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Sample records for area rural nas

  1. Morbidades e qualidade de vida de idosos com diabetes mellitus residentes nas zonas rural e urbana Morbilidades y calidad de vida de ancianos con diabetes mellitus residentes en zonas rurales y urbanas Morbidity and quality of life of elderly individuals with diabetes mellitus living in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Aparecida dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou descrever as variáveis sociodemográficas e comparar as morbidades e a qualidade de vida (QV dos idosos com diabetes mellitus (DM residentes nas zonas urbana e rural. A amostra foi composta de 271 idosos da zona urbana e 104 da rural que autorreferiram DM. Utilizou-se análise descritiva e, na comparação das localidades, realizou-se ajuste para a idade por meio de regressão logística e linear múltipla (p Se objetivó describir las variables sociodemográficas y comparar morbilidades y calidad de vida (QV de ancianos con diabetes mellitus (DM residentes en zonas urbanas y rurales. Muestra compuesta por 271 ancianos de zona urbana y 104 de zona rural que autorrefirieron padecer DM. Se utilizó análisis descriptivo y, en la comparación de localidades, se efectuó ajuste etario mediante regresión logística y lineal múltiple (pThis study aimed to describe the socio-demographic variables and to compare the morbidities and the quality of life (QoL of elderly individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM residing in urban and rural areas. The sample consisted of 271 elderly individuals from urban areas and 104 from rural areas with self-reported DM. A descriptive analysis was used, and in the location comparison, an age adjustment was employed through linear and logistic multiple regression models (p<0.05. The elderly individuals from the rural area were younger, more educated, earned a higher income and were more often married in relation to the urban residents. Furthermore, the rural residents presented a higher QoL score in the physical and social relationships domains and in the autonomy, past, present and future activities, and intimacy facets compared to the urban residents. The elderly individuals residing in the urban area displayed a larger number of verified comorbidities. The elderly DM patients residing in the rural area generally presented better health conditions than those who lived in the urban area.

  2. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-07-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  3. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  4. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  5. Role of rural tourism for development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Udovč; Anton Perpar

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …). The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa). The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development poss...

  6. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually bein...... learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation....

  7. Tourism in the Portuguese Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2013-01-01

    The tourism in the rural areas is an important contribution to the local economies and an additional income for the traditional local activities as the agricultural sector. Some traditional rural activities, as the agriculture, sometimes and in some locations are not sufficient to provide an acceptable return to their promoters. So the different forms of tourism in rural zones, as the small industry and others sectors, are important contributions to the economic activity in the rural areas. T...

  8. A typology of rural areas in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov Natalija; Meredith David; Efstratoglou Sophia

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure) and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method) and cluster an...

  9. The Returns to Education in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Rupasingha, Anil

    2004-01-01

    We compare the returns to human capital in rural areas with those in urban areas, and across the different regions of the US. A key finding is that these returns are considerably lower in rural than in urban areas. Furthermore, failure to correct for spatial dependence bias produces an overestimate of the returns to education at the county-level. We also examine various interactions among the regressors to identify the reasons why the returns to education vary between rural and urban areas.

  10. Rural areas under urban pressure in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Introduction paper, I will describe the motivation behind this special issue on the role of rural-urban relationships in preserving the rural landscape in Europe. Based on the RURBAN project 'Building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure', the special issue aims to identify

  11. ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  12. Morbidades e qualidade de vida de idosos com diabetes mellitus residentes nas zonas rural e urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Aparecida dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou descrever as variáveis sociodemográficas e comparar as morbidades e a qualidade de vida (QV dos idosos com diabetes mellitus (DM residentes nas zonas urbana e rural. A amostra foi composta de 271 idosos da zona urbana e 104 da rural que autorreferiram DM. Utilizou-se análise descritiva e, na comparação das localidades, realizou-se ajuste para a idade por meio de regressão logística e linear múltipla (p < 0,05. Os idosos da zona rural eram mais jovens, casados e possuíam maior escolaridade e renda em relação àqueles da área urbana. Além disso, apresentaram maior escore de QV nos domínios físico e relações sociais e nas facetas autonomia, atividades passadas, presentes e futuras e intimidade, em relação aos do espaço urbano, nos quais se verificou maior número de comorbidades. Os idosos com DM da zona rural apresentaram, de forma geral, melhores condições de saúde em comparação aos que residiam na área urbana.

  13. A typology of rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov Natalija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis revealed six regions of different sizes and characteristics. Practical considerations reduced this to four types, resulting in a robust scheme which accurately reflects the heterogeneous nature of rural Serbia.

  14. Design and development of the pilot project on energy conservation in rural areas: a case study in High Lands of Mantiqueira; Concepcao e desenvolvimento do projeto piloto de conservacao de energia no meio rural: estudo de caso nas Terras Altas da Mantiqueira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Vianna, Augusto Nelson Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (IRN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], E-mail: mathidr@yahoo.com.br; Mattos, Roberto de [Fundacao ROGE, Delfim Moreira, MG (Brazil). Nucleo Integrado de Capacitacao Tecnica (NICATEC); Salvador, Emerson; Santos, Moises Antonio dos [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Eficiencia Energetica na Oferta

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the motivations, objectives and methods of 'Pilot Project for Energy Conservation in Rural Areas: A case study in Mantiqueira Highlands', executed by the Center for Integrated Technical Training (NICATEC) of ROGE Foundation (Delfim Moreira - Minas Gerais) in partnership with Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), with support of the Energy Group, Federal University of Itajuba. The project falls into the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL), seeking to extend to rural areas the activities and practices of conservation and rational use of electricity under the program, by the development of specific methodologies for energetic diagnosis and optimization of agrosystems. The object of study are farms that perform dairy farming, egg production and irrigated agriculture, located in eight municipalities of the Highlands. These properties are assessed through surveys and implementing the 'Questionnaire for energy use characterization rural areas', allowing the generation of indicators relating energy consumption with the agricultural production, beyond identifying the main causes of waste, for further development of educational material containing best practices for electricity conservation in rural areas. (author)

  15. Acesso aos serviços de saúde nas áreas urbana e rural do Brasil

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    Ana Lúcia Kassouf

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD, de 1998, analisou-se os determinantes da procura por atendimento à saúde devido à doença, nas áreas urbana e rural do Brasil. A variável estado de saúde do indivíduo foi estimada em função de variáveis de infra-estrutura do domicílio, características individuais, renda familiar, etc., e sua estimativa foi utilizada como variável explanatória na equação de procura por atendimento à saúde, para evitar endogeneidade. O fator mais importante na determinação da procura por atendimento à saúde foi o estado de saúde do indivíduo, tanto na área urbana quanto no meio rural. Na área urbana, o nível de escolaridade também teve grande impacto em reduzir a procura por serviços de saúde.The determinants of the demand for health services due to health problems is analyzed in the urban and rural areas of Brazil, based on a 1998 household survey. The variable health status of each individual was estimated as a function on the household's infrastructure, individual characteristics, family income, etc., and the estimates were used as an explanatory variable in the demand for health services, to avoid endogeneity problems. The most important factor in determining health services in urban and rural areas was the individual's health status. In urban areas, schooling was also important to reduce the demand for health services.

  16. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... availability of illicit drugs, the weakening of the traditional family unit, the diminishing rural economy, and the ... that is proven to be successful in treating addiction such as the drug, buprenorphine, which is used ...

  17. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    resources and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local...

  18. Incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeochemical investigations for rural development: the Bir Al-Nas approach for socio-hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Viviana

    2015-11-01

    A replicable multidisciplinary approach is presented for science-based groundwater management practices: Bir Al-Nas (Bottom-up IntegRated Approach for sustainabLe grouNdwater mAnagement in rural areaS). This approach provides a practical example of the concept of "socio-hydrogeology", a way of incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeological investigations, as reinforced by the translation of the Arabic bir al-nas: "the people's well". To achieve this, hydrogeologists act as "social hydrologists" during their monitoring activities, which often bring them into contact with local communities and end users (and polluters) of water. Not only can they retrieve reliable information about traditional know-how and local issues, but they can also change the public perception of science/scientists to create the basis for mutual collaboration and understanding in view of implementing improved integrated groundwater management. The final outcomes are expected to be an increased awareness of communities at the local level and a clear understanding of their water issues and needs from the very early stages of the investigation. Although the importance of using such methods in groundwater analysis and management is widely recognized, hydrogeological investigations are currently dominated by sectorial approaches that are easier to implement but less sustainable. The pressure of population growth, the shift towards more water-dependent economies, climate change and its impact on water availability will require scientists to use a more integrated approach, such as Bir Al-Nas, when dealing with increasing water pollution and water-scarcity issues.

  19. Directions for land management in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    DUDZIŃSKA, Małgorzata; Jasińska, Elżbieta; KOCUR-BERA, Katarzyna; Leń, Przemysław; Preweda, Edward; Sajnóg, Natalia; Sobolewska-Mikulska, Katarzyna; Steinsholt, Håvard; Walacik, Marek; Wójcik, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    The monograph presents directions and trends of real estate management in the rural areas in Poland and in Norway. Changes and transformation of the spatial structure of agricultural farms have been intensively developed since the Polish accession to the European Union. Real estate management in rural areas covers technical, procedural and legal aspects resulting from attempts aiming at solution of current problems. The amending legal regulations and the rules concerning the real estate trans...

  20. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contribut...

  1. Utilização de consulta médica e hipertensão arterial sistêmica nas áreas urbanas e rurais do Brasil, segundo dados da PNAD 2008 Use of medical consultations and the occurrence of systemic arterial hypertension in urban and rural areas of Brazil, according to PNAD data 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pronestino de Lima Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de consultas médicas é influenciada por determinantes, como necessidades de saúde e características dos serviços, que dependem se o ambiente é urbano ou rural. Objetiva-se estimar a proporção de consulta ao médico nos últimos 12 meses dos indivíduos que referiram ou não hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS, residentes em área urbana e rural, e analisar os padrões de utilização de consulta e associações. Trata-se de um estudo seccional, utilizando a PNAD 2008. Executaram-se regressões logísticas para obter odds ratios (OR's, brutas e ajustadas, por HAS autorreferida e situação do domicílio. Consultaram o médico 70,6% dos adultos brasileiros. Foi encontrada uma associação entre HAS e consulta ao médico de 3,63 (OR maior na área urbana. A chance de consulta ao médico foi maior entre as mulheres, os que utilizam medicamentos contínuos, os que possuem plano de saúde ou tiveram financiamento no último atendimento, os que referiram alguma morbidade ou limitação na mobilidade e entre os que referiram estado de saúde ruim, em todos os estratos. A análise multivariada modificou as associações de todas as variáveis. Diferenças nas duas áreas sugerem que políticas de acesso devem ser implantadas, com o objetivo de reduzir iniquidades.The use of medical consultations is influenced by determinants such as healthcare needs and service characteristics, which depend on whether the environment is urban or rural. The scope was to estimate the proportions of individuals attending medical consultations over the previous 12 months with and without self-reported systemic arterial hypertension (SAH living in urban and rural areas, and to analyze the patterns of consultation use and associations. This was a sectional study, using PNAD 2008. Logistic regression was performed to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs, according to self-reported SAH and household situation. 70.6% of adult Brazilians consult

  2. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment......The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  3. Development Areas of Rural Tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of rural tourism forms has increased in recent years. From the initiatives with individual character it has been reached a real alternative leisure. The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of current life. Synonymous with a holiday spent with little money in nature, rural tourism forms, like and are becoming increasingly popular. Folk heritage of folk architecture, folk customs and traditions, crafts, port and popular folklore, gastronomy specific is the most popular tourist attractions in rural tourism. Therefore, tourist villages and agro-tourist offer circumscribed, in particular, to Romanian folk brand areas, which fortunately, also benefits of natural attractions of great beauty.

  4. Medical library support in rural areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J K; Cooper, D; Johnson, T P

    1983-01-01

    Physicians in rural areas often feel professionally isolated due to lack of access to medical center services, particularly library services. To test the need for and use of medical library services, an experimental program was established for physicians in southeastern Kentucky. Physicians were given a toll-free number to call for assistance or to make requests, and persons in two rural locations were trained in the use of basic library reference sources. A communication procedure to a unive...

  5. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  6. Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observations. As results from the study, rural areas should perform the functions of food production, environmental protection, culture, tourism and providing services for municipal areas. These functions should provide the basis for development of additional non-agricultural activity. This involves the plans made by people who live in the country for starting businesses in the area of services, commerce, transport, tourism and craftsmanship and handicraft. The non- -agricultural activities which have already been performed suggest, on the one hand, opti-mistic opportunities of growth in rural areas but, on the other hand, are not conducive to the development of agricultural functions, which are inherent in rural areas.

  7. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  8. Idle School Buildings in Rural Areas: Will they Be Useful ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiang-ying; Shu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taking the case of Enshi City, we survey the supply of public services in rural areas from education, health, culture and social security, reveal the relationship between the use of idle school buildings in rural areas and the improvement of public services in rural areas. On the basis of expounding the status quo of idle school buildings and public services in rural areas of Enshi City, the following recommendations are put forward: using the idle school buildings to develop rural public edu...

  9. Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Sikora

    2012-01-01

    Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observation...

  10. Business productivity and area productivity in rural England

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Don John; Curry, Nigel; Plumridge, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new DEFRA definition of rural. We find labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less sparse) rural areas compared to urban areas. Labour productivity in less sparse and urban areas appears to depend on similar factors. Labour productivity in sparse areas strongly relates to a different industrial...

  11. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  12. Smart work centres in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    This paper discusses the establishment of telework centres as an element in local development strategies in rural areas, with a particular view to two new telework centres in region North Denmark. The paper argues that telework centres do not represent an easy solution to problems of local develo...... development and environmental sustainability, and further, that technology may not even be the most important feature needed to make them function as such....

  13. Development opportunities for rural areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekić Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large regional diversity, economic backwardness, unfavourable demographic trends as well as the dependence of agricultural production, represent the main characteristics of rural areas in Serbia. Halting further socio-economic decline of the village is possible only through the restoration of economic capacity, which is to a greater extent achievable through the development of non-agricultural activities. Diversification of income and activities of rural households would raise the quality of life for the rural population, especially in terms of income positions, while infrastructural improvement and development of the service sector, to some extent, would be a consequence of this process and a clearly formulated national rural policy. That policy in Serbia should be in line with the “European” model, where the focus is shifting from sectoral to regional approach and significant support for the achievement of the set goals represent the pre-accession EU funds. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46006: Održiva poljoprivreda i ruralni razvoj u funkciji ostvarivanja strateških ciljeva Republika Srbije u okviru dunavskog regiona

  14. Idle School Buildings in Rural Areas: Will they Be Useful?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking the case of Enshi City,we survey the supply of public services in rural areas from education,health,culture and social security; reveal the relationship between the use of idle school buildings in rural areas and the improvement of public services in rural areas. On the basis of expounding the status quo of idle school buildings and public services in rural areas of Enshi City,the following recommendations are put forward: using the idle school buildings to develop rural public education; using the idle school buildings to develop rural public health and medical services; using the idle school buildings to develop public cultural undertakings in rural areas; using the idle school buildings to develop social security undertakings in rural areas.

  15. Investigating and analyzing the waste collection system in rural areas (The Case of Aqabad rural area)

    OpenAIRE

    AZMOON, Nahid; AZMOON, Nazli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the growing population and producing more diverse wastes in recent years, investigating the waste collection and management and disposal system is of great importance. Therefore, planning a proper waste management strategy and positioning to prevent environmental pollution in rural areas is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the waste collection system in the villages of Aqabad rural district.  In this study, it was tried to collect required info...

  16. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  17. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  18. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing. A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  19. THE ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS: THE CASE OF CYPRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Giannakis

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in the European Union are currently undergoing significant economic and social changes, mostly induced by the international trade liberalization and the strengthening of the role of rural development policy. There is an increasing awareness of the need to accompany changes in rural areas through the diversification of their economic base that seems to be the only answer to their socio-economic survival. Rural tourism has been considered a means of achieving such economic and socia...

  20. Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

  1. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging...

  2. Improving Rural Mobility : Options for Developing Motorized and Nonmotorized Transport in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, Paul; Ellis, Simon; Hine, John; Ternell, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Many inhabitants of rural areas in developing countries lack adequate and affordable access to transport infrastructure and services. Improving rural people's access to essential services requires better mobility through transport infrastructure and services as well as the location, price, and quality of facilities. This report focuses on improving rural mobility by facilitating the provis...

  3. Consumer Empowerment Profile in Rural and Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Megawati Simanjuntak; Siti Amanah; Herien Puspitawati; Pang. S. Asngari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the profile of consumer empowerment and the influence of demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and cosmopoliteness on consumer empowerment in rural and urban area. The research finding indicated a low consumer empowerment in urban and rural area. In general, most respondents who were not categorized as empowered consumer were aged >37 years old, working in rural areas, included in income category ranged IDR 397,874.57/capita/month both ...

  4. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  5. On Hiring Library Staff in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutherland

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal said in the literature about what would be librarians can do to find a job; less has been said about what would be employers can do if they are having problems recruiting. This article gives some ideas about things that libraries, especially those in rural areas, can do to help them find the employees they need. There are many possibilities discussed, including helping spouses of new hires get jobs in the community, hiring from out of region or country, hiring older workers or new grads, reconsidering what competencies are core for the position and what tasks should be in the job description. The world has changed for job seekers, who must now show that they are more than competent to be competitive, and perhaps it needs to change for employers too. If you don’t think the job you are posting is a great opportunity, then potential applicants likely won’t either.

  6. Changes in Rural Areas and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Theodoropoulou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines how regional development has been affected by social, economic and environmental changes in three regions located in central Greece. These regions were affected significantly by social and economic changes, because of substantial new infrastructure development that took place related to a ski resort and agritourism establishments. Sample data were collected on the characteristics of residents and land use in these three rural areas. The results of the study show that tourist development is very important for the socio-economic improvement of these regions. Using cross-tabulation statistical methods it was found that regions with better infrastructure attract more tourists than regions with inferior infrastructure (p-value = 0.000 and residents with higher education have better income than residents with lower education (p-value = 0.000.

  7. Effects of immigration on the prevalence of malaria in rural areas of the Amazon basin of Brazil Conseqüência da imigração na prevalência da malária nas áreas rurais da bacia Amazônica no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick B. Macgreevy; Reynaldo Dietze; Aluísio Prata; Stephen C. Hembree

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiological studies were conducted on malaria in three rural areas of the Amazon basin in the State of Rondônia: the town of Costa Marques, Forte Príncipe da Beira (Fort), and an immigrant settlement in the nearby forest. These studies were instituted to document the malaria problem and to describe the role of immigration on its distribution and prevalence. Hospital records in the town show that the number of malaria cases increased five fold from 1983 to 1987 and that the predominant mal...

  8. Social capital and resilience in rural areas: responses to change

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, G.; Heide, van der, D.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Schouten, M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the leading thoughts in current literature concerning social capital and its effects on rural resilience. Studying social resilience of rural areas is relevant in the emergence of global change. We demonstrate that social capital can either contribute to social resilience, or restrict it, depending on the nature of social capital. As the “restrictive” type of social capital generally prevails in rural areas, social resilience tends to be weaker here, than ...

  9. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

  10. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  11. Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

  12. Moving to the Country: Return Migration to a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapstone, James R.

    Study objectives were to: compare in-migrants with non-migrants in order to ascertain the migrants' demographic and socioeconomic contributions to rural areas; analyze the patterns of this in-migration to determine the presence and extent of return migration; contrast returned migrants with in-migrants who had no prior residence in the rural area;…

  13. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  14. Quality of life in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Stanišić during evaluating quality of life of its rural population. The research confirmed a significant influence of socio-cultural (rural household characteristics on the evaluation of quality of life. The influence of spatial dimension of social structure is more obvious on socio-cultural (rural household characteristics.

  15. Acesso aos serviços de saúde nas áreas urbana e rural do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Kassouf

    2005-01-01

    Utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), de 1998, analisou-se os determinantes da procura por atendimento à saúde devido à doença, nas áreas urbana e rural do Brasil. A variável estado de saúde do indivíduo foi estimada em função de variáveis de infra-estrutura do domicílio, características individuais, renda familiar, etc., e sua estimativa foi utilizada como variável explanatória na equação de procura por atendimento à saúde, para evitar endogeneidade. O fa...

  16. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its

  17. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  18. Taiwanese Adolescent Psychosocial Development in Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-Ti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Taiwanese adolescent psychosocial development (i.e., autonomy and identity development) based on psychosocial theoretical models developed in western societies. Data were collected from both public senior high and vocational high schools in both urban and rural areas in Taiwan. Adolescent participants, with an average age of 17 years old, included 447 (about 54% were females) from urban areas, and 702 (62% were females) from rural areas. The resu...

  19. Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Max, MD

    2004-07-23

    The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

  20. Rural areas development – local needs and external forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Warsaw : Polish Academy of Sciences, 2006 - (Florianczyk, Z.; Czapiewski, K.), s. 87-97 ISBN 83-89666-60-X. - (European Rural Development Network. 4) R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rural development * local communities * marginality * tourism * protected areas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province...

  2. Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

  3. Rural areas, land planning and heritage evaluation: some educational proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, José Manuel de; Themudo Barata, Filipe; Capelo, Sofia; Maharjan, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas are frequently neglected in development politics and processes. This problem has become especially important in peri-urban zones affecting a large amount of people in what concerns mainly basic resources as well as livelihoods, pattern of life, heritage and culture, and identity. Only with land planning it is possible to condition the rural areas deterioration and preserve heritage values that are a resource with a real economic potential, although they are usually seen as a burde...

  4. Ecological systems of water management in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mioduszewski, Waldemar

    2003-01-01

    Poland has poor water resources. Moreover, they are unevenly distributed in space and time. Some types of human activity diminished water resources and increased the frequency of extreme phenomena such as floods and draughts. The development of rural areas depends on the quality and quantity of water resources. Suitable water management in rural areas can help enlarge water resources and minimize the negative effect of agriculture on natural flora and fauna. It should also allow for the incre...

  5. Factors with to intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Franco Diniz Heitor; Leiner Resende Rodrigues; Flávia Aparecida Dias; Nayara Paula Fernandes Martins; Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly and verify the factors associated. This is a home survey performed with 850 elderly residents of the rural area of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. A structured instrument was used; information regarding their eating habits was obtained using an adapted questionnaire for food consumption frequency, and intestinal constipation was self-reported. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test and ...

  6. Community Forestry and Sustainable Development in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After analysis on the current situation of international forestry, this paper proposes that integration, coordination and sustainable development will be the general developing trend of forest in China, and commercial forest, ecological forest and community forest should be organically combined with integrative development and sustainable development in rural areas. This paper focuses especially on clarifying the importance of community forest to the social development or rural areas, and emphasizes tha...

  7. Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Skubiak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing” the cities with their territories to rural areas. The risk of loss of the relationship between urban and rural areas is high because of the growing disproportion between these areas and decreased territorial cohesion. It requires strengthening new and deliberate efforts in regional policy, those that are not “fighting with windmills”, ie will take into account the objective processes already taking place. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to characterise the development of economic and social processes in rural areas and proposals for further action in the context of sustainable development.

  8. Trachoma prevalence in rural areas of eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J.; Fallah, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of trachoma in rural areas of eastern Iran. We collected swabs from 150 children in three areas. Results of PCR showed presence of chlamydia in four boys (5.97%) and nine girls (10.84%). We suggest that in assessing the elimination of trachoma, WHO must consider border areas between countries.

  9. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of

  10. Guidelines for entrepreneurship training in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Marita

    2015-01-01

    The partners in the European Flagship project called Sustainable rural development through youth participation, innovation and entrepreneurship 2012-2015 identified a lack of common knowledge of efficient education and research on entrepreneurship and on involving the youth. As a result, a Nordplus Horizontal project, SURE, was launched and conducted within the Flagship network. This project aimed at developing a framework for entrepreneurial education, and thus enhancing innovation and entre...

  11. Use of internet in rural areas of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorik, P. van; Mweetwa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Access to information and, more importantly, the internet is not evenly distributed in this world. But if they had it, would people in rural Africa want to use the internet? How would they use it and benefit from it? Will internet influence culture and how can communities prepare themselves when the internet comes in their village? To support the rollout of internet in more rural areas in Zambia and to improve the effectiveness of ICT in rural environments, a clear view on the adoption and us...

  12. Energy and rural areas; Energie und Laendliche Raeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose (ed.)

    2013-02-01

    Within the 1st Goettinger talks on agricultural legislation at 5th November, 2010, the following lectures were held: (1) Energy supply and rural municipality (Johann-Christian Pielow); (2) Legal issues and practical handling of the compensation of provider rights (Hubertus Schmitte); (3) Energy economic plan approval in the rural area using natural gas pipelines as an example (Mathias Wolkewitz), (4) Maritime regional planning - Instrument for conflict resolution between wind power and fishery (Nico Nolte); (5) Energy and agriculture (Jose Martinez).

  13. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    OpenAIRE

    Singh A.J; Kaur A.

    1993-01-01

    Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs). Study var...

