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Sample records for area protein patterning

  1. Large-Area Protein Patterns Generated by Ordered Binary Colloidal Assemblies as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Gohri, Vipul; Pillai, Saju;

    2011-01-01

    .10 to 0.50. This allows masks with variable morphology and thus production of chemical patterns of tunable geometry. Finally, the Au or SiO(2) regions of the pattern are surface modified with protein resistant oligoethyleneglycol self-assembled molecules, which facilitates site selective adsorption......We demonstrate the use of binary colloidal assemblies as lithographic masks to generate tunable Au patterns on SiO(2) substrates with dimensions ranging from micrometers to nanometers. Such patterns can be modified with different chemistries to create patterns with well-defined sites for selective...... adsorption of proteins, where the pattern size and spacing is adjustable depending on particle choice. In our system, the binary colloidal assemblies contain large and small particles of similar or different material and are self-assembled from dilute dispersions with particle size ratios ranging from 0...

  2. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Nahrevanian; Jafar Gholizadeh; Mahin Farahmand; Mehdi Assmar

    2008-01-01

    In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produce...

  3. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nahrevanian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP and nitric oxide (NO are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman and Northwestern (NW provinces (Ardabil. The results indicated that CRP and NO are produced in all malaria endemic areas of Iran. In addition, more CRP and NO positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. A variable co-association of CRP/NO production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. The percentage of CRP/NO positive cases was observed to be lower in NW compare to SE region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the NW (Plasmodium vivax with SE area (P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection. The fluctuations in CRP/NO induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. Although, CRP/NO may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.

  4. Geometry-induced protein pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-19

    Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern formation? Current models invoke mechanisms based on dynamic instabilities arising from nonlinear interactions between proteins but neglect the influence of the spatial geometry itself. Here, we show that patterns can emerge as a direct result of adaptation to cell geometry, in the absence of dynamical instability. We present a generic reaction module that allows protein densities robustly to adapt to the symmetry of the spatial geometry. The key component is an NTPase protein that cycles between nucleotide-dependent membrane-bound and cytosolic states. For elongated cells, we find that the protein dynamics generically leads to a bipolar pattern, which vanishes as the geometry becomes spherically symmetrical. We show that such a reaction module facilitates universal adaptation to cell geometry by sensing the local ratio of membrane area to cytosolic volume. This sensing mechanism is controlled by the membrane affinities of the different states. We apply the theory to explain AtMinD bipolar patterns in [Formula: see text] EcMinDE Escherichia coli. Due to its generic nature, the mechanism could also serve as a hitherto-unrecognized spatial template in many other bacterial systems. Moreover, the robustness of the mechanism enables self-organized optimization of protein patterns by evolutionary processes. Finally, the proposed module can be used to establish geometry-sensitive protein gradients in synthetic biological systems. PMID:26739566

  5. Geometry-induced protein pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-19

    Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern formation? Current models invoke mechanisms based on dynamic instabilities arising from nonlinear interactions between proteins but neglect the influence of the spatial geometry itself. Here, we show that patterns can emerge as a direct result of adaptation to cell geometry, in the absence of dynamical instability. We present a generic reaction module that allows protein densities robustly to adapt to the symmetry of the spatial geometry. The key component is an NTPase protein that cycles between nucleotide-dependent membrane-bound and cytosolic states. For elongated cells, we find that the protein dynamics generically leads to a bipolar pattern, which vanishes as the geometry becomes spherically symmetrical. We show that such a reaction module facilitates universal adaptation to cell geometry by sensing the local ratio of membrane area to cytosolic volume. This sensing mechanism is controlled by the membrane affinities of the different states. We apply the theory to explain AtMinD bipolar patterns in [Formula: see text] EcMinDE Escherichia coli. Due to its generic nature, the mechanism could also serve as a hitherto-unrecognized spatial template in many other bacterial systems. Moreover, the robustness of the mechanism enables self-organized optimization of protein patterns by evolutionary processes. Finally, the proposed module can be used to establish geometry-sensitive protein gradients in synthetic biological systems.

