantinos Orginos; Elizabetta Pallante; Assumpta Parreno; Martin Savage
2007-10-01
We present results of the first fully-dynamical lattice QCD determination of hyperon-nucleon scattering. One s-wave phase shift was determined for n{Lambda} scattering in both spin-channels at pion masses of 350, 490, and 590 MeV, and for n{Sigma}^- scattering in both spin channels at pion masses of 490, and 590 MeV. The calculations were performed with domain-wall valence quarks on dynamical, staggered gauge configurations with a lattice spacing of b ~0.125 fm.
Trajectory approach to dissipative quantum phase space dynamics: Application to barrier scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, Keith H.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2004-01-01
The Caldeira-Leggett master equation, expressed in Lindblad form, has been used in the numerical study of the effect of a thermal environment on the dynamics of the scattering of a wave packet from a repulsive Eckart barrier. The dynamics are studied in terms of phase space trajectories associated with the distribution function, W(q,p,t). The equations of motion for the trajectories include quantum terms that introduce nonlocality into the motion, which imply that an ensemble of correlated trajectories needs to be propagated. However, use of the derivative propagation method (DPM) allows each trajectory to be propagated individually. This is achieved by deriving equations of motion for the partial derivatives of W(q,p,t) that appear in the master equation. The effects of dissipation on the trajectories are studied and results are shown for the transmission probability. On short time scales, decoherence is demonstrated by a swelling of trajectories into momentum space. For a nondissipative system, a comparison is made of the DPM with the 'exact' transmission probability calculated from a fixed grid calculation
Ultrasound-mediated Optical Imaging and Focusing in Scattering Media
Suzuki, Yuta
Because of its non-ionizing and molecular sensing nature, light has been an attractive tool in biomedicine. Scanning an optical focus allows not only high-resolution imaging but also manipulation and therapy. However, due to multiple photon scattering events, conventional optical focusing using an ordinary lens is limited to shallow depths of one transport mean free path (lt'), which corresponds to approximately 1 mm in human tissue. To overcome this limitation, ultrasonic modulation (or encoding ) of diffuse light inside scattering media has enabled us to develop both deep-tissue optical imaging and focusing techniques, namely, ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) and time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing. While UOT measures the power of the encoded light to obtain an image, TRUE focusing generates a time-reversed (or phase-conjugated) copy of the encoded light, using a phase-conjugate mirror to focus light inside scattering media beyond 1 lt'. However, despite extensive progress in both UOT and TRUE focusing, the low signal-to-noise ratio in encoded-light detection remains a challenge to meeting both the speed and depth requirements for in vivo applications. This dissertation describes technological advancements of both UOT and TRUE focusing, in terms of their signal detection sensitivities, operational depths, and operational speeds. The first part of this dissertation describes sensitivity improvements of encoded-light detection in UOT, achieved by using a large area (˜5 cm x 5 cm) photorefractive polymer. The photorefractive polymer allowed us to improve the detection etendue by more than 10 times that of previous detection schemes. It has enabled us to resolve absorbing objects embedded inside diffused media thicker than 80 lt', using moderate light power and short ultrasound pulses. The second part of this dissertation describes energy enhancement and fluorescent excitation using TRUE focusing in turbid media, using
Ab Initio Many-Body Calculations Of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P
2008-12-17
We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He and {sup 10}Be and proton scattering on {sup 3,4}He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A = 4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-{sup 4}He S-wave phase shifts. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-{sup 10}Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in {sup 11}Be.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Q.; Thorsen, T.J.; Su, J.; Ge, J.M.; Huang, J.P.
2009-01-01
We simulate the single-scattering properties (SSPs) of dust aerosols with both spheroidal and spherical shapes at a wavelength of 0.55 μm for two refractive indices and four effective radii. Herein spheres are defined by preserving both projected area and volume of a non-spherical particle. It is shown that the relative errors of the spheres to approximate the spheroids are less than 1% in the extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo, and less than 2% in the asymmetry factor. It is found that the scattering phase function of spheres agrees with spheroids better than the Henyey-Greenstein (HG) function for the scattering angle range of 0-90 o . In the range of ∼90-180 o , the HG function is systematically smaller than the spheroidal scattering phase function while the spherical scattering phase function is smaller from ∼90 o to 145 o but larger from ∼145 o to 180 o . We examine the errors in reflectivity and absorptivity due to the use of SSPs of equivalent spheres and HG functions for dust aerosols. The reference calculation is based on the delta-DISORT-256-stream scheme using the SSPs of the spheroids. It is found that the errors are mainly caused by the use of the HG function instead of the SSPs for spheres. By examining the errors associated with the delta-four- and delta-two-stream schemes using various approximate SSPs of dust aerosols, we find that the errors related to the HG function dominate in the delta-four-stream results, while the errors related to the radiative transfer scheme dominate in the delta-two-stream calculations. We show that the relative errors in the global reflectivity due to the use of sphere SSPs are always less than 5%. We conclude that Mie-based SSPs of non-spherical dust aerosols are well suited in radiative flux calculations.
Anomalous neutron scattering and feroelectric modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanathan, K.S.
1977-01-01
It is suggested that anomalous neutron scattering could prove a powerful experimental tool in studying ferroelectric phase transition, the sublattice displacements of the soft modes as well as their symmetry characteristics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahmen, B.
1994-12-01
A recently proposed method for a strong coupling analysis of scattering phenomena in hamiltonian lattice field theories is applied to the SU(2) Yang-Mills model in (2 + 1) dimensions. The calculation is performed up to second order in the hopping parameter. All relevant quantities that characterize the collision between the lightest glueballs in the elastic region - cross section, phase shifts, resonance parameters - are determined. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, B.O.; Blagojevic, N.
2009-01-01
Under direction of the Australian Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet ANSTO has commenced a three-year project with the title Characterisation of Explosives by XRD and Neutron Scattering Techniques. The initial focus is on Ammonium Nitrate (AN) based explosives with the intention to investigate all important energetic materials currently used in improvised explosives devices (IED) by various combative groups. The principal objective of the project is to use laboratory x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron scattering fingerprinting to establish associations between the diffraction pattern information and the manufacturing sources of AN and other energetic materials. Laboratory and SR experiments, at room temperature, of commercial AN show that the phase structure is principally AN-IV. Our earlier work observed other phases such as previously unreported transformation of AN-IV to AN-II, again at room temperature. Our interest is to also characterise added phase stabiliser material, solid-solution altered AN as well as desiccant and moisture barrier coatings. This prospect points strongly to the possibility of fingerprinting the materials for inferring source-association relations. The enhanced pattern definition achievable using powder SR diffraction is expected to improve the crystal structure characterisation of the materials. Other properties such as temperature dependent phase transformation and strain anisotropy as well as trace elemental impurities will provide information to further define association linkages. (Author)
Ross, Michelle; Wakefield, Jon
2015-10-01
Two-phase study designs are appealing since they allow for the oversampling of rare sub-populations which improves efficiency. In this paper we describe a Bayesian hierarchical model for the analysis of two-phase data. Such a model is particularly appealing in a spatial setting in which random effects are introduced to model between-area variability. In such a situation, one may be interested in estimating regression coefficients or, in the context of small area estimation, in reconstructing the population totals by strata. The efficiency gains of the two-phase sampling scheme are compared to standard approaches using 2011 birth data from the research triangle area of North Carolina. We show that the proposed method can overcome small sample difficulties and improve on existing techniques. We conclude that the two-phase design is an attractive approach for small area estimation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smetanin, Sergei N; Fedin, Aleksandr V; Shurygin, Anton S
2013-01-01
The possibilities of implementing four-wave mixing (FWM) phase matching at stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a birefringent SRS-active crystal placed in a cavity with highly reflecting mirrors have been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Phase-matching angles providing conditions for five types of phase matching are determined for a calcite crystal. These types are characterised by different combinations of polarisation directions for the interacting waves and ensure FWM generation of either an anti-Stokes wave or the second Stokes SRS component. In agreement with the calculation results, low-threshold generation of the second Stokes SRS component with a wavelength 0.602 μm was observed at angles of incidence on a calcite crystal of 4.8° and 18.2°, under SRS pumping at a wavelength of 0.532 μm. This generation is due to the FWM coupling of the first and second Stokes SRS components with the SRS-pump wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy: theory and numerical analysis.
Joo, Chulmin; de Boer, Johannes F
2013-11-01
We present a theoretical framework for field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy based on a spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) platform. SD-OCPM is an interferometric microscope capable of quantitative measurement of amplitude and phase of scattered light with high phase stability. Field-based dynamic light scattering (F-DLS) analysis allows for direct evaluation of complex-valued field autocorrelation function and measurement of localized diffusive and directional dynamic properties of biological and material samples with high spatial resolution. In order to gain insight into the information provided by F-DLS microscopy, theoretical and numerical analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of numerical aperture of the imaging optics. We demonstrate that sharp focusing of fields affects the measured diffusive and transport velocity, which leads to smaller values for the dynamic properties in the sample. An approach for accurately determining the dynamic properties of the samples is discussed.
Pettersson, Niklas; Wessman, Sten; Hertzman, Staffan; Studer, Andrew
2017-04-01
Duplex stainless steels are designed to solidify with ferrite as the parent phase, with subsequent austenite formation occurring in the solid state, implying that, thermodynamically, a fully ferritic range should exist at high temperatures. However, computational thermodynamic tools appear currently to overestimate the austenite stability of these systems, and contradictory data exist in the literature. In the present work, the high-temperature phase equilibria of four commercial duplex stainless steel grades, denoted 2304, 2101, 2507, and 3207, with varying alloying levels were assessed by measurements of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation at temperatures approaching 1673 K (1400 °C) using a novel in-situ neutron scattering approach. All grades became fully ferritic at some point during progressive heating. Higher austenite dissolution temperatures were measured for the higher alloyed grades, and for 3207, the temperature range for a single-phase ferritic structure approached zero. The influence of temperatures in the region of austenite dissolution was further evaluated by microstructural characterization using electron backscattered diffraction of isothermally heat-treated and quenched samples. The new experimental data are compared to thermodynamic calculations, and the precision of databases is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remhof, Arndt, E-mail: arndt.remhof@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Hydrogen and Energy, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Züttel, Andreas [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Hydrogen and Energy, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ramirez-Cuesta, Timmy; García-Sakai, Victoria [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Frick, Bernhard [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38002 Grenoble (France)
2013-12-12
Highlights: • Inelastic fixed window sans offer new possibilities in neutron backscattering spectrometers. • Two different kind of reorientational motion were identified in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4}. • Thermally activated jump rotation. - Abstract: LiBH{sub 4} contains 18.5 wt% hydrogen and undergoes a structural phase transition (orthorhombic → hexagonal) at 381 K which is associated with a large increase in hydrogen and lithium solid-state mobility. We investigated the hydrogen dynamics in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4} by quasielastic neutron scattering, including a new kind of inelastic fixed window scan (IFWS). In the temperature range from 175 to 380 K the H-dynamics is dominated by thermally activated rotational jumps of the [BH{sub 4}]{sup −} anion around the c3 axis with an activation energy of about 162 meV. In agreement with earlier NMR data, a second type of thermally activated motion with an activation energy of about 232 meV could be identified using the IFWS. The present study of hydrogen dynamics in LiBH{sub 4} illustrates the feasibility of using IFWS on neutron backscattering spectrometers as a probe of localised motion.
Puig, Julieta; Williams, Roberto J J; Hoppe, Cristina E
2013-09-25
Paraffins are typical organic phase change materials (PCM) used for latent heat storage. For practical applications they must be encapsulated to prevent leakage or agglomeration during fusion. In this study it is shown that eicosane (C20H42 = C20) in the melted state could be dissolved in the hydrophobic domains of poly(dodecyl methacrylate) (PDMA) up to concentrations of 30 wt %, avoiding the need of encapsulation. For a 30 wt % solution, the heat of phase change was close to 69 J/g, a reasonable value for its use as a PCM. The fully converted solution remained transparent at 80 °C with no evidence of phase separation but became opaque by cooling as a consequence of paraffin crystallization. Heating above the melting temperature regenerated a transparent material. A high contrast ratio and abrupt transition between opaque and transparent states was observed for the 30 wt % blends, with a transparent state at 35 °C and an opaque state at 23 °C. This behavior was completely reproducible during consecutive heating/cooling cycles, indicating the possible use of this material as a thermally reversible light scattering (TRLS) film.
Roberson, A.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Kennedy, P.L.
2005-01-01
Broadcast surveys using conspecific calls are currently the most effective method for detecting northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during the breeding season. These surveys typically use alarm calls during the nestling phase and juvenile food-begging calls during the fledgling-dependency phase. Because goshawks are most vocal during the courtship phase, we hypothesized that this phase would be an effective time to detect goshawks. Our objective was to improve current survey methodology by evaluating the probability of detecting goshawks at active nests in northern Minnesota in 3 breeding phases and at 4 broadcast distances and to determine the effective area surveyed per broadcast station. Unlike previous studies, we broadcast calls at only 1 distance per trial. This approach better quantifies (1) the relationship between distance and probability of detection, and (2) the effective area surveyed (EAS) per broadcast station. We conducted 99 broadcast trials at 14 active breeding areas. When pooled over all distances, detection rates were highest during the courtship (70%) and fledgling-dependency phases (68%). Detection rates were lowest during the nestling phase (28%), when there appeared to be higher variation in likelihood of detecting individuals. EAS per broadcast station was 39.8 ha during courtship and 24.8 ha during fledgling-dependency. Consequently, in northern Minnesota, broadcast stations may be spaced 712m and 562 m apart when conducting systematic surveys during courtship and fledgling-dependency, respectively. We could not calculate EAS for the nestling phase because probability of detection was not a simple function of distance from nest. Calculation of EAS could be applied to other areas where the probability of detection is a known function of distance.
Virtual-pion and two-photon production in pp scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholten, O.; Korchin, A.Yu.
2002-01-01
Two-photon production in pp scattering is proposed as a means of studying virtual-pion emission. Such a process is complementary to real-pion emission in pp scattering. The virtual-pion signal is embedded in a background of double-photon bremsstrahlung. We have developed a model to describe this background process and show that in certain parts of phase space the virtual-pion signal gives significant contributions. In addition, through interference with the two-photon bremsstrahlung background, one can determine the relative phase of the virtual-pion process
Lee, Ho; Fahimian, Benjamin P.; Xing, Lei
2017-03-01
This paper proposes a binary moving-blocker (BMB)-based technique for scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In concept, a beam blocker consisting of lead strips, mounted in front of the x-ray tube, moves rapidly in and out of the beam during a single gantry rotation. The projections are acquired in alternating phases of blocked and unblocked cone beams, where the blocked phase results in a stripe pattern in the width direction. To derive the scatter map from the blocked projections, 1D B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied by using the detected information in the shaded regions. The scatter map of the unblocked projections is corrected by averaging two scatter maps that correspond to their adjacent blocked projections. The scatter-corrected projections are obtained by subtracting the corresponding scatter maps from the projection data and are utilized to generate the CBCT image by a compressed-sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction algorithm. Catphan504 and pelvis phantoms were used to evaluate the method’s performance. The proposed BMB-based technique provided an effective method to enhance the image quality by suppressing scatter-induced artifacts, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area. Compared to CBCT without a blocker, the spatial nonuniformity was reduced from 9.1% to 3.1%. The root-mean-square error of the CT numbers in the regions of interest (ROIs) was reduced from 30.2 HU to 3.8 HU. In addition to high resolution, comparable to that of the benchmark image, the CS-based reconstruction also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio in seven ROIs. The proposed technique enables complete scatter-corrected CBCT imaging with width-truncated projections and allows reducing the acquisition time to approximately half. This work may have significant implications for image-guided or adaptive radiation therapy, where CBCT is often used.
Iterative numerical solution of scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomio, L.; Adhikari, S.K.
1995-05-01
An iterative Neumann series method, employing a real auxiliary scattering integral equation, is used to calculate scattering lengths and phase shifts for the atomic Yukawa and exponential potentials. For these potentials the original Neumann series diverges. The present iterative method yields results that are far better, in convergence, stability and precision, than other momentum space methods. Accurate result is obtained in both cases with an estimated error of about 1 in 10 10 after some-8-10 iterations. (author). 31 refs, 2 tabs
Statistics of light deflection in a random two-phase medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sviridov, A P
2007-01-01
The statistics of the angles of light deflection during its propagation in a random two-phase medium with randomly oriented phase interfaces is considered within the framework of geometrical optics. The probabilities of finding a randomly walking photon in different phases of the inhomogeneous medium are calculated. Analytic expressions are obtained for the scattering phase function and the scattering phase matrix which relates the Stokes vector of the incident light beam with the Stokes vectors of deflected beams. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)
Larval fish collected from sound-scattering layers in an offshore tropical area.
Castro, M S; Bonecker, A C T
2017-12-01
The composition of the larval fish assemblage in the sound-scattering layer of the continental shelf waters off the coast of south-eastern Brazil (12 and 22° S), a research project that is part of the Brazilian programme Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos na Zona Econômica Exclusiva (REVIZEE), is described. Samples were collected during daylight hours and at dusk at five oceanographic stations in the winter of 1999 using an Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The oceanographic stations were chosen based on the detection of plankton layers by acoustic observation. A total of 2192 larval fish were identified, comprising 52 families and 62 species. Maurolicus stehmanni (Sternoptychidae) was the most abundant species found within the study area, comprising 18·5% of all identified larvae, followed by Psilotris celsus (Gobiidae) at 10·9%. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Rain Scattering and Co-ordinate Distance Calculation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hajny
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Calculations of scattered field on the rain objects are based on using of Multiple MultiPole (MMP numerical method. Both bi-static scattering function and bi-static scattering cross section are calculated in the plane parallel to Earth surface. The co-ordination area was determined using the simple model of scattering volume [1]. Calculation for frequency 9.595 GHz and antenna elevation of 25Ã‚Â° was done. Obtained results are compared with calculation in accordance to ITU-R recommendation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Fu, Qiang; Hu, Yongxiang
2013-01-01
As fundamental parameters for polarized-radiative-transfer calculations, the single-scattering phase matrix of irregularly shaped aerosol particles must be accurately modeled. In this study, a scattered-field finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model and a scattered-field pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) model are developed for light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric aerosols. The convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) is used to truncate the computational domain. It is found that the PSTD method is generally more accurate than the FDTD in calculation of the single-scattering properties given similar spatial cell sizes. Since the PSTD can use a coarser grid for large particles, it can lower the memory requirement in the calculation. However, the Fourier transformations in the PSTD need significantly more CPU time than simple subtractions in the FDTD, and the fast Fourier transform requires a power of 2 elements in calculations, thus using the PSTD could not significantly reduce the CPU time required in the numerical modeling. Furthermore, because the scattered-field FDTD/PSTD equations include incident-wave source terms, the FDTD/PSTD model allows for the inclusion of an arbitrarily incident wave source, including a plane parallel wave or a Gaussian beam like those emitted by lasers usually used in laboratory particle characterizations, etc. The scattered-field FDTD and PSTD light-scattering models can be used to calculate single-scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped aerosol particles over broad size and wavelength ranges. -- Highlights: • Scattered-field FDTD and PSTD models are developed for light scattering by aerosols. • Convolutional perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition is used. • PSTD is generally more accurate than FDTD in calculating single-scattering properties. • Using same spatial resolution, PSTD requires much larger CPU time than FDTD
NEUTRON-SCATTERING STUDY OF DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1979-01-01
Phonons in deuterium cyanide have been measured by neutron coherent inelastic scattering. The main subject of study was the transverse acoustic mode in the (110) direction polarised along (110) which is associated with the first-order structural phase transition at 160K. Measurements have shown...