  14. POSSIBILITIES OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (LED) IN LAGGING RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Krisztián

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic objectives of the EU Rural Development Policy in the next (2014-2020) programming period are as follows: the competitiveness of agriculture, the sustainable management of natural resources and the balanced territorial development. In this strategy agriculture seems to remain one of the key element as solution for lagging rural areas. However parallel to the decreasing role of agriculture in employment, searching for the possibilities of local economic development (LED)...

  15. Methods of employee rating in cultural institutions in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lelyuk Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the nature, role and importance of personnel evaluation in terms of development of modern society and economy. The authors describe aspects of the formation of staffing cultural institutions in rural areas. The possible methods of creative worker’s evaluation in cultural institutions are analyzing. The innovative method for artists estimating was considered. The form of questioning by visitors of rural cultural institution for effective evaluation of the creative worker...

  16. MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGEŞ COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Miu

    2013-01-01

    Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Argeş County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities), methods (o...

  17. Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Fertner, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio......-economic changes, which may or may not manifest itself as physical changes in built-up area and land use. It is therefore useful to analyse the urbanisation patterns along an urban-rural continuum, based on a broad range of indicators. This paper analyses urbanisation patterns in rural areas of Region Midtjylland...

  18. Considerations on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Dryland Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; TSUNEKAWA Atsushi; TSUBO Mitsuru; KOIKE Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Drylands of the world cover 41% of the Earth's land surface and are a direct source of livelihood for 6.5 billion people, especially in developing countries. However, nearly all drylands are at risk of land degradation as a result of human activities. Poverty and desertification in dryland areas are major problems threatening sustainable agriculture and rural development in dryland areas. Several topics that are significant for sustainable agriculture and rural development for food security and environmental rehabilitation in dryland areas were stressed in this paper.

  19. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China.This study aimed to compare the prevalence,diagnosis,and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing,China.Methods:Schools,communities,and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing.Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires.On-the-spot inquiries,physical examinations,medical records,and previous test results were used to diagnose asthmatic children.Information on previous diagnoses,treatments,and control of symptoms was obtained.Results:From 7209 children in rural areas and 13,513 children in urban areas who completed screening questionnaires,587 children were diagnosed as asthma.The prevalence of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (1.25% vs.3.68%,x2 =100.80,P < 0.001).The diagnosis of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (48.9% vs.73.9%,x2 =34.6,P < 0.001).Compared with urban asthmatic children (56.5%),only 35.6% of rural asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroids (P < 0.05).The use ofbronchodilators was also lower in rural areas than in urban areas (56.5% vs.66.4%,x2 =14.2,P < 0.01).Conclusion:The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing.A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  20. Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH...

  1. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  2. Evolution of Tourism in the Rural Area of the Southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico de Oliveira Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural property owners open their doors to tourism for several reasons. In part it is due to the failure in achieving agricultural profits. Thus, receiving tourists can increase income, add value to the property, and diversify economic activity. On the other hand, agritourism and rural tourism create new opportunity which does not depend exclusively on agricultural production. Furthermore, this reflects a new agrarian reality, a transition from an ‘agricultural’ to a ‘rural’ economy.  The goal of this study is to identify the potential of rural properties in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to develop agritourism and rural tourism as an economic alternative. More specifically, we propose to identify the characteristics of tourism activities at several properties and evaluate the economic viability, employment opportunities and salary growth between 1997 and 2006. There has been ongoing research in this area since 2006 and new studies are being carried out, especially regarding rural tourism property turnover, although they are not the object of the current study. The results of this study infer that the southern of the state presented unfavorable outcomes regarding income and job creation on the farms that practiced agritourism and rural tourism. Current trends emphatically focus on these kinds of tourism as alternatives for developing the services sector in the Southern Half rural areas and, while there is visible potential, it is necessary to develop projects and procure the participation of the government and private sector in order to make tourism in rural areas more effective. There are many activities that can be carried out, such as promoting events and attempting to change the mentality related to living in the rural areas as well as the good use of the properties in order to create a new framework. Evolução do Turismo na Área Rural do Sul do Rio Grande do Sul - Os proprietários rurais abrem suas portas ao

  3. Selected problems of socioeconomic changes in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kociszewska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the approach of description of premises related to labour resources use improvement. It is based on characteristics of changes in the number of people living in the countryside on the background of the tendencies of employment in agriculture, as well as of rural areas unemployment specificity. The author tended to verify the thesis that multifunctional development of rural areas is one of directions towards unemployment diminishing. On the other hand, it was concluded that important barriers for such a solution are both infrastructure underdevelopment and low level of professional skills of rural society. It was pointed out that a great chance for positive socioeconomic changes of the countryside is rational use of financial sources available after Poland’s EU accession.

  4. The Rural Elite and the Supply of Public Goods in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu-peng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of collective action and social capital theory,social capital is introduced into the game analysis of the supply of public goods between the rural elite and ordinary villagers.I establish the income model of public goods utility concerning the rural elite and ordinary villagers;research the incentive of social capital for the rural elite and villagers,and impact of social capital on the rural elite and villagers.Three inferences can be drawn from the model:the precondition for the elite to prompt the collective cooperation is having " good reputation" ;" good reputation" of the elite in the supply of public goods can abate farmers’ motive of " free rider" ;the role of the elite in organizing the supply of public goods can save the transaction costs in the process of collective action.Taking the case of Shunhe Village,Panyu District,Guangzhou City,I explain this model.Finally,some policy recommendations are put forth as follows:rebuilding the community credit;giving full play to the role of the rural elite in the supply of public goods in rural areas.

  5. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas.Aim: The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation.Setting:...

  6. Delivering Nutrition Services in Early Intervention in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Bethany; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses general issues in the provision of early intervention as well as nutrition services in rural areas and presents a case study to illustrate these issues. Barriers identified include transportation, long-distance travel, lack of specialized personnel, and poverty. Recommendations to overcome barriers are highlighted. (JDD)

  7. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  8. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  9. Local Food Systems and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ligita, Melece

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides insights into food systems and local or alternative food systems. The author reveals current changes and opportunities of agricultural and agrifood sector and rural areas. The role and development opportunities of local food systems are summarized by the author.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the management of the Greenbelt Area at Naval Air Station (NAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 3,595 acres of land around Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, known as the greenbelt, are out leased to local farmers for agricultural production. In...

  11. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing, and in combination with survey, analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city. There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures, to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents, improve rural ecological environment, realize sustai...

  12. The definition of rural area as a primary solution of its adequate development

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Faltová Leitmanová; Eva Cudlínová; Milan Jílek; Renata Klufová; Ladislav Rolínek

    2009-01-01

    The realistic approach to the rural development requires primarily a consensual definition of a rural area. The selection of tools to be applied and measures to be taken to influence rural areas as well as the setting up the institutional framework would be difficult without defining the object of interest. The adequate definition of rural areas is therefore one of essential prerequisites for the effective resource allocation within the rural development policy.

  13. Christian Faith Rush in Rural Areas and Social Work Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-ling; WANG Shu-min

    2012-01-01

    To make the public have rational knowledge of the Christian faith rush in rural areas and guide coordinated development of Christianity with the socialist society, we analyzed reasons and complex influence on rural social development from aspects of society and individual and attraction of Christianity by the Literature Analysis Method. In view of its negative effect, we put forward several countermeasures from the perspective of social work intervention, such as improving farmers’ overall qualities, promoting effective implementation of social security system, and correcting believers’ understanding of Christianity. Finally, we introduced situation of Christian faith in other countries and reference and directive significance to China.

  14. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Keche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33, antibiotics (10.32, vitamins (14.08 and GIT ailment drugs (13.61 are most commonly used as self medication in rural areas. Other drugs that self medicated are: drugs for upper respiratory tract infection, antibiotics, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants and diuretics. Information about the self medication was predominantly obtained from previous prescription of doctors (64.32% and from chemists (23%. Antibiotics like macrolides, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, antihelminthics, and furazolidine were taken as self medication in rural areas. 50% of antibiotics used as self medication was associated with development of ADRs. The adverse effects reported with antibiotics self medication were: vomiting, hyperacidity, gastrointestinal discomfort. 21.13% of persons reported adverse effects with NSAIDs self medication. Adverse effects reported with analgesic use in this study were: hyperacidity, skin rashes, nausea. Conclusions: NSAIDs, antibiotics, vitamins and GIT ailment drugs are commonly self medicated in rural areas of Pune. The self medication of antibiotics is disturbing, as these are liable for drug resistance and severe ADRs and hence should be taken under supervision only. Pharmacists, key person in rural areas, can provide information about adverse effects of self medicated drugs and also can guide about proper precautions to be taken for self medication.

  15. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo; Qiang Wang; Chun-Yu Xu; Dong-Qun Xu; Chuan-He Liu; Yu-Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing, China. Methods: Schools, communities, and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing. Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires. On-the-spot inquiries, physical examinations, medical records, and previous test resu...

  16. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A.J

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs. Study variables: Trivial injuries. Outcome Variables: Management- home based or hospitals based. Results: Peripheral parts of the extremities- hands, finger, feet and toes were most commonly affected by trivial injuries. A variety of local applications like tobacco, salt, kerosene, oil, nail polish, turmeric, urine, were used for initial wound care. Conclusion: Rural people of Haryana use a variety of local applications, some not very hygienic, for the immediate management of injuries. Education is required to make them aware of hygienic practices where would care is concerned.

  17. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  18. The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

    2010-05-01

    Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

  19. E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimmi Anand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to find the advantages of E-Learning resources and their affect on social and mental development of the individuals belonging to rural areas.

  20. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a

  1. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding....

  2. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Keche; Radha Yegnanarayan; Shraddha Bhoyar; Rashi Agrawal; Roshani Chavan; Priyanka Mahendrakar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33), antibiotics (10.32), vitamins (14.08) and GIT ailment drugs (13.61) are most comm...

  3. Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STELA ZOTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

  4. Evaluation of development of social capital in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the results of the research related to development of social capital in rural areas. Analysis of the obtained data indicated the reasons for participation in programmes of unemployed activation, the types of chosen forms of activation, the level of satisfaction from participation in the selected forms and finding work as a result of the activation of unemployed respondents.

  5. Processes of deagrarization and urbanization of Slovene rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2015-01-01

    The treatise deals with elements of the processes of differentiation of Slovene rural areas which have been differentiated during the last four decades under the condition of industrialization and the concept of polycentric regional development into regions of urbanization, regions of transition and regions of depopulation. This differentiation was accompanied by the growth of the number of the population which was employed in industries and consequently quick decline in the percentage of agr...

  6. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  7. Factors with to intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franco Diniz Heitor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly and verify the factors associated. This is a home survey performed with 850 elderly residents of the rural area of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. A structured instrument was used; information regarding their eating habits was obtained using an adapted questionnaire for food consumption frequency, and intestinal constipation was self-reported. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression (p<0.05 were performed. The prevalence of intestinal constipation was 13.2%. The factors associated with intestinal constipation were: female gender (p<0.001, 80 years of age or older (p=0.035, living with another person (p=0.004, having no income (p=0.033, inadequate consumption of fruits (p=0.005 and vegetable (p=0.002. It is considered that client-centered nutritional education can help remove the factors associated with the outcome. Descriptors: Constipation; Aged; Gastrointestinal Motility; Rural Population; Geriatric Nursing.

  8. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  9. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  10. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  11. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  12. Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [χ2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [χ2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [χ2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.

  13. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  14. A STUDY OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS' QUALITIES IN RURAL AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangGuohua

    2004-01-01

    Language teachers are the main language input sources forthe students in rural areas. Whether they are well-qualified ornot matters a lot for English teaching. Besides discussing Englishteachers' qualities, the writer of this article generallyinvestigates English teachers' professional qualities in a ruralcounty through a questionnaire in which 20 questions on experts'advice were designed for the teachers. Altogether 65 Englishteachers, comprising 64% of the whole, distributed in varioustypes of schools took part. The final figures revealed problemssuch as narrow adoption of modern teaching media, thedominating grammar-translation method, the lack of necessay knowledge of English culture and linguistic theory, etc.

  15. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  16. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  17. Object detection in rural areas using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Safak; Emre Esin, Yunus; Artan, Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Object detection has gained considerable interest in remote sensing community with a broad range of applications including the remote monitoring of building development in rural areas. Many earlier studies on this task performed their analysis using either multispectral satellite imagery or color images obtained via an aerial vehicle. In recent years, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has emerged as an alternative technique for remote monitoring of building developments. Unlike other imaging techniques, HSI provides a continuous spectral signature of the objects in the field of view (FOV) which facilitates the separation among different objects. In general, spectral signature similarity between objects often causes a significant amount of false alarm (FA) rate that adversely effects the overall accuracy of these systems. In order to reduce the high rate of FA posed by the pixel-wise classification, we propose a novel rural building detection method that utilizes both spatial information and spectral signature of the pixels. Proposed technique consists of three parts; a spectral signature classifier, watershed based superpixel map and an oriented-gradient filters based object detector. In our analysis, we have evaluated the performance of proposed approach using hyperspectral image dataset obtained at various elevation levels, namely 500 meters and 3000 meters. NEO HySpex VNIR-1800 camera is used for 182 band hyperspectral data acquisition. First 155 band is used due to the atmospheric effects on the last bands. Performance comparison between the proposed technique and the pixel-wise spectral classifier indicates a reduction in sensitivity rate but a notable increase in specificity and overall accuracy rates. Proposed method yields sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate of 0.690, 0.997 and 0.992, respectively, whereas pixel-wise classification yields sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate of 0.758, 0.983, 0.977, respectively. Note that the sensitivity reduction is

  18. Poverty and social exclusion in urban and rural areas of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nick; Bramley, Glen; Gannon, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the PSE-UK 2012 survey results in Scotland, comparing levels of poverty and social exclusion in urban and rural areas and between remote and accessible areas; within the rural category. Using low income, deprivation and subjective poverty measures, it finds significant poverty in every kind of location, with on most measures, poverty highest in the large urban areas and lowest in remote towns with remote rural areas showing higher poverty than remote towns. The report...

  19. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha; Carla Castro Rezende Diniz Brandão; Leandro Sauer; Adriano Viana Bednaski; Marcos Yuri Camparoto

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação...

  20. Anti-urbanisation as development chance for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    combine a dwelling far from the city, life style considerations with a continued carrier. By statistical analysis based on age-related migration data for municipalities we studied the extent of anti-urbanisation in the case area. The data indicates an ongoing and amplifying trend of amenity......-driven migration into rural areas in the last 30 years regarding middle-aged and retired groups. By qualitative interviews we further studied a specific group of anti-urbanits, namely persons relocating for quality of life reasons and starting an own micro-business. They are self-employed also after some years in......Anti-urbanisation is a form of counter-urbanisation, which means migration from the city to the countryside. Three variants can be distinguished by the motives of the migrants: A search for a radical often self-sufficient lifestyle, a relocation to enhance one’s quality of life and amenity driven...

  1. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location

  2. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  3. Environmental education in rural areas - a real support for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiurca, Ana-Andreea; Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development represents the future for Romanian rural areas and a viable solution to solve the environmental problems. This concept can be put into practice through the interaction between economic, sociocultural, environmental and political-institutional dimension. In this interaction an important role has the ecological education of citizens from rural areas and their involvement in environmental policy decisions. So, a low level of ecological education in rural areas leads to a ...

  4. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  5. Incentive Mechanism Model Design for Sharing of Information Resources in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xirong; GAO; Lingling; SHAN

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the issues concerning the cross-unit sharing of information resources in rural areas, we analyze the incentive problem of the sharing of information resources in rural areas using the incentive theory method; establish corresponding incentive mechanism model (It is divided into positive incentive model and negative incentive model, and only when the two models guarantee each other and are used at the same time can they be effective). Based on this, we put forward the institutional design for sharing of information resources in rural areas as follows: firstly, establishing an administrative agency of rural information resources sharing, above the authority of all units, responsible for related work on sharing of information resources in rural areas; secondly, establishing and improving the positive and negative incentive mechanisms, to ensure the realization of sharing of information resources in rural areas.

  6. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities. PMID:27107746

  7. Processes of deagrarization and urbanization of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatise deals with elements of the processes of differentiation of Slovene rural areas which have been differentiated during the last four decades under the condition of industrialization and the concept of polycentric regional development into regions of urbanization, regions of transition and regions of depopulation. This differentiation was accompanied by the growth of the number of the population which was employed in industries and consequently quick decline in the percentage of agrarian population. The numeric decline of agrarian population as well as decline in its percentage however opened numerous new problems (i.e. abandoning of the farm land, growing of the forests, growing of the greenlands which cause great problems with maintenance of cultural landscape especially at the regions of depopulation.

  8. Considerations regarding the content, terminology and definition of rural areas - a fundamental element of rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai ANTONOVICI; Nicu?or Marcel UDREA

    2014-01-01

    International organizations concerned with rural development since the early '70. FAO, as the United Nations organization dealing with agriculture and nutrition, has undertaken several actions to find solutions for rural development in accordance with the requirements of economic development - social. The aim of rural development is to promote modern technology in rural population by increasing production and productivity and hence revenue raising living standards in terms of economic and soc...

  9. Rural energy assessment and potential alternative energy resources & technologies in rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an in-depth review and critical analysis of the various rural energy resources and their socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It also explores the potential alternative energy resources and affordable technologies for rural people and as well as their potential socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods. The review of the consumption aspect ...

  10. The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (α= 0.76. A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

  11. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  12. Migration from rural to urban areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K

    1990-12-01

    During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility. PMID:12285849

  13. The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant). Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents) for the study. Data were analyzed us...

  14. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  15. Turism planning in rural areas in the case of the municipality of Brda

    OpenAIRE

    Jakin, Uroš

    2012-01-01

    This graduation thesis addresses tourism and tourism planning in rural areas on the example of the organization of tourism in the Slovenian rural region Goriška brda. Rural areas are affected by different problems, such as aging population, emigration, lack of employment opportunities, and dependence on agriculture and forestry. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate how tourism and given spatial potentials can help revive the countryside. The thesis is divided into a theoret...

  16. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA - AS A RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT - IN THE BUCHAREST-ILFOV REGION OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Stoicescu, Alina; Alecu, Ioan-Niculae

    2012-01-01

    The paper aimed to present the rural human resources development during the period 2007-2013 in the Bucharest –Ilfov Region of Romania, as a rural development component. It is based on the statistical data provided by our studies regarding HRD projects implemented in this area, financed from structural founds (European Social Found). The data have been processed into the following indicators: number of projects implemented in the Bucharest-Ilfov region promoting long term sustainability of ...

  17. THE RURAL TERRITORIAL INFRASTRUCTURE, THE SUPPORT FOR RURAL TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE DANUBIAN AREA OF THE SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Iulian DRĂGHICI; Ioana ŢUGUI

    2012-01-01

    The scope of agritourism activities is related to the existent territorial infrastructure. For this reason there is a pronounced differentiation and diversification of rural tourism and agritourism types in the South-Muntenia Region which sometimes generate confusion. Meaning that, according to the economic character, the Danubian rural area can delimitate villages with agricultural functions (based on the production of cereals, as well as the viticultural and zootechnical productions), those...

  18. People not Print: Exploring Engineering Future Possible Self Development in Rural Areas of Tennessee's Cumberland Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, Matthew Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how students in rural areas of Tennessee's Cumberland Plateau area perceive engineering as a future career. This area is a portion of the greater Appalachian region, which has historically, faced disproportionate economic struggles when compared to other areas of the United States. However, little research on career choice exists outside of the coal producing areas of Central Appalachia. This research, in contrast, focuses on rural counties without interstate access, situa...

  19. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  20. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  1. Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas (CARE); Midterm review report; Knowledge for Climate Theme 3

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, van den, R.B.A.; Bakker, M.M.; Vos, C.C.; J. P. M. Witte

    2012-01-01

    This midterm review report presents the structure, progress and first results of the Knowledge for Climate Theme 3 research programme Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas (CARE). This research programme aims to generate the fundamental knowledge that is necessary to design and evaluate adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change on rural areas in the Netherlands.

  2. 78 FR 59415 - Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Federal Transit Administration Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions... implementation of the section 5311 Rural Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed circular is...

  3. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  4. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  5. Use of mobile screening unit for diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, G.P.; Ahmed, S.; Newton, R. W.; Jung, R.T.; Ellingford, A; Baines, P; Roxburgh, S; Coleiro, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the effectiveness of a mobile screening unit with a non-mydriatic polaroid camera in detecting diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas. To estimate the cost of the service. DESIGN--Prospective data collection over two years of screening for diabetic retinopathy throughout Tayside. SETTING--Tayside region, population 390,000, area 7770 km2. SUBJECTS--961 patients in rural areas and 1225 in urban areas who presented for screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Presence of ...

  6. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes. PMID:26516019

  7. Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audroing, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

  8. Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Roşu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: Măgina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, Vălişoara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

  9. [Acceptability of medroxyprogesterone acetate in rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Murillo, V; Cervantes Bustamante, A; Correu Azcona, S; García López, E

    1981-03-01

    361 retrospective surveys were carried out among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) given in a trimestral regimen of 150 mg/dose in rural areas of 3 Mexican states. Gynecology-obstetric antecedents, previous experience with oral contraceptives (OCs), effects of injections on the menstrual cycle, causes of method suspension, and opinion concerning administration of medication were analyzed. 78.6% of the patients were multigravidae with 4 or more pregnancies; 39.1% were former users of OCs, and 23.4% had stopped taking them because of side effects. The side effects of MPA on the menstrual cycle were: amenorrhea (19.8%); hemorrhage/cycle of 10-30 days in 14.7%; and hemorrhage/cycle of 30 or more days in 11.6%. Only 14.7% of users stopped the injections and of these, 80.3% did so due to menstrual cycle disorders. 99.7% of the users thought the method was comfortable as a family planning procedure. (author's) PMID:6459270

  10. ANALYTICAL STUDY OF POPULATION STRUCTURE BY SAMPLING IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azordegan

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the care taken to ensure the quality of date collected by enumeration and sampling, the final tabulation will sometimes give obvious indication of errors in basic information. Evaluation of these errors furnishes those who use such a study and sampling. More general, the finding in these studies should be helpful to others that conduct surveys. In order to compare the age composition of the rural areas between two provinces of IRAN, i.e. AZARBAIJAN, and ISFAHAN, a sample of each has selected (8 and 23 counties respectively.The main idea was to evaluate the errors in age recording and the effect of digit preference on the age composition of the population. It became evident that, AZARBAIJAN has a smaller family size, lower median age, higher sex ratio and lower dependency ratio than ISFAHAN. More over, the age pyramid of ISFAHAN has a better shape and more regular than AZARBAIJAN and therefore the Myer’s Index which determines the degree of dispersion in age reporting is lower in ISFAHAN which may be the result of higher literacy in ISFAHAN. Generally men in both samples report their age more precisely than women.

  11. THE KNOWLEDGE USER PROFILE IN THE RURAL AREA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia PREDA (DIACONEASA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic entities today are struggling to find the most effective way of combining the resources they have, tangible or intangible, in order to produce and sale the most wanted products, their purpose is to gain and keep the highest share of the market. These intangible resources, in our era, which is changing from industry based to knowledge based, are represented by knowledge, brain capacity and the power to use it at the highest rate. Knowledge has started to be considered a primordial factor, along with energy and matter, factors that hold the origin of the universe. The economic agents have realized that holding the latest information, in any domain or activity, and its proper use, also means holding a greater share of the market for a longer time, which leads to the final purpose of every economic unit, the profit. They can be called knowledge consumers. In Romania’s rural area things are not the same, the knowledge consumer is theoretically represented by any economical unit activating here, but, as shall be presented further in this paper, things are far from theory. Those who should be knowledge consumers are using old methods and technologies, they are based on their own experience and do not know how to use the information that regards them directly, things that have to be changed in order to be an active and competitive member of the E.U.

  12. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Havin...

  13. INVESTIGATING USER PREFERENCES FOR SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS OF SCOTLAND: A TERRITORIAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Clare; Moran, Dominic; McVittie, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Territorialisation of rural policies requires moving from a sectoral approach to service provision, and policies that focus exclusively on health and education, for example, to an understanding of overall service provision and quality, differentiated by rural area definition, not primarily by sector. An investigation of the expectations of stakeholders in rural Scotland, relating to availability, quality and accessibility of services, revealed that preferences were often different within diff...

  14. Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

  15. Crisis de energia rural y trabajo femenino en tres areas ecologicas del Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Alcantara E; De La Pena M; Abuhadba M; Flores D

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the economic role of rural women and fuelwood needs in three ecologycally distinct rural communitys in Peru - describes the research method; examines the rural area energy issue and women's household activities; analyses the sexual division of labour, waste of fuel, and nutrition; discusses the impact of fuel shortages on the family's and women's work load, health and nutrition, etc.; includes energy policy, recommendations. Bibliography, graphs, statistical ...

  16. The intriguing question of regional and territorial development in rural areas: analytical variations and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Andre; Wallet, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed some light on issues of territorial development and of rural development and to identify what links and opposes them. Indeed, everything pushes towards joining together these two dimensions, which for a long time seemed disconnected. On the one hand, the policies targeting rural areas explicitly include the territorial dimension, while the distinction between rural and urban is getting blurred. In the meantime, decentralization, subsidiarity, the regionalisa...