  6. State-dependent pattern of Fos protein expression in regionally-specific sites within the preoptic area of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, Pablo; Benedetto, Luciana; Lagos, Patricia; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-04-24

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) is involved in the generation and maintenance of NREM sleep. However, the activity of specific populations of POA neurons during REM sleep, NREM sleep and different waking conditions is still not firmly established. Consequently, we performed a quantitative, regionally-specific analysis of the Fos immunoreactivity of neurons in the POA of the cat during NREM sleep and REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REMc), as well as during quiet and alert wakefulness. We observed that while the total number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the POA did not change as a function of these behavioral states, state-specific differences in neuronal activity were detected in restricted regions of the POA. An increase in the number of Fos+ neurons was observed in the rostral tip of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during NREM (83.4+/-25.6) compared to quiet wakefulness (5.1+/-1.3, p<0.05) but not with the other behavioral states. In the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was greater during NREM sleep (39.5+/-6.1) compared with quiet wakefulness (13.5+/-1.4, p<0.05) and REMc (16.2+/-2.0, p<0.05). State-specific Fos immunoreactive neurons were not observed in the ventro-lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Finally, there was no significant increase in the number of Fos+ neurons during REMc in any of the subregions of the POA. In conclusion, within the POA, a selective neuronal activation during NREM sleep was found only in the MnPN. In addition, our data suggest a potential role of the SCN in NREM sleep. Finally, based on the distribution of Fos+ neurons in the entire POA, we conclude that the neuronal network involved in the regulation of NREM sleep is dispersed and intermingled with waking-related neurons. PMID:19269274

  7. Single step neutravidin patterning: a lithographic approach for patterning proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sankalp; Belay, Mezigebu; Verma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Protein patterning on surfaces is studied extensively for its potential use in proteomic, nanostructures, drug delivery and sensing. Patterning of proteins at micro and nano scales is especially important not only to understand the function of patterned protein but also to study its interaction with subsequent layers of bio-molecules/cells. Micro scale protein patterning is especially difficult due to the fragile nature of proteins. The already available methods either involve complex chemistries or are specific to a few proteins. Thus, in this regard, a versatile approach to pattern proteins using neutravidin is developed. With this approach of lithography and subsequent lift-off of the photoresist, any biotinylated moiety can be patterned at micron scale resolution. Functionality of patterned neutravidin is confirmed by showing binding of biotinylated polystyrene beads and biotinylated antibodies. In addition, stronger physisorption of neutravidin on bare glass surface, as a result of acetone lift-off, helps sustain the protein layers onto the glass surface without the need of chemical immobilization. PMID:26899966

  8. Fast computation of morphological area pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2001-01-01

    An area based counterpart of the binary structural opening spectra is developed It is shown that these area opening and closing spectra can be computed using an adaptation of Tarjan's union-find algorithm These spectra provide rotation, translation, and scale invariant pattern vectors for texture an

  9. PROTEIN STRUCTURE PREDICTION BY MEANS OF SEQUENTIAL PATTERN MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Azizi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining frequent pattern is a NP-hard problem and has become a hot topic in recent researches. Moreover, protein dataset contains distinct Pattern that can be used in many areas such as drug discovery, disease prediction, etc. In early decades, pattern discovery and protein fold recognition was determined by biophysics and biochemistry approach; and X-ray and NMR have been used for protein structure prediction which are very expensive and time consuming while, a mathematical approach can reduce the cost of such laboratory experiments. Many computer based tests have been applied for the protein fold detection such as graph based algorithms and data mining viewpoints like classification or clustering, and all have their advantages and drawbacks. Pattern matching in protein sequential dataset for fold recognition plays a meaningful role in the field of bioinformatics since it evolved prediction of unknown protein function. There are lots of pattern recognition algorithms but in this work we used PrefixSpan. The reason of selecting this algorithm will be discussed below in section 2. For evaluating the result of experiments we used SCOPE dataset which is a classified protein dataset and ASTRAL, a discriminative sequential dataset of SCOPE.