Precise relative cross sections for np scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetz, J.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Jourdan, J.; Masson, G.; Qin, L.M.; Robinson, S.; Sick, I.; Tuccillo, M.
1994-01-01
We present data on the differential cross section for neutron-proton scattering for an incident neutron energy of 67 MeV. These data allow a precise determination of the 1 P 1 phase which, in phase-shift analyses, is strongly correlated with the S-D amplitude which we are measuring via different observables. ((orig.))
Topics in phase-shift analysis and higher spin field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reisen, J.C.J.M.
1983-01-01
The first part of this thesis considers several aspects of the existence of phase-shift ambiguities. The subject is introduced with a few remarks on scattering theory and previous work in this area is discussed. The mathematical restrictions of presenting such problems clearly are considered and the construction of different unitary amplitudes which correspond to the same differential cross section is described. So far, examples of phase-shift ambiguities have only been found for rather special cases but the author shows that these results can be considerably generalized for spinless elastic scattering, leading to properties of phase-shift ambiguities being revealed that were previously absent. These properties are discussed in detail. Phase-shift ambiguities for the spin-0-spin-1/2 elastic scattering are then considered and again generalized. The second part of this thesis is concerned with the investigation of a free field theory for both massive and massless particles with higher spin (1, 2 and 3). A root method has been used which is described and shown to lead to the free field equations and the subsidiary conditions. A field equation and Lagrangian are constructed for massive particles and the former is then used to derive a massless field equation and Lagrangian. The relation between massive and massless field equations is investigated in more detail and particularly the expressions for the amplitude describing exchange of a particle between two external sources are compared. (Auth./C.F.)
Long-Lifetime Low-Scatter Neutron Polarization Target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, Jonathan M.
2004-01-01
Polarized neutrons scattering is an important technology for characterizing magnetic and other materials. Polarized helium three (P-3He) is a novel technology for creating polarized beams and, perhaps more importantly, for the analysis of polarization in highly divergent scattered beams. Analysis of scattered beams requires specialized targets with complex geometries to ensure accurate results. Special materials and handling procedures are required to give the targets a long useful lifetime. In most cases, the targets must be shielded from stray magnetic fields from nearby equipment. SRL has developed and demonstrated hybrid targets made from glass and aluminum. We have also developed and calibrated a low-field NMR system for measuring polarization lifetimes. We have demonstrated that our low-field system is able to measure NMR signals in the presence of conducting (metallic) cell elements. We have also demonstrated a non-magnetic valve that can be used to seal the cells. We feel that these accomplishments in Phase I are sufficient to ensure a successful Phase II program. The commercial market for this technology is solid. There are over nine neutron scattering centers in the US and Canada and over 22 abroad. Currently, the US plans to build a new $1.4B scattering facility called the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The technology developed in this project will allow SRL to supply targets to both existing and future facilities. SRL is also involved with the application of P-3He to medical imaging
Rayleigh scattering in an emitter-nanofiber-coupling system
Tang, Shui-Jing; Gao, Fei; Xu, Da; Li, Yan; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng
2017-04-01
Scattering is a general process in both fundamental and applied physics. In this paper, we investigate Rayleigh scattering of a solid-state-emitter coupled to a nanofiber, by S -matrix-like theory in k -space description. Under this model, both Rayleigh scattering and dipole interaction are studied between a two-level artificial atom embedded in a nanocrystal and fiber modes (guided and radiation modes). It is found that Rayleigh scattering plays a critical role in the transport properties and quantum statistics of photons. On the one hand, Rayleigh scattering produces the transparency in the optical transmitted field of the nanofiber, accompanied by the change of atomic phase, population, and frequency shift. On the other hand, the interference between two kinds of scattering fields by Rayleigh scattering and dipole transition modifies the photon statistics (second-order autocorrelation function) of output fields, showing a strong wavelength dependence. This study provides guidance for the solid-state emitter acting as a single-photon source and can be extended to explore the scattering effect in many-body physics.
Time-resolved pulse propagation in a strongly scattering material
Johnson, Patrick M.; Imhof, Arnout; Bret, B.P.J.; Gomez Rivas, J.; Gomez Rivas, Jaime; Lagendijk, Aart
2003-01-01
Light transport in macroporous gallium phosphide, perhaps the strongest nonabsorbing scatterer of visible light, is studied using phase-sensitive femtosecond pulse interferometry. Phase statistics are measured at optical wavelengths in both reflection and transmission and compared with theory. The
Small-angle neutron-scattering studies of the magnetic phase diagram of MnSi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harris, P.; Lebech, B.; Hae Seop Shim
1995-01-01
The antiferromagnetic order of MnSi has been studied as function of temperature and applied magnetic field using small-angle neutron scattering. The results were analyzed using the three-dimensional resolution function and the scattering cross-section to model the diffraction data. Physical...
Angular momentum effects in electron scattering from atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, J F; Cvejanovie, D; Samarin, S; Pravica, L; Napier, S; Sergeant, A
2007-01-01
This paper concerns angular momentum-dependent phenomena in excited gas-phase atoms using incident photons or electrons in scattering experiments. A brief overview indicates the main capabilities of experimental techniques and the information which can be deduced about atomic structure and dynamics from conservation of momenta with measurement of polarization and detection of the number of emerging electrons, photons and ions. Maximum information may be obtained when the incident particles and the targets are state-selected both before and after scattering. The fundamental scattering amplitudes and their relative phases, and consequently derived quantities such as the parameters describing the electron charge cloud of the atomic target, have enabled significant advances of understanding of collision mechanisms. The angular momentum-dependent scattering probabilities change when, for example, the spin-orbit interaction for the target electrons becomes large compared with the Coulomb electron-electron interactions and also when electron exchange and the relative orientation of the electron spins change. Several examples are discussed to indicate significant principles and recent advances. Major contributions to this field from the technology associated with electron spin production and detection time, as well as time-coincidence detection, are discussed. New results from the authors' laboratory are presented
Iterative numerical solution of scattering problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomio, L; Adhikari, S K
1995-05-01
An iterative Neumann series method, employing a real auxiliary scattering integral equation, is used to calculate scattering lengths and phase shifts for the atomic Yukawa and exponential potentials. For these potentials the original Neumann series diverges. The present iterative method yields results that are far better, in convergence, stability and precision, than other momentum space methods. Accurate result is obtained in both cases with an estimated error of about 1 in 10{sup 10} after some-8-10 iterations. (author). 31 refs, 2 tabs.
Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P
2010-03-24
The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.
Simulation of isotropic scattering of charged particles by composed potentials
Gerasimov, O Y
2003-01-01
The analytical model of scattering of charged particles by a multicentered adiabatic potential which consists of the long-range Coulomb and short-range potentials is used for the parametrization of experiments of elastic low-energy proton-deuteron scattering. For the energies 2.26-13 MeV, the analytical expressions for the phase scattering function in terms of identical parameters which depend on the lengths and effective radii of proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering and on the effective size of deuteron are obtained. The results are in good qualitative accordance with experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingjuan Liao
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We developed a polarimetric coherent electromagnetic scattering model for Poyang Lake wetland vegetation. Realistic canopy structures including curved leaves and the lodging situation of the vegetation were taken into account, and the situation at the ground surface was established using an Advanced Integral Equation Model combined with Oh’s 2002 model. This new model can reasonably describe the coherence effect caused by the phase differences of the electromagnetic fields scattered from different particles by different scattering mechanisms. We obtained good agreement between the modeling results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. A simulation of scattering from the vegetation in Poyang Lake showed that direct vegetation scattering and the single-ground-bounce mechanism are the dominant scattering mechanisms in the C-band and L-band, while the effects of the double-ground-bounce mechanism are very small. We note that the curvature of the leaves and the lodging characteristics of the vegetation cannot be ignored in the modeling process. Monitoring soil moisture in the Poyang Lake wetland with the C-band data was not feasible because of the density and depth of Poyang Lake vegetation. When the density of Poyang Lake Carex increases, the backscattering coefficient either decreases or remains stable.
SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Benhamou
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.
The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mou Yuan
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.
The effect of roughness model on scattering properties of ice crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geogdzhayev, Igor; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van
2016-01-01
We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5° to 20°, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not. - Highlights: • We compare scattering by hexagonal crystals for uniform and Weibull roughness models. • The Weibull shape parameter has a stronger effect on the phase function at backscattering. • DoLP is mostly affected at the side-scattering angles. • For high roughness, the two models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness. • A plateau from 5° to 20° is observed in the phase function when using the uniform model.
A neutron scattering study of DCN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, G.A.; Pawley, G.S.
1979-01-01
Phonons in deuterium cyanide have been measured by neutron coherent inelastic scattering. The main subject of study was the transverse acoustic mode in the (110) direction polarised along (110) which is associated with the first-order structural phase transition at 160 K. Measurements have shown that the frequency decreases by about 25% between about 225 and 160 K as the transition temperature is approached. The other acoustic modes observable in the a*b* scattering plane have been measured and show no anomalous temperature dependence. Optic modes were unobservable because of the small size of the single-crystal sample which gave insufficient scattered intensity. Apart from the 'soft' mode, the measured frequencies are in good agreement with lattice dynamics calculations. (author)
Small-angle neutron scattering of short-segment block polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, S.L.; Miller, J.A.; Homan, J.G.
1988-01-01
Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to investigate the chain conformation of the hard and soft segments in short-segment polyether-polyester and polyether-polyurethane materials. The method of phase-contrast matching was used to eliminate the coherent neutron scattering due to the two-phase microstructure in these materials. The partial deutero-labelling necessary for this technique also provides a neutron scattering contrast between labelled and unlabelled segments. The structure factor for each segment type is determined from the coherent scattering from such deuterolabelled materials. In all of the materials examined, the poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) soft segment was found to be in a slightly extended conformation relative to bulk PTMO at room temperature. Upon heating, the PTMO segments contracted to a more relaxed conformation. In one polyether-polyurethane sample, the radius of gyration of the PTMO segment increased again at high temperatures, indicating phase mixing. The hardsegment radii of gyration in the polyether-polyester materials were found to increase with temperature, indicating a transition from a chain-folded conformation at room temperature to a more extended conformation at higher temperatures. The radius of gyration of the whole polyether-polyester chain first decreased then increased with temperature, indicative of the combined effects of the component hard- and soft-segment chain conformation changes. The hard-segment radius of gyration in a polyether-polyurethane was observed to decrease with temperature. (orig.)
Neutron scattering investigations of the lipid bilayer structure pressure dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solovjov, D.V.; Gordelyij, V.Yi.; Gorshkova, Yu.Je.; Yivan'kov, O.Yi.; Koval'ov, Yu.S.; Kuklyin, A.Yi.; Solovjov, D.V.; Bulavyin, L.A.; Yivan'kov, O.Yi.; Nyikolajenko, T.Yu.; Kuklyin, A.Yi.; Gordelyij, V.Yi.; Gordelyij, V.Yi.
2012-01-01
Lipid bilayer structure investigation results obtained with small angle neutron scattering method at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research IBR-2M nuclear reactor (Dubna, Russia) are presented. Experiment has been performed with small angle neutron scattering spectrometer YuMO, upgraded with the apparatus for performing PV-T measurements on the substance under investigation. D 2 O-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liquid system, presenting the model of natural live membrane, has been taken as the sample for investigations. The lipid bilayer spatial period was measured in experiment along with isothermal compressibility simultaneously at different pressures. It has been shown, that the bilayer structural transition from ripple (wavelike gel-phase) phase to liquid-crystal phase is accompanied with anomalous rise of isothermal compressibility, indicating occurrence of the phase transition.
The Nonrelativistic Scattering States of the Deng-Fan Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bentol Hoda Yazarloo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The approximately analytical scattering state solution of the Schrodinger equation is obtained for the Deng-Fan potential by using an approximation scheme to the centrifugal term. Energy eigenvalues, normalized wave functions, and scattering phase shifts are calculated. We consider and verify two special cases: the l=0 and the s-wave Hulthén potential.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of neutral-current ν -12C inclusive quasielastic scattering
Lovato, A.; Gandolfi, S.; Carlson, J.; Lusk, Ewing; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.
2018-02-01
Quasielastic neutrino scattering is an important aspect of the experimental program to study fundamental neutrino properties including neutrino masses, mixing angles, mass hierarchy, and charge-conjugation parity (CP)- violating phase. Proper interpretation of the experiments requires reliable theoretical calculations of neutrino-nucleus scattering. In this paper we present calculations of response functions and cross sections by neutral-current scattering of neutrinos off 12C. These calculations are based on realistic treatments of nuclear interactions and currents, the latter including the axial, vector, and vector-axial interference terms crucial for determining the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering and the CP-violating phase. We find that the strength and energy dependence of two-nucleon processes induced by correlation effects and interaction currents are crucial in providing the most accurate description of neutrino-nucleus scattering in the quasielastic regime.
Interpretation and Utility of the Moments of Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Distributions.
Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Irvine, Sarah C; Brönnimann, Rolf; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Endrizzi, Marco; Olivo, Alessandro
2017-06-30
Small angle x-ray scattering has been proven to be a valuable method for accessing structural information below the spatial resolution limit implied by direct imaging. Here, we theoretically derive the relation that links the subpixel differential phase signal provided by the sample to the moments of scattering distributions accessible by refraction sensitive x-ray imaging techniques. As an important special case we explain the scatter or dark-field contrast in terms of the sample's phase signal. Further, we establish that, for binary phase objects, the nth moment scales with the difference of the refractive index decrement to the power of n. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the utility of the moments by quantitatively determining the particle sizes of a range of powders with a laboratory-based setup.
Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Curatolo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc. and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a
Fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-01-01
Studies are reported in these areas: double resonance in fluorescent and Raman scattering; surface enhanced Raman scattering; fluorescence by molecules embedded in small particles; fluorescence by a liquid droplet; and fluorescence by conical pits in surfaces
Eikonal representation of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fried, H.M.; Kang, K.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1983-01-01
A new technique for the construction of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes is proposed, suggested by the simplest case of N = 2: Calculate the scattering amplitude in eikonal approximation, discard the infinite phase factors which appear upon taking the limit of a Coulomb potential, and treat the remainder as an amplitude whose absolute value squared produces the exact, Coulomb differential cross section. The method easily generalizes to the N-body Coulomb problem for elastic scattering, and for inelastic rearrangement scattering of Coulomb bound states. We give explicit results for N = 3 and 4; in the N = 3 case we extract amplitudes for the processes (12)+3->1+2+3 (breakup), (12)+3->1+(23) (rearrangement), and (12)+3→(12)'+3 (inelastic scattering) as residues at the appropriate poles in the free-free amplitude. The method produces scattering amplitudes f/sub N/ given in terms of explicit quadratures over (N-2) 2 distinct integrands
Abnormal scattering of polymer in binary solvent
To, Kiwing; Kim, Chul A.; Choi, Hyoung J.
The behavior of a high molecular weight polymer (polyethylene-oxide, PEO) in a binary liquid mixture (nitroethane/3-methyl-pentane, NE/MP) is studied at the one-phase temperature of NE/MP by static and dynamic light scattering methods. We found that the scattering intensity increased abruptly near the critical composition of NE/MP although the sample was very far from the critical temperature of NE/MP. Explanations in terms of critical opalescence and wetting layer inversion are discussed.
Neutron scattering study of the magnetic phases of USb_{0}_{.}_{8}Te_{0}_{.}_{2}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langridge, S.; Stirling, W.G.; Nuttall, W.J.
1995-01-01
The magnetic phases of USb0.8Te0.2 have been studied by neutron diffraction. Above the ordering temperature a detailed study has been made of the critical scattering and of the anisotropy between correlations parallel and perpendicular to the ordering wave vector....
Static model calculation of pion-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Takashi
1975-01-01
The p-wave pion-nucleon scattering phase-shifts are computed by the Chew-Low static model for pion incident energy of 0-300 MeV. The square of the unrenormalized coupling constant is taken to be f 2 =0.2, and the cutoff is made at k sub(max)=6μ. The computed 3,3 phase-shift passes through 90 deg about at the right energy. The other phase-shifts computed are small in rough agreement with experiment. (auth.)
Conformal bootstrap, universality and gravitational scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Jackson
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large c and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles between two heavy states (BTZ black holes. We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.
Scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astapenko, V. A.
2011-01-01
An analytic approach is developed to describing how ultrashort electromagnetic pulses with a duration of one period or less at the carrier frequency are scattered in a plasma. Formulas are derived to calculate and analyze the angular and spectral probabilities of radiation scattering via two possible mechanisms-Compton and transition radiation channels-throughout the entire pulse. Numerical simulations were carried out for a Gaussian pulse. The effect of the phase of the carrier frequency relative to the pulse envelope on the scattering parameters is investigated.
Roles of scattered radiation in SRIXE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, A.L.
1988-01-01
The scattering of x-rays is the major source of background and hence is a limiting factor in the minimum detectable limits available with SRIXE measurements. The scattering can be utilized for normalizing the net peak areas to fluctuations in sample thickness or mass on a relative basis or on a comparative basis. Even then measurement of the scattered x-rays should be made at backward angles. Measurement at forward angles should be avoided because of diffraction problems. The uncertainties in the measurement of an absolute intensity of the x-rays can be extremely large
Resonance magnetic x-ray scattering study of erbium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanyal, M.K.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, J.
1994-01-01
The magnetic phases of erbium have been studied by resonance x-ray-scattering techniques. When the incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L(III) absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering are observed above 18 K. We have measured the energy and polarization dependence...... of this magnetic scattering and analyzed it using a simple model based on electric dipole and quadrupole transitions among atomic orbitals. The line shapes can be fitted to a magnetic structure combining both c-axis-modulated and basal-plane components. Below 18 K, we have observed unusual behavior of the magnetic...
LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Philbrick, C. R.
2010-01-01
Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180 0 , whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30 0 . Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74 0 ; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90 0 , but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.
Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander
2014-01-01
The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)
Dean, Kevin M.; Babayco, Christopher B.; Sluss, Daniel R. B.; Williamson, J. Charles
2010-08-01
The synthetic-method determination of liquid-liquid coexistence curves using semiautomated light scattering instrumentation and stirred samples is based on identifying the coexistence curve transition temperatures (Tcx) from sudden changes in turbidity associated with droplet formation. Here we use a thorough set of such measurements to evaluate the accuracy of several different analysis methods reported in the literature for assigning Tcx. More than 20 samples each of weakly opalescent isobutyric acid+water and strongly opalescent aniline+hexane were tested with our instrumentation. Transmitted light and scattering intensities at 2°, 24°, and 90° were collected simultaneously as a function of temperature for each stirred sample, and the data were compared with visual observations and light scattering theory. We find that assigning Tcx to the onset of decreased transmitted light or increased 2° scattering has a potential accuracy of 0.01 K or better for many samples. However, the turbidity due to critical opalescence obscures the identification of Tcx from the light scattering data of near-critical stirred samples, and no simple rule of interpretation can be applied regardless of collection geometry. At best, when 90° scattering is collected along with transmitted or 2° data, the accuracy of Tcx is limited to 0.05 K for near-critical samples. Visual determination of Tcx remains the more accurate approach in this case.
Theory of direct scattering of neutral and charged atoms
Franco, V.
1979-01-01
The theory for direct elastic and inelastic collisions between composite atomic systems formulated within the framework of the Glauber approximation is presented. It is shown that the phase-shift function is the sum of a point Coulomb contribution and of an expression in terms of the known electron-hydrogen-atom and proton-hydrogen-atom phase shift function. The scattering amplitude is reexpressed, the pure Coulomb scattering in the case of elastic collisions between ions is isolated, and the exact optical profile function is approximated by a first-order expansion in Glauber theory which takes into account some multiple collisions. The approximate optical profile function terms corresponding to interactions involving one and two electrons are obtained in forms of Meijer G functions and as a one-dimensional integral, and for collisions involving one or two neutral atoms, the scattering amplitude is further reduced to a simple closed-form expression.
Mössbauer forward scattering: time-domain spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadykov, E. K., E-mail: esadykov@kpfu.ru; Yurichuk, A. A.; Gainov, R. R.; Vagizov, F. G. [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The transmission of the Mössbauer radiation through an absorber being in the acoustic oscillation mode under forward scattering (FS) conditions has been analyzed. The modification of the existing models of the FS spectra (frequency and time) formation to the case of the arbitrary phase correlation of nuclear oscillations in the sample has been proposed. An adequate description of the time delayed experiments with the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer resonance using the modulation of the single-photon wave packet by acoustic field has been obtained. One has been done in the frame of the Raman scattering of Mössbauer photons. The models extended this way can be used to control the degree of phase correlation of nuclear oscillations (or other processes) induced in the sample by external fields.
Applications of thermal neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostorz, G.
1978-01-01
Although in the past neutrons have been used quite frequently in the study of condensed matter, a more recent development has lead to applications of thermal neutron scattering in the investigation of more practical rather than purely academic problems. Physicists, chemists, materials scientists, biologists, and others have recognized and demonstrated that neutron scattering techniques can yield supplementary information which, in many cases, could not be obtained with other methods. The paper illustrates the use of neutron scattering in these areas of applied research. No attempt is made to present all the aspects of neutron scattering which can be found in textbooks. From the vast amount of experimental data, only a few examples are presented for the study of structure and atomic arrangement, ''extended'' structure, and dynamic phenomena in substances of current interest in applied research. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendin, G.
1979-01-01
The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references
Green functions and scattering amplitudes in many-dimensional space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabre de la Ripelle, M.
1993-01-01
Methods for solving scattering are studied in many-dimensional space. Green function and scattering amplitudes are given in terms of the required asymptotic behaviour of the wave function. The Born approximation and the optical theorem are derived in many-dimensional space. Phase-shift analyses are performed for hypercentral potentials and for non-hypercentral potentials by use of the hyperspherical adiabatic approximation. (author)
Experimental study on interfacial area transport in downward two-phase flow
Wang, Guanyi
In view of the importance of two group interfacial area transport equations and lack of corresponding accurate downward flow database that can reveal two group interfacial area transport, a systematic database for adiabatic, air-water, vertically downward two-phase flow in a round pipe with inner diameter of 25.4 mm was collected to gain an insight of interfacial structure and provide benchmarking data for two-group interfacial area transport models. A four-sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters and data was collected with data sampling frequency much higher than conventional data sampling frequency to ensure the accuracy. Axial development of local flow parameter profiles including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter were presented. Drastic inter-group transfer of void fraction and interfacial area was observed at bubbly to slug transition flow. And the wall peaked interfacial area concentration profiles were observed in churn-turbulent flow. The importance of local data about these phenomenon on flow structure prediction and interfacial area transport equation benchmark was analyzed. Bedsides, in order to investigate the effect of inlet conditions, all experiments were repeated after installing the flow straightening facility, and the results were briefly analyzed. In order to check the accuracy of current data, the experiment results were cross-checked with rotameter measurement as well as drift-flux model prediction, the averaged error is less than 15%. Current models for two-group interfacial area transport equation were evaluated using these data. The results show that two-group interfacial area transport equations with current models can predict most flow conditions with error less than 20%, except some bubbly to slug transition flow conditions and some churn-turbulent flow conditions. The disagreement between models and experiments could result from underestimate of inter
Neutron scattering investigations of the lipid bilayer structure pressure dependence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Soloviov
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Lipid bilayer structure investigation results obtained with small angle neutron scattering method at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research IBR-2M nuclear reactor (Dubna, Russia are presented. Experiment has been per-formed with small angle neutron scattering spectrometer YuMO, upgraded with the apparatus for performing P-V-T measurements on the substance under investigation. D2O-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC liquid system, presenting the model of natural live membrane, has been taken as the sample for investiga-tions. The lipid bilayer spatial period was measured in experiment along with isothermal compressibility simulta-neously at different pressures. It has been shown, that the bilayer structural transition from ripple (wavelike gel-phase phase to liquid-crystal phase is accompanied with anomalous rise of isothermal compressibility, indicat-ing occurrence of the phase transition.
Investigation of the paramagnetic phase of bcc iron using polarized neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicksted, J.P.; Shirane, G.; Steinsvoll, O.
1983-01-01
Recent neutron scattering experiments on Ni and Fe (4%-Si) above T/sub c/ have demonstrated that a simple paramagnetic scattering function S(Qω) proportional to 1/(kappa 1 2 + q 2 ).GAMMA/(GAMMA 2 + ω 2 ) can explain the persistent spin wave ridges previously reported by Lynn and Mook. We present our new polarized beam results on pure Fe and describe in some detail the special problems associated with the unpolarized beam studies of magnetic cross sections at high temperatures
Mechanism of Pseudogap Detected by Electronic Raman Scattering: Phase Fluctuation or Hidden Order?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong-Yan, Lu; Yuan, Wan; Xiang-Mei, He; Qiang-Hua, Wang
2009-01-01
We study the electronic Raman scattering in the cuprates to distinguish the two possible scenarios of the pseudo-gap normal state. In one scenario, the pseudogap is assumed to be caused by phase fluctuations of the preformed Cooper pairs. We find that pair-breaking peaks appear in both the B 1g and B 2g Raman channels, and they are smeared and tend to shift to the same energy with the increasing strength of phase fluctuations. Thus both channels reflect the same pairing energy scale, irrespectively of the doping level. In another scenario, the pseudogap is assumed to be caused by a hidden order that competes with the superconducting order. As an example, we assume that the hidden order is the d-density-wave (DDW) order. We find analytically and numerically that in the DDW normal state there is no Raman peak in the B 2g channel in a tight-binding model up to the second nearest-neighbor hopping, while the Raman peak in the B 1g channel reflects the energy gap caused by the DDW order. This behavior is in agreement with experiments in the pseudogap normal state. To gain further insights, we also calculate the Raman spectra in the DDW+SC state. We study the doping and temperature dependence of the peak energy in both channels and find a two-gap behavior, which is in agreement with recent Raman experiments. Therefore, our results shed light on the hidden order scenario for the pseudogap
Elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, R.A.
1985-01-01
Neutron scattering is and will continue to be a uniquely powerful tool for the study of elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids. The paper examines a few recent experiments on molecular crystals, superionic materials, paramagnetic scattering and phase transitions to see what experimental features made these experiments possible, and hence to make suggestions about future needs. It is concluded that new instruments will extend the scope of neutron scattering studies to new excitations, that there is a need for higher resolution, particularly for phase transition studies, and that it will be important to use intensity information, discrimination against unwanted inelastic processes and polarization analysis to reliably measure the excitations in new materials. (author)
Sensitivity of n-p scattering observables to charge-independence breaking of the 3P N-N phase shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.
1990-01-01
The sensitivity of neutron-proton scattering observables to the recently reported charge-independence breaking of the isospin T = 1 3 P nucleon-nucleon interaction has been calculated. It is shown that only the analyzing power A y (θ) at extreme forward angles and at θ = 90 o c.m. and the spin-correlation coefficient A zx (θ) at 90 o c.m. exhibit a measurable sensitivity. It is concluded that the determination of A y at 90 o c.m. is currently the most accurate approach to verify independently charge-independence breaking in the 3 P nucleon-nucleon phase shifts, considering the status of present experimental techniques. (Authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agamalian, M.M.; Alamo, R.G.; Londono, J.D.; Mandelkern, L.; Wignall, G.D.
1999-01-01
SANS experiments on blends of linear, high density (HD) and long chain branched, low density (LD) polyethylenes indicate that these systems form a one-phase mixture in the melt. However, the maximum spatial resolution of pinhole cameras is approximately equal to 10 3 and it has therefore been suggested that data might also be interpreted as arising from a bi-phasic melt with large a particle size ( 1 m), because most of the scattering from the different phases would not be resolved. We have addressed this hypothesis by means of USANS experiments, which confirm that HDPEILDPE blends are homogenous in the melt on length scales up to 20 m. We have also studied blends of HDPE and short-chain branched linear low density polyethylenes (LLDPEs), which phase separate when the branch content is sufficiently high. LLDPEs prepared with Ziegler-Natta catalysts exhibit a wide distribution of compositions, and may therefore be thought of as a blend of different species. When the composition distribution is broad enough, a fraction of highly branched chains may phase separate on m-length scales, and USANS has also been used to quantify this phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verhaar, B.J.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.
1985-01-01
The concepts of scattering length a and effective range r/sub e/ previously introduced for low-energy scattering from a potential V(r) in a plane and in higher dimensions are extended to include a 1/r potential (strength parameter γ). Both a and r/sub e/ have the physical significance of being equal to the radius of an equivalent hard sphere giving rise to the same O(k 0 ) and O(k 2 ) terms in the expression for the phase shift. The method used is based on the properties of the ''local scattering length'' a(r,γ) for the potential V(r) cut off at radius r and an ''equivalent hard-sphere radius'' a(r,k,γ) for wave number knot =0. It is shown that these quantities have a smooth behavior for γ→0 and for dimension n→2
Critical Scattering in the Singlet-Ground State System Pr3TI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Kjems, Jørgen; Buyers, W. J. L.
1977-01-01
A central mode in the ferromagnetic phase transition of Pr3T1 is observed by inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. The intensity, assuming a Lorentzian wave vector dependence, has a correlation range parameter that is much larger than in ordinary ferromagnets.......A central mode in the ferromagnetic phase transition of Pr3T1 is observed by inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. The intensity, assuming a Lorentzian wave vector dependence, has a correlation range parameter that is much larger than in ordinary ferromagnets....
Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Simini
1997-06-01
Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.
Solving protein nanocrystals by cryo-EM diffraction: Multiple scattering artifacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Subramanian, Ganesh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Basu, Shibom [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Liu, Haiguang [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Zuo, Jian-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Spence, John C.H., E-mail: spence@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)
2015-01-15
The maximum thickness permissible within the single-scattering approximation for the determination of the structure of perfectly ordered protein microcrystals by transmission electron diffraction is estimated for tetragonal hen-egg lysozyme protein crystals using several approaches. Multislice simulations are performed for many diffraction conditions and beam energies to determine the validity domain of the required single-scattering approximation and hence the limit on crystal thickness. The effects of erroneous experimental structure factor amplitudes on the charge density map for lysozyme are noted and their threshold limits calculated. The maximum thickness of lysozyme permissible under the single-scattering approximation is also estimated using R-factor analysis. Successful reconstruction of density maps is found to result mainly from the use of the phase information provided by modeling based on the protein data base through molecular replacement (MR), which dominates the effect of poor quality electron diffraction data at thicknesses larger than about 200 Å. For perfectly ordered protein nanocrystals, a maximum thickness of about 1000 Å is predicted at 200 keV if MR can be used, using R-factor analysis performed over a subset of the simulated diffracted beams. The effects of crystal bending, mosaicity (which has recently been directly imaged by cryo-EM) and secondary scattering are discussed. Structure-independent tests for single-scattering and new microfluidic methods for growing and sorting nanocrystals by size are reviewed. - Highlights: • Validity domain of single-scattering approximation for protein electron diffraction is assessed • Electron Diffraction for tetragonal hen-egg lysozyme is simulated using multislice. • Bias from the use of phase information in modeling by molecular replacement (MR) is evaluated. • We find an approximate upper thickness limit, if MR is used, of 100 nm. • A 35% error in structure factor magnitudes may be
Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.
2011-05-01
Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires the knowledge of the link between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of the cloud particles. Usually, this link is created by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles, simultaneously. Clouds containing particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter can be systematically characterized with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns which were conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced comparable size distributions and images to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is candidate to be a novel air borne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurements instruments.
Diffuse neutron scattering study of Cu2−xSe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cava, R. J.; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard
1986-01-01
We have measured the diffuse neutron scattering in the hkk plane for Cu2Se and Cu1.8Se at 180°C and 51°C, respectively, in the cubic antifluorite type phase. The diffuse scattering shows significant structure, indicative of correlated short range mobile ion ordering. The short range order is foun...
Robert, Donatien; Douillard, Thierry; Boulineau, Adrien; Brunetti, Guillaume; Nowakowski, Pawel; Venet, Denis; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Cayron, Cyril
2013-12-23
LiFePO4 and FePO4 phase distributions of entire cross-sectioned electrodes with various Li content are investigated from nanoscale to mesoscale, by transmission electron microscopy and by the new electron forward scattering diffraction technique. The distributions of the fully delithiated (FePO4) or lithiated particles (LiFePO4) are mapped on large fields of view (>100 × 100 μm(2)). Heterogeneities in thin and thick electrodes are highlighted at different scales. At the nanoscale, the statistical analysis of 64 000 particles unambiguously shows that the small particles delithiate first. At the mesoscale, the phase maps reveal a core-shell mechanism at the scale of the agglomerates with a preferential pathway along the electrode porosities. At larger scale, lithiation occurs in thick electrodes "stratum by stratum" from the surface in contact with electrolyte toward the current collector.
Polymer boosting effect in the droplet phase studied by small-angle neutron scattering
Frielinghaus, H; Allgaier, J; Richter, D; Jakobs, B; Sottmann, T; Strey, R
2002-01-01
Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments were performed in order to obtain the six partial scattering functions of a droplet microemulsion containing water, decane, C sub 1 sub 0 E sub 4 surfactant and PEP sub 5 -PEO sub 8 sub 0. We systematically varied the contrast around the polymer contrast, where only the polymer becomes visible, and we also measured bulk and film contrasts. With the singular value decomposition method we could extract the desired six partial scattering functions from the 15 measured spectra. We find a sphere-shell-shell structure of the droplets, where the innermost sphere consists of oil, the middle shell of surfactant and the outer shell is a depletion zone where the polymer is almost not present. (orig.)
Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone
Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei
2015-11-01
This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.
Application of the weighted total field-scattering field technique to 3D-PSTD light scattering model
Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Liu, Lei; Li, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Bo
2018-04-01
PSTD (Pseudo Spectral Time Domain) is an excellent model for the light scattering simulation of nonspherical aerosol particles. However, due to the particularity of its discretization form of the Maxwell's equations, the traditional Total Field/Scattering Field (TF/SF) technique for FDTD (Finite Differential Time Domain) is not applicable to PSTD, and the time-consuming pure scattering field technique is mainly applied to introduce the incident wave. To this end, the weighted TF/SF technique proposed by X. Gao is generalized and applied to the 3D-PSTD scattering model. Using this technique, the incident light can be effectively introduced by modifying the electromagnetic components in an inserted connecting region between the total field and the scattering field region with incident terms, where the incident terms are obtained by weighting the incident field by a window function. To optimally determine the thickness of connection region and the window function type for PSTD calculations, their influence on the modeling accuracy is firstly analyzed. To further verify the effectiveness and advantages of the weighted TF/SF technique, the improved PSTD model is validated against the PSTD model equipped with pure scattering field technique in both calculation accuracy and efficiency. The results show that, the performance of PSTD seems to be not sensitive to variation of window functions. The number of the connection layer required decreases with the increasing of spatial resolution, where for spatial resolution of 24 grids per wavelength, a 6-layer region is thick enough. The scattering phase matrices and integral scattering parameters obtained by the improved PSTD show an excellent consistency with those well-tested models for spherical and nonspherical particles, illustrating that the weighted TF/SF technique can introduce the incident precisely. The weighted TF/SF technique shows higher computational efficiency than pure scattering technique.
On Born approximation in black hole scattering
Batic, D.; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.
2011-12-01
A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes.
KN scattering in the nonrelativistic quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, F.E.
1995-01-01
KN scattering is of interest as a probe of nuclear structure and, more fundamentally, as a laboratory for the study of nonresonant hadron-hadron interactions. KN is a I theoretically attractive channel because of its simplicity, having only S = 1/2, no one pion exchange contributions and no valence q anti q annihilation. It may therefore be useful for the study of short-ranged quark forces analogous to the NN repulsive core. Since there are two isospin states, comparison of two closely related amplitudes is possible. This contribution reviews the experimental status of S-wave KN scattering and related theoretical studies based on quark-gluon dynamics. The experimental low-energy S-wave phase shift is well established for I = 1, but is not yet well determined for I = 0. The ratio of I = 0 to I = 1 scattering lengths is an interesting number theoretically, and may discriminate between different scattering mechanisms. A measurement of these scattering lengths at DAPHNE would be a useful contribution to low energy hadron physics
K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jennings, B.K.