  17. The Strategic and Community Safety Response to Domestic Violence in a Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a criminological exploration on the impact rurality has on both the strategic and community safety response to domestic violence. It also considers how rurality affects the delivery of services and subsequently victims’ experiences. The thesis explores the relationship between service provider’s views – police, housing, probation etc – of victims’ experiences of domestic violence in a rural area, and their perceptions of the service and strategic response to domestic viol...

  18. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  19. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857

  20. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas.Aim: To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence theirdecisions.Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions.Results: Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate. Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66% or second practices (64.6% in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2% or second (79.4% practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areaswere financial concerns (81.2%, personal safety (80.1% and poor living conditions (75.3%, with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05 being from urban respondents for the latter twoissues only.Conclusion: Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remoteareas of the country.

  1. Path Choice on Rural Industrial Upgrading in the Process of Rural-urban Integration in Binhai New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With methods of reference research and field research, the current situations of rural industrialization in the process of rural-urban integration in Binhai new area are analyzed and some problems in the process of integration in the new area are pointed out, such as difficulties in breaking dual economic structure in urban and rural areas, imbalanced economic development in the area and inadequate development of the third industry. And relevant countermeasures are proposed: optimizing agriculture industrial structure and promoting agricultural industrialization to form urban agricultural model of Binhai new area focusing on facility agriculture, park agriculture and high-end agriculture and to realize the intensive growth of agriculture; rationally distributing rural industrial structure to form regional leading industry and playing the guiding role of industry to achieve industrial adjustment improvement; quickening the construction of the third industry centering on service to form the service system of modern countryside and the leading role of modern service industry so as to achieve rapid development of the third industry.

  2. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  3. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  4. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  5. LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular

  6. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  7. Back to the future; new functions for rural areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van J.; Klundert, van de A.F.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the project Rural Areas and Europe of the Netherlands Spatial Planning Department a study was carried out in which integrated rural development was one of the answers to the economic and environmental problems of agriculture. The study focused on four possible new functions: water product

  8. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  9. LABOUR SUPPLY IN THE LABOUR MARKET IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Lucyna Szczebiot–Knoblauch; Roman Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the political transformation in Poland, it's been more than twenty years, however, the situation on the labor market in rural areas is not the best. Deteriorating statistics on the labor market in Poland, manifested by high unemployment and a growing number of people in rural areas is the main reason for the formulation of the main as: analysis of the supply side of the labor market in rural areas in Poland in the years 20o0-2011. Discussion is focused on the employment...

  10. Labour Supply in the Labour Market in Rural Areas in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Lucyna Szczebiot–Knoblauch, Roman Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the political transformation in Poland, it's been more than twenty years, however, the situation on the labor market in rural areas is not the best. Deteriorating statistics on the labor market in Poland, manifested by high unemployment and a growing number of people in rural areas is the main reason for the formulation of the main as: analysis of the supply side of the labor market in rural areas in Poland in the years 20o0-2011. Discussion is focused on the employment...

  11. The Exploration to the Historical Origin of Differences between Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the historical origins of encircling the cities from the rural areas implemented by the Communist Party of China and the current dual structures of urban and rural development, urban-rural differences are analyzed from the four aspects of production mode, management mode, culture and social division of labor. Industrial development in modern times has promoted the modernization of urban production in China. But the rural areas still maintain their traditional self-sufficient natural economy. After the Opium War, the process of modernization of city politics is promoted by more economic elements of capitalism and the formation of Chinese bourgeoisie. During the management of urban modernization, rural areas still adopt the traditional self-management mode. In the aspect of culture, city is the center of development, having large population, developed traffic, and prosperous culture. But the village is lack of information and its culture is relatively backward. In modern times, affected by the foreign capitalist, urban area has become the center of modern productivity. After separating from agriculture, handicraft industry has transferred into urban areas and the social division of labor in both urban and rural areas has shown great changes. Thus, a new pattern of "Urban Industry, Rural Agriculture" has formed.

  12. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  13. CLIMACTERIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bindhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Every woman who lives beyond 50 years goes through a period of transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stages of life. Meno pause is considered as a clinical marker of declining ovarian function. The common climacteric symptoms experienced by women during this period can be group into: vasomotor, somatic, psy chological and sexual complaints. The aim of the study was to compare the climacteric symptoms among rural women who attained menopause and those who did not attaine d menopause in the age group of 43-55 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in a r ural area in Kerala. Data were collected from 320 women by interviewing with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of a socio-demo graphic data, and the Greene’s Climacteric Scale. The Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces software Version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the total score of climacteric symptoms and each sub-scale symptom scores (psycholo gical, somatic, and sexual scores among women who attained and not attained menopause. The X² test was applied to compare the proportion of the different grades of symptoms bet ween the different menopausal statuses. The level P < 0.05 was considered as the cut-off va lue for significance RESULTS: The total Greene’s climacteric scale score (p: 0.001, the psyc hological subscale scores (p: 0.007, the somatic subscale scores (p : 0.022 , the vasomotor subscale scores (p: 0.011 and the sexual subscale scores (p: 0.001 were significantly higher in women who attained menopause compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The climacteric symptoms vary significantly between women who attained menopause and women who d id not attained menopause

  14. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  15. Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmin Chen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should possess an only integrated account for social security. The account must move together with the citizen. The initial account of a migrant worker can be established in either city or countryside.

  16. The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU

    2006-01-01

    There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention sh...

  17. Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Nørgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older...... couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to...

  18. Raw water use charge reduction for the rural sector in the PCJ Watershed Redução da cobrança pelo uso da água para o setor rural nas Bacias PCJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério T. da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The deficient environmental preservation on agricultural properties has reflected in great soil losses for erosion and the high rate of sedimentation. Therefore, this work brings the application of software to demonstrate that planters can get benefits by the conservationist practices. The benefits will be obtained from the environment aspect (erosion and sedimentation control, as well as economical aspect (financial incentives. A proposal has been created by the Technical Chamber of Rural Water Use and Conservation (CT-Rural to estimate the reduction in raw water use charge for the rural water users of the PCJ Watershed - this reduction is being possible since January 2007, at the PCJ Committee. The software develops a simple relationship, so that if the rural conservationist action goes more efficient, such as if the conserved rural area goes larger, then the reduction value will bring better benefits for the rural water users. Within the purposes of this study, there is the idealization of mechanisms that may support specific management matters related to the water users of federal rivers from the rural sector of PCJ Watershed.Considerando as implicações da insuficiência de preservação ambiental em propriedades agrícolas refletidas em grandes perdas de solos erodidos e sedimentação de mananciais, buscou-se, neste trabalho, demonstrar que, com a utilização de práticas conservacionistas, agricultores poderão ser beneficiados tanto no aspecto ambiental, pelo abatimento da erosão em suas propriedades, quanto no aspecto econômico, ou seja, por meio de proposta inicialmente deliberada pela Câmara Técnica de Uso e Conservação da Água no Meio Rural (CT-Rural dos Comitês PCJ para o cálculo da redução da cobrança pelo uso da água que incide sobre o setor rural - o que será permitido pelos Comitês PCJ a partir de janeiro de 2007. Dessa forma, este trabalho traz como objetivo principal o desenvolvimento de programa

  19. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  20. Evaluation on the Efficiency and Fairness of Coordinating Public Goods Supply in Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan; YU; Zhongmin; DING

    2015-01-01

    By setting the urban-rural public goods supply model,this paper evaluates the effects of coordinating supply public goods on resource allocation and welfare from efficiency and fairness,and examines the necessity and possibility of coordinating public goods supply in urban and rural areas. The model assumes that the population size of urban and rural areas is different,and the population can not flow freely between urban and rural areas; there are different degrees of spillover in the public goods supply. Model results show that coordinating public goods supply in urban and rural areas is the result of optimizing resource allocation efficiency,but the residents’ individual utility level will not necessarily improve,so residents’ willingness to support coordinated urban-rural supply is different,and public goods spillover and different tax systems are the factors that affect the residents’ utility level. Finally,this paper uses the practice of coordinating urban and rural compulsory education in Chengdu City to confirm the above conclusions.

  1. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in

  2. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela; Botezat Elena Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups ...

  3. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Rural Area: A Correlational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Engin Karadag; Ishak Karadeniz

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between mathematics anxiety and attitude of children who are educated in rural areas were analyzed in this research. Research was premeditated as a correlational design because it was presumed that there was correlation between two main variables. The population of the study was consisted of secondary school students who were educated in a region called rural areas in the central district of Meram/Konya in the school year of 2012-2013. 726 students who were educated in five second...

  4. Soil quality and sustainable land use in urban rural marginal area: a case study of Kaifeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the basic theories of physical geography, land resourcesand ecology, this article analyzes the soil quality of the rural-urban marginal area in Kaifeng. Computer techniques, based on soil samples analysis, are used to study soil quality changes in the Kaifeng's rural-urban marginal area. While focusing on nutrient circle key links of input and output in soil, relying on numerous practical survey data, this article reveals clearly the impact of land use change on soil quality.

  5. Understanding rural areas dynamics from a complex perspective. An application of Prospective Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosio Albala, Mateo; Delgado, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    The development of rural areas continues to be an international priority. The urgent need to fight poverty (mainly concentrated in rural areas) in developing countries, and the demand for increasing economic and social cohesion in developed countries, explain this priority on the political agendas of multilateral bodies, the EU and most other countries. When Development Economics was acknowledged as part of the social and economic theory in the 50’s, different theories and models have tried t...

  6. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Zhao; Hong Yan; Ruihai Yang; Qiang Li; Shaonong Dang; Yuying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Edu...

  7. The adoption of information and сomunication technology in Polish rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Misiuk, Anna Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has played an important role in the development of rural areas and generally in the global economy. In Poland, agriculture still dominates land use. Nevertheless, the relatively low share of agriculture in GDP indicates that the potential of existing resources is not fully used. For this reason, it is crucial to take steps in order to stimulate effectiveness of rural areas. The application of ICTs is one of various and persistent means to positively react t...

  8. Causes of death in a rural area of South Africa : an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel; Kahn, K.; Tollman, S.; Gear, J.

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the cause of death profile in a rural area of South Africa (Agincourt), with that in a rural area of West Africa (Niakhar), and in a developed country with the same life expectancy (France, 1951) in order to determine causes with high and low mortality and priorities for future health interventions. In the two African sites, causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsies, whereas they were derived from regular cause of death registration in France. Age-standardized death...

  9. A community-based disability programme for rural areas / Lizél Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Lizél

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Heuningvlei community in the Kgalagadi District Municipality in the Northern Cape Province. This study was part of the "Tshwaragano Project" with the general aim of empowering the disadvantaged communities in rural areas. The aim of this research was to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based disability programme for poverty stricken families in rural areas of the Northern Cape Province. To achieve this aim, the following...

  10. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Wang; Peng Zhang; Xin Lv; Lingling Jiang; Chunshi Gao; Yuanyuan Song; Yaqin Yu; Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which t...

  11. TOURISM AND PROTECTED AREAS: POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF THE RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIAN DANUBE DELTA

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru IORGA

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how tourism takes various shapes in a rural protected area from Romania (one of the typical, most vulnerable of the post-socialist period). Though tourism is advocated by Romanian officials and economists as a powerful tool, which provides economic and community development in rural, deindustrialized and protected areas, ethnographic examples presented in this paper show that ‘real tourism’, still regarded as a panacea, is far from fulfilling the locals’ needs and expe...

  12. Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices

  13. Study on Investing and Financing Development in Rural Area:A Case Study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong; HUANG; Bin; YAO

    2013-01-01

    "Surplus income" of farmers has been increasing steadily with the marked improvement of rural economy. However,development of rural financing market in China is rather backward. To satisfy the financing requirement of farmers and meet the demand of the construction of new countryside as well as harmonious society,development of financing market in rural area is eager to be quickened. Taking Guangxi Autonomous Region as an example,there are problems in rural investing and financing development. Firstly,farmers are in lacking of accurate understanding of investing and financing. Secondly,investors in rural area lack professional knowledge about financing generally. Thirdly,rural area has underdeveloped information degree as well as imperfect investing and financing environment. Fourthly,there are no financial products developed for rural area. Fifthly,economic development is unbalanced and relatively underdeveloped in rural area. Lastly,rural financial market has long been neglected by financial intermediaries. In order to cope with these problems,firstly,farmers should be assisted to establish accurate financial awareness and master necessary financial knowledge. Secondly,local intermediaries like securities firms and banks should be encouraged to exert impact on rural financial market. Thirdly,financial products suitable for Guangxi rural area are to be developed. Fourthly, construction and perfection of rural financial market should be quickened. Lastly,rural economic development should be quickened to enlarge capital source of financing.

  14. Peer Influence and Drug Use among Adolescents in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, B. E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Sampled 1,004 eighth and tenth graders in 23 rural communities to examine peer influence and drug use. Students who perceived higher degree of drug use among friends and who received more information about drugs from friends used drugs more frequently. Findings support theory that peer pressure is related to drug abuse. (Author/NB)

  15. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

  16. Use of internet in rural areas of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorik, P. van; Mweetwa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Access to information and, more importantly, the internet is not evenly distributed in this world. But if they had it, would people in rural Africa want to use the internet? How would they use it and benefit from it? Will internet influence culture and how can communities prepare themselves when the

  17. ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS – PART OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisie Marian TURCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to highlight the niche forms of tourism (active tourism and ecotourism, showing similarities and differences between them. However it argues the need to introduce the occupation of rural tourism entertainer, showing the main tasks incumbent upon it to organize leisure tourists. The research was conducted by studying the latest articles in the field and by consulting specific websites.

  18. Estado nutricional e fatores associados em escolares domiciliados na área rural e urbana Nutritional status and associated factors in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Verificar o estado nutricional de escolares domiciliados nas áreas urbana e rural da Região Sul do Brasil e analisar sua associação com fatores demográficos e nível de atividade física. Métodos Participaram do estudo 1.415 escolares (720 rapazes e 695 moças, sendo 878 da área urbana e 537 da área rural. Foram pesquisadas informações demográficas (sexo, idade, área de domicílio, antropométricas (massa corporal, estatura e do nível de atividade física. O estado nutricional - desnutrição e excesso de peso - foi determinado pelo índice de massa corporal a partir dos critérios propostos pela International Obesity Task Force. O nível de atividade física foi classificado em duas categorias: mais ativo ou menos ativo. Resultados A prevalência de desnutrição foi de 11,4% (IC95%=9,85-13,16 e excesso de peso de 11,2% (IC95%=9,66-12,95. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi superior nos escolares domiciliados na área urbana (14,0%; IC95%=12,29-15,91 em relação aos da área rural (6,7%; IC95%=5,51-8,12. Foi verificado, nos rapazes, que os menos ativos fisicamente (OR=1,74; IC95%=1,03-2,94 apresentaram chance maior de ter desnutrição. Além disso, os adolescentes da área urbana (OR=3,40; IC95%=1,88-6,17 e os menos ativos fisicamente (OR=1,88; IC95%=1,07-3,33 apresentaram maiores chances de excesso de peso. As moças de 10 a 13 anos apresentaram maior chance de desnutrição (OR=1,95; IC95%=1,17-3,24 e aquelas residentes na área urbana (OR=1,75; IC95%=1,03-2,99, mais chance de excesso de peso. Conclusão A prevalência de desnutrição encontrada ainda é elevada em escolares. O excesso de peso assemelha-se ao que tem sido observado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Rapazes com baixo nível de atividade física e moças de 10 a 13 anos apresentam maior exposição à desnutrição. Moças e rapazes domiciliados na área urbana e rapazes com baixo nível de atividade física apresentam maior exposição aos riscos

  19. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  20. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are familiar to the modern methods and approaches of teaching and lack of materials for teaching in the classroom. Primary level English curriculum implementation is essential in Bangladesh to achieve the set English language competency in the rural areas. Students in the rural areas are performing poorly in English compared to their urban counterparts. Statistics showed that there was a gulf of difference between the facilities enjoyed by rural schools and urban schools. The study explores the challenges of teaching English language in rural areas in context of Bangladesh. This study investigated the factors affecting student’s performance in English language in rural areas. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observation and questionnaire. Result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for future expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement and employment prospects. It also provide a scenario of English teaching system in rural areas of Bangladesh as well as the problems and prospects of English language in perspective of Bangladesh.Keywords: English language, rural areas, education, learning and teaching, competency

  1. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  2. Research on Rural Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Process of Urban-Rural Integration in the Economically-Developed Area in China Based on the Improved STIRPAT Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjun Dai; Tao Sun; Kun Zhang; Wen Guo

    2015-01-01

    The process of urban-rural integration has led to severe ecological environmental pollution in rural areas of China, particularly in the economically-developed areas. This is an urgent issue to be solved. We select Jiangsu Province as a case study. From the perspective of the population, economic scale, energy consumption and financial support, we perform an empirical study of rural non-point source pollution problems in the process of urbanization based on the improved STIRPAT model. We appl...

  3. Difficulties and Countermeasures of Rural Human Resources Development in Minority Areas - A Case Study of Xinjiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the development status of human resources in rural Xinjiang of China, analyze its obstacles and difficulties, and finally put forward related countermeasures for the rural human resources development in minority areas.

  4. A Synthesis: Industrialization of Rural Areas - Location and Growth of Manufacturing Firms in Sub-Metropolitan Areas. Rural Development Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

    Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in rural areas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employment…

  5. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Rural Area: A Correlational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Karadağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between mathematics anxiety and attitude of children who are educated in rural areas were analyzed in this research. Research was premeditated as a correlational design because it was presumed that there was correlation between two main variables. The population of the study was consisted of secondary school students who were educated in a region called rural areas in the central district of Meram/Konya in the school year of 2012-2013. 726 students who were educated in five secondary schools comprised of research sample which was designated as stratified sampling method according to educational regions. Research data were collected by the Mathematics Anxiety Scale, and Mathematics Attitude Scale. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine data. Findings show that correlation between anxiety and attitude of secondary school students from rural area is in negative direction.Key Words:    Rural education, mathematics attitude, mathematics anxiety

  6. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan Prathiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.

  7. Agriculture Environment Influence on Urban and Rural Areas Teachers Balanced Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available External agricultural environment is playing an important role in the balanced development of urban and rural teachers, including comprehensive effects of multiple factors, such agricultural environment, agricultural policy, agricultural system, etc. We have conducted a random questionnaire survey on urban and rural compulsory teachers in Chongqing City, issued 2400 questionnaires and received 1700 effective questionnaires. We employed SPSS statistical software to analyze the influence of external agricultural environment on dualized social security system, training system, personnel system reform and management system, etc, investigate the cause of an unbalanced allocation of urban and rural teachers from the perspective of external agricultural environment. Establish dualized social security system form the external agricultural environment, in order to solve the problem of the balanced development of urban and rural teachers and guarantee a balanced development of school education in urban and rural areas.

  8. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  9. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  10. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jing; Deng, Liang-ji

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production, poultry farming, rural life and township enterprises, the difference, features, and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province, China. Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding, flowed by crop planting, rural life, and township ent...

  11. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  12. Child labor and school decisions in urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire

    2002-01-01

    "Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, and labor market opportunities play equal or even greater roles in the decision to have children work. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence ...

  13. Modelling of Tree Scattering in Rural Residential Areas at 3.5 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Catalan Ruiz, Ferran

    2011-01-01

    During the last 10 years, the interest to have an internet connection at home has grown up. In urban areas with a high density of population has installed the optical ber, which provides internet acces to the users. Otherwise, the rural areas, with a low density of population, the optical ber is not implemented, so it's proposed Broadband Wireless access (BWA). The rural areas have high density of vegetation, not like the urban ones. So in the prediction for urban areas is not usual to includ...

  14. An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Daniel Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementation b...

  15. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  16. Perfluorinated compounds in soil, surface water, and groundwater from rural areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Jiao, Xing-Chun; Gai, Nan; Li, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Guo-Hui; Piao, Hai-Tao; Rao, Zhu; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Little research on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been conducted in rural areas, although rural PFC sources are less complicated than in urban and industrial areas. To determine the levels and geographical distribution of 17 PFC compounds, samples of soil, surface water, and groundwater were collected from eight rural areas in eastern China. The total PFC concentrations (∑PFCs) in soils ranged from 0.34 to 65.8 ng/g ∑PFCs in surface waters ranged from 7.0 to 489 ng/L and ∑PFCs in groundwater ranged from 5.3 to 615 ng/L. Ratios of perfluorononanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFNA/PFOA), perfluoro-n-butyric acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA/PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFHpA/PFOA) in rainwater increased due to the fluorine chemical plants in the surrounding rural and urban areas, suggesting that atmospheric precipitation may carry PFCs and their precursors from the fluorochemical industrial area to the adjacent rural areas. PMID:26745397

  17. Delivering Job Search Services for Unemployed People in Rural Areas: the Role of ICT

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald William; Lindsay, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The geographical remoteness of many rural communities from major centres of economic activity clearly affects the availability of public services, which tend to be concentrated in highly populated areas of industrial development. The potential benefits accruing from the use of remote, ICT-based services are therefore particularly apparent in more isolated rural communities, which are often characterised by weak physical service infrastructures. As a result, policy makers are increasingly turn...

  18. Quality of life in urban-classified and rural-classified English local authority areas

    OpenAIRE

    Josep M. Campanera; Paul Higgins

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Audit Commission’s local quality-of-life indicators dataset to compare reported outcomes amongst 208 urban-classified and 144 rural-classified English local authority areas. We contextualise the demarcation of the urban and rural by reference to the transformational politics of the previous Labour government and its establishment of the sustainable communities initiative, whose controversial ‘place-based’ revitalisation essence continues t...

  19. The Contribution of Organic Livestock to Sustainable Rural Development in Sensitive Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, AJ; Gaspar, P.; Mesias, FJ; Escribano, M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic production may contribute positively to rural development. However, there is a gap of knowledge with regard to the livestock sector that the present work is aimed at filling by means of a multidisciplinary and participatory approach. The results suggest that ‘fully organic’ holdings (organic farms that sell products as organic) have the highest potential to contribute to the rural development in the area under study. Nevertheless, its implementation requires higher levels of education...

  20. Towards an interpretation of economic inequality in rural areas: a conceptual and empirical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Perugini; Gaetano Martino

    2007-01-01

    Towards an Interpretation of Economic Inequality in Rural Areas: a Conceptual and Empirical Approach (by Gaetano Martino and Cristiano Perugini) - ABSTRACT: Department of Economic Sciences and Rural Appraisal, University of Perugia 1 Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, University of Perugia 2 (Paper first received, April 2005; in final form, April 2006) Abstract Economic inequality among European regions has been widely investigated, and a large number of empirical results have e...

  1. The devil is in the detail: Prevention of diabetic foot ulceration in rural area is possible

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Mou Lee; Chang-Cheng Chang; Chien-Ming Chen; Li-Ju Lai; Chyong-Fang Chang; Mei-Yen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Foot self-care capability is an important factor in diabetic foot ulceration, especially in disadvantaged rural areas. Aim: To explore the causes of foot ulceration and practice foot self-care behaviors before and after diabetic foot ulceration. Method: A descriptive, retrospective design was conducted in a rural hospital in southern Taiwan. Results: A total of 49 participants with diabetic foot ulcers participated in this study. More than half were male (63.3%), still working in...

  2. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    KLEMENTSCHITZ, Roman; Oliver ROIDER

    2015-01-01

    The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement...

  3. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  4. Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review

    OpenAIRE

    Mbemba, Gisèle; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Paré, Guy; Côté, José

    2013-01-01

    Context Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Purpose This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. Methods We conducted an overview of systemati...

  5. Prevalence of Obesity among College Students in Rural Area of Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay T Varadappa, Prashanth Kumar S Prakash, Gangaboraiah, Ramesh Masthi N Raju, Lakshmeesha Y Subbanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing trend of obesity among adolescents is a worldwide phenomenon. There is a scarcity of research on obesity in the later part of adolescence from rural part of India. Objective: To find out the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among college students studying 11th& 12th standard between 15 – 19 years of age. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken by involving all the colleges located within the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Inst...

  6. Quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L, as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. Results. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012, the life of those with family members (p = 0.009, and health status (p = 0.000, in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040, predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720. For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. Conclusion. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  7. Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Golmohamadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

  8. Delayed treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural areas of Yogyakarta province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendradhata Yodi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In year 2000, the entire population in Indonesia was 201 million and 57.6 percent of that was living in rural areas. This paper reports analyses that address to what extent the rural structure influence the way TB patients seek care prior to diagnosis by a DOTS facility. Methods We documented healthcare utilization pattern of smear positive TB patients prior to diagnosis and treatment by DOTS services (health centre, chest clinic, public and private hospital in Yogyakarta province. We calculated the delay in treatment as the number of weeks between the onset of symptoms and the start of DOTS treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out with Epi Info version 3.3 (October 5, 2004. Results The only factor which was significantly associated with total delay was urban-rural setting (p = st Quartile = 4; 3rd Quartile = 12 weeks compared to 12 (1st Quartile = 7; 3rd Quartile = 23 weeks for patients in rural districts. Multivariate analysis suggested no confounding between individual factors and urban-rural setting remained as the main factor for total delay (p = Conclusion Improving access to DOTS services in rural areas is an area of vital importance in aiming to make progress toward achieving TB control targets in Indonesia.