  10. Geometry-induced protein pattern formation

    OpenAIRE

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Biological cells need the ability to guide intracellular processes to specific spatial locations. This requires biochemical processes to sense and adapt to the geometry of the organism. Previously suggested mechanisms either assume proteins that are able to directly sense membrane curvature or are based on nonlinear diffusion–reaction systems that can generate geometry-adapted patterns. The latter, however, requires fine-tuning of the reaction rates. Here, we show that geometry adaption alrea...

  11. Complex protein nanopatterns over large areas via colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine H; Pedersen, Gitte Albinus; Ogaki, Ryosuke;

    2013-01-01

    matrix proteins (vitronectin) or cellular ligands (the extracellular domain of E-cadherin) in the nanopatterns, whereas the selective poly(l-lysine)–poly(ethylene glycol) functionalization of the SiO2 matrix renders it protein repellent. Cell studies, as a proof of principle, demonstrate the potential...... are used to generate complex protein nanopatterns over large areas. Simple circular patches or more complex ring structures are produced in addition to hierarchical patterns of smaller patches. The gold regions are modified through alkanethiol chemistry, which enables the preparation of extracellular...

  12. DETECTION OF TOPOLOGICAL PATTERNS IN PROTEIN NETWORKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MASLOV,S.SNEPPEN,K.

    2003-11-17

    interesting property of many biological networks that was recently brought to attention of the scientific community [3, 4, 5] is an extremely broad distribution of node connectivities defined as the number of immediate neighbors of a given node in the network. While the majority of nodes have just a few edges connecting them to other nodes in the network, there exist some nodes, that we will refer to as ''hubs'', with an unusually large number of neighbors. The connectivity of the most connected hub in such a network is typically several orders of magnitude larger than the average connectivity in the network. Often the distribution of connectivities of individual nodes can be approximated by a scale-free power law form [3] in which case the network is referred to as scale-free. Among biological networks distributions of node connectivities in metabolic [4], protein interaction [5], and brain functional [6] networks can be reasonably approximated by a power law extending for several orders of magnitude. The set of connectivities of individual nodes is an example of a low-level (single-node) topological property of a network. While it answers the question about how many neighbors a given node has, it gives no information about the identity of those neighbors. It is clear that most functional properties of networks are defined at a higher topological level in the exact pattern of connections of nodes to each other. However, such multi-node connectivity patterns are rather difficult to quantify and compare between networks. In this work we concentrate on multi-node topological properties of protein networks. These networks (as any other biological networks) lack the top-down design. Instead, selective forces of biological evolution shape them from raw material provided by random events such as mutations within individual genes, and gene duplications. As a result their connections are characterized by a large degree of randomness. One may wonder which

  13. Protein surface patterning using nanoscale PEG hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Krsko, Peter; Libera, Matthew

    2004-12-01

    We have used focused electron-beam cross-linking to create nanosized hydrogels and thus present a new method with which to bring the attractive biocompatibility associated with macroscopic hydrogels into the submicron length-scale regime. Using amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) thin films on silicon substrates, we generate nanohydrogels with lateral dimensions of order 200 nm which can swell by a factor of at least five, depending on the radiative dose. With the focused electron beam, high-density arrays of such nanohydrogels can be flexibly patterned onto silicon surfaces. Significantly, the amine groups remain functional after e-beam exposure, and we show that they can be used to covalently bind proteins and other molecules. We use bovine serum albumin to amplify the number of amine groups, and we further demonstrate that different proteins can be covalently bound to different hydrogel pads on the same substrate to create multifunctional surfaces useful in emerging bio/proteomic and sensor technologies.

  14. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  15. Network based approaches reveal clustering in protein point patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joshua; Barr, Valarie; Aldridge, Joshua; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in super-resolution imaging have allowed for the sub-diffraction measurement of the spatial location of proteins on the surfaces of T-cells. The challenge is to connect these complex point patterns to the internal processes and interactions, both protein-protein and protein-membrane. We begin analyzing these patterns by forming a geometric network amongst the proteins and looking at network measures, such the degree distribution. This allows us to compare experimentally observed patterns to models. Specifically, we find that the experimental patterns differ from heterogeneous Poisson processes, highlighting an internal clustering structure. Further work will be to compare our results to simulated protein-protein interactions to determine clustering mechanisms.