1986-01-01
The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion
K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model
Jennings, B. K.
1986-10-01
The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion.
Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers
Chatterjee, Joon
The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that
Green function and scattering amplitudes in many dimensional space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabre de la Ripelle, M.
1991-06-01
Methods for solving scattering are studied in many dimensional space. Green function and scattering amplitudes are given in terms of the requested asymptotic behaviour of the wave function. The Born approximation and the optical theorem are derived in many dimensional space. Phase-shift analysis are developed for hypercentral potentials and for non-hypercentral potentials with the hyperspherical adiabatic approximation. (author) 16 refs., 3 figs
The structure of double scattering in old-fashioned perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caneschi, L.; Halliday, I.G.; Schwimmer, A.
1978-01-01
The authors study in old-fashioned perturbation theory the time orderings that are relevant for the exchange of two Regge poles (ladders). They determine how the phase of double scattering is established in the Mandelstam diagram. The analysis clarifies the intermediate state structure of the multiple-scattering expansion and the role of the unitarity constraints. (Auth.)
Scattering in a spherical potential: Motion of complex-plane poles and zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.
1989-01-01
Scattering of spinless nucleons in a spherical potential is examined with the use of a computer graphics simulation VSCAT. The potential is defined stepwise and the Schroedinger equation is solved to obtain wavefunctions, scattering phases, partial-wave total cross sections, and differential cross sections, which are then displayed graphically. For the particular case of a square well, partial-wave amplitudes are displayed over the complex momentum plane in a three-dimensional plot. The well depth is then varied to follow the motion of poles in the complex momentum plane as they become resonances and then are bound states. Also displayed are the partial-wave zeros, which are required to satisfy Levinson's theorem for multiple states. The requirement on well depth is developed to produce a specified number of bound states and enumerate the energies which, at a given well depth, create equal scattering phases in adjoining partial waves δ/sub l//sub -1/ = δ/sub l/ = δ/sub l//sub +1/. This symmetry of scattering phases exists for both repulsive and attractive square potentials. A square repulsive core is also studied, which has the same triple-point symmetry as the square well
Particle levitation and laboratory scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, Jonathan P.
2009-01-01
Measurements of light scattering from aerosol particles can provide a non-intrusive in situ method for characterising particle size distributions, composition, refractive index, phase and morphology. When coupled with techniques for isolating single particles, considerable information on the evolution of the properties of a single particle can be gained during changes in environmental conditions or chemical processing. Electrostatic, acoustic and optical techniques have been developed over many decades for capturing and levitating single particles. In this review, we will focus on studies of particles in the Mie size regime and consider the complimentarity of electrostatic and optical techniques for levitating particles and elastic and inelastic light scattering methods for characterising particles. In particular, we will review the specific advantages of establishing a single-beam gradient force optical trap (optical tweezers) for manipulating single particles or arrays of particles. Recent developments in characterising the nature of the optical trap, in applying elastic and inelastic light scattering measurements for characterising trapped particles, and in manipulating particles will be considered.
Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R
2005-01-01
The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm 2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly
Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.
1976-01-01
The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)
Neutron scattering studies on the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu306+x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurgens, M.J.G.M.
1990-01-01
The aim of the work described in this thesis is to clarify some of the magnetic aspects of high T c superconductors across the phase diagram as a function of doping and temperature, for which YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x has been chosen. Mainly the neutron scattering technique has been employed, which supplies a very powerful tool for this kind of research, for it directly shows the microscopic phenomena of the magnetism involved. First an introduction to the neutron scattering technique is given and a description of the spectrometers employed (ch. 2). The determination of the crystal structure of YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x is described, and the single crystals which were used during all the experiments on the magnetic properties as described in this thesis, are characterized (ch. 3). Ch. 4 deals with the phase diagram of the insulating antiferromagnetic phase in YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x , as obtained with neutron scattering. The inelastic scattering experiments on the magnetic excitations in this system are presented in ch. 5. In ch. 6 the total susceptibility, measure with a AQUID, is discussed. The local magnetizations, as determined with a polarized neutron scattering technique are the subject of ch. 7. (author). 254 refs.; 77 figs.; 25 tabs
Inherent ambiguities in the determination of phase-shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, D.
1975-01-01
The observables in an elastic scattering process are unchanged if all the scattering amplitudes are multiplied by the same angle-dependent phase. The non-spin-flip and spin-flip amplitudes remain unchanged by the substitution: g(cos theta)→g(cos theta)exp[i phi(cos theta)] and h(cos theta)→h(cos theta)exp[i phi(cos theta)]. Unless some extra and hoc assumption is made, there is a continuum ambiguity, which has been explored some time ago, with specific models for the phase phi by members of the Birmingham group. In the ordinary quantum mechanics of scattering, one writes a wave-function asymptotically as psi(r - ) approximately esup(ikr costheta)+f(cos theta)esup(ikr)/r where f is the scattering amplitude. The ambiguity which is a change in the phase of the scattering amplitude, and thus of the scattered part of the wavefunction, but with no change of the first term in (the unscattered plane wave coming along the z-axis is discussed in detail. Preliminary results in the energy-range 1550-1750 MeV cm and their implications are given. Argand plots of ambiguities at various energies are presented. (K.B.)
Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.
1981-01-01
The propagation of photons in a medium with strongly anisotropic scattering is a problem with a considerable history. Like the propagation of electrons in metal foils, it may be solved in the small-angle scattering approximation by the use of Fourier-transform techniques. In certain limiting cases, one may even obtain analytic expressions. This paper presents some of these results in a model-independent form and also illustrates them by the use of four different phase-function models. Sample calculations are provided for comparison purposes
Experimental demonstration of singular-optical colouring of regularly scattered white light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Angelsky, O.V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Maksimyak, P.P.
2008-01-01
Experimental interference modelling of the effects of colouring of a beam traversing a light-scattering medium is presented. It is shown that the result of colouring of the beam at the output of the medium depends on the magnitudes of the phase delays of the singly forward scattered partial signa...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Z.; Epperson, J.E.; Fang, Y.; Chan, S.K.
1992-08-01
The tetragonal-monoclinic transformations of zirconia have been studied on pristine single crystals and on their cycled crystallites. Two complementary techniques have been used. Small angle neutron scattering experiments were carried out to monitor the degree of completion of a transformation under equilibrium conditions for collections of 20--30 large crystals using the total internal and external surface area as an indicator. Differential thermal analysis experiments were carried out on smaller single-domain crystals of different sizes individually during heating and cooling to measure the rates of latent heat absorption and emission. The investigation establishes the upper limit of stability of the monoclinic phase, the lower limit of stability of the tetragonal phase, and the coexistence temperature between the two phases. The characteristics of the transformations are also inferred from these experiments
An advanced algorithm for deformation estimation in non-urban areas
Goel, Kanika; Adam, Nico
2012-09-01
This paper presents an advanced differential SAR interferometry stacking algorithm for high resolution deformation monitoring in non-urban areas with a focus on distributed scatterers (DSs). Techniques such as the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS) have been proposed for processing DSs. SBAS makes use of small baseline differential interferogram subsets. Singular value decomposition (SVD), i.e. L2 norm minimization is applied to link independent subsets separated by large baselines. However, the interferograms used in SBAS are multilooked using a rectangular window to reduce phase noise caused for instance by temporal decorrelation, resulting in a loss of resolution and the superposition of topography and deformation signals from different objects. Moreover, these have to be individually phase unwrapped and this can be especially difficult in natural terrains. An improved deformation estimation technique is presented here which exploits high resolution SAR data and is suitable for rural areas. The implemented method makes use of small baseline differential interferograms and incorporates an object adaptive spatial phase filtering and residual topography removal for an accurate phase and coherence estimation, while preserving the high resolution provided by modern satellites. This is followed by retrieval of deformation via the SBAS approach, wherein, the phase inversion is performed using an L1 norm minimization which is more robust to the typical phase unwrapping errors encountered in non-urban areas. Meter resolution TerraSAR-X data of an underground gas storage reservoir in Germany is used for demonstrating the effectiveness of this newly developed technique in rural areas.
Speckle-learning-based object recognition through scattering media.
Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun
2015-12-28
We experimentally demonstrated object recognition through scattering media based on direct machine learning of a number of speckle intensity images. In the experiments, speckle intensity images of amplitude or phase objects on a spatial light modulator between scattering plates were captured by a camera. We used the support vector machine for binary classification of the captured speckle intensity images of face and non-face data. The experimental results showed that speckles are sufficient for machine learning.
Optimizing Nanoscale Quantitative Optical Imaging of Subfield Scattering Targets
Henn, Mark-Alexander; Barnes, Bryan M.; Zhou, Hui; Sohn, Martin; Silver, Richard M.
2016-01-01
The full 3-D scattered field above finite sets of features has been shown to contain a continuum of spatial frequency information, and with novel optical microscopy techniques and electromagnetic modeling, deep-subwavelength geometrical parameters can be determined. Similarly, by using simulations, scattering geometries and experimental conditions can be established to tailor scattered fields that yield lower parametric uncertainties while decreasing the number of measurements and the area of such finite sets of features. Such optimized conditions are reported through quantitative optical imaging in 193 nm scatterfield microscopy using feature sets up to four times smaller in area than state-of-the-art critical dimension targets. PMID:27805660
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Abdelmonem
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.
Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.
2011-10-01
Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.
Significance of multiple scattering in imaging through turbid media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.
1986-01-01
The degradation of image quality in a turbid medium is analyzed within the framework of the small-angle approximation, the diffusion approximation, and a rigorous two-dimensional radiative transfer equation. These three approaches allow us to emphasize different aspects of the imaging problem when multiple scattering effects are important. For a medium with a forward-peaked phase function, the separation of multiple scattering into a series of scatterings of various order provides a fruitful technique. The use of the diffusion approximation and transport theory extends the determination of the modulation transfer function to a turbid medium with an arbitrary degree of anisotropy
Small angle neutron scattering study on star di-block copolymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertugrul, O.
2006-01-01
Determining structural properties, phase transitions and stability of polymer mixtures is very important to produce new materials with desired and interesting properties. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Technique (SANS) has been one of the most powerful and intensely used methods for the characterization of polymers for last decades, m this study, we use a model based on Gaussian Random Phase Approximation (RPA) to describe Star Di-block Copolymers (SDC) mixtures with homo-polymers. We could able to predict the miscibility and phase transitions of the various mixtures along with their structure factors, producing a thermodynamic picture of the system. Also the results suggest that scattering intensity will be dictated by the structure factor of the core or shell parts of star polymer only, which depends on the homo-polymer type of the mixture
Eighth International Conference on Neutron Scattering ICNS2005. Final Programme and Abstract Book
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
Full text: This conference encompassed a very wide range of neutron-related research. Topics addressed ranged from almost all applications of neutron scattering and diffraction like discovering magnetic ordering, magnetic properties and structural analysis, negative thermal expansion, spin states, proton dynamics, crystal structure, phase transitions and phase morphology, neutron spin echo to neutron powder diffraction studies and new generation neutron analysis methods as well as x-ray reflectivity versus neutron reflectivity, neutron resonance, cold and thermal neutron studies and spectrometers. Areas of research covered bacteria, DNA, drugs targeting, enzyme arrangement, structure of cholesterol, lung surfactant action, nanocapsules, disease, muscles, lipids, liquids, crystals, industrial gauges, metals, rare earths, shielding and geopolymers. Not all abstracts are included in this input; there exists an emphasis on Australian contributions and those from ANSTO
Shaping the light for the investigation of depth-extended scattering media
Osten, W.; Frenner, K.; Pedrini, G.; Singh, A. K.; Schindler, J.; Takeda, M.
2018-02-01
Scattering media are an ongoing challenge for all kind of imaging technologies including coherent and incoherent principles. Inspired by new approaches of computational imaging and supported by the availability of powerful computers, spatial light modulators, light sources and detectors, a variety of new methods ranging from holography to time-of-flight imaging, phase conjugation, phase recovery using iterative algorithms and correlation techniques have been introduced and applied to different types of objects. However, considering the obvious progress in this field, several problems are still matter of investigation and their solution could open new doors for the inspection and application of scattering media as well. In particular, these open questions include the possibility of extending the 2d-approach to the inspection of depth-extended objects, the direct use of a scattering media as a simple tool for imaging of complex objects and the improvement of coherent inspection techniques for the dimensional characterization of incoherently radiating spots embedded in scattering media. In this paper we show our recent findings in coping with these challenges. First we describe how to explore depth-extended objects by means of a scattering media. Afterwards, we extend this approach by implementing a new type of microscope making use of a simple scatter plate as a kind of flat and unconventional imaging lens. Finally, we introduce our shearing interferometer in combination with structured illumination for retrieving the axial position of fluorescent light emitting spots embedded in scattering media.
Vector-Vector Scattering on the Lattice
Romero-López, Fernando; Urbach, Carsten; Rusetsky, Akaki
2018-03-01
In this work we present an extension of the LüScher formalism to include the interaction of particles with spin, focusing on the scattering of two vector particles. The derived formalism will be applied to Scalar QED in the Higgs Phase, where the U(1) gauge boson acquires mass.
Elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.
1996-01-01
Recently, Greenwood et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1062 (1995)] reported measurements of large-angle elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon at an energy of 3.3 eV. They compared their results for the differential cross section with cross sections determined using phase shifts obtained from two different scattering potentials and found large discrepancies between theory and experiment at large angles. They state that these differences may be due to the effects of polarization of the target, which are not included in their calculations, as well as inaccurate representations of electron exchange in the local scattering potentials that are employed to determine the phase shifts. In order to test these proposed explanations of the discrepancies, we have carried out calculations of elastic scattering from Ar + using the R-matrix method. We compare both a single-state calculation, which does not include polarization, and a 17-state calculation, in which the effects of dipole polarizability are included through the use of polarization pseudostates within the close-coupling expansion, to each other and with the measurements. We find some differences between the two calculations at intermediate scattering angles, but very close agreement at angles above 100 degree. Although the calculated cross sections agree with experiment between 120 degree and 135 degree, large discrepancies persist at angles above 135 degree. We conclude that the differences between the measurements and theory cannot be explained on the basis of an inaccurate representation of electron exchange or polarization of the target. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Experimental Phase Functions of Millimeter-sized Cosmic Dust Grains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Escobar-Cerezo, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Vargas-Martín, F. [Department of Electromagnetism and Electronics, University of Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Min, M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sobornnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Hovenier, J. W. [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,” University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2017-09-01
We present the experimental phase functions of three types of millimeter-sized dust grains consisting of enstatite, quartz, and volcanic material from Mount Etna, respectively. The three grains present similar sizes but different absorbing properties. The measurements are performed at 527 nm covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 170°. The measured phase functions show two well-defined regions: (i) soft forward peaks and (ii) a continuous increase with the scattering angle at side- and back-scattering regions. This behavior at side- and back-scattering regions is in agreement with the observed phase functions of the Fomalhaut and HR 4796A dust rings. Further computations and measurements (including polarization) for millimeter-sized grains are needed to draw some conclusions about the fluffy or compact structure of the dust grains.
Ion chamber area monitor for low level scattered x-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fergus, R.W.; Robinet, M.J.
1978-01-01
An economical, high confidence instrument was developed for laboratories using low energy x-rays. The instrument detects increases in background caused by scattered radiation. Exposure rates close to the open part of the x-ray tubes are of the order of 10 3 to 10 6 R/min. A few meters away the background is a few tenths of a mR/hr
Differential cross sections for neutrino scattering on 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolbe, E.
1996-01-01
Differential cross sections for neutrino scattering on 12 C are calculated within the (continuum) random phase approximation model. The charged current (ν e ,e - ) and (ν μ ,μ - ) capture reactions on 12 C are measured by the LSND Collaboration at LAMPF. We investigate and discuss the merits of such studies, especially the information that can be extracted from data for differential neutrino scattering cross sections. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerstenberg, M.C.
1997-11-01
The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the
A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstenberg, M.C.
1997-11-01
The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the
CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.
2001-08-01
Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of
Elastic scattering of positronium: Application of the confined variational method
Zhang, Junyi
2012-08-01
We demonstrate for the first time that the phase shift in elastic positronium-atom scattering can be precisely determined by the confined variational method, in spite of the fact that the Hamiltonian includes an unphysical confining potential acting on the center of mass of the positron and one of the atomic electrons. As an example, we study the S-wave elastic scattering for the positronium-hydrogen scattering system, where the existing 4% discrepancy between the Kohn variational calculation and the R-matrix calculation is resolved. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.
Elastic scattering of positronium: Application of the confined variational method
Zhang, Junyi; Yan, Zong-Chao; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2012-01-01
We demonstrate for the first time that the phase shift in elastic positronium-atom scattering can be precisely determined by the confined variational method, in spite of the fact that the Hamiltonian includes an unphysical confining potential acting on the center of mass of the positron and one of the atomic electrons. As an example, we study the S-wave elastic scattering for the positronium-hydrogen scattering system, where the existing 4% discrepancy between the Kohn variational calculation and the R-matrix calculation is resolved. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.
Detection of structural defects in lecithin membranes by the small-angle neutron scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezzabotnov, V.Yu.; Gordelij, V.I.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.; Yaguzhinskij, L.S.
1989-01-01
Irregularities interpreted as interdomain defects have been detected in model lipid membranes of dipalmitoil lecithin in liquid L α -phase by the method of small-angle scattering (lateral diffraction). The dimensions and concentrations of the defects were about those supposed within the dynamic cluster model of bilayer (Ivkov, 1984). No irregularities were detected in the solid Lβ ' -phase (the diffusion scattering intensity was at least ten times less)
Atomic motions in solid and liquid methanol by neutron inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueiredo Neto, A.M.; Vinhas, L.A.
1979-01-01
The frequency spectra of methanol in three phases liquid, crystal I and crystal II were determined by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. The measurements were performed using a Beryllium Filter Time-of-Flight Spectrometer. Neutron inelastic scattering spectra and frequency spectra allowed assignments of five peaks, corresponding to frequencies: 420 cm -1 attributed to vibrational modes of crystalline lattice, 240 and 160 cm -1 associated to stretching of hydrogen bonds, 82 and 50 cm -1 interpreted as vibrational and torsional modes of CH 3 OH units in dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentames. The results suggest crystal I phase as an intermediate phase between liquid and crystal II, concerning the structural and dynamical properties of molecules and their correlation. The plastic character of crystal I is discussed. (Author) [pt
Incommensurate phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Currat, R [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.
Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko
2017-03-07
Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain.
Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.
1995-01-01
The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering
Small-angle light scattering studies of dense AOT-water-decane microemulsions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micali, N.; Trusso, S.; Mallamace, F.; Chen, S.H.