  9. TOURISM – IN SUPPORT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT. A CASE STUDY ON TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS IN RURAL AREA (BUTEA, IAȘI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Maria BORDEIANU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a result of a research conducted in a rural area from North-Eastern part of Romania, analyzing the training need in tourism and the level of education of the working population. The goal of the study is to obtain conclusive information as to establish concrete solutions and priorities regarding the diversification and employment reviving in rural areas in the following years (with an orientation in the field of tourism and services. The key aspect is to improve the quality of human resources in rural areas in order to facilitate the access to employment in non-agricultural activities, as an alternative. Along with other measures supported and promoted by the local government, this initiative will help to prevent depopulation of rural areas in the short to medium term. Moreover, the ingredients for a sustainable rural development are the tourism potential proper exploitation and the human resources skills development.

  10. DIFFERENTIATION IN THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF RURAL AREAS ACROSS THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Hadyński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research undertaken in the article concerns the regional diversification of rural areas at NUTS 2 level in the European Union in the context of quality of life measures and the evolution of territorial development. A modified HDI index was used to allow for the determination of the regional synthetic indicator of the quality of life. Thus, a huge gap between the most developed and underdeveloped areas was shown. The results indicate a real need for a variety of instruments to support rural areas in the EU.

  11. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  12. Integrated development – essential condition for modernisation of rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Słodowa-Hełpa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The inspiration to take up the issue of integrated development in the context of the modernization of the village was, on the one hand, the conviction of the urgent need of stimulation, on the other hand, there was a concern that it should not be identified entirely with the integrated management system. Although the idea of integrated development is no longer a novelty, but it still remains a declaration and not translated into effective mechanisms for the functioning of local communities. The need to popularise it further does not require an extensive justification. The essence of the modernisation of rural background, characteristics of the integrated management of development, its place in the future EU policy 2014-2020 and in the new system of integrated planning in Poland, will be presented: rural location in the system of integrated management development, declared in selected strategic documents, the role of smart specialization of regions, the Opolskie voivodeship good practice to stimulate development, recommendations for further actions conducive to integrated development, including modernization of the countryside.

  13. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahasti Alizadeh; Hossein Jabbari Birami; Siavash Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH) indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscop...

  14. Contemporary problems in Japan's rural areas and opportunities s for developing rural tourism : a case of Yamashiro district in Yamaguchi prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Ni Made Sofia

    2013-01-01

    At present there are significant challenges in developing tourism in rural areas related to degradation problems. The challenging are common problems such as decline in the economic infrastructure, aging society and depopulation. Despite this, there are hopes for the potential of Yamashiro District, which faces similar problems in developing rural tourism. Rural tourism was first positioned as an important measure to realize positive changes in depopulated farm villages with the initiative of...

  15. Peasants in cyberspace: ethnography of the peruvian digital inclusion program for rural areas Camponeses no cyberespaço: etnografia do programa peruano de inclusão digital para a área rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlo Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the result of a field research made, in the mountaineer Lima region, with the objective to analyse a program of the digital inclusion that the peruvian State is introduce in the rural areas. The present ethnographic report show users brief profiles of these rural telecenters, above considerate the trajectory of the technicians that responsible for their administrations. Moreover, this article presents too the technological and financial infra-structure of this pilot experience, established at Huaral e Aucallama, whose model intend to be expanded to others three thousands rural locations. After the exposition of this ethnography and the steps taken to get the contacts and interviews, this article concludes show some perspectives and possibilities of further research. Keywords: Inclusion Digital. Peru. Telecenter. Contryman. Rural. Internet. Este artigo apresenta o resultado de uma pesquisa de campo realizada, na região serrana de Lima, com o objetivo de analisar o programa de inclusão digital que o Estado peruano vem implantando nas áreas rurais. O presente relato etnográfico apresenta então um breve perfil dos usuários desses telecentros rurais, além de considerar a trajetória dos técnicos que respondem por sua administração. Além disso, esse artigo apresenta também a infra-estrutura tecnológica e financeira de sustentação dessa experiência piloto, implantada em Huaral e Aucallama, cujo modelo pretende ser reproduzido em outras três mil localidades rurais. Após a exposição dessa etnografia e do caminho realizado para obtenção das entrevistas e dos contatos, este artigo conclui apresentando algumas perspectivas e possibilidades futuras de pesquisa. Palavras-chave: Inclusão digital. Peru. Telecentros. Camponeses. Rural. Internet.

  16. A Study on the Factors Influencing the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Areas Based on State-space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly widening income gap between urban and rural areas is affected by many factors. Using the stepwise regression analysis,we find that urbanization level,socio-economic development,education level,financial development scale and financial development efficiency have the greatest impact on the income gap between urban and rural areas. By cointegration test,it is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between these five variables and the income gap between urban and rural areas. We build the state-space model to research the dynamic impact of these factors on the income gap between urban and rural areas. The results show that by improving the level of urbanization,we can effectively narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas,while socio-economic development,the improvement of education level,expansion of financial development scale and financial development efficiency all significantly expand the income gap between urban and rural areas.

  17. The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Movahedi; Hadi Fathi; Somaye Latifi

    2012-01-01

    Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainable development in every region or country. However, the rural economy in Iran is too much depending on agriculture and development of other rural economy in particular nonfarm activities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role of non-farm business on rural sustainable development in Sanandaj Township. This study was a type of surveying research and employed both questionna...

  18. Human Capital of Family and Social Mobility in Rural Areas-Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-hua; YU Mei-lian; WU Fang-wei; CHEN Wei

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the impact of family’s human capital on social mobility in China’s rural community. Empirical research is conducted based on data from surveying a typical rural community in the past 20 yr. The study indicates that social mobility in rural area is active in the past 20 yr, and the human capital of family, represented by primary labor’s education level, has played an essential role in mobility of low social class. Meanwhile, socio-economic development and the change of supply and demand in labor market dims the signaling role of degree education, but the impact of occupational training is increasingly remarkable. Therefore, the change from sole degree education to multi-leveled education including occupational education and training is a main way for China’s rural families in low class to realize social mobility.

  19. Community Based Assessment of Biochemical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural and Tribal Area of Himalayan Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj; Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar Raina; Pradeep Bansal; Satya Bhushan; Vishav Chander

    2013-01-01

    Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and rural areas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis....

  20. The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant. Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic. Socio – economic profile of the respondents indicated that 37.69% of rural farming households falls between the age bracket of 47 to 51 years and majority (60.0% having educational qualification below secondary school level. The study also reveals 76% had no extension contact during the farming season and 78.6% of respondents are not aware of the phenomenon of climate change. The study noticed an increasing change in the climate change indicators except longer raining season that is decreasing in the Area. The perception to the cause of climate indicators was mostly attributed to natural occurrence by God/gods (67.7%. Awareness campaign on climate change is recommended in the rural areas for climate change information.

  1. Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-07-01

    Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

  2. Research on the Identity Construction of the Disabled Elderly in Rural Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The identity construction is a very important aspect among the problems of the disabled elderly in rural areas of China. Based on the method of case study and theoretical analysis, this research studies the contents and the process of the identity construction of the disabled elderly in rural areas. It suggests that the identity consists of three elements: personal identity, group identity and social identity, and the characteristics of which include the “high recognition on the disability”, the “core construction of the disability”, the “daily expenses orientation” and the “de-certification of the identity construction”. The mechanism of the construction is supported by three different system types: the basic system, the consolidation system and the maintenance system. The results of the construction demonstrate the features of the identity of “triple-weakness” and “muddling along” of the disabled elderly in rural areas.

  3. Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.

  4. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  5. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  6. Innovation of Adult Education Supply in Rural Areas from the Aspect of Rural Public Goods——A Case Study of Quzhou City,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Status of rural adult education in Quzhou City is analyzed from three aspects of supply main body,supply method and fund source.Problems in the rural adult education in Quzhou City are pointed out.Firstly,the top-down supply decision model can not fully meet the needs of farmers.Secondly,education resources can not be best allocated.Thirdly,both rural labor force market and employment service are not perfect.In order to promote the development of rural adult education,the education supply mode of rural adults should be established,which is "supplied by the government,coordinated by the government,participated by the society,operated according to market mechanisms".This needs to set up the leading position of government,to establish the pattern of diversified main bodies of adult education supply in rural areas,and to construct the market operation mechanism driven by interests.

  7. History and development of land lease operations in Latvian rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Svarinska, Anastasija

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important economic sectors, it is also the largest exploiter of rural land, so lease of the used agricultural areas is essential for farmers willing to expand production and develop farming. Consequently land lease is the most common type of lease in Latvian rural areas, since the purchase of a land plot or production buildings is sometimes not only fi­nancially impossible, but also unnecessary or unprofi­table. Thus the article studies the history of land lease...

  8. Analysis and Countermeasures on Effective Land Use of Rural Residential Area in Jinan,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2006-01-01

    With the improvement of urbanization and the expansion of urban size, the cultivated land decreases gradually but the demand for urban land increases, thereby resulting in the conflict of land use. Analyzing the status quo of land use of rural residential area, this paper points out that two main problems, namely, the low degree of land use, and the waste of land resources that are prevalent in the rural residential area. Based on the above analysis,the author states that the emphasis on land use will be the plain regions in the future, and adoption of reasonable economic measures will be the new solution to the problems.

  9. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

  10. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  11. Health Status of Elderly in A Rural Area of North East Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Ghosh, Arun Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health status of elderly people is neglected in different parts of the Country. This study will reflect the condition of health status of elderly people of rural areas of remote hilly state like Tripura. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study of elderly people having the age 60 years. The study was carried out among the elderly people of a Bridya Ashram, named “Sandhyanir” at Gandhigram Village in a rural area of West Tripura district, 10 km from Agartala Cit...

  12. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim; M. Baiquni; S. Ritohardoyo; Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1) examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2) describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey tech...

  13. A comparative study on the extracurricularreading environment of urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao; DENG; Haiyan; YAO; Shubei; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: So far, there have been few studies that discussed children’s reading environment in China’s poverty-stricken areas, this study aims to explore differences existed in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area with empirical evidence.Design/methodology/approach: Using a questionnaire survey, empirical data was collected from 105 participants. Then proposed hypotheses and the reliability of the observation variables were respectively examined with ANOVA and factor analysis. The statistical analysis software SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data.Findings: Our results showed that 1) differences did exist in school and social reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area; 2) differences in family reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area were not obviously observed.Research limitations: The empirical data were collected from only one county of Chongqing Reservoir Area, which may have partially affected the generalization of our conclusions. In addition, the response rate of questionnaires was comparatively low due to a relatively limited research period. Practical implications: This study would provide some reference for governments, libraries, schools and families to consider how to jointly narrow the gap in the extracurricular reading circumstance between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area.Originality value: This is one of the first studies to explore similarities and differences in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chinese povertystricken areas, which will help research communities to gain a deeper understanding of children’s reading environment in Chinese Reservoir Area.

  14. Alcohol consumption in a rural area of Cantabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Castanedo, S; Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Gaite, L; Diez Manrique, J F; Peña, C; Garcia Usieto, E

    1996-06-01

    A two-stage cross-sectional survey was performed in a representative rural sample of the autonomous community of Cantabria, to investigate the social, medical and psychopathological factors associated with alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption was investigated by means of a specific questionnaire. Mental and physical health was evaluated in the first-stage sample using: (1) the General Health Questionnaire, (2) the Cornell Medical Index. In the second stage all members of the sample were interviewed at home using the 140-item version of the Present State Examination (PSE-9). We found that 25.4% of males and 0.6% of females were consuming more than 63 alcohol units per week. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with different social variables. Although it was possible to detect an increase in weekend drinking, especially in the heavy alcohol users, daily alcohol consumption, mainly around meals, was the predominant drinking pattern. We also found a significant inverse association between excessive alcohol consumption and the presence of physical or mental illness. Excessive alcohol use tended to be associated in males with depression and in females, with anxiety. PMID:8766467

  15. Unsafe CSOM still a challenge in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginni Datta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of complications in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department Otorhinolaryngology MMIMSR over the time duration of one year from March 2011 to April 2012. Fifty consecutive patients were selected whose clinical diagnosis was CSOM Attico-antral type.Conclusion: The rate of complications, especially more serious intracranial complications ,observed in developing countries is significantly more than those observed in studies from the developed countries. (12. In our study the frequency of extracranial complications excluding ossicular erosion is 22% and the frequency of intracranial complications is 4%. It was observed by Memon et al (13 in 2008 that in a series of 390 patients of chronic discharging ears that the rate of extracranial complications was 4.10% and rate of intracranial complications was 2.3%of the unsafe variety . The high frequency in our study may be explained by the fact that we are sitting in a rural background with very poor socio-economic background patients. Osama U et al (14 from Turkey reveals the rate of 1.35% of extracranial complications and 1.97% of intracranial complications in his study.

  16. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this

  17. Analysis on the Changes of Temperature and Heat Resources in Rural Area of Chaoyang in Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the change characteristics of temperature and heat resources in rural area of Chaoyang in western Liaoning. [Method] Based on the data from rural meteorological station in Chaoyang in western Liaoning from 1966 to 2010, the change characteristics of temperature and heat resources in rural area in Chaoyang were analyzed by means of serial correlation and climate tendency method, so as to master its climate situation. [Result] The annual average value of daily average temperat...

  18. Neurological disorders and barriers for neurological rehabilitation in rural areas in Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirdesh Kumar; Nalina Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Background: In India, the majority of individuals with neurological disorders are rural based and cannot even afford the cost of rehabilitation. At the same time, we do not have barrier free environment in India. Aim: This study attempts to find out the neurological disorders and barriers for neurological rehabilitation in rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India. Setting: Rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India. Design: It is a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was done by means...

  19. Structural changes in the rural planting areas of Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibinović Mikica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Belgrade region significantly affects the direction of the change of planting areas use. The increase in urban areas has adversely affected the direction of agricultural land use. Dynamics of change is significantly due to high production costs (high land prices and expensive labor force gives rise to the high price of the product on the market, there is a constant "pressure" of urban areas to arable land, increasing the risk of "loss" of agricultural holdings; increased environmental pollution due to the concentration of industrial plants or road construction. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of structural changes in sowing area in the period from 1991 to 2011. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  20. Establishment and Management of Community Sanitary Complexes in Rural Areas : A Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Ministry of Rural Development; World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Indian remains one of the countries wherein a lot of efforts are still required to eliminate the practice of open defecation. In rural areas, open defecation though reduced in scale continues to be a socially and culturally accepted traditional behavior largely. Low awareness of the potential health and economic benefits of better sanitation and hygiene practices, perception of high costs ...

  1. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  2. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  3. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline rel

  4. Air quality in urban, industrialized and rural french areas in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality measurements in urban, industrial and rural areas in 1991 have shown different trends. It turned out that lead and carbon monoxide concentrations have recently decreased. The concentrations of black smoke and sulphur dioxide have however remained constant since 1988, whereas nitrogen oxide and ozone have decreased in most sites. (TEC). 23 figs., 34 tabs., 40 refs

  5. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATIONS IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.

  6. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Phalke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

  8. Atmospheric heavy metal input to forest soils in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M F; Kemp, Kaare

    Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metals (HM) was measured from 1972/73 to the present time at five to ten forest sites in rural areas of Denmark. From 1979, HM in aerosols were measured at one to four forest sites. On the basis of these long-term continuous measurements, the atmospheric inputs...

  9. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  10. Transportation Services in Rural Areas. January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 137 entries of English-language materials available from the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA database. Each of the bibliography's 137 entries pertains to some aspect of transportation services in rural areas. Each entry, including books, reports, studies, and so forth, offers bibliographical information…

  11. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  12. Phlebotomine fauna in a rural area of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga-Miranda Lourdislene Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify among the phlebotomine fauna potential leishmaniasis vectors. The study was carried out in Corumbá county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mid-West Brazil (18º59'S, 56º39'W. Sand fly captures were undertaken fortnightly with automatic light traps at 11 sites in forested environments and anthropic areas from April 2001 to July 2003. A total of only 41 specimens were captured. Thirty-one percent of the specimens were captured in forests and 68.3% in anthropic areas. The predominance of non-anthropophilic groups and the low density of N. whitmani, a known cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, does not seem to indicate any actual risk of the transmission of this disease in the study area.

  13. Zoning Rural Area For The Development Of Annual Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One strategy to protect land from degradation is to use the land according to their capability. Zoning of commodities is an effort in that direction and determination of commodities is based on the suitability of land with agronomic needs of crops and farming feasibility analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the development zone of annual crops, based on the analysis of agro-ecological characteristics and agricultural viability. Analysis of land suitability for the cultivation of coffee, vanilla, pepper, cocoa, banana, durian, mango, and melinjo, found that land can be recommended for the development of the annual crops is about 29,230 ha from an area of 54,764 ha. The land was divided into six agro-ecological zones i.e. two zones at area with land slope of 3- 8%, each covering an area of 2,737 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m above sea level (asl, and 12,008 ha at an altitude of 50-300 m asl, the two zone at area with land slope of 8-15%, each covering 6119 ha at an altitude of 25-250 m asl and 1,221 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m asl, and two zones at area with land slope of 16-40% , each covering an area of 1,101 ha at an altitude of 400-700 m asl, and 6,134 ha at an altitude of 400-500 m asl. The soil types found are Typic /Vitrandic Eutrudepts, Typic Hapludands, and Vitrandic Hapludalfs. This study recommends that the banana is a perennial plant with the most potential to be developed and has good economic prospects in almost all agro-ecological zones. Other commodities are also preferred, coffee and vanilla.

  14. Preventive Countermeasures for "Immiserizing Growth in Expanding Economies" in China’s Rural Areas in the New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining the concept of "immiserizing growth in expanding economies",through analysing the status quo of economy in China’s rural areas in the new era,this paper aims to find out the factors responsible for economic weakness of China’s rural residents.It analyses the impact of market consuming economy on growth economy,and points out the phenomenon of "immiserizing growth in expanding economies" which may be triggered by China’s rapid rural economic growth as follows:first,the income disparity between urban and rural residents increases ceaselessly,the commodity prices continuously soar,and the rural residents’ market consuming capacity is short;second,the wealth concentrates highly and the majority of farmers’ income is low.Thus we put forward the countermeasures and proposals for preventing "immiserizing growth in expanding economies" in rural areas as follows:we should reform household registration system so that the rural residents have the right to migrate freely,and farmers’ status is promoted;we should coordinate urban-rural development,strengthen agriculture and rural infrastructure building and achieve impartial allocation of public resources;we should carry out redistribution on income scientifically and effectively,consolidate rural social security system,bridge urban-rural income gap,transform the comparative advantage into competitive advantage,so as to circumvent "immiserizing growth in expanding economies".

  15. Sociocultural Differences Among Three Areas in Kentucky as Determinants of Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Rural Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Donald Wayne

    In an effort to determine whether there are differences in areas of residence that affect the aspirations and expectations of young people living therein, this study examined occupational and educational aspirations of 1,835 rural high school seniors from 3 sociocultural contexts in Kentucky: (1) a low-opportunity, rural-poverty area in central…

  16. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  17. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  18. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  19. SANITATION PREVAILING IN WEAKER SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY LIVING IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thokala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hither i t o , majority of health problems are related to the poor sanitary conditions prevailing in the premises of households major parts of which are in the rural areas in India. RESEARCH QUESTION : what is the sanitary condition and its impact on the health of weaker sections of the society living in rural area of the Krishna District? OBJECTIVES: 1. To know the sanitary condition prevailing in weaker sections of the society in rural area of Krishna Distrct. 2. To identify the impact of poor sanitation on the health of the study group . STUDY DESIGN: C ross sectional study. SETTING: Rural area of Krishna District , Andhara Pradesh. PARTICIPANTS : People belong to BPL (Below Poverty Line residing in rural area of Krishna district. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P roportions , percentages and chi - square test. RESULTS: In this study group access to safe water source was observed to be 86.18% and access to improved sanitation is 27.21%. About 50% of the study people are practicing open field defection; about 37% of households treat the water at domestic level. Our study findings related to hand washing practices with reference to after defection , before eating and before preparing food are 43% , 41% and 28% respectively. The current study has relived overcrowding (69% , lack of adequacy of ventilation(73% , lake of adequacy of lightening (75.45% lack of adequacy of water supply(57.58% , absence of separate kitchen(86% , no sewage drains (47%. In this study about 54% adults and 57% of children are found to be suffering from malnutrition , 25% have history of diarrhoea , 46.21% fever and 31.82% passing worms in stools. And significantly 46.97% of study subjects suffering from Anaemia.

  20. Fall-out of pollutants from distant industrial areas in a rural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Louvain-la-Neuve, a semi-rural area, one frequently observes the fall-out of sulphur dioxide attributable to various industrial areas within Belgium. Two techniques are employed for finding the sources: meteorological studies of the trajectories of the polluted air masses; elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the time of dioxide fall-out. With the latter technique it is possible to characterize the emitting industries and thus to determine the origin of the detected sulphur dioxide. (author)

  1. Bio energies: a new boost for rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornell, P.K.

    1993-12-31

    Renewable energies will ensure for the next century a stable, sure supply of energy and will be as respectful of the environment as possible. The EC shows the way of a possible development. In Germany and especially in Bavaria the conditions are favorable for renewable energy channels. The paper explains the bavarian situation. In this area, the use of bio-energies is encouraged by the local authorities. (TEC). 1 fig.

  2. Passenger transport in rural and sparsely populated areas in France

    OpenAIRE

    Saroli, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Improving mobility is a major issue in sparsely populated areas. The low population density in these localities often means that longer journeys are required to access services, carry out everyday activities or maintain social links. Whole sections of the population - in particular older people, young people, stay-at-home parents in single-car households, and seasonal workers - are effectively handicapped in mobility terms by inadequate public transport provision and an overdependence on peop...

  3. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  4. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  5. Evaluation of Nickel in Paints Scrapings Obtained from Selected Rural Areas in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obidi Olayide Folashade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and concentrations of nickel in painted walls of selected rural residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria with a view to determine the health risk of the occupants. Microorganisms isolated were Bacillus subtilis, B. brevis, B. megaterium, B. circulans and Enterobacter gergoviae with population density ranging from 1.0 - 2.1 and 0.5 -1.9 x 105 cfu/g in the outdoor and indoor samples respectively. Nickel concentration was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Here we reported the detection of nickel in all samples obtained from thirteen rural locations with concentrations ranging from 2.240 to 11.353 and from 1.241 to 13.309 mg/l in outdoor and indoor samples respectively. Nickel concentrations showed the levels were above the maximum permissible limits recommended by USEPA. The rural populace in these areas may be at risk.

  6. Assessment of Rural Migrants’Resettlement in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Chang-chun; DUAN Yue-fang; HUANG Ting-zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the rural migrants’ resettlement in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and provide a reference for formulating the later migrant support policies, we select 342 rural migrants from County A in Hubei Province and County B in Chongqing Municipality for the household survey. The survey results show that after removal, housing, and infrastructure (electricity, transportation, communication, household appliances) concerning the migrants are improved substantially, but there are still some problems in water drinking, land, employment and income restoration. The later support should put great emphasis on the following aspects: including the rural migrants into the social security system; improving drinking water and irrigation facilities; promoting industrial restructuring; strengthening skills training and education for the migrants, to gradually enrich the migrants and make them live a comfortable life.

  7. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  8. Role of tourism in development of rural marginal areas (region of Šumava Mts. in Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Polsko: Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics, 2003 - (Banski, J.; Owsinski, J.), s. 10 ISBN 83-86815-98-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : marginality * marginal area * rural areas Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  9. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  10. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  11. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  12. EMPLOYMENT DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED BY YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica PRISĂCARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of our investigation was to elucidate the problems of young people as part of the human potential ofrural areas. As a result of processing statistical data related to the evolution of the labour market in the Republic ofMoldova, there were highlighted the differences between the average indicators of the labour market in the country,both in urban and rural areas, putting a particular emphasis on young people. Also, according to the generalizationof a survey data there were found the causes that repress the desire of graduates of agricultural educationinstitutions to find jobs in rural areas. The final conclusion is that even if in the country at governmental level,certain attempts are made to attract young people to work in villages, their efficiency is still insufficient.

  13. Research on the accessibility to health and educational services in the rural areas in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Masot Ana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the competent laws on Health and Education of the Extremaduran Government read, all the Extremaduran people have the right to their benefits, irrespective of their social, economic and cultural characteristics. Nevertheless, in the Region of Extremadura there are still differences between the rural and urban areas, so, studying how the Extremaduran people can access, with the same conditions, to those services considered basic, such as health and education, is very significant. Using techniques as Network Analyst and the interpolation method IDW, we can note that in Extremadura there are still zones with a very-far- from- laws reality, rural areas with a difficult access to the named services and equipment due to the location on low developed in population and economy areas, and very far from the main communication roads

  14. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  15. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  16. Stated preferences of doctors for choosing a job in rural areas of Peru: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doctors' scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors' stated preferences for rural jobs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho's capital and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54. Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden.

  17. How many general surgeons do you need in rural areas? Three approaches to physician resource planning in southern Manitoba.

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, N.; Black, C.; Wade, J.; DECKER, K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess critically the results of using three different approaches to planning for the number of general surgeons in rural areas. DESIGN: Estimates of the number of general surgeons needed using a ratio approach, a and a population-needs-based approach. SETTING: Rural southern Manitoba. OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of general surgeons needed. RESULTS: The ratio approach supported the recruitment of 7.8 to 14.5 additional general surgeons to rural southern Manitoba. The repatriation ap...