  16. Chromosome driven spatial patterning of proteins in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Saberi

    Full Text Available The spatial patterning of proteins in bacteria plays an important role in many processes, from cell division to chemotaxis. In the asymmetrically dividing bacteria Caulobacter crescentus, a scaffolding protein, PopZ, localizes to both poles and aids the differential patterning of proteins between mother and daughter cells during division. Polar patterning of misfolded proteins in Escherichia coli has also been shown, and likely plays an important role in cellular ageing. Recent experiments on both of the above systems suggest that the presence of chromosome free regions along with protein multimerization may be a mechanism for driving the polar localization of proteins. We have developed a simple physical model for protein localization using only these two driving mechanisms. Our model reproduces all the observed patterns of PopZ and misfolded protein localization--from diffuse, unipolar, and bipolar patterns and can also account for the observed patterns in a variety of mutants. The model also suggests new experiments to further test the role of the chromosome in driving protein patterning, and whether such a mechanism is responsible for helping to drive the differentiation of the cell poles.

  17. Expression Pattern of Id Proteins in Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Andrew D.; Dulin-Smith, Ashley N.; Houston, Ronald H.; Durban, Ashley N.; Brisbin, Bethany J.; Oostra, Tyler D.; Marshall, Jordan T.; Basil M. Kahwash; Pierson, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are up regulated in a variety of neoplasms, particularly in association with high-grade, poorly differentiated tumors, while differentiated tissues show little or no Id expression. The four Id genes are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors and act as negative regulators of transcription by binding to and sequestering HLH complexes. We tested the hypothesis that Id proteins are overexpressed...

  18. Geometry sensing by self-organized protein patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Jakob; Loose, Martin; Bonny, Mike; Kruse, Karsten; Mönch, Ingolf; Schwille, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In the living cell, proteins are able to organize space much larger than their dimensions. In return, changes of intracellular space can influence biochemical reactions, allowing cells to sense their size and shape. Despite the possibility to reconstitute protein self-organization with only a few purified components, we still lack knowledge of how geometrical boundaries affect spatiotemporal protein patterns. Following a minimal systems approach, we used purified proteins and photolithographi...

  19. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  20. Pattern of occurrence and occupancy of carbonylation sites in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are targets for modification by reactive oxygen species, and carbonylation is an important irreversible modification that increases during oxidative stress. While information on protein carbonylation is accumulating, its pattern is not yet understood. We have made a meta-analysis of the ......Proteins are targets for modification by reactive oxygen species, and carbonylation is an important irreversible modification that increases during oxidative stress. While information on protein carbonylation is accumulating, its pattern is not yet understood. We have made a meta...... sites. Comparison of metal-catalyzed oxidation of two closely related proteins indicates that this type of carbonylation might not be very specific in proteins. Interestingly, carbonylated sites show a very strong tendency to cluster together in the protein primary sequence hinting at some sort...

  1. Elastohydrodynamics and kinetics of protein patterning in the immunological synapse

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The cellular basis for the adaptive immune response during antigen recognition relies on a specialized protein interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). Understanding the biophysical basis for protein patterning by deciphering the quantitative rules for their formation and motion is an important aspect of characterizing immune cell recognition and thence the rules for immune system activation. We propose a minimal mathematical model for the physical basis of membrane protein patterning in the IS, which encompass membrane mechanics, protein binding kinetics and motion, and fluid flow in the synaptic cleft. Our theory leads to simple predictions for the spatial and temporal scales of protein cluster formation, growth and arrest as a function of membrane stiffness, rigidity and kinetics of the adhesive proteins, and the fluid in the synaptic cleft. Numerical simulations complement these scaling laws by quantifying the nucleation, growth and stabilization of proteins domains on the size of the cell. Dire...