1996-01-01
It is performed extensive studies of a three-component microemulsion system composed of AOT-water-decane using small-angle light scattering (SALS). The small-angle scattering intensities are measured in the angular interval 0.001-0.1 radians, corresponding to a Bragg wave number range of 0.14 μm -1 -1 . The measurements were made by changing temperature and volume fraction φ of the dispersed phase in the range 0.65< φ < 0.75. All samples have a fixed water-to-AOT molar ratio, w [water[/[AOT[ = 40.8, in order to keep the same average droplet size in the stable one-phase region. With the SALS technique it is observed all the phase boundaries of a very complex phase diagram with a percolation line and many structural organizations within it. It is observed at the percolation transition threshold, a scaling behavior of the intensity data. In addition it is described in detail a structural transition from a droplet microemulsion to a bi continuous one a suggested by a recent small-angle neutron scattering experiment. From the data analysis it is show that both the percolation phenomenon and this novel structural transition are described from a large-scale aggregation between microemulsion droplets
Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
2011-01-01
Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation....
Interesting results from neutron-scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, A.D.B.
Neutron scattering has been a useful tool in the determination of the lattice dynamics of metals, studies of the physics of magnetism in rare-earth systems, observing changes in the structure of DNA bases after ultraviolet irradiation, looking at plastic crystals, following structural phase changes in ferroelectric materials, and studying liquid He. Both low- and high-flux facilities are useful. (LL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichitiu, F.; Falomkin, I.V.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Shcherbakov, Yu.A.; Piragino, G.
1981-06-01
In the 24 MeV-260 MeV kinetic energy interval, the energy dependent phase shift analysis of π 4 He elastic scattering is done. The eneray dependence is given by the rational fraction approximants of the partial S matrix. The search for the stable S matrix zero-pole pairs in the k and √s complex plane give some proofs for the existence of the (π 4 He) excited states in the S, P and probably D partial waves. (authors)
Uneven-Layered Coding Metamaterial Tile for Ultra-wideband RCS Reduction and Diffuse Scattering.
Su, Jianxun; He, Huan; Li, Zengrui; Yang, Yaoqing Lamar; Yin, Hongcheng; Wang, Junhong
2018-05-25
In this paper, a novel uneven-layered coding metamaterial tile is proposed for ultra-wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction and diffuse scattering. The metamaterial tile is composed of two kinds of square ring unit cells with different layer thickness. The reflection phase difference of 180° (±37°) between two unit cells covers an ultra-wide frequency range. Due to the phase cancellation between two unit cells, the metamaterial tile has the scattering pattern of four strong lobes deviating from normal direction. The metamaterial tile and its 90-degree rotation can be encoded as the '0' and '1' elements to cover an object, and diffuse scattering pattern can be realized by optimizing phase distribution, leading to reductions of the monostatic and bi-static RCSs simultaneously. The metamaterial tile can achieve -10 dB RCS reduction from 6.2 GHz to 25.7 GHz with the ratio bandwidth of 4.15:1 at normal incidence. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement and validate the proposed uneven-layered coding metamaterial tile can greatly expanding the bandwidth for RCS reduction and diffuse scattering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-02-01
The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research
Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, W.A.
1976-01-01
A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer
Phaseless tomographic inverse scattering in Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estatico, C.; Fedeli, A.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Tavanti, E.
2016-01-01
In conventional microwave imaging, a hidden dielectric object under test is illuminated by microwave incident waves and the field it scatters is measured in magnitude and phase in order to retrieve the dielectric properties by solving the related non-homogenous Helmholtz equation or its Lippmann-Schwinger integral formulation. Since the measurement of the phase of electromagnetic waves can be still considered expensive in real applications, in this paper only the magnitude of the scattering wave fields is measured in order to allow a reduction of the cost of the measurement apparatus. In this respect, we firstly analyse the properties of the phaseless scattering nonlinear forward modelling operator in its integral form and we provide an analytical expression for computing its Fréchet derivative. Then, we propose an inexact Newton method to solve the associated nonlinear inverse problems, where any linearized step is solved by a L p Banach space iterative regularization method which acts on the dual space L p* . Indeed, it is well known that regularization in special Banach spaces, such us L p with 1 < p < 2, allows to promote sparsity and to reduce Gibbs phenomena and over-smoothness. Preliminary results concerning numerically computed field data are shown. (paper)
Scattering of Lamb waves in a composite plate
Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu; Shah, Arvind
1991-01-01
A combined analytical and finite element technique is developed to gain a better understanding of the scattering of elastic waves by defects. This hybrid method is capable of predicting scattered displacements from arbitrary shaped defects as well as inclusions of different material. The continuity of traction and displacements at the boundaries of the two areas provided the necessary equations to find the nodal displacements and expansion coefficients. Results clearly illustrate the influence of increasing crack depth on the scattered signal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leader, Elliot
1991-01-01
With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Witala, H.; Kievsky, A.
1998-01-01
The 4 P J waves in nucleon-deuteron scattering were analyzed using proton-deuteron and neutron-deuteron data at E N =3 MeV. New sets of nucleon-nucleon 3 P j phase shifts were obtained that may lead to a better understanding of the long-standing A y (θ) puzzle in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering. However, these sets of 3 P j phase shifts are quite different from the ones determined from both global phase-shift analyses of nucleon-nucleon data and nucleon-nucleon potential models. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Multiple Scattering Expansion of the Self-Energy at Finite Temperature
Jeon, Sangyong; Ellis, Paul J.
1998-01-01
An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ondrej Slezak; Milan Kalal; Hon Jin Kong
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Analytical description of an experimentally verified scheme leading to a phase-locked stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), used in a laser beam combination systems, is presented. The essential condition for the phase-locking effect for SBS is the fixation of the starting position and time of the acoustic Brillouin wave. It is shown that the starting position fixation of this acoustic wave may have its origin in a transient acoustic standing wave initiated by an arising optical interference field produced by the back-seeding concave mirror. This interference field leads to a stationary density modulation of the medium. However, the way to the formation of this density modulation leads via the acoustic standing wave. An appropriate solution, in the form of the standing wave, was obtained from solving the acoustic wave-equation using the electrostriction as a driving force. As a consequence of the damping term included in this equation the acoustic standing wave becomes gradually attenuated and contrary to the undamped solution published earlier, thus constitutes a truly transient phenomenon. Using a mathematical formalism similar to that which is used for the SBS description in the case of a random phase, the coupled equations describing the phase-locked SBS were derived. Contrary to the case without the back-seeding mirror, where the wave chosen from the thermal noise background subsequently plays the role of a trigger of the stimulated process, in this case it is replaced by the transient standing wave produced as a consequence of the presence of an optical interference field arisen in the focal region of the back-seeding concave mirror.
Critical scattering of neutrons from terbium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.; Marshall, W.
1968-01-01
The inelasticity of the critical scattering of neutrons in terbium has been measured above the Neél temperature at the (0, 0, 2−Q) satellite position. The results show that dynamic slowing down of the fluctuations does occur in a second‐order phase transition in agreement with the general theory...
Pinning of phase separation of aqueous solution of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose by gelation
Kita, Rio; Kaku, Takeshi; Kubota, Kenji; Dobashi, Toshiaki
1999-08-01
Opalescence of the aqueous solution of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) induced by heating has been studied in terms of the phase diagram and the phase separation dynamics. The cloud point curve and the sol-to-gel transition curve intersected with each other at about 55 °C. Just above the cloud-point curve at which the spinodal curve has its minimum, a ring-like scattering pattern appeared corresponding to the spinodal decomposition. Temporal growth of the scattering function in the course of phase separation was studied by a time-resolved light scattering technique. The gelation pinned the phase separation (spinodal decomposition) of the aqueous HPMC solution.
Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slowik, Jan Malte
2015-11-15
Due to their versatile properties, X rays are a unique tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of matter. X-ray scattering is the fundamental principle of many imaging techniques. Examples are X-ray crystallography, which recently celebrated one hundred years and is currently the leading method in structure determination of proteins, as well as X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI), which is an imaging technique with countless applications in biology, medicine, etc. The technological development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) has brought X-ray imaging at the edge of a new scientific revolution. XFELs offer ultrashort X-ray pulses with unprecedented high X-ray fluence and excellent spatial coherence properties. These properties make them an outstanding radiation source for X-ray scattering experiments, providing ultrafast temporal resolution as well as atomic spatial resolution. However, the radiation-matter interaction in XFEL experiments also advances into a novel regime. This demands a sound theoretical fundament to describe and explore the new experimental possibilities. This dissertation is dedicated to the theoretical study of nonresonant X-ray scattering. As the first topic, I consider the near-field imaging by propagation based X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). I devise a novel theory of PCI, in which radiation and matter are quantized. Remarkably, the crucial interference term automatically excludes contributions from inelastic scattering. This explains the success of the classical description thus far. The second topic of the thesis is the X-ray imaging of coherent electronic motion, where quantum effects become particularly apparent. The electron density of coherent electronic wave packets - important in charge transfer and bond breaking - varies in time, typically on femto- or attosecond time scales. In the near future, XFELs are envisaged to provide attosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility for time-resolved ultrafast X-ray scattering
Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slowik, Jan Malte
2015-11-01
Due to their versatile properties, X rays are a unique tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of matter. X-ray scattering is the fundamental principle of many imaging techniques. Examples are X-ray crystallography, which recently celebrated one hundred years and is currently the leading method in structure determination of proteins, as well as X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI), which is an imaging technique with countless applications in biology, medicine, etc. The technological development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) has brought X-ray imaging at the edge of a new scientific revolution. XFELs offer ultrashort X-ray pulses with unprecedented high X-ray fluence and excellent spatial coherence properties. These properties make them an outstanding radiation source for X-ray scattering experiments, providing ultrafast temporal resolution as well as atomic spatial resolution. However, the radiation-matter interaction in XFEL experiments also advances into a novel regime. This demands a sound theoretical fundament to describe and explore the new experimental possibilities. This dissertation is dedicated to the theoretical study of nonresonant X-ray scattering. As the first topic, I consider the near-field imaging by propagation based X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). I devise a novel theory of PCI, in which radiation and matter are quantized. Remarkably, the crucial interference term automatically excludes contributions from inelastic scattering. This explains the success of the classical description thus far. The second topic of the thesis is the X-ray imaging of coherent electronic motion, where quantum effects become particularly apparent. The electron density of coherent electronic wave packets - important in charge transfer and bond breaking - varies in time, typically on femto- or attosecond time scales. In the near future, XFELs are envisaged to provide attosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility for time-resolved ultrafast X-ray scattering
Neutron scattering (progress report) January - December 1991
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buehrer, W.; Fischer, P.; Furrer, A.
1992-02-01
Progress made by the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology during the year 1991 in the fields of high-T c superconductors, materials science, magnetism, structural research, lattice dynamics, phase transitions, instrumental and support activities is reported. figs., tabs., refs
Eliminating high-order scattering effects in optical microbubble sizing.
Qiu, Huihe
2003-04-01
Measurements of bubble size and velocity in multiphase flows are important in much research and many industrial applications. It has been found that high-order refractions have great impact on microbubble sizing by use of phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The problem has been investigated, and a model of phase-size correlation, which also takes high-order refractions into consideration, is introduced to improve the accuracy of bubble sizing. Hence the model relaxes the assumption of a single-scattering mechanism in a conventional PDA system. The results of simulation based on this new model are compared with those based on a single-scattering-mechanism approach or a first-order approach. An optimization method for accurately sizing air bubbles in water has been suggested.
Heterophase fluctuation of omega phase and X-ray diffuse scattering from dual phase structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farjami, Susan; Kubo, Hiroshi
2003-01-01
Heterophase fluctuation of athermal omega embryos has been analyzed by assuming a dual phase structure of omega embryos composed of omega and bcc matrix phase. The two-dimensional modulation of dual phase was suggested from the quantitative estimation of coherent free energy of omega embryos using microscopic theory of elasticity and the Landau anharmonic theory for phase transformation. The X-ray diffraction theory was developed in connection to the formation of omega embryos having the dual phase structure. The offset of the diffuse peak position from the ideal omega point in the X-ray diffraction pattern is attributed to the dual phase (incommensurate phase) of omega embryos. It was also shown that the ellipsoidal shape of the diffuse intensity tailing toward the fundamental spot of the matrix phase is originated from the equilibrium shape of the omega embryo. The quantitative estimation of elastic energy modulus (EEM) in the disordered bcc matrix and in the ordered bcc matrix indicates a difference in the deviation amount of the minimum point k(q m ) from the ideal omega point k(q ω ) and a difference in the elliptical shape of embryos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, M.A.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Aswal, V.K.; Neubert, R.H.H.
2005-01-01
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) on the unilamellar vesicle populations (diameter of 500 and 1000 Armstrong) was used to characterize lipid vesicles from dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in three phases (gel, ripple, and liquid). Parameters of vesicle populations and internal structure of the DMPC bilayer were characterized on the basis of the Separated Form Factor (SFF) model. Vesicle shape changes from about spherical in liquid phase to elliptical in ripple and gel phases for vesicles prepared via extrusion through pores with the diameter of 500 Armstrong. Parameters of the internal bilayer structure (membrane thickness, thickness of the hydrophobic core, hydration, and surface area of lipid molecule) were determined on the basis of the Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic (HH) approximation of neutron scattering length density across the bilayer ρ(x) and on the basis of the Step Function (SF) approximation of ρ(x). It was demonstrated in the framework of HH approximation that DMPC membrane thickness in the liquid phase (T = 30 deg C) depends on the membrane curvature. Vesicle population prepared via extrusion through pores with the diameter of 500 Armstrong is characterized by an average radius of 275.6 ± 0.5 Armstrong, polydispersity of 27%, membrane thickness of 47.8 ± 0.2 Armstrong, thickness of hydrophobic core of 20.5 ± 0.3 Armstrong, surface area per DMPC molecule of 61.0 ± 0.4 A 2 Armstrong, and the number of water molecules per DMPC molecule of 11.9 ± 0.3. Vesicles prepared via extrusion through pores with the diameter of 1000 Armstrong have a polydispersity of 48%, and a membrane thickness of 45.6 ± 0.2 Armstrong. SF approximation was used to describe the DMPC membrane structure in gel (T 10 deg C) and ripple (T = 20 deg C) phases. DMPC vesicles prepared via extrusion through 1000- Armstrong pores have a membrane thickness of 49.6 ± 0.5 Armstrong in the gel phase and 48.3 ± 0.6 Armstrong in the ripple phase. The dependence of the DMPC membrane
Automatic Coregistration for Multiview SAR Images in Urban Areas
Xiang, Y.; Kang, W.; Wang, F.; You, H.
2017-09-01
Due to the high resolution property and the side-looking mechanism of SAR sensors, complex buildings structures make the registration of SAR images in urban areas becomes very hard. In order to solve the problem, an automatic and robust coregistration approach for multiview high resolution SAR images is proposed in the paper, which consists of three main modules. First, both the reference image and the sensed image are segmented into two parts, urban areas and nonurban areas. Urban areas caused by double or multiple scattering in a SAR image have a tendency to show higher local mean and local variance values compared with general homogeneous regions due to the complex structural information. Based on this criterion, building areas are extracted. After obtaining the target regions, L-shape structures are detected using the SAR phase congruency model and Hough transform. The double bounce scatterings formed by wall and ground are shown as strong L- or T-shapes, which are usually taken as the most reliable indicator for building detection. According to the assumption that buildings are rectangular and flat models, planimetric buildings are delineated using the L-shapes, then the reconstructed target areas are obtained. For the orignal areas and the reconstructed target areas, the SAR-SIFT matching algorithm is implemented. Finally, correct corresponding points are extracted by the fast sample consensus (FSC) and the transformation model is also derived. The experimental results on a pair of multiview TerraSAR images with 1-m resolution show that the proposed approach gives a robust and precise registration performance, compared with the orignal SAR-SIFT method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, D.S.
1996-03-01
This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on 90 Sr, 3 H, and 137 Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides
Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.
1991-08-01
During the report period we have investigated the following areas: Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering measurements on 14 N, 181 Ta, 232 Th, 238 U and 239 Pu; Prompt fission spectra for 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu; Theoretical studies of neutron scattering; Neutron filters; New detector systems; and Upgrading of neutron target assembly, data acquisition system, and accelerator/beam-line apparatus
Scattering function for a model of interacting surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colangelo, P.; Gonnella, G.; Maritan, A.
1993-01-01
The two-point correlation function of an ensemble of interacting closed self-avoiding surfaces on a cubic lattice is analyzed in the disordered phase, which corresponds to the paramagnetic region in a related spin formulation. Mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations predict the existence of a disorder line which corresponds to a transition from an exponential decay to an oscillatory damped behavior of the two-point correlation function. The relevance of the results for the description of amphiphilic systems in a microemulsion phase is discussed. The scattering function is also calculated for a bicontinuous phase coexisting with the paramagnetic phase
X-ray, neutron, and electron scattering. Report of a materials sciences workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-08-01
The ERDA Workshop on X-ray, Neutron, and Electron Scattering to assess needs and establish priorities for energy-related basic research on materials. The general goals of the Workshop were: (1) to review various energy technologies where x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques might make significant contributions, (2) to identify present and future materials problems in the energy technologies and translate these problems into requirements for basic research by x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques, (3) to recommend research areas utilizing these three scattering techniques that should be supported by the DPR Materials Sciences Program, and (4) to assign priorities to these research areas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire
1983-01-01
The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Li
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The phase function and polarized phase function are important optical parameters, which describe scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Polarization of skylight induced by the scattering processes is sensitive to the scattering properties of aerosols. The Stokes parameters I, Q, U and the polarized radiance Lp of skylight measured by the CIMEL dual-polar sun-sky radiometer CE318- DP can be use to retrieve the phase function and polarized phase function, respectively. Two different observation geometries (i.e., the principal plane and almucantar are preformed by the CE318-DP to detect skylight polarization. Polarization of skylight depends on the illumination and observation geometries. For the same solar zenith angle, retrievals of the phase function and the polarized phase function are still affected by the observation geometry. The performance of the retrieval algorithm for the principal plane and almucantar observation geometries was assessed by the numerical experiments at two typical high and low sun’s positions (i.e. solar zenith angles are equal to 45° and 65°. Comparing the results for the principal plane and almucantar geometries, it is recommended to utilize the principal plane observations to retrieve the phase function when the solar zenith angle is small. The Stokes parameter U and the polarized radiance Lp from the almucantar observations are suggested to retrieve the polarized phase function, especially for short wavelength channels (e.g., 440 and 500 nm.
Li, L.; Qie, L. L.; Xu, H.; Li, Z. Q.