  18. Recording of building development patterns in rural areas: Case of Podravska region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuša Voda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural areas of today involve a range of different activities. On the one hand, this is perceived as changes that are reflected in the frequent abandonment of utilised agricultural areas or in the changed land use, and, on the other hand, in the continuous transformation of the image of our villages, and the artistic and aesthetic transformation of the built form (Fikfak, 2008. We can see that the connection between the house in the countryside, and the land on which it stands, has been devalued in the last decades in terms of the quality of living and functional connections inside the building and with exterior areas. The primary objective of the research was the recording of the existing patterns of development in selected rural settlements and to find the connection between the residential buildings and appertaining land, and, furthermore, the connection with adjacent structures and land. The research into development patterns in the Slovenian countryside was performed through the application on a case study, i.e. on three rural settlements of the Podravska Region (the region along the Drava River. The research methodology was based on a systematic elaboration of presentations from the geographic information system (GIS, surveying groundwork, field observations and photography of incidence of three different types of building (a traditional rural house, a standard detached house design and a contemporary rural house. The existing development patterns in the settlements were recorded and the relationships between the respective land plots and residential buildings, and the adjacent land and residential buildings, were described.

  19. Nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly in France in urban and rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J Torres

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.

  20. Understanding physicians' decisions to practice in rural areas as a basis for developing recruitment and retention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, D L; Williams, S D; Li, L B

    1994-01-01

    The shortage of providers in rural areas is threatening the quality and availability of health care in many communities. The causes of the provider shortage are many and varied-from economic to social to personal. Government programs have addressed the issue of provider supply by offering scholarships and loan repayment programs for medical students who then must fulfil service obligations in underserved settings, among which are rural areas. Experience has shown that once providers complete their obligations under these grant programs, retention of providers in rural areas becomes an even more critical issue. Using focus group research, this study explores the practice setting choices of a group of physicians currently practicing in rural areas. The discussion reveals that personal values are one of the primary motivators for choosing to practice in rural settings while lack of availability of career opportunities for spouses and educational opportunities for children are major obstacles. The health care system poses barriers to success for providers in rural settings. The key rewards from rural practice are the ability to become integrated into the local community and the provider/patient relationships that develop in such settings. These findings are used as the basis for proposing recruitment and retention strategies for providers to improve access to medical care by patients in rural areas. PMID:10165487

  1. Diarrhoeal disease outbreak in a rural area of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana R Hiremath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute diarrhoea is the passage of 3 or more loose or watery stools in the past 24 hours with or without dehydration. Owing to WASH strategy (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene the burden of diarrheal diseases has seen a tremendous decline over the past 2 decades. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Objectives: 1. To document the factors responsible for the outbreak. 2. To provide recommendations for prevention and control of such outbreaks in future. Methods: After receiving verbal information from district office regarding outbreak of diarrhoeal disease (cholera in a town of Bijapur district, we independently conducted a cross sectional study in the affected area and collected information regarding no. of people affected since the outbreak, their age and sex distribution. A total of 3802 people were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire on 28th and 29th July, 2012. We also conducted environmental investigation regarding the source of contamination and collected 2 water samples from drinking water source. Results: All the cases were clustered in the five streets, which were consuming water from contaminated two water tanks. A total of 121 cases of diarrhoea were identified affecting 3.18% of the population. Attack rate of cholera was highest (4.5% in 25-34 years age group followed by 4.22% in 15-24 years age group. Attack rates was higher among females (3.4% compared to males (2.9%. Laboratory report stated that water samples were unfit for drinking purpose. V. Cholera (Ogawa serotype was isolated from water sample. Conclusion: Consumption of contaminated water from a newly dug bore-well had led to the diarrhea outbreak. Lack of sanitation and hygiene had worsened the situation.

  2. Prevalência de morbidades e sintomas em idosos: um estudo comparativo entre zonas rural e urbana The prevalence of morbidity and symptoms among the elderly: a comparative study between rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Laste

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal, com a população idosa moradora nas zonas rural e urbana caracterizando a prevalência de morbidades e sintomas. Entrevistou-se 229 idosos, com média de idade de 72,3 anos, 57,2% residem na zona urbana, 56,3% são do sexo feminino. As morbidades mais relatadas por residentes da zona urbana foram: insônia (37,7%, ansiedade (32,1%, depressão (26,7%; e na rural, diabetes (13,3%. Nesta, a Doença de Alzheimer foi mais prevalente em idosos que utilizam agrotóxicos (21,7%. Os sintomas mais prevalentes por moradores da zona urbana foram: tosse/coriza e visão alterada (41,2%, alergia/coceira (11,4%. Na rural, boca seca (25,4%, visão alterada (35,6% e dor nas pernas (66,1% que também foram mais prevalentes em quem utilizava agrotóxicos. O uso de Equipamentos de Proteção Individual de forma incompleta foi de 85,4% e 45,1% descartam as embalagens de forma inadequada. Há a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas de saúde pública que auxiliem na promoção de saúde do idoso, e que considere a possível exposição dessa população a agrotóxicos com um determinante em saúde.A cross-sectional study was conducted with the elderly population in rural and urban areas characterized by the prevalence of morbidity and symptoms, and 229 elderly people were interviewed. The average age was 72.3, of which 57.2% lived in the rural zone and 56.3% were female. The morbidities most reported were insomnia (37.7%, anxiety (32.1%, depression (26.7%, and in the rural zone it was diabetes (13.3%. In this zone, Alzheimer´s disease was more prevalent among the elderly who handled pesticides (21.7%. The most prevalent symptoms among urban zone residents were: cough/runny nose and sight alterations (41.2%, allergy/itching (11.4%. In the rural zone, dry mouth (25.4%, sight alterations (35.6% and leg pain (66.1% were also more prevalent among those who used pesticides. The inadequate use of Individual Protection Equipment was

  3. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

  4. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned. PMID:17459569

  5. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

  6. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Area in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural area in central China is a densely populated area with a lot of agricultural population,relatively developed agriculture and relatively backward non-agriculture. Its development status affects the process of rising strategy in central region,restricts the construction of a well-off society and a harmonious society in the central region and even China. Based on this,major problems in the development of agricultural area of central China are analyzed,such as large population of farmers,great development pressure on agricultural area,serious shortage of agricultural inputs,relatively low education level,backward infrastructure in agricultural area,and relatively backward non-agricultural development. In order to accelerate the rising of central area and to promote the rapid development of central agriculture,corresponding countermeasures are put forward,including increasing the financial support for the construction of agricultural areas,vigorously setting up multi-level rural education,strengthening the infrastructure construction of agricultural areas,consolidating the construction of rural organizations,reinforcing the management function of government,and increasing the research and extension of agricultural science and technology.

  7. TOURISM AND PROTECTED AREAS: POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF THE RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIAN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru IORGA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss how tourism takes various shapes in a rural protected area from Romania (one of the typical, most vulnerable of the post-socialist period. Though tourism is advocated by Romanian officials and economists as a powerful tool, which provides economic and community development in rural, deindustrialized and protected areas, ethnographic examples presented in this paper show that ‘real tourism’, still regarded as a panacea, is far from fulfilling the locals’ needs and expectances (in terms of economic and social development in the Danube Delta. By using a political ecology perspective I will emphasize various local practices regarding tourism, demonstrating that there are several political layers of legality that do affect the perception and the tourism practice.

  8. Limits of the applicability of the social structural model in Czech rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kopriva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the voting behaviour of citizens in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Within thetheoretical embodiment of the relationships between the individual in a social structure and voting behaviour, aso-called social-structural model for voting behaviour is often mentioned. However, when explaining thebehaviour of the voting behaviour of citizens living under the conditions of the Czech Republic the applicabilityof this model is of course disputable. Due to the predominant inconsistencies of the social status of citizens ofrural areas, it is not at all possible to determine the hypothesis of the applicability of a social-structural model ofvoting behaviour for citizens living in the conditions of the Czech rural countryside. The aim of this article is,through a case study of Zatec region, to prove the predominant (inconsistency of the social status of the givenpopulation.

  9. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

  10. PREVALENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES AMONG ANGANWADI SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS OF THIRUVALLUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Chandramohan; Priyanka Mandava

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among Anganwadi school children in rural areas of Thiruvallur district. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carries out among 75, 24-72 months old children attending various Anganwadi centers in Thiruvallur district were selected. Caries experience was recorded using DMFT index & crude odds ratio has been reported and considered null hypothesis to be significant if P- Value is < 0.05 which is level...

  11. Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Rural Areas of Isfahan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kheirabadi, Gholam-Reza; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Barekatain, Majid; Casey, Patricia R.; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is defined as a major depressive episode that occurs within four weeks after delivery. However, investigators describe a dramatic increase in the incidence of mood disorders after childbirth with the largest risk during 90 days after delivery. We aimed to study the risk factors of postpartum depression in women living in rural areas of Isfahan Province in Iran. Methods: We assessed 6627 women, two to 12 months after delivery, for depression and putati...

  12. Travelling Wave Thermoacoustic Electricity Generator for Rural Areas Using a Side-branch Alternator Arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Kalid Abdoulla; Huifang Kang; Artur J. Jaworski

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates the design, construction and testing of a looped-tube travelling wave thermoacoustic electricity generator that provides low-cost electrical power for remote and rural areas of developing countries. The system is designed numerically by using a specialized design tool DeltaEC, based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. A commercially available loudspeaker is connected via a 920 mm long side-branch tube to the 5.0 m long one wavelength looped-tube thermoacoustic engine. ...

  13. Occurrence and pattern of congenital heart diseases in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tantchou Tchoumi, JC; Ambassa, JC; Butera, G; Giamberti, A; Sadeu, JC

    2011-01-01

    Summary The extent of congenital heart disease in Cameroon remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and pattern of congenital heart diseases in the Cardiac Centre of St Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital, situated in a rural area of Cameroon. Methods Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 2 123 patients with suspected cardiac pathologies were consulted at St Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital referral cardiac centre. Of these patients,...

  14. Teenage pregnancy outcomes in a rural area of South India: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrika R Doddihal; Sangappa M Katti; Mallapur, Maheshwar D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teenage pregnancy is dangerous for the mother, child and the community, and teenage girls are twice as likely to die of pregnancy and childbirth related complications as opposed to older women. Aims: (1) To know the outcomes of teenage pregnancies. (2) To study the sociodemographic profile of teenage pregnancies. Study Design: A longitudinal study. Study Setting: Vantamuri Primary Health Centre-Rural field practice area of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Belgaum. Materials and Metho...

  15. Rural Areas and Gross Domestic Product in Some Countries of the Mediterranean Sea Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Galluzzo

    2013-01-01

    The transition from an agricultural productivist to a post productivist model has implied a change about the function and role of rural areas, that have an active part in reducing, through the multifunctionality, the social and economic exclusion in the countryside. This paper studies by a quantitative approach in some countries of the basin of the Mediterranean Sea which variables have been pivotal to improve the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita GDP over 8 years. The ...

  16. The Way to Improve the Human Capital in the Rural and Pastoral Area in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianping; LIU; Lianjiu; SONG

    2013-01-01

    The human capital in the rural and pastoral area in Tibet is scarce at present and the investment in human capital faces many difficulties. It is urgent to optimize the education structure, intensify professional training, cultivate the transferring of labor force and pay attention to the child care. The fundamental measure is to establish the concept of "being equipped with the ability to study, work and to be rich", and is to carry out "fundamental education and agricultural education".

  17. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors.

  18. Determinants of contraceptive use among married women residing in rural areas of Belgaum

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaja Ravindra Walvekar

    2012-01-01

    Today the world population is around 7 billion and India harbours 1.2 billion. One of the reasons for uncontrolled growth of the population is unregulated fertility. Unregulated fertility many a times leads to unintended pregnancies leading to many unwanted or mistimed births. It is important to know the determinants of contraceptive use among married women. This cross sectional study was conducted from May 2008-May 2009, involving 2106 married women from rural area of Belgaum. Chi square tes...

  19. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo. Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking and Bufo bufo in fishponds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.

  20. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Erlane Chaves FREITAS; Maria de Fátima OLIVEIRA; Mônica Coelho ANDRADE; VASCONCELOS, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; José Damião da SILVA FILHO; CÂNDIDO, Darlan da Silva; PEREIRA, Laíse dos Santos; João Paulo Ramalho CORREIA; José Napoleão Monte da CRUZ; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 year...

  1. Teleconsultation service to improve healthcare in rural areas: acceptance, organizational impact and appropriateness

    OpenAIRE

    Borghi Gabriella; Bernocchi Palmira; Scalvini Simonetta; Zanaboni Paolo; Tridico Caterina; Masella Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Nowadays, new organisational strategies should be indentified to improve primary care and its link with secondary care in terms of efficacy and timeliness of interventions thus preventing unnecessary hospital accesses and costs saving for the health system. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of the use of teleconsultation by general practitioners in rural areas. Methods General practitioners were provided with a teleconsultation service from 2006 to 2008 to...

  2. Knowledge and attitude of postnatal mothers towards neonatal care in a rural area of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Chaudhari; Smritee Virmani

    2016-01-01

    Background: The neonatal period encompassing the first 28 days of extra uterine life is the most crucial time in baby's life. It is an important link in the chain of events from conception to childhood. The mother's or caregivers` past experiences and knowledge play an important role in safeguarding the new-born's health and enhancing adaptation to the new environment. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out in the rural area of Pune district for 2 months period. T...

  3. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Jain; Mayank Singh; Khursheed Muzammil; Jaivir Singh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19...

  4. Incidence of Caries in Children of Rural and Subrural Areas in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Jurić, Hrvoje; Klarić, Tatjana; Žagar, Maja; Buković Jr., Dino; Janković, Bernard; Špalj, Stjepan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine certain regularities in caries incidence in children in primary and permanent dentition in respect of clinical and non-clinical variables that can be collected in everyday dental practice. This way it could be easier for the operator to adjust individual preventive therapy of patients. The study was conducted on 301 subjects, aged 3–6 (74 subjects) and 11–14 (227 subjects) inhabitants of Petrinja and Topusko, postwar rural and subrural areas ...

  5. Trial of a centralized IgE allergy service to general practitioners in a rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, J H; Moore, R. M. A.; Wilson, R. S. E.

    1981-01-01

    We describe a pilot study of a community IgE service which serves a large rural area and is centred on the biochemistry laboratory and allergy clinic of a district general hospital. The service has proved useful because in many cases it has made attendance at an outpatient department unnecessary. The results appear to be reliable and have provided the general practitioners with additional knowledge of their patients. Other benefits included the investigation of larger numbers of patients, the...

  6. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important source of support for the social integration of new immigrant groups. Although the bonding social capital associated with evangelical commun...

  7. Transforming trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas by use of an integrated call center

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There is poor penetration of trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas. On the other hand, mobile penetration in India is now averaging 80% with most families having access to mobile phone. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the implementation and socioeconomic impact of a call center in providing healthcare delivery for patients with head and spinal injuries. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out over a 6-month perio...

  8. A comparative study between met & unmet need groups of contraception in rural area of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha M. Solanki; Chavan Mansi K. Chavan; Velhal Gajanan D; Mehul T. Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare met & unmet need groups of contraception with socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP) related factors. Methods Community based cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 363 married women of reproductive age groups in rural area selected by stratified simple random technique. After collecting preliminary information, the study population then divided into two groups based on their contraceptive use i.e. MET Group & UNMET NEED Groups...

  9. Evaluation of sustainable development of rural areas of the średzki district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Adamska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the aspects connected with sustainable development of rural areas. The evaluation of the of the Średzki District communes utilizes the selected coefficients in agreement with the social order. In the analysis six fields relating to the level and the quality of life, public health, demography, economic activity, poverty and exclusion were considered. The method of the reduction of the multifunction space was used for the interpretation of results.

  10. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTENSION IN RURAL AREAS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivel Rajan; Varun Kumar; Ambika

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemic of hypertension is increasing at an alarming rate. Knowledge about the existing risk factors of hypertension helps in developing prevention programs. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of systemic hypertension in rural area, Tamil Nadu and to identify the risk factors contributing to it. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out over a period of one year from August 20007 to July 2...

  11. The Sensing Internet—A Discussion on Its Impact on Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Heller

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life cycle operation of the building sector. Sensor networks can be seen as an important part of the Internet of Things and may even constitute an Internet of Sensors, since the communication layers can differ from the Internet standards. The ...

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  13. RURAL AREA OF MARAMUREŞ SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    ALINA SIMONA SIMION

    2014-01-01

    Rural Area of Maramureş Support for the Development and Practice of Various Forms of Tourism. In Maramureș the tourist can find a comprehensive tourist offer based on the diversity of tourism potential, natural and anthropogenic, which can be exploited throughout the year regardless of the season for all age groups. Here are all types of tourism (recreational, cultural, curative and mixed), conducted under various forms, the importance of this is variable spatial and temporal through the volu...

  14. Leptospirosis: Endemic Disease in Dogs in Rural Areas of Monteria (Córdoba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alba E. Sánchez - García; Juan C. Ballut Pestana; Alfonso Calderón - Rangel; Virginia C. Rodríguez - Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was determined in a canine population in the rural area of the municipality of Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia). Blood samples were taken in 200 dogs of 28 townships, which were processed in the laboratory of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) by microscopic agglutination technique (MAT). Aseroprevalence of 12 % was determined and the seropositivity distributed among the serovars: canicola 7 %,icterohaemorrhagiae and grippotyphosa 2 %, bratislava 1 % a...

  15. A study about knowledge and learning in small-scale tourism in rural and peripheral areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates small-scale tourism in rural and peripheral areas from a knowledge perspective. It aims to contribute to reflections on relevant theoretical concepts, the identification of critical factors and the development of conceptual tools for tourism development and management practice. This study is organized into four more delimited studies. The first study discusses Wenger’s theory of Communities of Practice as a possible theoretical framework for understanding the knowle...

  16. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Thomas; Shalini Prabhata; Sameer Valsangkar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. ...

  17. Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2009), s. 508-518. ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

  18. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  19. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. M. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh’s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

  20. Investigation of Small Websites in Rural Areas%农村小型网站的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏

    2012-01-01

    探讨了现代农村的现实情况,并分析了农村小型网站设计的意义,同时研究了农村网站的设计与建设,并提供了网站的设计思想与设计模块.%This essay discusses the status quo of modern rural areas, and analyzes the significance of developing small websites in rural areas. In the meantime, the essay investigates the website design and construction for rural areas, and then provides the philosophy and module for the design of these websites.

  1. Policies for Compulsory Education Disparity Between Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Chuanyou

    2006-01-01

    An important function of public policies is to distribute public resources rationally.But for a long time.our public policies have been SO"city-oriented"that public resources are allocated unfairly and majority of high-quality education resources are concentrated in cities.This has already led to a serious unbalanced development in compdsory education and to a tremendous gap in conditions in schools--running and enrollment chances fur the school-age children between rural and urban areas.which tend to be enlarged.The unbalanced development in compulsory education has not only blocked the realization of public interest and equity of compulsory education but also restricted the harmonious social and economic development between urban and rural areas.It iS necessary to look into Public policies that have influence on the division of public resources and criticize them rationally.These policies include land institutions,tax systems,social security systems,policies for the input of compulsory education,and policies for teachers,etc.New policies should be made to distribute public resources fairly and rationally,narrowing the gap in compulsory education between urban and rural areas.

  2. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  3. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  4. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  5. Reducing health inequalities: the use of Health Impact Assessment on Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sanz Tolosana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is greatly influenced by social, economic and political determinants. Accordingly, decisions influencing people's health do not concern only health services or 'health policies', but decisions in many different policy areas have their influence on these health determinants. Health Impact assessment (HIA is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. The ultimate goal of this framework is to maximize health gains and, as far as possible, to reduce health inequalities. HIA presents a commitment to ensure that the rural dimension is routinely considered as part of the making and implementing of policy. The aim of this paper is to review the use of HIA on rural areas. Conclusions: HIA shows its great potential to contribute to local authority decision making. The use of HIA was identified in 2 key areas: strategic planning (sustainable development, EU Common Agricultural Policy, Federal Farm Bill, land-use planning work; and in specific smaller scale projects (rural health service redesign proposal, accessing healthy food, transport, health care disparities, etc..

  6. Differential reproductive success and body dimensions in Kavango males from urban and rural areas in northern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, S; Winkler, E M

    1995-04-01

    We investigated differential sex-biased parental investment in relation to social status in 59 Kavango males from Rundu, the administrative and commercial center of the Kavango district in northern Namibia, and in 78 Kavango males from the rural areas around Rundu. Twenty-three body dimensions were used as indicators for the probands' social rank in the groups. The males from Rundu surpassed the males from rural areas in nearly all anthropometric features, but the urban males had significantly less offspring, especially fewer dead offspring. The association between the anthropometric variables and the number and sex of the offspring showed marked differences between the two proband groups. Although in the rural areas robust males had more children than smaller and leaner males, the taller and more robust males from Rundu had fewer offspring than smaller and more slender males. These results indicate that males from rural areas and males from urban areas follow different reproductive strategies. PMID:7729830

  7. Screening for visual impairment: Outcome among schoolchildren in a rural area of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Rustagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of vision impairment in school-aged children. The current study focuses on the effectiveness of school eye screening in correcting refractive errors. Objectives: 1. To study the magnitude of visual impairment among school children. 2. To assess the compliance of students for refraction testing, procurement and use of spectacles. Materials and Methods: An intervention study was conducted in schools of the north- west district of Delhi, in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Students studying in five government schools in the field practice area were chosen as the study subjects. Results: Out of 1123 students enrolled, 1075 (95.7% students were screened for refractive errors. Low vision (visual acuity < 20/60 in the better eye was observed in 31 (2.9% children and blindness (visual acuity <20/200 in 10 (0.9% children. Compliance with referral for refraction was very low as only 51 (41.5% out of 123 students could be tested for refraction. Out of 48 students, 34 (70.8% procured spectacles from family resources but its regular use was found among only 10 (29.4% students. The poor compliance among students stems out of various myths and perceptions regarding use of spectacles prevalent in the community. Conclusion: Refractive error is an important cause of avoidable blindness among rural school children. Behavior change communication among rural masses by spreading awareness about eye health and conducting operational research at school and community level to involve parent′s teachers associations and senior students to motivate students for use of spectacles may improve utilization of existing eye health services in rural areas.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menda Teodora - Adriana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD, means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy. But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased

  9. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  10. Patients Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer in Rural Areas in Arizona Typically Present with Higher Stage Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfonsam, Valentine N.; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Pandit, Viraj; E, Vera; Aziz, Hassan; Nzuonkwelle, Sumediah; Ohlson, Eric; DiGiovanni, Ryan M.; Jandova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the decreasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) over the past three decades disparities remain in its incidence, stage at presentation, and efficiency of staging and treatment between different communities, particularly when comparing urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to assess disparities that exist in CRC outcomes among urban, international border counties, and non-border counties in Arizona. Methods A retrospective analysis of CRC data from the Arizona Cancer Registry was performed. Data obtained included age, sex, ethnicity, tumor grade, and tumor stage. The data was then categorized into three sections: international border counties, urban counties, and rural counties. The outcome measure was stage of CRC at diagnosis. Results There were a total of 39, 958 reported incident cases of colorectal cancer from 1995-2010. Of the total incident cases, 53.1% were male and the average age at diagnosis was 69.5. 86.6% were white non-Hispanic, 8.37% Hispanic, 2.4% African American, 1.7% Native American and 1% Asian. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of CRC in all counties, 24.08% in border, 22.5% in urban, and 12.3% in rural. Rural counties showed a higher number of observed cases than expected cases of stage 4 CRC and more unknown diagnosis of grade, stage and lymph node assessment as determined by the adjusted residual. Conclusion Patients in rural counties are more likely to present with a higher stage of CRC and are less likely to have their cancer adequately staged. This is likely due to lack of better access to healthcare, lack of awareness and poor education and also inadequate specialists.

  11. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

  12. Gap between Urban and Rural Economic Development in Less Developed Areas——A Case of Northern Jiangsu Area,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking northern Jiangsu area as an example,economic disparity between urban and rural areas is described according to the data in 2000-2009 Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook.Result shows that there are significant differences in the rural and urban economic development in less developed areas,which are mainly reflected in the differences in per capita income,living standard,and Engel coefficient.Reasons for urban and rural economic disparity in less developed areas are analyzed.The asymmetry and immobility of rural and urban resources have objectively caused the income gap between urban and rural residents;urban industrial development,which is faster than agricultural development,has widened the income gap between urban and rural residents;and the differences in comparative labor productivity in rural and urban areas have enlarged their income gap.Countermeasures to minimize the urban and rural economic development gap are put forward,such as deepening the reform,realizing the free flow of economic resources between urban and rural areas,developing rural areas through urban development,exerting the function of urban areas in the coordinated development of urban and rural areas,paying attention to the agriculture and rural areas,and improving the comparative labor productivity of agriculture.

  13. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  14. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURE, RURAL AREAS AND FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Yongxin; Liu, Zeng-Rung

    2002-01-01

    China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural sector to provide adequate supply to fulfil huge needs for food and other agricultural products. In addition, agriculture development in China confronts wi...