  2. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Keche; Radha Yegnanarayan; Shraddha Bhoyar; Rashi Agrawal; Roshani Chavan; Priyanka Mahendrakar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33), antibiotics (10.32), vitamins (14.08) and GIT ailment drugs (13.61) are most comm...

  3. Surface Functionalization for Protein and Cell Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpo, Pascal; Ruiz, Ana; Ceriotti, Laura; Rossi, François

    The interaction of biological systems with synthetic material surfaces is an important issue for many biological applications such as implanted devices, tissue engineering, cell-based sensors and assays, and more generally biologic studies performed ex vivo. To ensure reliable outcomes, the main challenge resides in the ability to design and develop surfaces or artificial micro-environment that mimic 'natural environment' in interacting with biomolecules and cells without altering their function and phenotype. At this effect, microfabrication, surface chemistry and material science play a pivotal role in the design of advanced in-vitro systems for cell culture applications. In this chapter, we discuss and describe different techniques enabling the control of cell-surface interactions, including the description of some techniques for immobilization of ligands for controlling cell-surface interactions and some methodologies for the creation of well confined cell rich areas.

  4. Geometry sensing by self-organized protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Jakob; Loose, Martin; Bonny, Mike; Kruse, Karsten; Mönch, Ingolf; Schwille, Petra

    2012-09-18

    In the living cell, proteins are able to organize space much larger than their dimensions. In return, changes of intracellular space can influence biochemical reactions, allowing cells to sense their size and shape. Despite the possibility to reconstitute protein self-organization with only a few purified components, we still lack knowledge of how geometrical boundaries affect spatiotemporal protein patterns. Following a minimal systems approach, we used purified proteins and photolithographically patterned membranes to study the influence of spatial confinement on the self-organization of the Min system, a spatial regulator of bacterial cytokinesis, in vitro. We found that the emerging protein pattern responds even to the lateral, two-dimensional geometry of the membrane such that, as in the three-dimensional cell, Min protein waves travel along the longest axis of the membrane patch. This shows that for spatial sensing the Min system does not need to be enclosed in a three-dimensional compartment. Using a computational model we quantitatively analyzed our experimental findings and identified persistent binding of MinE to the membrane as requirement for the Min system to sense geometry. Our results give insight into the interplay between geometrical confinement and biochemical patterns emerging from a nonlinear reaction-diffusion system. PMID:22949703

  5. Multistability and dynamic transitions of intracellular Min protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fabai; Halatek, Jacob; Reiter, Matthias; Kingma, Enzo; Frey, Erwin; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Cells owe their internal organization to self-organized protein patterns, which originate and adapt to growth and external stimuli via a process that is as complex as it is little understood. Here, we study the emergence, stability, and state transitions of multistable Min protein oscillation patterns in live Escherichia coli bacteria during growth up to defined large dimensions. De novo formation of patterns from homogenous starting conditions is observed and studied both experimentally and in simulations. A new theoretical approach is developed for probing pattern stability under perturbations. Quantitative experiments and simulations show that, once established, Min oscillations tolerate a large degree of intracellular heterogeneity, allowing distinctly different patterns to persist in different cells with the same geometry. Min patterns maintain their axes for hours in experiments, despite imperfections, expansion, and changes in cell shape during continuous cell growth. Transitions between multistable Min patterns are found to be rare events induced by strong intracellular perturbations. The instances of multistability studied here are the combined outcome of boundary growth and strongly nonlinear kinetics, which are characteristic of the reaction-diffusion patterns that pervade biology at many scales. PMID:27279643