2018-04-01
The phase function and polarized phase function are important optical parameters, which describe scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Polarization of skylight induced by the scattering processes is sensitive to the scattering properties of aerosols. The Stokes parameters I, Q, U and the polarized radiance Lp of skylight measured by the CIMEL dual-polar sun-sky radiometer CE318- DP can be use to retrieve the phase function and polarized phase function, respectively. Two different observation geometries (i.e., the principal plane and almucantar) are preformed by the CE318-DP to detect skylight polarization. Polarization of skylight depends on the illumination and observation geometries. For the same solar zenith angle, retrievals of the phase function and the polarized phase function are still affected by the observation geometry. The performance of the retrieval algorithm for the principal plane and almucantar observation geometries was assessed by the numerical experiments at two typical high and low sun's positions (i.e. solar zenith angles are equal to 45° and 65°). Comparing the results for the principal plane and almucantar geometries, it is recommended to utilize the principal plane observations to retrieve the phase function when the solar zenith angle is small. The Stokes parameter U and the polarized radiance Lp from the almucantar observations are suggested to retrieve the polarized phase function, especially for short wavelength channels (e.g., 440 and 500 nm).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. A. Shapovalov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns the light scattering problem of biological objects of complicated structure.It considers optically “soft” (having a refractive index close to that of a surrounding medium homogeneous cylindrical capsules, composed of three parts: central one that is cylindrical and two symmetrical rounding end caps. Such capsules can model more broad class of biological objects than the ordinary shapes of a spheroid or sphere. But, unfortunately, if a particle has other than a regular geometrical shape, then it is very difficult or impossible to solve the scattering problem analytically in its most general form that oblige us to use numerical and approximate analytical methods. The one of such approximate analytical method is the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation (or the first Born approximation.So, the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for different objects having size from nanometer to millimeter and depending on wave length and refractive index of an object under small phase shift of central ray.The formulas for light scattering amplitude of cylindrical capsule with arbitrary end caps in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation in scalar form are obtained. Then the light scattering phase function [or element of scattering matrix f11] for natural incident light (unpolarized or arbitrary polarized light is calculated.Numerical results for light scattering phase functions of cylindrical capsule with conical, spheroidal, paraboloidal ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation are compared. Also numerical results for light scattering phase function of cylindrical capsule with conical ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation and in the method of Purcell-Pennypacker (or Discrete Dipole method are compared. The good agreement within an application range of the RayleighGans-Debye approximation is obtained.Further continuation of the work, perhaps, is a consideration of multilayer cylindrical capsule in the Rayleigh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Mianquan
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The polarization feature of a fully Polarimetric Phased-Array Radar (PPAR antenna varies according to the beam-scanning angle, thereby introducing two problems on the target Polarization Scattering Matrix (PSM measurement. First, the antenna polarization basis is defined within the vertical cross-section of an electromagnetic wave propagation direction, and the polarization basis of each beam direction angle is not identical, resulting in the PSM of a fixed-posture target observed by PPAR being not identical for different beam-scanning angles. Second, the cross polarization of the PPAR antenna increases with increasing beamscanning angle, resulting in a crosstalk among the elements of PSM observed by PPAR. This study focuses on the analysis of the abovementioned two aspects of the effect of beam scanning on target PSM observed by PPAR. The results will establish a more accurate observation of the equation for the precision PSM measurement of PPAR.
Physical optics far field inverse scattering in the time domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleistein, N.
1976-01-01
The physical optics far field inverse scattering (POFFIS) identity relates the phase and range normalized far field back scattering amplitude to the spatial Fourier transform of the characteristic function of the scattering obstacle. The characteristic function is equal to unity in the region occupied by the obstacle and zero elsewhere. The original identity was derived by Bojarski for impulsive point sources. The result is extended to sources of arbitrary time dependence. One obtains an alternative form of Bojarski's POFFIS identity. One also derives a POFFIS identity in the time domain. Numerically synthesized checks on the method are provided
Puig, Julieta; Dell' Erba, Ignacio E; Schroeder, Walter F; Hoppe, Cristina E; Williams, Roberto J J
2017-03-29
Alkyl chains of β-hydroxyesters synthesized by the capping of terminal epoxy groups of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with palmitic (C16), stearic (C18), or behenic (C22) fatty acids self-assemble forming a crystalline phase. Above a particular concentration solutions of these esters in a variety of solvents led to supramolecular (physical) gels below the crystallization temperature of alkyl chains. A form-stable phase change material (FS-PCM) was obtained by blending the ester derived from behenic acid with eicosane. A blend containing 20 wt % ester was stable as a gel up to 53 °C and exhibited a heat storage capacity of 161 J/g, absorbed during the melting of eicosane at 37 °C. Thermally reversible light scattering (TRLS) films were obtained by visible-light photopolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-ester blends (50 wt %) in the gel state at room temperature. The reaction was very fast and not inhibited by oxygen. TRLS films consisted of a cross-linked methacrylic network interpenetrated by the supramolecular network formed by the esters. Above the melting temperature of crystallites formed by alkyl chains, the film was transparent due to the matching between refractive indices of the methacrylic network and the amorphous ester. Below the crystallization temperature, the film was opaque because of light dispersion produced by the organic crystallites uniformly dispersed in the material. Of high significance for application was the fact that the contrast ratio did not depend on heating and cooling rates.
Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: shulga@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)
2017-06-10
Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.
Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.F. Shul'ga
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.
Non-eikonal corrections for the scattering of spin-one particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaber, M.W.; Wilkin, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Al-Khalili, J.S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom)
2004-08-01
The Wallace Fourier-Bessel expansion of the scattering amplitude is generalised to the case of the scattering of a spin-one particle from a potential with a single tensor coupling as well as central and spin-orbit terms. A generating function for the eikonal-phase (quantum) corrections is evaluated in closed form. For medium-energy deuteron-nucleus scattering, the first-order correction is dominant and is shown to be significant in the interpretation of analysing power measurements. This conclusion is supported by a numerical comparison of the eikonal observables, evaluated with and without corrections, with those obtained from a numerical resolution of the Schroedinger equation for d-{sup 58}Ni scattering at incident deuteron energies of 400 and 700 MeV. (orig.)
Time-Series INSAR: An Integer Least-Squares Approach For Distributed Scatterers
Samiei-Esfahany, Sami; Hanssen, Ramon F.
2012-01-01
The objective of this research is to extend the geode- tic mathematical model which was developed for persistent scatterers to a model which can exploit distributed scatterers (DS). The main focus is on the integer least- squares framework, and the main challenge is to include the decorrelation effect in the mathematical model. In order to adapt the integer least-squares mathematical model for DS we altered the model from a single master to a multi-master configuration and introduced the decorrelation effect stochastically. This effect is described in our model by a full covariance matrix. We propose to de- rive this covariance matrix by numerical integration of the (joint) probability distribution function (PDF) of interferometric phases. This PDF is a function of coherence values and can be directly computed from radar data. We show that the use of this model can improve the performance of temporal phase unwrapping of distributed scatterers.
Multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeon, S.; Ellis, P.J.
1998-01-01
An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
14O+p elastic scattering in a microscopic cluster model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.; Leo, F.
2006-01-01
The 14O+p elastic scattering is analyzed in a fully microscopic cluster model. With the Resonating Group Method associated with the microscopic R-matrix theory, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated. Data on 16O+p are used to test the precision of the model. For the 14O+p elastic scattering, an excellent agreement is found with recent experimental data. Resonances properties in 15F are discussed
Small-angle x-ray scattering from the early growth stages of zeolite A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, P.; White, J.
1999-01-01
Full text: The work presented here with the use of SAXS (Small-Angle X-ray Scattering) is in attempt to identify a different paradigm to the organic template induced crystallization of zeolites, in particular zeolite 'A'. The reactions have been followed by small angle X-ray scattering from the time of first mixing of the constituents until the final separation of zeolite A crystals. The processes happening during the growth are expected to follow successive transformation of intermediate metastable phases until the formation of thermodynamically most stable phase and scattering signatures from these developments may be useful for extracting interesting information about the processes in situ. The scattering functions from a synthesis system of zeolite 'A' at the initial and final stage of reaction are presented.The different growth processes of zeolite 'A' from different silicate and aluminium sources are found. The differences are attributed to different rate limiting steps in the syntheses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Hook, W.A.
2000-01-01
A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering
Light scattering in porous materials: Geometrical optics and stereological approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malinka, Aleksey V.
2014-01-01
Porous material has been considered from the point of view of stereology (geometrical statistics), as a two-phase random mixture of solid material and air. Considered are the materials having the refractive index with the real part that differs notably from unit and the imaginary part much less than unit. Light scattering in such materials has been described using geometrical optics. These two – the geometrical optics laws and the stereological approach – allow one to obtain the inherent optical properties of such a porous material, which are basic in the radiative transfer theory: the photon survival probability, the scattering phase function, and the polarization properties (Mueller matrix). In this work these characteristics are expressed through the refractive index of the material and the random chord length distribution. The obtained results are compared with the traditional approach, modeling the porous material as a pack of particles of different shapes. - Highlights: • Porous material has been considered from the point of view of stereology. • Properties of a two-phase random mixture of solid material and air are considered. • Light scattering in such materials has been described using geometrical optics. • The inherent optical properties of such a porous material have been obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantinescu, L.M.
1994-01-01
Small-angle neutron scattering has been used in the study of chain conformation of lamellar styrene/isoprene block copolymers oriented in large single crystals. The radius of gyration of deuterated polystyrene chains around the normal to the interface has been measured. By comparing this direct evolution of the lateral dimension of the chains with the average chain separation given by the molecular area (the surface available at the interface for each covalent bond linking the blocks together) we characterized the transverse interpenetration degree of the chains. The polystyrene chains are displayed in simple strata own micro-domains, without an important interpenetration. (Author) 9 Figs., 2 Tabs., 25 Refs
Theoretical treatments of stimulated Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, Youichi; Sasaki, Wataru
1981-01-01
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a phenomenon, in which the coherent light (Stokes emission) with a shifted wavelength specific to a kind of material mixes in scattered monochromatic light, when the intense monochromatic light (laser light) is scattered by projecting it to the above material. According to the theoretical researches together with the experiments on SRS, it is qualitatively understood to be the phenomenon, in which laser energy is transferred to Stokes emission by the interaction through the optical non-linearity of a material between incident laser beam and the Stokes emission generated by spontaneous emission. The authors have been interested in the application of SRS to plasma diagnostics, and have studied it theoretically for the purpose of investigating its feasibility. Here, the theories reported so far are introduced arranging them. First, the derivation of SRS fundamental equations is explained, though it is limited to the SRS theory for ultrashort pulse laser (TSRS), and Raman media were assumed to be gas or liquid phase. Next, the solution of the equations and the basic properties of TSRS are described. Then, the extension of the TSRS to the cases when the several assumptions, which were set in the solution of the equations, were removed is explained. The extension includes the cases for phase fluctuation, dispersion, existence of anti-Stokes emission, and the presence of laser beam attenuation. Finally, the SRS by the broad band laser is introduced. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Y.J.; Radtke, R.; Zimmermann, R.
1988-01-01
Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs + ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion. (author)
Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chin, Y J; Radtke, R; Zimmermann, R
1988-01-01
Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs/sup +/ ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion.
Connection of Scattering Principles: A Visual and Mathematical Tour
Broggini, Filippo; Snieder, Roel
2012-01-01
Inverse scattering, Green's function reconstruction, focusing, imaging and the optical theorem are subjects usually studied as separate problems in different research areas. We show a physical connection between the principles because the equations that rule these "scattering principles" have a similar functional form. We first lead the reader…
Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...
Inelastic scattering from liquid 4He in aerogel glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snow, W.M.; Sokol, P.E.
1988-01-01
The physics of liquid and solid 4 He in restricted geometries has motivated a number of interesting experiments. Recent experiments include detailed measurements of the phase diagram for bulk liquid in vycor, showing a suppression of the superfluid transition and elevation of the melting pressure, and measurements of the superfluid fraction in vycor, aerogel, and zerogel glasses near the lambda point, in which critical exponents differ from the pure 4 He values have been observed. Many striking features in several of the experiments on helium in restricted geometries are poorly understood. We have performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements of liquid helium in aerogel glass above and below the superfluid transition for two samples of different porosities. The kinetic energy (KE) of the confined liquid is the same as that of the bulk liquid in the normal phase, but is clearly higher than the bulk values in the superfluid phase. The observed scattering in the superfluid phase is more peaked than in the normal phase: consistent with the presence of a Bose condensate. An estimate of the condensate fraction using a modification of a method due to Sears yields values consistent with those estimated for the bulk liquid. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Variational methods in electron-atom scattering theory
Nesbet, Robert K
1980-01-01
The investigation of scattering phenomena is a major theme of modern physics. A scattered particle provides a dynamical probe of the target system. The practical problem of interest here is the scattering of a low energy electron by an N-electron atom. It has been difficult in this area of study to achieve theoretical results that are even qualitatively correct, yet quantitative accuracy is often needed as an adjunct to experiment. The present book describes a quantitative theoretical method, or class of methods, that has been applied effectively to this problem. Quantum mechanical theory relevant to the scattering of an electron by an N-electron atom, which may gain or lose energy in the process, is summarized in Chapter 1. The variational theory itself is presented in Chapter 2, both as currently used and in forms that may facilitate future applications. The theory of multichannel resonance and threshold effects, which provide a rich structure to observed electron-atom scattering data, is presented in Cha...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Burkovsky, R.G.; Bronwald, Y.A.; Filimonov, A.V.; Rudskoy, A.I.; Chernyshov, D.; Bosak, A.; Hlinka, Jiří; Long, X.; Ye, Z. -G.; Vakhrushev, S. B.
2012-01-01
Roč. 109, č. 9 (2012), "097603-1"-"097603-4" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : inelastic x-ray scattering * PZT * diffuse scattering * morphotropic phase boundary Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012
Off-shell T-matrices from inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Geramb, H.V.; Amos, K.A.
1989-01-01
Inverse scattering theory is used to determine local, energy independent, coordinate space nucleon-nucleon potentials. Inversions are made of phase shifts obtained by analyzes of data and from meson exchange theory, in particular the Paris and the Bonn parametrizations. Half off-shell T-matrices are generated to compare the exact meson theoretical results with those of inversion and it is found that phase equivalent interactions have essentially the same off-shell behaviour for any physically significant range of momenta. 8 refs., 8 figs
Electromagnetic field scattering by a triangular aperture.
Harrison, R E; Hyman, E
1979-03-15
The multiple Laplace transform has been applied to analysis and computation of scattering by a double triangular aperture. Results are obtained which match far-field intensity distributions observed in experiments. Arbitrary polarization components, as well as in-phase and quadrature-phase components, may be determined, in the transform domain, as a continuous function of distance from near to far-field for any orientation, aperture, and transformable waveform. Numerical results are obtained by application of numerical multiple inversions of the fully transformed solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babenko, V A; Sychev, Andrei A
2009-01-01
The hyper-Raman scattering (HRS) of light in water is detected reliably by the active spectroscopy method of coherent light scattering, in particular, by the method of four-photon parametric light scattering in a medium in which HRS is a 'signal' wave in the parametric process involving simultaneously two high-power laser photons and IR photons of an 'idler' wave. Hyper-Raman scattering by libration vibrations of water molecules, which virtually cannot be detected by conventional methods of Raman scattering, was observed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Wigner representation in scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remler, E.A.
1975-01-01
The basic equations of quantum scattering are translated into the Wigner representation. This puts quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space. Instead of complex valued wavefunctions and transition matrices, one now works with real-valued probability distributions and source functions, objects more responsive to physical intuition. Aside from writing out certain necessary basic expressions, the main purpose is to develop and stress the interpretive picture associated with this representation and to derive results used in applications published elsewhere. The quasiclassical guise assumed by the formalism lends itself particularly to approximations of complex multiparticle scattering problems is laid. The foundation for a systematic application of statistical approximations to such problems. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its mulitple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Since this formalism remains unchanged upon taking the classical limit, these results also constitute a general treatment of classical multiparticle collision theory. Quantum corrections to classical propogators are discussed briefly. The basic approximation used in the Monte Carlo method is derived in a fashion that allows for future refinement and includes bound state production. The close connection that must exist between inclusive production of a bound state and of its constituents is brought out in an especially graphic way by this formalism. In particular one can see how comparisons between such cross sections yield direct physical insight into relevant production mechanisms. A simple illustration of scattering by a bound two-body system is treated. Simple expressions for single- and double-scattering contributions to total and differential cross sections, as well as for all necessary shadow corrections thereto, are obtained and compared to previous results of Glauber and Goldberger
Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.
1994-01-01
Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.
Silva, Adrian; Schmookler, Barak; Papadopoulou, Afroditi; Schmidt, Axel; Hen, Or; Khachatryan, Mariana; Weinstein, Lawrence
2017-09-01
Using wide phase-space electron scattering data, we study a novel technique for neutrino energy reconstruction for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments require detailed understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions, which are complicated by the underlying nuclear physics that governs the process. One area of concern is that neutrino energy must be reconstructed event-by-event from the final-state kinematics. In charged-current quasielastic scattering, Fermi motion of nucleons prevents exact energy reconstruction. However, in scattering from deuterium, the momentum of the electron and proton constrain the neutrino energy exactly, offering a new avenue for reducing systematic uncertainties. To test this approach, we analyzed d (e ,e' p) data taken with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab Hall B and made kinematic selection cuts to obtain quasielastic events. We estimated the remaining inelastic background by using d (e ,e' pπ-) events to produce a simulated dataset of events with an undetected π-. These results demonstrate the feasibility of energy reconstruction in a hypothetical future deuterium-based neutrino detector. Supported by the Paul E. Gray UROP Fund, MIT.
Development of Cold Neutron Scattering Kernels for Advanced Moderators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granada, J. R.; Cantargi, F.
2010-01-01
The development of scattering kernels for a number of molecular systems was performed, including a set of hydrogeneous methylated aromatics such as toluene, mesitylene, and mixtures of those. In order to partially validate those new libraries, we compared predicted total cross sections with experimental data obtained in our laboratory. In addition, we have introduced a new model to describe the interaction of slow neutrons with solid methane in phase II (stable phase below T = 20.4 K, atmospheric pressure). Very recently, a new scattering kernel to describe the interaction of slow neutrons with solid Deuterium was also developed. The main dynamical characteristics of that system are contained in the formalism, the elastic processes involving coherent and incoherent contributions are fully described, as well as the spin-correlation effects.
Diffraction and angular momentum effects in semiclassical atomic scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russek, A.