  16. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt A. Bijker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

  17. Energy Sovereignty in Rural Areas: Off-Grid Paradigm for Strengthen the Use of Renewable Energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dell’Anna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe policy guidelines for the UN General Assembly recognize the need of one universal and transformative agenda for sustainable development, based on the rights, and with people and the planet at the centre. This paper concerns a study of compact system designed to ensure energy independence and then energy sovereignty in marginal rural areas: the Off-Grid Box. This system is an integrated technical device, held in a 6 feet container, which provides - in a Plug&Play way – essential services and resources, namely electricity, hot water, rain water harvesting and storage for washing or irrigation and a water purification process to pasteurize or distil pure water (H2O. Key objectives are reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the exploitation of renewable energy sources, safeguarding the quality and the availability of clean water, promoting a more sustainable and healthy way of life. OGB can be modulated in different geographical contexts and demonstrate the feasibility and the strategic use of total off grid systems for individual units ensuring energy sovereignty of local communities. These systems should be designed in terms incorporated in the territory in order to realize the small-scale-smart-grid. These scenarios are interesting in rural areas especially for small family farms that adopt sustainable models and methods of production with low environmental impact and low energy demand. Keywords: Energy sovereignty, renewable energy, off-grid system, small scale farming, rural development.

  18. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  19. USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

  20. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Government is trying to deliver health services to as many numbers of people as possible. The extent to which these health services are utilized by the public is to be estimated. OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the extent of utilization of health services in rural areas of Krishna district. 2. To study the factors influencing the utilization of health services in Krishna district. SAMPLE SIZE: 600, calculated by the formula, 4pq/ L.2 STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional, descriptive. METHODOLOGY: thirty rural clusters are randomly selected and 20 adults from each cluster are interviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: percentages. RESULTS: 1. Utilization of services from private health care facility is more. 2. People are utilizing services from private health care facility due to belief in doctor.

  1. The Sensing Internet—A Discussion on Its Impact on Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Heller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life cycle operation of the building sector. Sensor networks can be seen as an important part of the Internet of Things and may even constitute an Internet of Sensors, since the communication layers can differ from the Internet standards. The current paper describes the case for application, followed by a discussion of the observed adaptive advantages and consequences of the technology. Essentially, WSNs constitute a highly sophisticated technology that is more robust in a rural context due to its extremely simple installation procedures (plug and play allowing the use of local less-skilled labour, and the possibility of reconfiguring and repurposing its use remotely.

  2. Design on rural eco-house in cold areas of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Wei; JIN Hong

    2006-01-01

    Many kinds of factors that influence rural housing construction in Northern China are analyzed systematically and the connections between them are weighed from ecology and sustainable angles, so that an optimized green house can be built. At the same time, the energy efficient envelope structure and the method of choosing insulation material in the cost of unit thermal resistance are proposed. Integrated quality evaluation by computer shows that thermal comfort in the house would be improved remarkably for the value of PPD drops from 35%-40% to 15%, the rate of saving energy is 51.73%, much higher than the third goal of saving energy in China, and the comprehensive ecological benefit achieves good effect so as to promote the sustainable development of rural housing and community in cold areas of Northern China.

  3. RURAL AREA OF MARAMUREŞ SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA SIMONA SIMION

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural Area of Maramureş Support for the Development and Practice of Various Forms of Tourism. In Maramureș the tourist can find a comprehensive tourist offer based on the diversity of tourism potential, natural and anthropogenic, which can be exploited throughout the year regardless of the season for all age groups. Here are all types of tourism (recreational, cultural, curative and mixed, conducted under various forms, the importance of this is variable spatial and temporal through the volume of tourists and socio-economic effects induced. The predominant types of tourism are cultural and recreeativ tourism, this are associated with most forms of tourism (rural tourism, sports tourism, religious tourism, school, etc..

  4. The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, A. B.; Wilche, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    , participated in this study. Four were working at healthcare centres in towns and four were working at nursing stations in villages. The nurses were educated in Greenland or a Nordic country and had been practicing nursing for at least 2 years in an Arctic region. They were observed for 1–5 days, and...... subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive...... nursing, medical and social work. Conclusion The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote Greenland is characterised by a high degree of variability and complexity, with a requirement for a wide range of knowledge and skills. Nurses need to be better prepared with regard to acute medical care...

  5. Potential of Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas in Kosovo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lavdim Osmanaj[1; Agon Haxhikadrija[1; Pierre-Henri Dodane[2; Astrit Vokshi[3

    2015-01-01

    Republic of Kosovo has 1,304 settlements from which only 37 are urban and 1,267 are rural. Shown in percentage, only 39.2% (765,125) of inhabitants live in urban areas. The focus is to work and find the best and cheap solutions for the 60.8% (1,173,370) of inhabitants of the country which live in rural areas. From this number only 42% of them have access to the sewage network while 60.8% of them have implemented individual solutions (latrines) without any treatment, leading to a large pollution of the water bodies. The existing rural sewage networks are built only with septic tanks, poorly designed and do not fulfill the wastewater treatment criteria. Regarding this issue, the Kosovan legislation concerns only urban areas (settlements of more than 2,000 inhabitants) and is expected to be completed in 2014 for rural areas according to the EU (European Union) directive for wastewater discharge. As a pilot project, the CDI (community development initiatives) started with WWTP (waste water treatment plants) based on the Vertical Constructed Wetland option (french model) as it appears to be the most adapted option in this rolling, rural, and temperate climate context, implementing this kind of treatment in 3 villages for the first time in Kosovo. Through this, it is interesting to take a perspective on all the phases of these projects starting from feasibility reports, project design to concept and modalities of implementation and options for operation and maintenance, in order to assess how this technical option is feasible and replicable in the country at a large scale. It finally appears that the potential for constructed wetland in the Balkan region is promising as it provides a simple solution for most of the regional constraints, but requires skills to be developed locally for designing and building as well as a deeper consideration in the national regulation.

  6. Countermeasures on Elevating Self-development Ability of Western Rural Areas on the Basis of Visual Threshold of Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis underscores the significant role of human capital in elevating rural self-development ability.The investment of human capital is making great contribution to western rural economic growth,and it plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the socio-economic development prominently.The characteristics of human resources development in western rural areas for the moment are analyzed as follows:the employment structure is simple;the structure of human resources is irrational;the shortage of human resources aggregate is accompanied by the critical phenomenon of idling;the human resources drain badly;there is low input and low output of talents.The thesis also propounds the fundamental approaches in order to elevating self-development ability of western rural areas:we should practise and implement National Medium and Long-term Planning of Talents Development and lay down as soon as possible the detailed matching policies and measures based on the reality of western rural areas;we should develop the education in western rural areas vigorously,and formulate the developmental strategies of bridging "knowledge gap";we should establish sound rural human resources development system,and reinforce the degree of training returning-home migrant workers;we should adjust the structure of human investment timely as needed,and strengthen the degree of human capital investment conspicuously.

  7. Key Factors for Renewable Energy Promotion and Its Sustainability Values in Rural Areas: Findings from Japanese and Chinese Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Qianna, Wang; Lin, Peng; Martin Mwirigi, M’ikiugu; Isami, Kinoshita; Zhicong, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The use of Renewable Energy (RE) is becoming popular for its clean and safe characteristics. The development of RE is also one of the crucial steps for the future sustainable development of energy resources. Nowadays, rural areas are facing issues such as depopulation and economic decline. How to find solutions to these issues while aiming to achieve sustainable development is a challenging task. Rural areas with RE in Japan and China have been established recently, and there are a few practi...

  8. A social work programme for poverty stricken families in rural areas of the Northern Cape Province / Mercutio Motshedi

    OpenAIRE

    Motshedi, Mosimanegape Mercutio

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted in Heuningvlei community in the Kgalagadi District Municipality in the Northern Cape Province. This study was part of the "Tshwaragano Project" with the general aim of empowering the disadvantaged communities in rural areas. The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a social group work empowerment programme for poverty stricken families in rural areas of the Northern Cape Province. To achieve this aim, the following objectives ne...

  9. The identification of factors contributing to the vulnerability to sexual abuse of orphans in a rural area / Nomakubenje Agnes Ncanywa

    OpenAIRE

    Ncanywa, Nomakubenje Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children is a major problem in South Africa. There is an increasing number of orphans in urban but also in rural areas of children and orphans who are sexually abused. The researcher experienced in her daily work as social worker in the rural area of the Oliver Tambo district Municipality children and orphans who are sexually abused. The aim of this study is to identify the risks factors contributing to the vulnerability of orphans towards sexual abuse. Purposive sampling w...

  10. A study of Menstrual Problems among the Female Junior College Students from Rural Area of Sangli District

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek B Waghachavare, Vishwajeet M Chavan, Girish B Dhumale

    2013-01-01

    Background: The various studies have found out significant amount of menstrual problems among adolescent girls. Some of the most common problems are dysmenorrhoes, premenstrual syndrome, abnormal uterine bleeding, amennorhoea, etc. The situation is especially worse in rural areas. These problems aggravate the psychological problems like depression. Objective: To study the menstrual problems, among female students of junior college students from rural area of Sangli District. Methodolo...

  11. A case study cost modelling of regulatory alternatives to mitigate the mobile network coverage and capacity problems in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sundquist, Mårten; Markendahl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a continued build-out of mobile networks, both mobile network coverage and capacity problems in rural areas are increasing. This counterintuitive situation is due to the exponential growth in mobile data usage, the long inter-base station site distance in rural areas and the increasing requirements on ubiquitous coverage not only for humans but also for the Internet of Things. With today’s communication systems and business models, it is not commercially viable to solve the problems b...

  12. Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 μg.m-3 to 46.9 μg.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 μg.m-3 to 93.1 μg.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

  13. Factors influencing use of dental services in rural and urban communities: considerations for practitioners in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P

    2004-10-01

    Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health. PMID:15466058

  14. Rocky Land Desertification and its Driving Forces in the Karst Areas of Rural Guangxi, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With a subtropical climate, Guangxi Zhuaug Autonomous Region has a typical karst landscape. Rocky desertification has become a serious environmental issue due to its high vulnerability caused by the joint effect of natural settings and human activities, because of which its eco- environment has been deteriorated in recent years, and farmland has been disappearing sharply at the same time. This, in turn, has exacerbated the poverty level in the rural areas of the region. In this study, we monitored the spatial distribution of rocky land desertification and its temporal evolution using Landsat TM/ETM images of 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2005. We also analyzed the driving forces of the desertification and its expansion. Through constructing regression models by using all the relevant variables and considering the lagged effects as well as fixed effects, we quantified the exact role of different factors causing rocky land desertification in the study area with some new findings. The newfindings in this study are greatly helpful for preserving, restoring and reconstructing the degraded mountain environment in Guangxi and other karst areas in Southwest China, and also for alleviating poverty in the rural areas in the future.

  15. A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

  16. Aspects of Quality of Life by Type of Regions in European Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina NECULAI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the quality of life aspects, expressed through the indicators, by branch and by regions, allow to observe their contribution to economic and social development in rural area at national and community level. The analyzed indicators are: population density, age structure of the population, economic development (gross domestic product /capita, structure of economy (gross value added by branch, structure of employment, employment rate, unemployment and the long-term unemployment.The analysis of indicators is realised at NUTS 3 (county level by types of regions. The determining of types of regions (“predominantly rural regions” - PR, “intermediate regions” - IR and “predominantly urban regions” - PU is corresponding to NUTS 3 county level, which are based on a revised urban-rural typology. The comparative analysis of economic-social aspects, for Romania and for other EU countries highlights the gaps by types of regions (PR, IR and PU and by branch (primary sector, secondary sector, tertiary sector, what allows the focusing the efforts to reduce them.

  17. Endoparasitic infections in dogs from rural areas in the Lobos District, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopchiz, Marcela Cecilia; Lavallén, Carla Mariela; Bongiovanni, Roberto; Gonzalez, Patricia Verónica; Elissondo, Celina; Yannarella, Francisco; Denegri, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are definite hosts for several zoonotic helminthes and protozoan. Rural areas from the Lobos District in the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are mainly used for livestock activity, increasing in this way the number of dogs on farms as well as the human risk of parasitic infections. The aims of this research were to evaluate the endoparasitic infections in dogs from farms in the Lobos District and analyze their zoonotic importance as well as several risk practices and habits of the rural population. Forty-two dog fecal samples obtained in 21 farms were analyzed through coproparasitological methods and coproantigen tests, which resulted in an overall parasite prevalence of 69.05% and 80.95% of the parasitized farms. The most frequent parasites were Trichuris vulpis and Eucoleus aerophila (26.19%), Echinococcus granulosus (19.05%), Uncinaria stenocephala and coccids (14.29%). The analysis of epidemiological files showed several habits of the rural population considered as risk factors associated with the presence of fecal samples parasitized and the presence of E. granulosus on the farms. It is clear that people involved with the farms studied were exposed to several helminthes that could cause serious diseases like cystic echinococcosis, which can become an important public health issue and affect the economy worldwide. PMID:23538502

  18. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

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    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  19. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

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    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  20. Relationships Between Agritourism and Certified Quality Food in Italian Rural Areas

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    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1960, farms are one of the alternatively forms of hospitality in few Italian regions located predominately in the north and in the centre of peninsula. In 1985, Italian government promulgated a law in order to regulate this non-conventional form of tourism, by delegating to the regions the direct management of administrative procedures and inspections in farms. Nowadays, Italian agritourist farms represent a good chance to give value in favour of farm by the diversification of agrarian activities and also by holistically promoting local food in a direct connection to local gastronomy, rural heritage and tradition, with positive effects on the endogenous development in rural areas. The aim of the paper was to assess the role of agritourism in raising the socio-economic development of rural space by the diffusion of certified quality food using a quantitative approach and to assess if agritourist and certified quality food were tools able to implement the living conditions in the countryside. The findings have disclosed that tourists from abroad have increased the level of farmer income giving value towards high quality food and farm holidays farms. Instead, the impact of Italian agritourists has been relatively poor because of the economic crisis.

  1. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models. PMID:27074252

  2. Utilization of maternal and child health care services by primigravida females in urban and rural areas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Hemant; Sharma, Bhuwan

    2014-01-01

    Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099

  3. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Pérez-Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50% and DENV-1 (35%. Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  4. Status, Restrictions and Suggested Approaches in Wastewater Management in Rural Areas of Iran

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    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Fahiminia M, Farrokhi M, Talebi M, Memary G, Fazlzadeh Davil M. Status, restrictions and suggested approaches in wastewater management in rural areas of Iran. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:12-9. Aims of the Study: The objective of this study was to appraise wastewater management approaches in rural areas of Iran, restrictions, effects on environment and also definition of suitable management approaches in wastewater for future. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was performed in 2010 in rural areas of Iran. A questionnaire was prepared with subjects such as available management approaches on wastewater, suggested approaches on collecting wastewater and its final disposal and was sent to rural area’s wastewater companies in each province. Study results of 4588 rural areas of Iran (with above 200 families were collected. Results were analyzed using mean and percentage. Results: The current available management systems were mainly based on absorption wells. The main problem in this system was high ground water levels, and low permeability of soil. The most important current problem of the absorbing wells was considerable damaging effects on surface and ground water. Conclusions: The current wastewater management in rural areas especially in the field of wastewater collection was improper and undesirable. To overcome the current problem, it is necessary to use collecting methods relative to that of region. Considerable attention is required for the application of reused wastewater in agriculture. References: 1. Wilderer PA, Schreff D. Decentralized and centralized wastewater management: a challenge for technology developers. Wat Sci Tech 2000; 41(1:1-8. 2. Jackson HB. Global needs and developments in urban sanitation. in: Mara D, editor. Low-Cost sewerage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 1996. p. 77-90. 3. UNEP/GPA. Strategy options for sewage management to protect the marine environment. The Netherlands: UNEP

  5. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  6. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

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    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  7. INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997

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    M BAGHAEI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to some of the demographic parameters was studied in rural areas of the city of mobarakeh of Isfahan province in 1997. Methods: Two methods were used to detect the presence of intestinal parasites; direct exam and fecalcontrate system: formalin ethyl acetate method. The scotch tape method was used to examin for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 51.9 percent of the studied children were infected by one or several intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (29.8 percent, Entamoeba coli (17.1 percent and Enterobius vermicularis(16.3 percent respectively. A significant relation was found between age, level of education of mother and father, weight at birth, number of children in the family, and parasitic infections (P< percentS. No significant relationship was observed between sex and parasitic infections (P> percentS. Discussion: A comparison between the present results and those reported previously indicates that there is not a significant differences between the prevalence of parasitic infection in rural and urban parts of Isfahan province. Intestinal parasitic infections is still an important health problem in the region and the control and prevention demands more consideration of authorities.

  8. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the

  9. Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

    2009-09-01

    Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.

  10. The Influence of Wildfires on Aerosol Size Distributions in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Blanco, E.; Calvo, A. I.; R. Fraile; Castro, A

    2012-01-01

    The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a rural area, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of wildfires on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14  μ m, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in time—before, during, and a...

  11. Mobile Health Access for Diabetics in Rural Areas of Turkey - Results of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Emine; Savini, Marco

    Extending the reach of medical professionals in rural areas is one of the goals using mobile health technologies. This paper illustrates the results of a survey conducted in 2008 in Turkey asking medical professionals about their current ICT usage and opinions about using mobile technologies in order to help patients with diabetes. The goal is to reduce the information gap between patients and medical professionals by allowing sending the information electronically using mobile technologies. This will improve both the interaction between various actors and also improve the treatment, as important trends of this chronic disease can be discovered on time.

  12. Evaluation of Self Medication Practices in Rural Area of Town Sahaswan at Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, I; Mohanta, GP; Balkrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the studies have investigated the prevalence and nature of self-medication. It is a common type of self-care behavior among the populace of various countries. World Health Organization promotes the practice of self-medication for effective and quick relief of symptoms without medical consultations to reduce the burden on health-care services, which are often understaffed and inaccessible in rural and remote areas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the extent and p...

  13. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

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    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  14. Energy Sovereignty in Rural Areas: Off-Grid Paradigm for Strengthen the Use of Renewable Energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Dell’Anna; Menconi, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThe policy guidelines for the UN General Assembly recognize the need of one universal and transformative agenda for sustainable development, based on the rights, and with people and the planet at the centre. This paper concerns a study of compact system designed to ensure energy independence and then energy sovereignty in marginal rural areas: the Off-Grid Box. This system is an integrated technical device, held in a 6 feet container, which provides - in a Plug&Play way – essentia...

  15. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas

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    Carlos V Rizzo-Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well.

  16. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mahroof Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are f...

  17. Current Trends in Unlocking the Potential of Rural Tourism in Romania. Case Study: Snagov Area

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela NOVĂCESCU; Florentina ION; Laurenţiu DINU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is aimed at demonstrating that rural tourism is a viable source of income for all Romanian communes. To prove this point, we will refer to the circumstances of the Snagov area. Snagov’s tourism resources are not used to their full potential and tourism, as currently managed, has detrimental effects on the environment, which is deteriorating by the year. Therefore, the paper is also a warning to those who are in the position to improve the technologies for the transformation and pre...

  18. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL ABUSE IN A RURAL AREA OF PUNJAB

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    Salil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: “Drug abuse” is defined as self - administration of a drug for non - medical reasons, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individual’s ability to function effectively and which may result in social, physical, or emotional harm. About 190 million people all over the world consume one drug or the other. Drug abuse causes immense human distress and the illegal production and distribution of drugs have spawned crime and violence worldwide. According to World Drug Report (2009 there were 25,71,52582 alcohol users , alcohol dependents were 8,22,88826 . Cannabis users were 82,28,883 and Opiate users were 2,057,221 in India. Alcohol is one of the leading causes of death and disability globally. Overall, 3.5% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for as much death and disability as tobacco and hypertension. As lot of changes have occurred in the last two decades and variations in consumption patterns is present in different regions, thus the findings of studies conducted earlier and at distant places may not be of much interest in the present scenario. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Ludhiana, Punjab. OBJECTIVES: a To find out the prevalence of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab; b To assess pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study done in t he field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana (i.e. Rural Health Training Center (RHTC located at village Pohir, Block Dehlon, District Ludhiana, Punjab. One thousand seven hundred thirty two study subjects of fifteen years and above were part of study. Primary tools in this study were predesigned and pretested interview schedule and Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test V3 (ASSIST V3 questioner, to collect

  19. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled ...

  20. The experience of living with stroke in low urban and rural socioeconomic areas of South Africa

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    M. Maleka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of stroke on stroke survivors are profound and affecttheir quality of life. The aim of this study was to establish the experience of peopleliving with stroke in low socioeconomic urban and rural areas of South Africa.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data.Participants were identified from stroke registers and recruited from PHC clinicsin Soweto, Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Participants had to have had a stroke,be above the age of 18 and had lived in the community six months to a year followingtheir stroke. The researcher or research assistant conducted the interviews ofparticipants who had had strokes as well as their caregivers in the home language of the participants. The interviewswere audio taped, transcribed and translated into English. A thematic content analysis was done.Thirty two participants were interviewed, 13 from Soweto, Gauteng, and 19 from rural Limpopo provinces. Theresults suggest that the sudden, overwhelming transformation as a result of a stroke forms a background for loss ofcommunity mobility, social isolation, role reversal within the family and community, loss of role within the family andcommunity, loss of meaningful activities of daily living, loss of hope and threat to livelihood amongst stroke survivorsliving in low socioeconomic areas of South Africa.An overwhelming picture of despondency was found, with few positive stories told in both settings. The themesidentified from the interviews reflected the experience and issues that a patient with stroke has to deal with in lowsocioeconomic areas of South Africa.

  1. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and soft drinks: a comparative study among adolescents in urban and rural areas

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    Iza Cristina de Vasconcelos Martins Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and soft drinks among adolescents living in urban and rural areas of Pernambuco State. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on secondary analysis of data from a representative sample of high school students in Pernambuco (n = 4,207, 14 - 19 years was conducted. Data were collected through a previously validated questionnaire. Adolescents who reported a daily consumption of soft drinks and occasional consumption of fruits, juices and vegetables were classified as exposed to inadequate standard of consumption of these foods. The independent variable was the place of residence (urban/rural. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, χ2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: It was observed that students residing in rural areas had a higher prevalence of occasional consumption of natural fruit juices (37.6%; 95%CI 36.1 - 39.0 than those living in urban areas (32.1%; 95%CI 30.7 - 33.6. The proportion of students exposed to daily consumption of soft drinks was higher among those who reported they lived in urban areas (65.0%; 95%CI 63.5 - 66.4 compared to those who reported living in rural areas (55.3%; 95%CI 53.8 - 56.9. Conclusion: Adolescent students living in rural areas had a higher prevalence of low consumption of natural fruit juices while those residing in urban areas had a higher prevalence of daily consumption of soda drinks.

  2. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

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    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  3. Changes Of A Rural Landscape In Czech Areas Of Different Types

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    Šťastná Milada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the macrostructural and microstructural landscape changes in six selected microregions in Moravia and eastern Bohemia. Changes of the landscape macrostructure were evaluated based on the statistical data from 1845, 1948, 1990 and 2013. Changes of the landscape microstructure were compared on the base of old maps, aerial images and field experiences. According to the available data the area of an arable land was the largest in 1845. Since then it has been decreasing – more in mountain areas, less in lowland ones where it was replaced by forests, grasslands and urban areas, depending on the vegetation period, physical character and vicinity of urban centres. Results show that the microstructure recorded great changes during the communist period: large expanses of fields, irrigation and drainage measures, windbreaks, non-rural buildings in the countryside. Contemporary changes are connected mostly with urbanisation of the landscape.

  4. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region. PMID:27286412

  5. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  6. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

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    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  7. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP relating to avian influenza in urban and rural areas of China

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    Cheng Xiaowen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs associated with avian influenza (AI. To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826 and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572 using the probability proportional to size (PPS sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.

  9. The Preference and Actual Use of Different Types of Rural Recreation Areas by Urban Dwellers – The Hamburg Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boll, Thiemen; Haaren, Christina von; Ruschkowski, Eick von

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of urbanisation processes and the constitution of metropolitan regions, the role of the city's rural surroundings is receiving more attention from researchers and planners as rural areas offer various (cultural) ecosystem services for the urban population. Urban dwellers increasingly desire recreation and landscape experience. Although this need for recreation is generally recognized, few studies have focused on the question of people's preferences for certain types and characteri...

  10. Perceived Need for Substance Abuse Treatment among Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in Rural Areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Krishnan, Laura L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Brenda M. Booth

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical drug use in rural communities in the United States is a significant and growing public health threat. Understanding what motivates drug users in rural areas to seek substance abuse treatment may help in addressing the problem. Perceived need for treatment, a construct indicative of problem recognition and belief in problem solution, has been identified as an important predictor of help-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study used data collected through face-to-face interviews...

  11. Breastfeeding practices on postnatal wards in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region, Sichuan province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Haoyue; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Stiller, Caroline; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the efforts that have been made to promote breastfeeding in China since the 1990s, there is still a very low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to assess the current situation of infant feeding practices during the postpartum hospital stay in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region. Methods Cross-sectional sampling was used in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics in the Deyang region of southwestern China. Interviews with mothers...