  6. Modeling associated protein-DNA pattern discovery with unified scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak-Ming; Lo, Leung-Yau; Sze-To, Ho-Yin; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Xiao, Xinshu; Wong, Man-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Understanding protein-DNA interactions, specifically transcription factor (TF) and transcription factor binding site (TFBS) bindings, is crucial in deciphering gene regulation. The recent associated TF-TFBS pattern discovery combines one-sided motif discovery on both the TF and the TFBS sides. Using sequences only, it identifies the short protein-DNA binding cores available only in high-resolution 3D structures. The discovered patterns lead to promising subtype and disease analysis applications. While the related studies use either association rule mining or existing TFBS annotations, none has proposed any formal unified (both-sided) model to prioritize the top verifiable associated patterns. We propose the unified scores and develop an effective pipeline for associated TF-TFBS pattern discovery. Our stringent instance-level evaluations show that the patterns with the top unified scores match with the binding cores in 3D structures considerably better than the previous works, where up to 90 percent of the top 20 scored patterns are verified. We also introduce extended verification from literature surveys, where the high unified scores correspond to even higher verification percentage. The top scored patterns are confirmed to match the known WRKY binding cores with no available 3D structures and agree well with the top binding affinities of in vivo experiments.

  7. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  8. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  9. Identification of hot regions in protein-protein interactions by sequential pattern mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chien-Chieh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of protein interacting sites is an important task in computational molecular biology. As more and more protein sequences are deposited without available structural information, it is strongly desirable to predict protein binding regions by their sequences alone. This paper presents a pattern mining approach to tackle this problem. It is observed that a functional region of protein structures usually consists of several peptide segments linked with large wildcard regions. Thus, the proposed mining technology considers large irregular gaps when growing patterns, in order to find the residues that are simultaneously conserved but largely separated on the sequences. A derived pattern is called a cluster-like pattern since the discovered conserved residues are always grouped into several blocks, which each corresponds to a local conserved region on the protein sequence. Results The experiments conducted in this work demonstrate that the derived long patterns automatically discover the important residues that form one or several hot regions of protein-protein interactions. The methodology is evaluated by conducting experiments on the web server MAGIIC-PRO based on a well known benchmark containing 220 protein chains from 72 distinct complexes. Among the tested 218 proteins, there are 900 sequential blocks discovered, 4.25 blocks per protein chain on average. About 92% of the derived blocks are observed to be clustered in space with at least one of the other blocks, and about 66% of the blocks are found to be near the interface of protein-protein interactions. It is summarized that for about 83% of the tested proteins, at least two interacting blocks can be discovered by this approach. Conclusion This work aims to demonstrate that the important residues associated with the interface of protein-protein interactions may be automatically discovered by sequential pattern mining. The detected regions possess high

  10. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Keche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33, antibiotics (10.32, vitamins (14.08 and GIT ailment drugs (13.61 are most commonly used as self medication in rural areas. Other drugs that self medicated are: drugs for upper respiratory tract infection, antibiotics, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants and diuretics. Information about the self medication was predominantly obtained from previous prescription of doctors (64.32% and from chemists (23%. Antibiotics like macrolides, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, antihelminthics, and furazolidine were taken as self medication in rural areas. 50% of antibiotics used as self medication was associated with development of ADRs. The adverse effects reported with antibiotics self medication were: vomiting, hyperacidity, gastrointestinal discomfort. 21.13% of persons reported adverse effects with NSAIDs self medication. Adverse effects reported with analgesic use in this study were: hyperacidity, skin rashes, nausea. Conclusions: NSAIDs, antibiotics, vitamins and GIT ailment drugs are commonly self medicated in rural areas of Pune. The self medication of antibiotics is disturbing, as these are liable for drug resistance and severe ADRs and hence should be taken under supervision only. Pharmacists, key person in rural areas, can provide information about adverse effects of self medicated drugs and also can guide about proper precautions to be taken for self medication.

  11. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  12. Multivariate analysis of 2-DE protein patterns - Practical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Susanne; Grove, H.;

    2007-01-01

    , although different subsets of protein spots were selected. The explorative approach of using multivariate data analysis and variable selection in the analyses of 2-DEs seems to be promising as a fast, reliable and convenient way of screening and transforming many gel images into spot quantities.......Practical approaches to the use of multivariate data analysis of 2-DE protein patterns are demonstrated by three independent strategies for the image analysis and the multivariate analysis on the same set of 2-DE data. Four wheat varieties were selected on the basis of their baking quality. Two...