1979-01-01
The semiclassical scattering theory of Mott and Massey and Ford and Wheeler is here extended to multichannel scattering as occurs at a crossing or pseudocrossing of the transient molecule formed by the colliding atoms. The generalized theory incorporates both interference and diffraction phenomena, but the emphasis in this work is on diffraction. For small-angle scattering, diffraction effects become broader, not narrower, as the collision energy increases: ΔbΔtau > or = h[E/sub inc//(2m)]/sup 1/2/ relates the uncertainties in impact parameter b and reduced scattering angle tau = E/sub inc/theta, and determines the range in b required to resolve a structure in the deflection function of height Δtau. In the kilovolt range of collision energies, the effects of local maxima and minima in the deflection function are washed out, and the Airy-function approximation of Ford and Wheeler is inappropriate to describe the differential cross section. More generally, it is shown that at keV collision energies the stationary-phase approximation, heretofore essential in the reduction to the semiclassical limit, breaks down in the vicinity of a level crossing. An approximate theorem is proposed which remains valid in this region and elsewhere reduces to the standard stationary-phase approximation. Several illustrative examples are considered. A separate development treats the effect on the differential scattering cross section of a change in electronic angular momentum when electronic excitation occurs
A numerically accurate and robust expression for bistatic scattering from a plane triangular facet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wendelboe, Gorm; Jacobsen, Finn; Bell, Judith
2006-01-01
This work is related to modeling of synthetic sonar images of naval mines or other objects. Considered here is the computation of high frequency scattering from the surface of a rigid 3D-object numerically represented by plane triangular facets. The far field scattered pressure from each facet...... area was applied instead. The effective ensonified area solution is exact at normal incidence, but at other angles, where singularities also exist, the scattered pressure will be incorrect. This paper presents a frequency domain expression generalized to bistatic scattering written in terms of sinc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kir'yanov, Yu F; Kochemasov, G G; Maslov, N V; Shestakova, I V
1999-01-01
The influence of the strictive self-interaction on the threshold and quality of phase conjugation in the course of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was investigated numerically in the linear approximation for steady-state linearly polarised pumping. The calculations were carried out for the three-dimensional case of a Gaussian pump beam and a beam representing a superposition of 10 x 10 Hermitian - Gaussian modes with random phases. It was found that in the case of a Gaussian beam the growth of the strictive aberrations leads to a significant reduction of the SBS threshold but has little influence on the conjugation quality. In the case of a pump beam with a divergence exceeding the diffraction limit such growth of the strictive aberrations results (on the average) in lowering the SBS threshold and in deterioration of the conjugation quality. The calculated results depend strongly on the specific phase combination of the superposed modes. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ricoul, F
1997-09-26
The aim of this work is to study the addition of oligosaccharides and glycolipids in lamellar phases of the cationic surfactant DDAB (di-dodecyl-dimethyl-ammonium bromide). Two steps have been followed: the determination of phases prisms and the thermodynamic interpretation in terms of molecular interactions. In order to characterize these systems, two new experimental small angle scattering methods have been perfected: 1) a neutron scattering contrast variation method which allows to study the adsorption of aqueous solution in bilayers and 2) a capillary concentration gradient method to establish directly and quantitatively the phases diagrams of ternary systems by X rays scattering. It has been pointed out that the oligosaccharides induce a depletion attractive force on the lamellar-lamellar equilibrium of the DDAB when they are excluded of the most concentrated phase. For the two studied glycolipids: 2-O lauroyl-saccharose and N-lauroyl N-nonyl lactitol, the ternary phase diagrams water-DDAB-glycolipid have been established in terms of temperature. Critical points at ambient temperature have been given. The osmotic pressure in concentrated lamellar phases has been measured. It has been shown that glycolipids increase the hydration repulsion at short distance and that the electrostatic repulsion is outstanding and unchanged at high distance if there is at less 1 mole percent of ionic surfactant. In a dilute solution, glycolipids decrease the maximum swelling of lamellar phases, with a competition between the lamellar phase and the micellae dilute phase for water. (O.M.). 165 refs.
Monte Carlo simulations of neutron scattering instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aestrand, Per-Olof; Copenhagen Univ.; Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.
2001-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation is an important computational tool used in many areas of science and engineering. The use of Monte Carlo techniques for simulating neutron scattering instruments is discussed. The basic ideas, techniques and approximations are presented. Since the construction of a neutron scattering instrument is very expensive, Monte Carlo software used for design of instruments have to be validated and tested extensively. The McStas software was designed with these aspects in mind and some of the basic principles of the McStas software will be discussed. Finally, some future prospects are discussed for using Monte Carlo simulations in optimizing neutron scattering experiments. (R.P.)
Multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous atmospheres.
Kanal, M.
1973-01-01
In this paper we treat the multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in plane-parallel inhomogeneous atmospheres. The treatment presented here may be adopted to model atmospheres characterized by an optical depth dependent coherent scattering phase function. For the purpose of illustration we consider the semi-infinite medium in which the absorption property of the atmosphere is characterized by an exponential function. The methodology employed here is the extension of the case treated previously by the author for homogeneous atmospheres.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun Wenbo E-mail: w.sun@larc.nasa.gov; Loeb, Norman G.; Fu Qiang
2004-02-01
A recently developed finite-difference time domain scheme is examined using the exact analytic solutions for light scattering by a coated sphere immersed in an absorbing medium. The relative differences are less than 1% in the extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies and less than 5% in the scattering phase functions. The definition of apparent single-scattering properties is also discussed.
Study of the low-frequency Raman scattering in NaNbO{sub 3} crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouziane, E [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes, FRE CNRS 2304, Universite de Metz et Supelec, 2 Rue E Belin, 57070 Metz Cedex (France); Fontana, M D [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes, FRE CNRS 2304, Universite de Metz et Supelec, 2 Rue E Belin, 57070 Metz Cedex (France); Ayadi, M [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et d' Electronique, Faculte des Sciences I, Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, Casablanca (Morocco)
2003-03-12
The Raman scattering spectrum of the sodium niobate crystal, in both P and R phases, has been investigated from room temperature up to 440{sup d}eg C. The dependence of the low-frequency (LF) spectrum clearly reveals, for the first time, over a wide temperature range, the presence of a strong quasi-elastic scattering below a LF zone centre phonon. The phase transition mechanism is discussed, considering an order-disorder process induced by the relaxation of the Nb ions.
Electron-He+ P-wave elastic scattering and photoabsorption in two-electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatia, A. K.
2006-01-01
In a previous paper [A. K. Bhatia, Phys. Rev. A 69, 032714 (2004)], electron-hydrogen P-wave scattering phase shifts were calculated using the optical potential approach based on the Feshbach projection operator formalism. This method is now extended to the singlet and triplet electron-He + P-wave scattering in the elastic region. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 220 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts, and they are compared to phase shifts obtained from the method of polarized orbitals and close-coupling calculations. The continuum functions calculated here are used to calculate photoabsorption cross sections. Photoionization cross sections of He and photodetachment cross sections of H - are calculated in the elastic region--i.e., leaving He + and H in their respective ground states--and compared with previous calculations. Radiative attachment rates are also calculated
Analysis of the elastic scattering of negative muons from atomic hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, R.J.
1977-01-01
The total elastic cross section and the transport cross section for the scattering of negative muons from the hydrogen atom is determined by making a partial wave analysis of the elastic scattering amplitude. An effective Schrodinger equation for the muon-hydrogen system is obtained, using a static model of the field of the hydrogen atom, and its numerical solution allows the phase shifts for fifty partial waves to be obtained over a wide range of energies. A polarization potential term is then included, and the results of the scattering from the effective potential obtained are compared with the results from the static field. The results show a substantial effect of the polarization in the cross sections at low energy. The analysis of the low energy behavior of the phase shifts indicates that a substantial number of bound states for the muon exist in both the static and the static + polarization fields of hydrogen
Quasielastic neutron scattering study of large amplitude motions in molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bee, M.
1996-01-01
This lecture aims at giving some illustrations of the use of Incoherent Quasielastic Neutron Scattering in the investigation of motions of atoms or molecules in phases with dynamical disorder. The general incoherent scattering function is first recalled. Then the Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor is introduced. It is shown how its determination permits to deduce a particular dynamical model. Long-range translational diffusion is illustrated by some experiments carried out with liquids or with different chemical species intercalated in porous media. Examples of rotational motions are provided by solid phases where an orientational disorder of the molecules exists. The jump model is the most commonly used and yields simple scattering laws which can be easily handled. Highly disordered crystals require a description in terms of the isotropic rotational diffusion model. Many of the present studies are concerned with rather complicated systems. Considerable help is obtained either by using selectively deuterated samples or by carrying out measurements with semi-oriented samples. (author) 5 figs., 14 refs
Framework for evolution in double parton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buffing, Maarten G.A.
2017-07-15
Double parton scattering (DPS) describes two colliding hadrons having interactions in the form of two hard processes, each initiated by a separate pair of partons. Just as for single parton scattering, the resummation of soft gluon exchange gives rise to a soft function, which is a necessary ingredient for obtaining rapidity evolution equations. For various regions of phase space, we derive the rapidity evolution and the scale evolution of double transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (DTMDs) as well as of the p{sub T}-resummed cross section for double Drell-Yan like processes. This contributes to a framework that can be used for phenomenological DPS studies including resummation.
Finite energy bounds for $\\piN$ scattering
Grassberger, P; Schwela, D
1974-01-01
Upper bounds on energy averaged pi N cross sections are given. Using low energy data and data from pi N backward scattering and NN to pi pi annihilation, it is found that sigma /sub tot/
Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroll, P.; Schuermann, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.
1995-01-01
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroll, P; Schuermann, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee
1995-06-28
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Virtual Compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroll, P.
1996-01-01
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction off protons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are photon discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (orig.)
Dynamics of entanglement between two atomic samples with spontaneous scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-01-01
We investigate the effects of spontaneous scattering on the evolution of entanglement of two atomic samples, probed by phase-shift measurements on optical beams interacting with both samples. We develop a formalism of conditional quantum evolutions and present a wave function analysis implemented in numerical simulations of the state vector dynamics. This method allows us to track the evolution of entanglement and to compare it with the predictions obtained when spontaneous scattering is neglected. We provide numerical evidence that the interferometric scheme to entangle atomic samples is only marginally affected by the presence of spontaneous scattering and should thus be robust even in more realistic situations
Determination of scattering structures from spatial coherence measurements.
Zarubin, A M
1996-03-01
A new method of structure determination and microscopic imaging with short-wavelength radiations (charged particles, X-rays, neutrons), based on measurements of the modulus and the phase of the degree of spatial coherence of the scattered radiation, is developed. The underlying principle of the method--transfer of structural information about the scattering potential via spatial coherence of the secondary (scattering) source of radiation formed by this potential--is expressed by the generalization of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem to wave and particle scattering [A.M. Zarubin, Opt. Commun. 100 (1993) 491; Opt. Commun. 102 (1993) 543]. Shearing interferometric techniques are proposed for implementing the above measurements; the limits of spatial resolution attainable by reconstruction of the absolute square of a 3D scattering potential and its 2D projections from the measurements are analyzed. It is shown theoretically that 3D imaging with atomic resolution can be realized in a "synthetic aperture" electron or ion microscope and that a 3D resolution of about 6 nm can be obtained with a "synthetic aperture" X-ray microscope. A proof-of-principle optical experiment is presented.
Peculiarities of light ion-nucleus scattering in medium-energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhnoj, Yu.A.; Pilipenko, V.V.
1982-01-01
Differential cross-sections of 3 He and 4 He nuclei elastic scattering at E > or approximately 10 MeV/nucleon are analyzed in the quasi-classical approximation. At energies E > or approximately 25 MeV/nucleon in differential cross sections of 3 He and 4 He nuclei elastic scattering by atomic nuclei in the field of scattering angles THETA > or approximately 35 deg diffraction minima start to appear. ScuiSuch effect of Fraunhofer cross section oscillations is eluciiated on the basis of diffraction theory by means of modelfree determination of nuclear scattering phase and quantum deviation function. It is shown that the elastic scattering cross section in the field of energies under consideration represents a typical quasiclassical picture of ''iridescent'' scattering at strong absorption. The theoretical analysis performed permits to correctly describe the experimentally measured differential cross sections of 3 He nuclei elastic scattering at 109.2 MeV by 40 Ca, 58 Ni nuclei and at 118.5 NeV by 58 Ni nuclei as well as 4 He at 166 MeV by 24 Mg, 32 S and at 141.7 MeV by 40 Ca nuclei
Method of measuring interface area of activated carbons in condensed phase
Dmitriyev, D. S.; Agafonov, D. V.; Kiseleva, E. A.; Mikryukova, M. A.
2018-01-01
In this work, we investigated the correlation between the heat of wetting of super-capacitor electrode material (activated carbon) with condensed phases (electrolytes based on homologous series of phosphoric acid esters) and the capacity of the supercapacitor. The surface area of the electrode-electrolyte interface was calculated according to the obtained correlations using the conventional formula for calculating the capacitance of a capacitor.
Light scattering by epitaxial VO{sub 2} films near the metal-insulator transition point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lysenko, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiy.lysenko@upr.edu; Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Figueroa, Jose; Vargas, Kevin; Cordero, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (United States); Aparicio, Joaquin [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico-Ponce, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732 (United States); Sepúlveda, Nelson [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)
2015-05-14
Experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide is reported. Hemispherical angle-resolved light scattering technique is applied for statistical analysis of the phase transition processes on mesoscale. It is shown that the thermal hysteresis strongly depends on spatial frequency of surface irregularities. The transformation of scattering indicatrix depends on sample morphology and is principally different for the thin films with higher internal elastic strain and for the thicker films where this strain is suppressed by introduction of misfit dislocations. The evolution of scattering indicatrix, fractal dimension, surface power spectral density, and surface autocorrelation function demonstrates distinctive behavior which elucidates the influence of structural defects and strain on thermal hysteresis, twinning of microcrystallites, and domain formation during the phase transition.
AUTOMATIC COREGISTRATION FOR MULTIVIEW SAR IMAGES IN URBAN AREAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Xiang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Due to the high resolution property and the side-looking mechanism of SAR sensors, complex buildings structures make the registration of SAR images in urban areas becomes very hard. In order to solve the problem, an automatic and robust coregistration approach for multiview high resolution SAR images is proposed in the paper, which consists of three main modules. First, both the reference image and the sensed image are segmented into two parts, urban areas and nonurban areas. Urban areas caused by double or multiple scattering in a SAR image have a tendency to show higher local mean and local variance values compared with general homogeneous regions due to the complex structural information. Based on this criterion, building areas are extracted. After obtaining the target regions, L-shape structures are detected using the SAR phase congruency model and Hough transform. The double bounce scatterings formed by wall and ground are shown as strong L- or T-shapes, which are usually taken as the most reliable indicator for building detection. According to the assumption that buildings are rectangular and flat models, planimetric buildings are delineated using the L-shapes, then the reconstructed target areas are obtained. For the orignal areas and the reconstructed target areas, the SAR-SIFT matching algorithm is implemented. Finally, correct corresponding points are extracted by the fast sample consensus (FSC and the transformation model is also derived. The experimental results on a pair of multiview TerraSAR images with 1-m resolution show that the proposed approach gives a robust and precise registration performance, compared with the orignal SAR-SIFT method.
Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, S.
1991-01-01
The eikonal picture which has theoretical foundations in some areas of physics has been successful in explaining various aspects of elastic scattering at high energies. Chou and Yang first proposed a preliminary version of the eikonal model for hadron-hadron elastic scattering. The model is based on geometrical considerations in which hadrons are treated as extended objects. Elastic scattering then results from the propagation of attenuated wave function. By assuming that at high energies the scattering amplitude is purely imaginary and that the hadronic matter distribution is proportional to the charge distribution on protons, Durand and Lipes studied high energy pp scattering on the basis of this prestine model. Later on, the model was extended to other elastic reactions. However, a survey of literature shows that it has been successful only in the diffraction peak region. It has been shown that the pristine Chou-Yange model can explain the differential cross section for deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at √s = 53 GeV in the diffraction peak region. In order to fit the large momentum transfer data, the generalized Chou-Yang model is used
Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerard, Bruno
2015-01-01
Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, 3 He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using 3 He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m 2 . As a result of the so-called ' 3 He shortage crisis , the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B 4 C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard equipment. Prototypes of
Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerard, Bruno [ILL-ESS-LiU collaboration, CRISP project, Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)
2015-07-01
Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, {sup 3}He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using {sup 3}He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m{sup 2}. As a result of the so-called '{sup 3}He shortage crisis{sup ,} the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B{sub 4}C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard
Phase-shift calculation using continuum-discretized states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Arai, K.
2009-01-01
We present a method for calculating scattering phase shifts which utilizes continuum-discretized states obtained in a bound-state type calculation. The wrong asymptotic behavior of the discretized state is remedied by means of the Green's function formalism. Test examples confirm the accuracy of the method. The α+n scattering is described using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The 3/2 - and 1/2 - phase shifts obtained in a single-channel calculation are too small in comparison with experiment. The 1/2 + phase shifts are in reasonable agreement with experiment, and gain contributions both from the tensor and central components of the nucleon-nucleon potential.
Dahani, Mohamed; Barret, Laurie-Anne; Raynal, Simon; Jungas, Colette; Pernot, Pétra; Polidori, Ange; Bonneté, Françoise
2015-01-01
The structural and interactive properties of two novel hemifluorinated surfactants, F2H9-β-M and F4H5-β-M, the syntheses of which were based on the structure and hydrophobicity of the well known dodecyl-β-maltoside (DD-β-M), are described. The shape of their micellar assemblies was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and their intermicellar interactions in crystallizing conditions were measured by dynamic light scattering. Such information is essential for surfactant phase-diagram determination and membrane-protein crystallization. PMID:26144228
New phase method of measuring particle size with laser Doppler radar
Zemlianskii, Vladimir M.
1996-06-01
A vast field of non-contact metrology, vibrometry, dynamics and microdynamics problems solved on the basis of laser Doppler method resulted in the development of great variety of laser Doppler radar (LDR). In coherent LDR few beams with various polarization are generally adopted, that are directed at the zone of measurement, through which the probing air stream moves. Studies of various coherent LDR demonstrated that polarization-phase effects of scattering can in some cases considerably effect on the signal-to-noise ratio of the Doppler signal. On the other side using phase effects can simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of spherical particles. New possibilities for improving the accuracy of measuring spherical particles' sizes come to light when application is made in coherent LDR of two waves- probing and one out of the types of symmetrical reception of scattered radiation, during which phase-conjugate signals are formed. The theoretical analysis on the basis of the scattering theory showed, that in symmetrical reception of scattered radiation with respect to the planes OXZ and OYZ output signal of the photoreceiver contains two high- frequency signal components, which in relation to parameters of the probing and size, can either be in phase or antiphase. Results of numerical modeling are presented: amplitude of high frequency signal, coefficient of phase and polarization matching of mixed waves, the depths of photocurrent modulation and also signal's phase in relation to the angle between the probing beams. Phase method of determining particle's sizes based on the use of two wavelengths probing and symmetrical reception of scattered radiation in which conditions for the formation of phase conjugated high-frequency signals are satisfied is presented.
Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering.
Malarski, Anna; Schürer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Flügel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred
2009-04-01
The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements.
Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malarski, Anna; Schuerer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Fluegel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred
2009-01-01
The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements
Classical wave experiments on chaotic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhl, U; Stoeckmann, H-J; Weaver, R
2005-01-01
We review recent research on the transport properties of classical waves through chaotic systems with special emphasis on microwaves and sound waves. Inasmuch as these experiments use antennas or transducers to couple waves into or out of the systems, scattering theory has to be applied for a quantitative interpretation of the measurements. Most experiments concentrate on tests of predictions from random matrix theory and the random plane wave approximation. In all studied examples a quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is achieved. To this end it is necessary, however, to take absorption and imperfect coupling into account, concepts that were ignored in most previous theoretical investigations. Classical phase space signatures of scattering are being examined in a small number of experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epperson, J.E.; Lin, J.S.; Spooner, S.
1986-02-01
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows clustering phenomena to be studied in systems for which the constituent atoms do not differ greatly in atomic number. This investigation used SANS to characterize the fine scale microstructure in two cast and aged duplex stainless steels; aging times extended up to eight years. The steels differed in ferrite content by about a factor of two. The scattering at lowest q was dominated by magnetic scattering effects associated with the ferrite phase. In the range 0.025 less than or equal to q less than or equal to 0.2A -1 , additional scattering due to a precipitating phase rich in Ni and Si was observed. This scattering was rather intense and revealed a volume fraction of precipitate, in the ferrite, estimated to be 12 to 18% after long time aging. After about 70,000 hours at 400 0 C, there were about 10 18 precipitate particles per cm 3 some 50A in mean diameter, and they were distributed in a nonrandom manner, i.e., spatially, short-range-ordered. This investigation suggests that after aging some 70,000 hours at 400 0 C, the precipitate in the ferrite phase is undergoing Ostwald ripening. The present data are insufficient to indicate at what time this ripening process began
Fixed energy inversion of 5 eV e-Xe atom scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovell, A.; Amos, K.
2000-01-01
Fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to define central and spin-orbit Schroedinger potentials for the scattering of 5 eV polarized electrons from Xe atoms. The results are typical for a range of such data; including energies above threshold when the potentials become complex. The phase shifts obtained from an analysis of the measured differential cross section and analyzing power has been used as input data. Both semi-classical (WKB) and fully quantal inversion methods have been used to extract central and spin-orbit interactions. The analysis shows that information additional to the set of input phase shifts extracted from this (and similar) data may be needed to ascertain physical potentials
Calculation of far-field scattering from nonspherical particles using a geometrical optics approach
Hovenac, Edward A.
1991-01-01
A numerical method was developed using geometrical optics to predict far-field optical scattering from particles that are symmetric about the optic axis. The diffractive component of scattering is calculated and combined with the reflective and refractive components to give the total scattering pattern. The phase terms of the scattered light are calculated as well. Verification of the method was achieved by assuming a spherical particle and comparing the results to Mie scattering theory. Agreement with the Mie theory was excellent in the forward-scattering direction. However, small-amplitude oscillations near the rainbow regions were not observed using the numerical method. Numerical data from spheroidal particles and hemispherical particles are also presented. The use of hemispherical particles as a calibration standard for intensity-type optical particle-sizing instruments is discussed.
Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H
2003-01-01
In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered
Resonance estimates for single spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2004-01-01
We discuss the target and beam normal spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering which depend on the imaginary part of two-photon exchange processes between electron and nucleon. We express this imaginary part as a phase space integral over the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor on the nucleon. We use unitarity to model the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor in the resonance region in terms of γ* N → π N electroabsorption amplitudes. Taking those amplitudes from a phenomenological analysis of pion electroproduction observables, we present results for beam and target normal single spin asymmetries for elastic electron-nucleon scattering for beam energies below 1 GeV and in the 1-3 GeV region, where several experiments are performed or are in progress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panpan Tang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The region near Dujiangyan City and Wenchuan County, Sichuan China, including significant giant panda habitats, was severely impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake. Large-area landslides occurred and seriously threatened the lives of people and giant pandas. In this paper, we report the development of an enhanced multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology to monitor potential post-seismic landslides by analyzing coherent scatterers (CS and distributed scatterers (DS points extracted from multi-temporal l-band ALOS/PALSAR data in an integrated manner. Through the integration of phase optimization and mitigation of the orbit and topography-related phase errors, surface deformations in the study area were derived: the rates in the line of sight (LOS direction ranged from −7 to 1.5 cm/a. Dozens of potential landslides, distributed mainly along the Minjiang River, Longmenshan Fault, and in other the high-altitude areas were detected. These findings matched the distribution of previous landslides. InSAR-derived results demonstrated that some previous landslides were still active; many unstable slopes have developed, and there are significant probabilities of future massive failures. The impact of landslides on the giant panda habitat, however ranged from low to moderate, would continue to be a concern for conservationists for some time in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1996-12-01
Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.
Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goehner, Raymond P.; Tissot, Ralph G. Jr.; Michael, Joseph R.
2000-01-01
An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 microm to 100 microm. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30 microm glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has been
Exponential time-dependent perturbation theory in rotationally inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross, R.J.
1983-01-01
An exponential form of time-dependent perturbation theory (the Magnus approximation) is developed for rotationally inelastic scattering. A phase-shift matrix is calculated as an integral in time over the anisotropic part of the potential. The trajectory used for this integral is specified by the diagonal part of the potential matrix and the arithmetic average of the initial and final velocities and the average orbital angular momentum. The exponential of the phase-shift matrix gives the scattering matrix and the various cross sections. A special representation is used where the orbital angular momentum is either treated classically or may be frozen out to yield the orbital sudden approximation. Calculations on Ar+N 2 and Ar+TIF show that the theory generally gives very good agreement with accurate calculations, even where the orbital sudden approximation (coupled-states) results are seriously in error
Transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto; Trentadue, Luca
2006-01-01
Within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics we derive the evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent distributions and apply them to the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The evolution equations encode the perturbative component of transverse momentum generated by collinear parton branchings. The current fragmentation is described via transverse momentum dependent parton densities and fragmentation functions. Target fragmentation instead is described via fracture functions. We present, to leading logarithmic accuracy, the corresponding semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section, which applies to the entire phase space of the detected hadron. Some phenomenological implications and further developments are briefly outlined
Is there an Ay problem in low-energy neutron-proton scattering?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred
2008-01-01
We calculate Ay in neutron-proton scattering for the interactions models WJC-1 and WJC-2 in the Covariant Spectator Theory. We find that the recent 12 MeV measurements performed at TUNL are in better agreement with our results than with the Nijmegen Phase Shift Analysis of 1993, and after reviewing the low energy data, conclude that there is no Ay problem in low-energy np scattering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markéta Flekalová
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the project was to evaluate developmental changes in land use (using the method of retrospective time profiles and their effects on the function and stability of rural landscape in the model area of the University Agriculture Enterprise in Žabčice. The former states of landscape have been evaluated according to archival aerial photographs and maps of selected area. The present situation was examined on orthophotomaps and by field survey. Another aim was taking of the soil samples from the model area and their physical analysis for determination of soil moisture. Soil drying out disposition on particular parts of model area has been found out by analysis of soil samples and climatic characteristics. The third aim was to evaluate the “green structure” of the model area and to propose its regeneration. The results of the two previous aims have been used as a basis for the proposal, together with evaluation of the present condition. The bad condition of the scattered vegetation has been found out by the field survey, especially by the lack of maintenance and spreading of invasive plants.
Analyzing power measurements for n-p scattering between 13.5 and 16.9 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Lisowski, P.W.; Byrd, R.C.; Walter, R.L.
1980-01-01
The analyzing power A%sub(Y)(theta) for neutron-proton scattering has been measured for theta = 90 0 (c.m.) from 13.5 to 16.9 MeV and from theta = 50 0 to 145 0 (c.m.) at 16.9 MeV. Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been made to correct for multiple scattering effects. Overall uncertainties are about +- 0.002. All the A%sub(Y)(theta) data, but primarily those at 16.9 MeV, disagree with predictions based on the phase-shift sets which have been derived previously by way of global analyses of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. Data for the product delta(theta)A%sub(Y)(theta) have been fitted with an expansion of the form (sin theta)(a 0 + a 1 cos theta + a 2 cos 2 theta). For the first time the need for a non-zero a 2 has been illustrated for energies below 20 MeV. This parameter is shown to be related to the nucleon-nucleon F-state spin-orbit phase parameter. In addition, the P, D, and F spin-orbit phase parameter values derived from the present data differ significantly from the ones based on the Yale-IV and Livermore-X global analyses. The derived D and F spin-orbit phase parameters also differ from those obtained in the recent analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering data by Arndt et al. (orig.)
Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-10-01
The paper provides an overview of the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman scattering for diagnostics of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium high-enthalpy flows. A brief review of the theoretical background of CARS, four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, as well as a discussion of experimental techniques and data reduction, are included. The experimental results reviewed include measurements of vibrational level populations, rotational/translational temperature, electric fields in a quasi-steady-state and transient molecular plasmas and afterglow, in nonequilibrium expansion flows, and behind strong shock waves. Insight into the kinetics of vibrational energy transfer, energy thermalization mechanisms and dynamics of the pulse discharge development, provided by these experiments, is discussed. Availability of short pulse duration, high peak power lasers, as well as broadband dye lasers, makes possible the use of these diagnostics at relatively low pressures, potentially with a sub-nanosecond time resolution, as well as obtaining single laser shot, high signal-to-noise spectra at higher pressures. Possibilities for the development of single-shot 2D CARS imaging and spectroscopy, using picosecond and femtosecond lasers, as well as novel phase matching and detection techniques, are discussed.
Field-induced phase transitions in antiferromagnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smeets, J.P.M.
1984-05-01
Neutron scattering experiments and magnetization measurements are carried out on cobalt bromide hexahydrate, of which 48% of the water molecules are replaced by deuterium oxide molecules. Results were compared with data obtained from non-deuterated cobalt bromide hexahydrate. Neutron scattering experiments showed the importance of the deuterium fraction. Interplay exists between the crystallographic system and the magnetic system, which is influenced by changing the deuterium fraction. Neutron scattering and magnetization experiments on partially deuterated RbFeCl 3 .2H 2 O and CsFeCl 3 .2H 2 O were performed to study the magnetic phase transitions in these quasi one-dimensional Ising compounds. The observed behaviour in the various phases can be described by the nucleation theory of chain reversals. (Auth.)
Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.
2002-07-01
In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.
Using Lattice Topology Information to Investigate Persistent Scatterers at Facades in Urban Areas
Schack, L.; Soergel, U.
2013-05-01
Modern spaceborne SAR sensors like TerraSAR-X offer ground resolution of up to one meter in range and azimuth direction. Buildings, roads, bridges, and other man-made structures appear in such data often as regular patterns of strong and temporally stable points (Persistent Scatterer, PS). As one step in the process of unveiling what object structure actually causes the PS (i.e., physical nature) we compare those regular structures in SAR data to their correspondences in optical imagery. We use lattices as a common data representation for visible facades. By exploiting the topology information given by the lattices we can complete gaps in the structures which is one step towards the understanding of the complex scattering characteristics of distinct facade objects.
Oligosaccharides and glycolipids addition in charged lamellar phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricoul, F.
1997-01-01
The aim of this work is to study the addition of oligosaccharides and glycolipids in lamellar phases of the cationic surfactant DDAB (di-dodecyl-dimethyl-ammonium bromide). Two steps have been followed: the determination of phases prisms and the thermodynamic interpretation in terms of molecular interactions. In order to characterize these systems, two new experimental small angle scattering methods have been perfected: 1) a neutron scattering contrast variation method which allows to study the adsorption of aqueous solution in bilayers and 2) a capillary concentration gradient method to establish directly and quantitatively the phases diagrams of ternary systems by X rays scattering. It has been pointed out that the oligosaccharides induce a depletion attractive force on the lamellar-lamellar equilibrium of the DDAB when they are excluded of the most concentrated phase. For the two studied glycolipids: 2-O lauroyl-saccharose and N-lauroyl N-nonyl lactitol, the ternary phase diagrams water-DDAB-glycolipid have been established in terms of temperature. Critical points at ambient temperature have been given. The osmotic pressure in concentrated lamellar phases has been measured. It has been shown that glycolipids increase the hydration repulsion at short distance and that the electrostatic repulsion is outstanding and unchanged at high distance if there is at less 1 mole percent of ionic surfactant. In a dilute solution, glycolipids decrease the maximum swelling of lamellar phases, with a competition between the lamellar phase and the micellae dilute phase for water. (O.M.)
The zerology of kaon-nucleon forward scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumbrajs, O.
1981-01-01
It has been realized for a long time that zeros of the forward kaon-nucleon scattering amplitudes are useful in correlating different low and high-energy scattering parameters and in providing a consistency test of available data. The simplest possibility of exploring zeros is to evaluate the ordinary dispersion relations in the complex energy plane. The more natural way of bringing zeros of amplitudes into play is to consider either one of the more sophisticated forms of dispersion relations: i) phase dispersion relations, ii) inverse-amplitude dispersion relations, iii) logarithmic dispersion relations, or to apply the maximum modulus theorem and a factorization theorem. The author concentrates on the use of logarithmic dispersion relations because this approach seems to be the most convenient one for future extensions to nonforward scattering data analyses based on the zeros of the amplitude. (Auth.)
Analysis of X-Band Very High Resolution Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Data Over Urban Areas
Crosetto, M.; Monserrat, O.; Cuevas-González, M.; Devanthéry, N.; Crippa, B.
2013-04-01
Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing technique used to measure and monitor land deformation from a stack of interferometric SAR images. This work concerns X-band PSI and, in particular, PSI based on very high resolution (VHR) StripMap CosmoSkyMed and TerraSAR-X SAR imagery. In fact, it mainly focuses on the technical aspects of deformation measurement and monitoring over urban areas. A key technical aspect analysed in this paper is the thermal expansion component of PSI observations, which is a result of temperature differences in the imaged area between SAR acquisitions. This component of PSI observations is particularly important in the urban environment. This is an interesting feature of PSI, which can be surely used to illustrate the high sensitivity of X-band PSI to very subtle displacements. Thermal expansion can have a strong impact on the PSI products, especially on the deformation velocity maps and deformation time series, if not properly handled during the PSI data processing and analysis, and a comprehensive discussion of this aspect will be provided in this paper. The importance of thermal expansion is related to the fact that the PSI analyses are often performed using limited stacks of images, which may cover a limited time period, e.g. several months only. These two factors (limited number of images and short period) make the impact of a non-modelled thermal expansion particularly critical. This issue will be illustrated considering different case studies based on TerraSAR-X and CosmoSkyMed PSI data. Besides, an extended PSI model which alleviates this problem will be described and case studies from the Barcelona metropolitan area will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
ANALYSIS OF X-BAND VERY HIGH RESOLUTION PERSISTENT SCATTERER INTERFEROMETRY DATA OVER URBAN AREAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Crosetto
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI is a satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR remote sensing technique used to measure and monitor land deformation from a stack of interferometric SAR images. This work concerns X-band PSI and, in particular, PSI based on very high resolution (VHR StripMap CosmoSkyMed and TerraSAR-X SAR imagery. In fact, it mainly focuses on the technical aspects of deformation measurement and monitoring over urban areas. A key technical aspect analysed in this paper is the thermal expansion component of PSI observations, which is a result of temperature differences in the imaged area between SAR acquisitions. This component of PSI observations is particularly important in the urban environment. This is an interesting feature of PSI, which can be surely used to illustrate the high sensitivity of X-band PSI to very subtle displacements. Thermal expansion can have a strong impact on the PSI products, especially on the deformation velocity maps and deformation time series, if not properly handled during the PSI data processing and analysis, and a comprehensive discussion of this aspect will be provided in this paper. The importance of thermal expansion is related to the fact that the PSI analyses are often performed using limited stacks of images, which may cover a limited time period, e.g. several months only. These two factors (limited number of images and short period make the impact of a non-modelled thermal expansion particularly critical. This issue will be illustrated considering different case studies based on TerraSAR-X and CosmoSkyMed PSI data. Besides, an extended PSI model which alleviates this problem will be described and case studies from the Barcelona metropolitan area will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagler, S.E.
1991-01-01
We report on the progress of the project entitled ''X-ray Scattering Studies of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' The past year has seen continued progress in the study of kinetic effects in metallic binary alloys and polymers. In addition, work has begun on a low dimensional CDW system: blue bronze. A sample chamber has been constructed to perform small angle neutron scattering measurements on a model quantum system with phase separation: solid He3/He4. Work is continuing on magnetic systems. Planned future experiments include an investigation of crystallization in Rubidium
Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momose, Atsushi E-mail: momose@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji
2001-07-21
Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mmx20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.
Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers
Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji
2001-07-01
Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mm×20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.
Study of the electrons elastic scattering by atoms through pseudopotentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bettega, M.H.F.
1990-01-01
Pseudopotentials allow an extraordinary simplification in the calculation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and crystals. Though they have been used extensively for electronic structure calculations, little is known of their applicability to scattering. A study of the pseudopotentials of Bachelet, Hamann and Schuter in the electron scattering by atoms was made, calculating phase-shifts and cross sections for angular momenta 1=0,1 and 2 and energy up to 5 R y. The results for the pseudopotential were compared all-electron calculations. The agreement is very good in a broad energy band. A simplification of the calculation of scattering by complex molecules where an all-electron calculation is impossible is aimed. (author)
A rigorous phenomenological analysis of the ππ scattering lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caprini, I.; Dita, P.; Sararu, M.
1979-11-01
The constraining power of the present experimental data, combined with the general theoretical knowledge about ππ scattering, upon the scattering lengths of this process, is investigated by means of a rigorous functional method. We take as input the experimental phase shifts and make no hypotheses about the high energy behaviour of the amplitudes, using only absolute bounds derived from axiomatic field theory and exact consequences of crossing symmetry. In the simplest application of the method, involving only the π 0 π 0 S-wave, we explored numerically a number of values proposed by various authors for the scattering lengths a 0 and a 2 and found that no one appears to be especially favoured. (author)