  12. Pobreza e desigualdade de renda entre famílias da zona rural de Mato Grosso de 2004 a 2006 Poverty and income inequality among families in rural areas of Mato Grosso from 2004 to 2006

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    Benedito Dias Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a desigualdade da distribuição de renda e a pobreza das famílias residentes nas áreas rurais de Mato Grosso em 2004 e 2006, com base nos microdados da PNAD (IBGE. Em especial, o coeficiente de Gini foi decomposto por fonte de renda, para se identificar a contribuição relativa de determinada fonte de renda na desigualdade da renda total. Dentre os principais resultados encontrados, verificou-se que há elevada desigualdade na distribuição de renda entre as famílias rurais mato-grossenses, que a renda das atividades agrícolas contribui para aumentar essa desigualdade e que essa renda se constitui em variável importante e estratégica para a economia do Estado. Os indicadores também sugerem que houve incremento da pobreza entre as famílias rurais do Estado entre 2004 e 2006.Investigates on income distribution inequality and poverty of families living in rural areas of Mato Grosso in 2004 and 2006, based on the microdata of PNAD (IBGE. In particular, the Gini coefficient was broken by source of income to identify the relative contribution of a particular source of income inequality in total income. Among the key findings, it appears that there is high inequality in the income distribution among households in Mato Grosso, that the agriculture income contributes to increasing inequality and that this income is one important and strategic variable for the economy of the state. The indicators also suggest that there was an increase in poverty among rural families of the state between 2004 and 2006.

  13. Landscape structure and bird's diversity in the rural areas of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This study tries to discuss the relationship between landscape structure and organisms in the perspective of landscape architecture.The research hypotheses were then proposed as (1) there are relationships between landscape structure indexes and birds' diversity in the ruralareas of Taiwan; (2) the relationships between landscape structure and birds' diversity will be different in different hierarchical levels.In order to increase the bird species, landscape planners could tries to increase the density of water bodies, but decrease the farms andhuman planted woods.Decrease the density of constructed and human planted grasslands.Increase the area of un-worked acres, naturalgrasslands, and the area of water bodies and circular the water bodies and natural forest.In order to increase birds' diversity, landscapeplanners could decrease the concentration of paved areas.Concentrate the human planted trees to increase the core areas of woodlands.Increasethe area of natural grassland circular.In order to increase the total number of birds in the planning areas, landscape planners could scatteredthe paved areas and lengthen the constructed areas.Decreases the core region of the constructed areas.Increase the area of un-worked acresand water bodies.Decrease the disturbance of both the interior area of natural and human planted woodlands and try to increase the density ofwater bodies.The analysis results showed that the small grain size indexes are more suitable for the rural areas of Taiwan to capture the influential factorsof bird communities.The high fragmentation of land usages in Taiwan lessens the influences of the regional landscape pattern.

  14. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

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    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from

  15. Symptoms of depression among adults in rural areas of western Poland

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    Dorota Łojko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To measure the intensity of depressive symptoms in the populations residing in rural areas of western Poland, and to delineate the putative association between the intensity of depression and selected socio-demographic and clinical factors. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study covered 445 adults recruited from one family physician practice in the rural area of Wielkopolska region. The following tools were applied: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the WHO WHOQoL-Bref quality of life assessment scale, and a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire elaborated by the authors. [b]Results.[/b] Depressive symptoms were observed in approx. 30% of the patients. The intensity of symptoms correlated with age, female gender, and inversely correlated with the quality of life. There was no association between depressive symptoms and level of education (counted as years of education, number of somatic illnesses, and family burden of psychiatric disorders. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Symptoms of depression were noted in approx. 30% of patients who consulted their family physician. The Beck questionnaire is a simple tool whose application could decidedly improve the recognition of depression. It is worth taking note of factors that may be connected with the intensity of depressive symptoms – gender, the number of diagnosed somatic illnesses, and the quantity of drugs administered.

  16. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  17. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  18. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen-feng; LIU Kang; WANG Xiao-rong; HUANG Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources ofatmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high,reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southem Jiangsu Province.

  19. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  20. THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN RURAL AREAS OF TONEKABON, IRAN

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    M. Rezaiian

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in northern parts of Iran, especially in rural areas. In order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the effect of some factors such as age, sex, region on the prevalence of intestinal parasites, a study was carried out in rural areas of Tonekabon, Caspian littoral, from Jul. 1991 to Feb. 1992. A total of 2368 stool samples were randomly collected from different age groups in 27 plain and mountain village. The samples wee examined by direct and formalin – ether concentration methods. 74.6% of samples wee positive for at least one species of intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminthes was: Trichuris trichiura 22.5%. Ascaris lumbricoides 16.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis 10.3%, Hook Worms 4.6%, Trichostrongulus. spp. 3.7% and Hymenolepis nana 3%. The prevalence on intestinal protozoa was: Giardia lamblia 29.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 9.6%, Dientamoeba fragilis 2.5%. The rates for Taenia saginata and Enterobius vermicularis (non specific method were 0.5% and 2.1%, respectively.

  1. Monitoring of black carbon concentration at an inland rural area including fixed sources in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Yun, Jeongseok; Kim, Kyeong Jun

    2016-01-01

    We monitored black carbon (BC) concentration for 6months to understand the characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of an inland rural area in Korea. A multi-angle absorption photometer was used to continuously monitor the BC concentration, which was compared with elemental carbon (EC) concentration measured by an OC/EC Analyzer. For the atmospheric aerosols less than 10μm, size distributions were measured using both an optical particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The diurnal variations for BC concentration show that the average BC concentration was 1.43μgm(-3) and exhibited peaks in the morning rush hours. However, the BC concentration measured at night from 20:00 to 08:00 was higher than that measured during the day. The reason why the BC concentration at night was higher would be partly due to the regional characteristics influenced by the combination of local fixed sources and traffic condition. It is suggested that the traffic and transporting of pollutants from the west influenced the increase in the BC concentration at inland rural area including fixed sources. PMID:25900115

  2. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

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    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  3. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement structure in these areas, the public transport network density is low and service frequency is often poor. The problems are exacerbated by increasing private car use, which, in a vicious circle, leads to further reductions in services. However, simple tools such as dialogue marketing and minor adjustments to scheduling can help change people’s perceptions. Dialogue marketing techniques have already been shown to increase passenger numbers by as much as 10 to 15 percent. Greater demand leads to higher revenues, making it possible to improve the system and attract even more passengers, turning the vicious circle into a positive loop.

  4. Post-marketing Surveillance for Combined Oral Contraceptive Containing Desogestrel (Marvelon?) in Chinese Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the side effects and the continuation rate of combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing desogestrel (Marvelon ) during 12 months. Methods This was a post-marketing surveillance study on Marvelon COC among 870 healthy rural women in 5 different counties of Jiangsu Province during 12 months. Results About 24.02% of the women who used Marvelon COC experienced side effects during 12 months. Gastrointestinal disorder, bleeding/spotting and chloasma were ranked the first three in the side effects. The rate of side effects of Marvelon COC users during the first 3 months in southern area of Jiangsu was significantly higher than that of users in northern area of Jiangsu. Most of the users did not experience obvious weight changes i.e., loss or increase in weight of more than 5 kg during 12 months. Blood pressure and biochemical indicators of almost 99% among users were within the normal range. The gross cumulative continuation rate for 12 months was 83.14%; the most common medical reason for discontinuation was gastrointestinal disorder. There was an increased risk of discontinuation use among women with lower educational level.Conclusion Marvelon COC brought fewer side effects and was well accepted when applied in Chinese rural women.

  5. Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria

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    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economic characteristics and the level of participation in infrastructural development. Findings revealed that 56.2% of respondents were within the age category of 21-30 years, 62.9% were male, and 60% were single, while 56.2% of the respondents had secondary school level education. The study revealed the various roles played by youths in participating in infrastructural development as well as the associated constraints which include finance, availability of materials, technical knowledge and time. Age, marital status, educational level and years of residence were found to be significantly related to the level of participation of youths in infrastructural development. The study recommended the adequate budget allocation to rural areas as well as intensive training and educative programmes for effective participative development.

  6. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

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    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  7. Metals interaction tested in children’s hair originating from industrial and rural areas

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    Jerzy Kwapulinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different biological samples (blood, gallstone, teeth, hair serve as a biomarker of exposure to metals for many years. This method appeared to be useful not only in clinical medicine, but also in the studies on the environment. Aim. The study is to compare the amount of selected metals in children’s hair residing in industrial and rural areas. Material and methods. Research of occurrence of 12 metals in children’s hair at the age of 7, 10 and 14 living in an industrial (Nowy Bytom town and a rural (Strumień town areas has been presented. Determination of Pb, Cd, Ni, Co Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and Ca was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS using a spectrometer PerkinElmer 400. Results. In the case of seven-year old children, regardless of gender a common mechanism of co-occurrence was noticed for manganese and calcium, manganese and magnesium, calcium and magnesium, sodium and potassium. Apart from the correlation of metals for the seven-year-old-children mentioned, in case of ten-year old children, an additional correlation between calcium and zinc appears. Conclusion: The amount of some metals in the hair with the diversified possibility of interaction between the metals themselves and their relation to gender and age of children revealed different environmental exposure.

  8. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTENSION IN RURAL AREAS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivel Rajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of hypertension is increasing at an alarming rate. Knowledge about the existing risk factors of hypertension helps in developing prevention programs. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of systemic hypertension in rural area, Tamil Nadu and to identify the risk factors contributing to it. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out over a period of one year from August 20007 to July 2008 in the field practice area of PSG Rural Health Centre, Neelambur attached to the Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore. A two stage random sampling method was used to select the households of respondents. The WHO STEPS approach questionnaire which is recommended for eliciting non - communicable disease risk factors (Core and Expanded version 2.0 was used for data collection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 26.9%. Among the hypertensive subjects, Odd’s Ratio (OR was f ound to be more in those taking extra salt (7.73, inadequate fruit intake (1.41, taking non - vegetarian diet (1.39, moderate physical activity (1.24 and BMI ≥30(12.13. CONCLUSION: The burden of hypertension in our study was found to be similar to those in developed countries. For an in - depth analysis of the risk factors of hypertension, a prospective longitudinal follow - up study is required on the true risk factors.

  9. EXPECTATIVAS DE SUCESSÃO HEREDITÁRIA NAS UNIDADES DE PRODUÇÃO FAMILIARES: UM OLHAR SOBRE O MUNICÍPIO DE MORRO REDONDO, RS (Job and career choices for the rural youth: a look on Morro Redondo township, RS)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Maria Regina Caetano; BEZERRA, Antonio Jorge Amaral; MENDONÇA, Henrique Andrade Furtado de

    2012-01-01

    A população rural brasileira vem experimentando, nos últimos anos, mudanças em termos de ocupação da sua força de trabalho e, principalmente, nas suas condições de obtenção de renda. Estas mudanças afetam os diversos setores desta população de modo distinto. Entre os agricultores familiares tem ocorrido um importante processo de abandono do meio rural, principalmente pelos jovens, que buscam no meio urbano as condições para realização dos seus projetos de vida. Os jovens, que identificavam n...

  10. Raw water use charge reduction for the rural sector in the PCJ Watershed Redução da cobrança pelo uso da água para o setor rural nas Bacias PCJ

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério T. da Silva; Marcos V. Folegatti

    2009-01-01

    The deficient environmental preservation on agricultural properties has reflected in great soil losses for erosion and the high rate of sedimentation. Therefore, this work brings the application of software to demonstrate that planters can get benefits by the conservationist practices. The benefits will be obtained from the environment aspect (erosion and sedimentation control), as well as economical aspect (financial incentives). A proposal has been created by the Technical Chamber of Rural ...

  11. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K Vinod; Raj, R Vimal; Vedhagiri, K; Vijayachari, P

    2016-03-26

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  12. Chronic complications in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar; Ramakant Rawat; Vijay Kumar Verma; Khwaja Saifullah Zafar; Granth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a serious public health problem that threatens the quality of life. Studies have shown that its prevalence is rapidly increasing. In India many studies have been done on diabetes and its complications but most of the studies have been done in urban area. There is limited data on diabetes from rural area. Our study is an attempt to provide data on diabetes in rural area that will guide health care professionals in managing the disease appropriately. The aim of the study...

  13. Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Setiawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possible options, conducted benchmarking and case study analysis to narrow down the options and finally conducted quantitative calculation for the two remaining options and measure performance of the solutions. The results of analysis concluded that early implementation of LTE in 700 MHz Digital Dividend would be feasible in certain geographical areas to fasten the broadband plan development in Indonesia.

  14. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Majlesi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritional status was estimated via weight/age index and the data were analysed by chi-square test. The results show 7.7% malnutrition among the children in this area. Factors that influence the nutritional status were: Frequency of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, birth weight, duration of breast feeding and milk formula.

  15. Mapping Rural Areas with Widespread Plastic Covered Vineyards Using True Color Aerial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic covering is used worldwide to protect crops against damaging growing conditions. This agricultural practice raises some controversial issues. While it significantly impacts on local economic vitality, plasticulture also shows several environmental affects. In the Apulia Region (Italy the wide-spreading of artificial plastic coverings for vineyard protection has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. In this study an efficient object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR true color aerial data was developed on eight test areas located in the Ionian area of the Apulia Region in order to support the updating of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

  16. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  17. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  18. SURVIVAL MODELS AND RISK FACTORS OF BREAST FEEDING IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF TAKESTAN-INTRODUCING SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Eshraghian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by using the Survival models, survival functions for the time from birth to the event of using formula (i.e. the time that baby in fed by breast milk in urban and rural areas of Takestan (Iran, Winter 1998 are reported. Later the relation between the mentioned time and some factors are also discussed. The Kaplan-Meire Method and Cox Regression are used in this paper as well. 480 babies from urban areas and 720 from rural areas were chosen to be included in this research. It was shown that 7.7% of babies in urban and 6.5% in rural areas were fed by formula. The mean time of feeding by breast milk, before using formula, in urban and rural areas was 2.5 and 2 months, respectively. It was also shown that the survival functions of time that a baby fed by breast milk was not significantly different in urban and rural areas (P=0.50. The survival functions of the mentioned time in different sexes for both urban (P = 0.62 and rural (P = 0.62 areas were not significantly different. It was also shown that in urban areas the discussed survival functions were significantly different. In different mother's age groups (P = 0.03 and in groups of mothers with and without a job (P = 0.0001. Cox Regression showed that the hazard of a baby, belonged to a mother whit a job, being fed by formula was 6.31 times of a baby, belonged to a mother without a job. It also showed that the babies of older mothers were more at risk of being fed by formula. The mean time of using breast milk for mothers with and without a job was 17 and 23 months, respectively.

  19. Evaluating Vulnerability and Resilience between Urban and Rural Area in a Regional Water Resources System under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.; Tsao, J. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To the threat of climate change, the risk of water resources vary in different area but the same system because of the structure of water supply system and the different sensitivity and exposure to climate for different urbanization area. For example, the urban area with high population density is sensitive to any disturbance from drought and the rural area with unpopular tap water system is insensitive to disturbance of drought but highly risk to water shortage. The resilience of water supply relies on water storage from reservoirs or lakes and water management in urban area but relies on intake from groundwater in rural area. The strategies to water resources should be considered with the water mass flow between urban and rural area. To strengthen the whole water resources system, also, it is important to find where the vulnerability from, how to reduce it and how to build up the resilience for both urban and rural area. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of water resources in different township and city but in the same system. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate risk of each township and city in a water supply system. The cause of vulnerability will be identified and discussed in both urban and rural. The strategies to reduce vulnerability of water resources for urban and rural will be proposed and discussed in this study.

  20. The Relevance of Cluster Initiatives in Rural Areas: Regional Policy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundmark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively weak performance of sparsely populated areas has been given substantial attention in many regional, national and European Union initiatives. Many rural areas are struggling with development problems such as depopulation, advanced ageing, industrial restructuring and high levels of structural unemployment. In Sweden these issues are mainly associated with the difficulties in the non-metropolitan sparsely populated areas in the northern and southeastern parts. Here, the issue of implementing general cluster policies in sparsely populated regions in order to enhance their economic development is in focus. This research includes an overview of existing Swedish regional growth and development programmes that exemplify the current regional policies. It is found that the concepts of clusters and innovation systems have become important for policy on national and regional levels of government, but the understanding of the concepts is poor. In spite of regional variations in preconditions for cluster development, there are no clear regional modifications in the interpretation of clusters as described in the documents. One conclusion is that regional and local strategies to develop businesses in sparsely populated areas would benefit from using examples from non-metropolitan regions as a point of departure rather than using experiences drawn from high-tech industries located in metropolitan areas usually referenced in the international literature. The routine use of cluster and innovation systems in policy on the regional level underlines the need for more empirically based research on the preconditions for cluster development in sparsely populated areas.

  1. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers. 54.316 Section 54.316 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.316 Rate...

  2. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study...

  3. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  4. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development - a Case Study of Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ye; Wang, Fang-min

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example, by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan's rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level. We conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan's rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008. The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high, and the equalization phenomenon o...

  5. Research on the Harmonious Development of New Rural Communities under the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of offering a definition of New Rural Communities (NRCs), the paper analyzes the values of New Rural Communities and argues that the construction of NRCs is able to contribute to the enhancement of the comprehensive agricultural production capability as well as the development of social productivity. Meanwhile the incomes of the rural residents can be boosted, which denotes the realization of a harmonious society where the achievements of China’s reform and development are shared by each citizen. Moreover, the construction of NRCs facilitates the economization of land use and thus improves the overall living standard of the residents, while helping to cut the administrative cost and promote democracy at the primary level. This paper also points out various problems arising during the construction of NRCS in China: blindly following suit in accordance with the modes of the urban communities; lack of funds, which leads to the absence of the supporting mechanisms of NRCs; vague positioning and the ensuing shortage of impetus for continued development. Finally, the paper raises the corresponding measures and suggestions: first, based on reality, make overall planning and scientific arrangement; second, the government should play the dominant role while respecting the principal position of the rural residents and introducing the market mechanism; third, increase science and technology input and attach equal importance to economic and social benefits; fourth, broaden fund-raising channels while completing the supervision mechanism.

  6. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation. PMID:25528919

  7. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  8. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  9. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  10. The performance of the expanded programme on immunization in a rural area of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel; Balcells, Reyes; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhama, Abel; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique

    2015-09-01

    Vaccines are an effective public health measure. Vaccination coverage has improved in Africa in the last decades but has still not reached WHO/UNICEF target of at least 90% first-dose coverage for vaccines in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) implemented in Mozambique in 1979. There are concerns about reliability of vaccination coverage official data from low-income countries, and inequities in vaccine administration. We randomly sampled 266 under-five years children from Taninga, a poor rural area in Southern Mozambique under a Demographic surveillance system and collected data directly from the individual national health cards when available (BCG, DTP/HepB/Hib, Polio, Measles). We also collected data on socio-economic variables through an interview. Overall, only 5% of the participants did not receive all the doses of the vaccines included in the EPI in a timely manner (overall vaccination coverage 95%, 95% CI: 93.5-95.5%). The socio-economic status was homogenously low and no differences were found between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Vaccination coverage in Taninga was very high, despite the low socio-economic status of the population. The high performance of the EPI in Taninga is an encouraging experience for achieving high vaccination coverage in low-income rural settings. PMID:26095045

  11. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ≥18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ρg = 0.48), WC (ρg = 0.47) and HDLc (ρg = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (ρg = 0.53) and HDLc (ρg = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  12. Rural Public Investment and Benefit in Sichuan’s Hilly and Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using representative sampling survey data,we take the case of roads,domestic water,irrigation facilities,clinics and schools,to give an overview of the status quo of rural public investment in Sichuan’s hilly and mountainous areas in the period 2005 -2008; conduct comprehensive analysis of public investment benefit,from the status quo of supply and demand,social benefit and villagers’ satisfaction. The results show that the social benefit arising from the construction of road projects is good,while the social benefit arising from the construction of irrigation facilities is poor; the matching effect of supply and demand of public investment is poor,especially for the investment in irrigation facilities; on the whole,villagers’ satisfaction with public investment has been promoted,but most of the villagers are still unsatisfied with the current irrigation facilities. The major capital source of rural public investment is from the government,but from the perspective of the villagers’ demand,we should further increase the public financial input.

  13. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Sant’Ana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT. Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43% and CDC-LT (19.73%. Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2 showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27% of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82% or the CDC-A traps (20.91%. Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.

  14. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  15. Treponemal infection and the outcome of pregnancy in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, A M; D'Alessandro, U; Sisay, F; Greenwood, B M

    1992-10-01

    Of 826 pregnant women studied in a rural area of The Gambia, 77 (9.3%) were seropositive for a treponemal infection (positive rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination [TPHA] test). The perinatal death rate recorded prospectively in babies of 77 seropositive women (39.0/1000 births) was less than that among babies of 720 seronegative women (77.6/1000 births; odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.57). No increase in mortality or morbidity was found among the children of 39 seropositive women compared with the children of 39 control women. Seropositivity was found in only 20 (1.1%) of 1872 children less than 14 years old residing in the same community. The finding that the babies of rural Gambian women seropositive for syphilis are not at risk of early death is of importance in determining the priority that should be given to establishing antenatal screening programs in The Gambia and neighboring communities. PMID:1527421

  16. Learning from the energetic rural area. Background report; Leren van het energieke platteland. Achtergrondrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnouts, R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Daalhuizen, F.; Farjon, H.; Pols, L.; Tekelenburg, T.; Tisma, S.; Van Veen, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Gerritsen, A.; Verburg, R. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wiering, M. [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roovers, G. [Oranjewoud, Heerenveen (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Citizens and businesses start on a regular basis, and in cooperation with the Dutch government, initiatives to improve the living environment in rural areas. In this study, 32 examples are discussed to detect issues that can be improved. The examples concern more or less successful partnerships for sustainable rural development, in which the market, citizens and civil society play a prominent role. Four issues for improvement are identified: (1) Other accents are required in laws and regulations for the living environment; (2) The Dutch government must give smart directions by means of levies and incentives; (3) A vision of the governments is essential; and (4) Towards a proactive, facilitating government [Dutch] Burgers en bedrijven nemen regelmatig samen met overheden initiatieven om de leefomgeving op het platteland te verbeteren. In deze studie zijn 32 praktijkvoorbeelden onder de loep genomen om die verbeterpunten op te sporen. Het gaat om meer of minder succesvolle samenwerkingsverbanden voor duurzame plattelandsontwikkeling, waarin marktpartijen, burgers en het maatschappelijk middenveld een vooraanstaande rol spelen. Hierbij worden vier verbeterpunten gesignaleerd: (1) Andere accenten gewenst in wet- en regelgeving voor de leefomgeving; (2) Slimmer sturen met heffingen en vergoedingen door de overheid; (3) Visie van overheden is onontbeerlijk; en (4) Naar een proactieve, faciliterende overheid.

  17. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  18. AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF A RURAL AREA OF HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS caused by Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV remains the most serious of infectious disease challenges to public health. Adolescents are exposed to the risk of being victims of HIV/AIDS, mostly because of a low level of awareness of HIV/AIDS and inadequate access to HIV prevention and treatment services. School education has been described as a ‘social vaccine’, and it can serve as a powerful preventive tool. Objective: To assess awareness of HIV/AIDS amongst adolescents of a rural area of Haryana. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. Setting: Senior Secondary Schools of a rural area of district Hisar, Haryana. Participants: 340 secondary school students. METHODOLOGY: A total of 340 students aged 11-19 years of 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th standard participated in the study. A structured pretested and predesigned questionnaire consisting of close ended questions was used to assess study subjects’ level of awareness regarding modes of transmission, preventive and curative measures of HIV/AIDS and the attitude towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, for majority of the students (91.2%, the source of information about HIV/AIDS was the television. Regarding awareness about the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS 82.4% students (58.2% boys and 24.1% girls said that it was through unprotected sex followed by sharing injections (78.5%, blood transfusion (67.6%, and from infected mother to baby (62.4%. Two hundred and eighty five (83.8% students (22.1% girls and 61.8% boys had knowledge about condoms as means of protection. The awareness regarding modes of transmission, methods of prevention and treatment was found to be significantly higher among boys as compared to girls (P <.001. CONCLUSION: There is need for developing programmes to spread awareness and to induce behavioral changes among the adolescents especially

  19. Urban and rural ultrafine (PM{sub 0.1}) particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Korhonen, Christina H.; Hillamo, Risto E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, Paeivi; Koskentalo, Tarja [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Maenhaut, Willy [Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In June 1996-June 1997 Berner low-pressure impactors were used at an urban and at a rural site in the Helsinki area for sampling ultrafine particles (UFP, PM{sub 0.1}). Ten samples pairs, each pair measured simultaneously, were collected in the size range of 0.03-15{mu}m of particle aerodynamic diameter. More than 40 chemical components were measured. Surprisingly, the average UFP mass concentration was higher at the rural site (520ng/m{sup 3}) than at the urban site (490ng/m{sup 3}). The average chemical composition of UFP was similar at the two sites. The most abundant of the measured components were sulphate (32 and 40ng/m{sup 3} for the urban and rural sites, respectively), ammonium (22 and 25ng/m{sup 3}), nitrate (4 and 11ng/m{sup 3}) and the Ca{sup 2+} ion (5 and 7ng/m{sup 3}). The most important metals at both sites were Ca, Na, Fe, K and Zn with concentrations between 0.7 and 5ng/m{sup 3}. Of the heavy metals, Ni, V, Cu, and Pb were important with average ultrafine concentrations between about 0.1 and 0.2ng/m{sup 3}. Also the organic anions oxalate (urban 2.1ng/m{sup 3} and rural 1.9ng/m{sup 3}) and methanesulphonate (1.3 and 1.7ng/m{sup 3}) contributed similarly at both sites. The measured species accounted for only about 15-20% of the total ultrafine mass. The fraction that was not measured includes mainly carbonaceous material and water. It was estimated that the amount of water was about 10% (50ng/m{sup 3}) and that of carbonaceous material about 70% (350ng/m{sup 3}) at both sites. Aitken modes were observed for most components with the average mass mean mode diameters being between about 0.06 and 0.12{mu}m. The average concentrations in the Aitken mode differed from those in the UFP for several components. The average contributions of ultrafine mass to the fine particle mass (PM{sub 2.5}) was about 7% at the urban site and 8.5% at the rural site. At both sites the contribution of ultrafine to fine was especially high for Se, Ag, B and Ni (10-20%) and

  20. Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

  1. Paths for the Coordinated Development of Rural Economy and Environment in Economically Underdeveloped Areas—A Case of Huaian, China

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ai-xiang

    2010-01-01

    Taking Huaian as an example, the rural economic and environmental problems in economically underdeveloped areas are expounded. The results show that rural areas in economically underdeveloped areas confront with lagged economic development, serious environmental pollution and scarce shortage of equipments for treating environmental pollution. The causes of these economic and environmental problems are analyzed, including inadequate fiscal support from the local government; unscientific system...