  13. Protein patterns in the oat coleoptile as influenced by auxin and by protein turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, G.W.; Cleland, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis of growth-limiting proteins is required for continued auxin-induced elongation of oat coleoptiles. In order to determine whether GLP synthesis is dependent or independent of auxin, a double-labeling ratio technique, coupled with disc-gel electrophoresis, has been used to assess the effect of auxin on the pattern of protein synthesis. Sections were peeled to enhance amino-acid uptake; proteins were labeled with (/sup 14/C)- or (/sup 3/H) leucine in the presence or absence of indole-3-acetic acid for 40 min to 6 h, and were separated into soluble, membrane-associated, and wall-associated fractions. Regardless of the conditions used, or the protein fraction examined, no changes in response to auxin were detected in the pattern or protein synthesis. In order to escape detection by this technique an auxin-induced protein would have to comprise less than 0.75% of the total newly synthesized protein. Thus the synthesis of GLP appears to be independent of auxin. The same technique has been used to follow protein turnover. During the chase, proteins are initially degraded at an average rate of 8% H/sup -1/, and some protein bands showed as much as 14% h/sup -1/ degradation. No protein was detected which had a turnover rate as rapid as the BLP.

  14. Predicting the binding patterns of hub proteins: a study using yeast protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson M Andorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions are critical to elucidating the role played by individual proteins in important biological pathways. Of particular interest are hub proteins that can interact with large numbers of partners and often play essential roles in cellular control. Depending on the number of binding sites, protein hubs can be classified at a structural level as singlish-interface hubs (SIH with one or two binding sites, or multiple-interface hubs (MIH with three or more binding sites. In terms of kinetics, hub proteins can be classified as date hubs (i.e., interact with different partners at different times or locations or party hubs (i.e., simultaneously interact with multiple partners. METHODOLOGY: Our approach works in 3 phases: Phase I classifies if a protein is likely to bind with another protein. Phase II determines if a protein-binding (PB protein is a hub. Phase III classifies PB proteins as singlish-interface versus multiple-interface hubs and date versus party hubs. At each stage, we use sequence-based predictors trained using several standard machine learning techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Our method is able to predict whether a protein is a protein-binding protein with an accuracy of 94% and a correlation coefficient of 0.87; identify hubs from non-hubs with 100% accuracy for 30% of the data; distinguish date hubs/party hubs with 69% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.68; and SIH/MIH with 89% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.84. Because our method is based on sequence information alone, it can be used even in settings where reliable protein-protein interaction data or structures of protein-protein complexes are unavailable to obtain useful insights into the functional and evolutionary characteristics of proteins and their interactions. AVAILABILITY: We provide a web server for our three-phase approach: http://hybsvm.gdcb.iastate.edu.

  15. Pbx homeodomain proteins pattern both the zebrafish retina and tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pbx genes encode TALE class homeodomain transcription factors that pattern the developing neural tube, pancreas, and blood. Within the hindbrain, Pbx cooperates with Hox proteins to regulate rhombomere segment identity. Pbx cooperates with Eng to regulate midbrain-hindbrain boundary maintenance, and with MyoD to control fast muscle cell differentiation. Although previous results have demonstrated that Pbx is required for proper eye size, functions in regulating retinal cell identity and patterning have not yet been examined. Results Analysis of retinal ganglion cell axon pathfinding and outgrowth in pbx2/4 null embryos demonstrated a key role for pbx genes in regulating neural cell behavior. To identify Pbx-dependent genes involved in regulating retino-tectal pathfinding, we conducted a microarray screen for Pbx-dependent transcripts in zebrafish, and detected genes that are specifically expressed in the eye and tectum. A subset of Pbx-dependent retinal transcripts delineate specific domains in the dorso-temporal lobe of the developing retina. Furthermore, we determined that some Pbx-dependent transcripts also require Meis1 and Gdf6a function. Since gdf6a expression is also dependent on Pbx, we propose a model in which Pbx proteins regulate expression of the growth factor gdf6a, which in turn regulates patterning of the dorso-temporal lobe of the retina. This, in concert with aberrant tectal patterning in pbx2/4 null embryos, may lead to the observed defects in RGC outgrowth. Conclusion These data define a novel role for Pbx in patterning the vertebrate retina and tectum in a manner required for proper retinal ganglion cell axon outgrowth.