  2. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  3. [Old and immobile in rural areas? Limited mobility of the elderly in the context of increasingly problematic health care in rural regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, F; Köhler, K; Nowossadeck, E

    2013-10-01

    Against the background of considerable population ageing processes in rural areas, it is expected that access to the health care system in these regions will deteriorate. Within this context, the question arises as to whether elderly people have the ability to overcome increasing distances in order to receive adequate medical care. Hence the objective of this study is an in-depth analysis of the everyday mobility of elderly people living in rural areas. The empirical analysis is based on the German National Travel Survey "Mobilität in Deutschland 2008". Findings show that older women in particular experience limitations in their mobility options. Only 63% of mobility-impaired women (aged > 75 years) were mobile outside their homes, and only 37% had access to a car, which can be regarded as the crucial factor for being mobile. It follows that older and mobility-impaired women have to cope with everyday life under difficult conditions. In the context of the growing problem of access to the health care system in rural areas, the challenge is to ensure adequate primary health care for a large proportion of the immobile elderly. PMID:23990013

  4. Are Central Africa′s Protected Areas Displacing Hundreds of Thousands of Rural Poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing debate over the impacts of protected areas on rural communities in central Africa has become increasingly polarized in recent years, even as definitions of displacement have shifted from outright expulsion to economic dislocation precipitated by lost access to natural resources. Although forcible removal of communities to make way for the creation of National Parks has certainly occurred in the past in some parts of the world, we contend that not a single individual has been physically removed from any of the protected areas created in central Africa over the past decade, despite claims to the contrary of hundreds of thousands of "conservation refugees." Furthermore, we recognize that a scarcity of data precludes impartial evaluation of the potential impacts of economic displacement of local communities living adjacent to protected areas, and we call for a concerted effort by conservationists and the social scientists who criticize conservation efforts, in order to measure the effects of protected areas on livelihoods, and to work towards a more socially responsible conservation paradigm.

  5. Degradation of mangroves adversely affected ecosystem and rural inhabitant in the Sindh's coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangroves the ecological treasure of Sindh, are facing a steady decline due to in active Government policies and lack of interest of local people. Mangroves provide important breeding Zone of to the marine biodiversity because of the reduction of silt flows, the area of active growth of delta, has been reduced from an original estimate of 2600 sq km to about 260 sq km. Similarly, the area of Mangroves from 345,000 hectares, the area is now only 205000 hectares. Pakistani Mangroves rank 6th among the mangroves spread in 92 countries. Mangroves forests act as inter face b/w land and sea. It provides nutrients to marine fisheries and is vital healthy Ecosystem. During past 50 years, nearly 100,000 hectares have been destroyed. The destruction is quite high from 1975 to 1992. It is due to water shortage in the river Indus. Degradation of mangroves adversely affected ecosystem and rural inhabitant in the coastal area. Thus to find root causes of degradation and its effects this study was made. (author)

  6. A study on immigration from rural to urban areas and the adaptation process of immigrants: Van example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Etlan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, events terror which occurred in the region after 1980 and the migrations due to the effects of these events the socio-cultural and economic conditions of immigrants their adaptation to the city other problems was analyzed. Acceleration in the migrations from rural to urban areas in Van coincides with the years after 1980. The insecure environment and the broken economic balance has made rural are completely unpopular and repulsive. In this process, one of the cities which people leaving from rural areas chose to live first was Van.Screening method was used in the study. For this purpose a poll of 50 questions was prepared. The poll constituted with 4 parts for measuring the immigrants demographic, social-cultural and economic aspects and their adaptation process. The poll was applied to 290 subjects from 7 quarters where immigrants live intensely, and SPSS program was used in their evaluation.Immigrants usually come from the rural areas of Hakkari, Siirt, Bitlis and Van and are settled in sub-urban neighborhoods. The urban infrastructure problems which had already existed previously became much more complicated in the city with migrations. In addition, migrations caused many social-cultural an economic problem in the city. The immigrants who brought with themselves their own culture and lifestyles transformed the city into a village with the slums they constructed. Though they got rid of their rural habits, they still could not become accustomed to the civic environment.

  7. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  8. Stake holder pre-involvement in the post accident management of rural areas: a government perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 NRPB published an assessment of the applicability of a range of agricultural countermeasures for use in the UK. The study recommended that, for the purposes of contingency planning, a working group should be set up to bring together key groups that would be involved in intervention in -rural areas following a nuclear accident. This idea was taken forward by Government and in 1997 the Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group was established. Participation is at a senior level by those involved in making policy decisions. The original membership has been expanded, and of the 22 representatives, 11 are currently from non-Government Organisations. The Group has met on five occasions and has successfully addressed all of its four terms of reference. From 2001 it will form the UK node of a European network of similar stakeholder groups being set up in Finland, France, Belgium and Greece. (author)

  9. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi......-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years...... only. Results: Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P < 0.17). Days in supportive housing were lower for the ACT group before baseline...

  10. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  11. Helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papdopoulos, H; Himonas, C; Papazahariadou, M; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K

    1997-09-01

    Twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in Greece. Of the 314 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species Mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species Uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and Toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. Five cestode and three nematode species were reported from six wolves (CaniS lupus), together with one trematode, three cestode and four nematode species from five jackals (Canis aureus) and two cestode and three nematode species from four wild cats (Felis silvestris) examined. The species J. echinorhynchoides, Taenia crassiceps and Onicola canis and the genera Spirometra, Rictularia and Pachysentis are reported here for the first time in Greece. The results are discussed in the light of the feeding characteristics of wild carnivores in rural areas of Greece. PMID:9705680

  12. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively. PMID:27099705

  13. Study of uncorrected refractory error, cataract and selected diseases of eye in urban and rural area near Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrof Raja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractory error and cataract are leading causes of preventable blindness in India. Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors associated with uncorrected refractory error, cataract and selected eye diseases in urban and rural area near Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas near Chennai during May–August 2009. EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and individuals in age group 5–70 years were selected with 450 subjects in both areas. Detail ophthalmic examination was done and socio-economic history for risk factors was obtained by trained interviewer. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0 software. To compare data sets chi-square test was used and Odds ratios calculated to assess association of risk factor. Results: 33.3% of the rural population had uncorrected refractory error as compared to 22.2% urban population (p<0.001; 24.2% rural population were having cataract compared to 13.1% urban population (p<0.001. Prevalence of pterygium and external hordeolum were 3% and 1% among total study population. Prevalence of internal hordeolum, corneal opacity and blepharitis were less than 1%. Subjects residing in rural area with low standard of living and using wood or cow-dung as cooking fuel were at significant higher risk of developing cataract (OR:2.43 and 2.88 respectively. They were also at significant higher risk of having refractory error (OR: 2.35 for low standard of living and 2.08 for wood or cow-dung as cooking fuel. Conclusion: Prevalence of uncorrected refractory error and cataract was high especially in rural area in the present study.

  14. Turismo rural y expansion urbanística en areas de interior. Análisis socioespacial de riesgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is generally recognized as a booster for sustainable development of inland areas, but two researchactions would be necessary in advance: a local diagnosis of touristic processes and a risk assessment for those processes in affected areas. This article concerns the sociological and spatial risk analysis of urban sprawl in rural areas. As a case study, 29 municipalities in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (formed as a “comarca”, North of Huelva province are considered. Urban sprawl has been identified by specific literature as a threat for sustainable development in touristic areas, in coastal zones and in rural areas too. Based on the results of previous diagnosis, and the literature on socioenvironmental risks and impacts of residential tourism, two specific risk indicators are selected and analysed, in relation to local touristic models.El turismo rural es reconocido en Europa como un factor de desarrollo sostenible para las áreas de interior, secularmente deprimidas. Su éxito como tal va a depender de un diagnóstico a tiempo de sus procesos y de la evaluación de los riesgos que afectan a las áreas en las que aquellos se manifiesten. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis sociológico y espacial de los riesgos que la expansión urbanística en áreas de interior puede suponer para su desarrollo sostenible por medio del turismo rural. Como estudio de caso, se toman 29 municipios del suroeste de la península ibérica, conformados como comarca en el borde norte de la provincia de Huelva. A partir de los resultados de diagnósticos previos, y de la literatura sobre riesgos e impactos socioambientales del turismo residencial, se seleccionan dos indicadores de riesgo y se analiza su comportamiento en los modelos turístico-rurales existentes en la zona.

  15. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON RURAL BUYERS' PERCEPTION TOWARDS SELECTED BRANDS OF CONTRACEPTIVES (WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL AREAS OF UJJAIN DISTRICT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; MEHTA Naveen

    2012-01-01

    The biggest problem in the fast growth Indian economy is country's growing population. With a population of over a billion, India needs an inclusive family planning program and awareness campaign towards the use of contraceptives. The use of appropriate contraceptive product reduces the probability of a pregnancy occurring due to sexual intercourse. Marketing of contraceptives to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners, ...

  16. Diagnostics barriers and innovations in rural areas: insights from junior medical doctors on the frontlines of rural care in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia Fiorella; Pajuelo Travezaño, Monica Jehnny; Correa, Malena; Mayta Malpartida, Holger; Oberhelman, Richard; Murphy, Laura L.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, rural communities face barriers when accessing health services. In response, numerous initiatives have focused on fostering technological innovations, new management approaches and health policies. Research suggests that the most successful innovations are those involving stakeholders at all levels. However, there is little evidence exploring the opinions of local health providers that could contribute with further innovation development and research. The aims of this st...

  17. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  18. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouk, Luana C.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Biase, Gabriel E.V.; Antunes Junior, Osmar R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Peres, Jayme A. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  19. Concentrations of PAHs and other gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere of a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Ivana; Pehnec, Gordana; Šišović, Anica; Vađić, Vladimira; Davila, Silvije; Godec, Ranka

    2016-07-28

    In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to PM10 particles were measured in a Croatian rural area. Considering that by now only a limited number of studies have provided data on pollutant concentrations for rural areas, our aim was to do so by determining the PAH levels, their mutagenic effect and relationship with meteorological conditions and other gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NH3). In this investigation, samples of PM10 particles were collected on quartz filters for 1 month in the cold period and 1 month in the warm period of the year, 24 h a day. Diagnostic PAH concentration ratios and factor analysis were used as tools to identify and characterize the PAH sources. The PAHs found in the warm period of the year were characteristic for car exhaust emissions while the predominant source of these pollutants in the cold period was wood burning. The measurements showed much higher average concentrations of all PAHs in the cold period, most pronounced for fluoranthene 0.347 ng m(-3) and pyrene 0.223 ng m(-3). Mass concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in the cold period ranged from 0.057 to 1.526 ng m(-3), while in the warm period they varied from 0.009 to 0.111 ng m(-3). Mutagenicity related to BaP (BaPMeq) was significantly higher during the cold period (1.095 ng m(-3)) than in the warm period (0.101 ng m(-3)). PMID:27128984

  20. Diabetes prevalence and its risk factors in rural area of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu, covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian diabetes risk score. Results: 1936 respondents comprising 1167 (60.27% females and 769 (39.73% males were studied. Majority 1203 (62.50% were Hindus. 1220 (63.% had studied up to higher secondary. 1200 (62% belonged to lower and lower-middle socio-economic class. A large number of the subjects 948 (50% were below 35 years of age. Most of the respondents 1411 (73% indulged in mild to moderate physical activity. 1715 (87.91% had no family history of diabetes mellitus. 750 (39.64% individuals were in the overweight category (>25 BMI. Out of these overweight persons, 64% had high diabetic risk score. It is observed that chances of high diabetic score increase with the increase in BMI. Prevalence of diabetes in studied population was 5.99%; out of these, 56% known cases of diabetes mellitus had high (>60 IDRS. Co-relation between BMI and IDRS shows that, if BMI increases from less than 18.50 to more than 30, chances of high risk for developing diabetes mellitus also significantly increase. Conclusion: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk diabetic subjects in India. This simplified diabetes risk score has categorized the risk factors based on their severity. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for undiagnosed diabetes in India more cost effective.

  1. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. A camp-based approach was followed in the diabetes screening conducted in rural areas. Blood glucose measurements were obtained after informed consent by trained staff using a reflectance photometer instrument. Descriptive statistics, distribution curves, log transformations, and tests for bimodality were obtained. Results: 45,318 participants consisting of 44.4% males and 55.6% females were screened. Ages ranged from 18 to 98 years with the mean age of 39.9 ± 14.44 years. 86.5% were normal (random blood sugar [RBS] 200 mg/dl. The median blood glucose level steadily rose with increasing age. The prediabetic to diabetic ratio was 4:1. The distribution curve of RBS was right skewed. A log transformation was applied, and bimodality was tested using the Hartigan′s dip test. The dip statistic (D was 0.0162 with a simulated P < 0.001. Conclusion: Mass screening for diabetes provides benefits from a clinical standpoint by helping to estimate the prevalence (diabetes and the hidden burden of the disease (prediabetes. Screening programs can strengthen healthcare system initiatives and reduce the growing burden of diabetes in India.

  2. Magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas in Benin: findings from a nationwide steps survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessito Corine Nadège Houehanou

    Full Text Available To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin.Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models.Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI: 27.4, 32.5 and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5 respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender. Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4 and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7, p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5 and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4 and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6, p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups.According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive

  3. Can curriculum innovations create incentives for young veterinarians to practise in remote rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P

    2009-08-01

    Research on the problem of decreasing numbers of rural veterinarians has identified that rural practice employment periods following graduation are getting shorter and replacing the graduates who leave is becoming increasingly difficult. One way of addressing these problems would be to develop a Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) curriculum that motivates young graduates to seek work in rural and remote communities and ensures they are more 'practice-ready' as soon as they leave university and start working. Developments in a series of curriculum initiatives to address this strategy are discussed, including: encouraging deeper learning in livestock health and production, provision of extramural rotations in rural locations in the final year, offering opportunities to study abroad and emphasising the global impact of farm animal medicine, developing rural support enhancements for students on rural placements, and adjusting admission requirements to increase access for rural students. PMID:20128480

  4. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level. PMID:26936476

  5. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  6. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  7. Differential nest-defense to perceived danger in urban and rural areas by female Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Tomas; Yosef, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of wildlife to humans is known to differ with surroundings. In urban environments that provide suitable habitats for breeding birds, animals adapt to humans and their response is accordingly altered. This study examined the nest defense behavior of female Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) during the breeding season in urban and rural areas of Prague. The females showed four different types of reaction to humans that approached the nest and differed significantly between the two study areas. Contrary to expectations, urban nesting females were more aggressive than rural conspecifics. The intensity of response increased as the season progressed, and females defended their broods to a much greater degree than their clutches in both urban and rural habitats, suggesting a differential effort as a function of their relative investment in the breeding attempt conforming with the parental investment hypothesis. PMID:27441105

  8. Differential nest-defense to perceived danger in urban and rural areas by female Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of wildlife to humans is known to differ with surroundings. In urban environments that provide suitable habitats for breeding birds, animals adapt to humans and their response is accordingly altered. This study examined the nest defense behavior of female Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) during the breeding season in urban and rural areas of Prague. The females showed four different types of reaction to humans that approached the nest and differed significantly between the two study areas. Contrary to expectations, urban nesting females were more aggressive than rural conspecifics. The intensity of response increased as the season progressed, and females defended their broods to a much greater degree than their clutches in both urban and rural habitats, suggesting a differential effort as a function of their relative investment in the breeding attempt conforming with the parental investment hypothesis. PMID:27441105

  9. Geographic Elevation, Car Driving, and Depression among Elderly Residents in Rural Areas: The Shimane CoHRE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, it is difficult for elderly non-drivers to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to mental health. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association in a rural area. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between car driving (being a driver or not) and depression, as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in the town of Ohnan located in a rural area of Japan. After excluding participants with missing data (n = 26), 876 participants were analysed in this study. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a non-driver had a significantly higher odds ratio of SDS (40+) among elderly people living at a low elevation (odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.71). However, similar findings were not observed among elderly people living at a high elevation. These results suggest that car driving importantly predicts depression in elderly people living at relatively low elevations in rural areas. PMID:27455292

  10. Geographic Elevation, Car Driving, and Depression among Elderly Residents in Rural Areas: The Shimane CoHRE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, it is difficult for elderly non-drivers to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to mental health. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association in a rural area. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between car driving (being a driver or not) and depression, as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in the town of Ohnan located in a rural area of Japan. After excluding participants with missing data (n = 26), 876 participants were analysed in this study. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a non-driver had a significantly higher odds ratio of SDS (40+) among elderly people living at a low elevation (odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.28–3.71). However, similar findings were not observed among elderly people living at a high elevation. These results suggest that car driving importantly predicts depression in elderly people living at relatively low elevations in rural areas. PMID:27455292

  11. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  12. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas.Design: Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS ma...

  13. Seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyun-Gu; Choi, Minkyu; Sunwoo, Young

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in both rural (Ansung) and urban (Seoul) areas in Korea from July, 1999 to May, 2000. The chemicals measured in this study include heptachlor, chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and endosulfan. Endosulfan and α-HCH, with values of a few 100s to 1000s of pg m -3, were found to have higher concentrations than other compounds in both areas. Most OCPs showed higher concentrations in Ansung, with many potential sources, such as contaminated surfaces, relative to Seoul. The maximum and minimum concentrations of OCPs at both sites occurred in summer and winter, respectively. It can be partly explained by the variation of temperature. The correlation between atmospheric concentration and temperature was observed using Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots. The CC plots for most OCPs in both areas showed good linearity and steep slopes. It is hence inferred that their atmospheric concentrations might be mostly affected by re-volatilization from surfaces of local surroundings at the sampling sites.

  14. Escherichia coli O157: comparing awareness of rural residents and visitors in livestock farming areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C D R; Hunter, C; Williams, A P; Strachan, N J C; Cross, P

    2011-10-01

    This research compared public opinions about Escherichia coli O157 (an increasing environmental hazard associated with livestock) in two farming areas with contrasting incidence of E. coli O157 disease. A questionnaire was administered in rural Grampian (10·8 cases/100,000 population per year) and North Wales (2·5 cases/100,000 population per year). Awareness was highest among farmers in Grampian (91%) and lowest among visitors to both areas (28%). Respondents were more likely to indicate vomiting (76%) than bloody diarrhoea (48%) as a common symptom. Undercooked meat and contact with farm animal faeces were identified by 60% of all respondents as risk factors who described 'basic hygiene' for risk reduction indoors. Visitors view E. coli O157 as a food hazard, not an environmental hazard that produces vomiting not dysentery. Efforts to reduce human infections in livestock farming areas could be improved with proximate reminders for visitors of the environmental pathway of E. coli O157 infection. PMID:21211111

  15. Tourism and new governance structures, a relation with potential to develop depressed rural areas: the example of the municipality of Almeida (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fernando Pereira da; Ramos, Rui A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in Portugal some rural areas are facing the challenges resulting from the reform of traditional economic activities and new markets’ characteristics. These challenges promote new local development policies that result in mobilising local resources and in expanding rural activities. In this context, tourism is considered, in many cases, a key sector for the economic growth of these territories. In rural areas tourism can include different types of tourist activiti...

  16. Implications of Overseas Farmland Financial Development for Financial Service Innovation in China’s Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng; SU; Hongjuan; LI

    2015-01-01

    Currently,there are many problems requiring to be solved urgently in the rural economic development in China,including farmers’ difficulties in getting loans,difficulties in agricultural financing of small and medium-sized enterprises,disconnection of funds chain and serious information asymmetry.The roots of these problems are inadequate financial support and single as well as backward service pattern.The development of rural economy and improvement of farmers’ life depend in large measure upon rural financial service system.Rural financial business system in western developed countries mainly consists of policy finance,cooperative finance and commercial finance[1].Development of land finance provides powerful fund circulation for rural finance.Western countries have relatively advanced legal systems and policies for rural financial support with land mortgage and land guarantee as the main methods,which can be used as reference,such as construction of rural financial system,innovation of rural financial service as well as supervision and control of rural financial risks.Through introducing relevant features of foreign farmland finance,this article discusses service innovation in the reform of China’s rural financial system.

  17. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: radiation exposure and remediation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N; Grebenshikova, N; Isamov, N; Lazarev, N; Panov, A; Ulanovsky, A; Zhuchenko, Y; Zhurba, M

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of

  18. Capacity building for the effective adoption of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Experience of India NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, R. [Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA), New Delhi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The experience of NGO network in the promotions of biogas and other low cost RET gadgets, devices, equipments and machines in the rural areas of India, for over two decades, have shown that there are serveral problems yet challenging opportunities in the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies in villages. First of all, the field and extension organizations should recognise that these technologies are new and aliens to the rural people, therefore like any other technologies, developed outside the rural environment, RETs are first view with skepticism by the rural community. Even if 100 units of a RE technology are successfully demonstrated, failure of even one could create negative impact within a radius of 30-50 KMs, and its shortcomings are spread like a wild fire. The appropriate technology demonstration backed by systematic capacity building of different stakeholders/actors/players (i.e. Energy Producers, Energy Service Providers and the Energy End Users) is a must for the acceptance and large-scale adoption of RETs in rural areas of the developing countries. The programme funds for the promotion and implementation of RETs should have good percentage earmarked for the capacity building as well as supporting infrastructure for awareness, motivation, promotional and post installation services activities by local field level organizations and NGOs on a long term basis. (orig.)

  19. To Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization---Research on the Construction and Planning of Metropolitan Suburban Rural Tourism Scenic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyue LlU; Kaiyu Ll; Qianqian TANG; Lei WANG; Yan Ll

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between rurality and urbanization, tradition and modernity, in-dustry and environmental resource in the rural tourism have become major difficul-ties of its sustainable development in China. This paper analyzed the characteristics and difficult situations of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, put forward four kinds of region-city functions in the development of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, and researched on the construction of rural tourism scenic areas in metropolis sub-urb—"to Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization"—as the fol owing as-pects :the space organization mode, localization, social organization and manage-ment , the product organization and spatial planning modes and contents.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater quality in rural-areas of northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe Extension Planning Area in Mzimba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Matamula, Swithern; Nakoma, Oliver; Chawinga, Charles B. J.

    2016-06-01

    Many people in in the Sub-Saharan region rely on groundwater for drinking and other household uses. Despite this significance, information on the chemical composition of the water in the boreholes and emperical data on groundwater quality is limited in some rural areas of Malawi. This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of water from boreholes (n = 20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. The water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate (NO3-), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate (SO42-). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and standard procedures. The results were compared with national (Malawi Bureau of Standards - MBS) and international standards (World Health Organization - WHO) for drinking water. The following ranges were obtained: pH (6.00-7.80), EC (437-3128 μS/cm), turbidity (0.10-5.80 NTU), water temperature (27.0-30.60 °C), NO3- (0.30-30.00 mg/L), F- (0.10-8.10 mg/L), Mg (31.00-91.00 mg/L), Ca (20.00-197.10 mg/L), SO42- (10.20-190 mg/L), Fe (0.10-3.60 mg/L) and Zn (0.00-5.10 mg/L). Generally, some parameters tested at several sites (>80%, n = 20) complied with both MBS and WHO limits. No significant differences (p > 0.05) was observed for most parameters (>65%, n = 11). Groundwater contamination was not significant in the area despite some parameters like F-, Ca and SO42- showing higher levels at other sites. Some sites registered very hard water (244.60-757.80 mg/L CaCO3) probably due to mineralization influenced by underground rock material. Further studies are needed to ascertain the groundwater quality of other parameters (like F-, and SO42-) which registered higher levels at some sites. Routine monitoring of the