  16. Pattern Formation by Electrostatic Self-Organization of Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedec, G.; Jaeger, M.; Homble, F.; Leonetti, M.

    2012-07-01

    The electric activity of biological cells and organs such as heart for example is at the origin of various phenomena of pattern formation. The electric membrane potential appears as the order parameter to characterize these spatiotemporal dynamics. A kind of patterns is characterized by a stationary spatial modulation of membrane potential along the cell, breaking a symmetry of the system. They are associated to transcellular currents. A mechanism proposed in literature is based on the coupling of the electric current produced by membrane proteins and their electrophoretic mobilities. Beyond its classical linear stability analysis, the numerical and theoretical analysis of this model offers a variety of spatiotemporal dynamics. Firstly, the background in the modelization of electric phenomena is recalled. Secondly, the analysis is focused on two nonlinear dynamics.

  17. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  18. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-01-01

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen. PMID:16342031

  19. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction using Pattern Recognition Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Nageswara Rao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are key biological molecules with diverse functions. With newer technologies producing more data (genomics, proteomics than can be annotated manually, in silico methods of predicting their structure and thereafter their function has been christened the Holy Grail of structural bioinformatics. Successful secondary structureprediction provides a starting point for direct tertiary structure modeling; in addition it improves sequence analysis and sequence-structure binding for structure and function determination. Using machine learning and data mining process, we developed a pattern recognition technique based on statistical for predicting protein secondary structure from the component amino acid sequence. By applying this technique, a performance score of Q8=72.3% was achieved. This compares well with other established techniques, such as NN-I and GOR IV which achieved Q3 scores of 64.05% and 63.19% respectively when predictions are made on single sequence alone.

  20. Concentration Dependent Ion-Protein Interaction Patterns Underlying Protein Oligomerization Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batoulis, Helena; Schmidt, Thomas H.; Weber, Pascal; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Kandt, Christian; Lang, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Salts and proteins comprise two of the basic molecular components of biological materials. Kosmotropic/chaotropic co-solvation and matching ion water affinities explain basic ionic effects on protein aggregation observed in simple solutions. However, it is unclear how these theories apply to proteins in complex biological environments and what the underlying ionic binding patterns are. Using the positive ion Ca2+ and the negatively charged membrane protein SNAP25, we studied ion effects on protein oligomerization in solution, in native membranes and in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that concentration-dependent ion-induced protein oligomerization is a fundamental chemico-physical principle applying not only to soluble but also to membrane-anchored proteins in their native environment. Oligomerization is driven by the interaction of Ca2+ ions with the carboxylate groups of aspartate and glutamate. From low up to middle concentrations, salt bridges between Ca2+ ions and two or more protein residues lead to increasingly larger oligomers, while at high concentrations oligomers disperse due to overcharging effects. The insights provide a conceptual framework at the interface of physics, chemistry and biology to explain binding of ions to charged protein surfaces on an atomistic scale, as occurring during protein solubilisation, aggregation and oligomerization both in simple solutions and membrane systems. PMID:27052788

  1. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    }E4, these kinases regulate one of the E1{sup ∧}E4 proteins main functions, the association with the cellular keratin network, and eventually also its cleavage by the protease calpain which allows assembly into amyloid-like fibres and reorganisation of the keratin network. Although the E4 proteins of different HPV types appear divergent at the level of their primary amino acid sequence, they share a recognisable modular organisation and pattern of expression, which may underlie conserved functions and regulation. Assembly into higher-order multimers and suppression of cell proliferation are common to all E4 proteins examined. Although not yet formally demonstrated, a role in virus release and transmission remains a likely function for E4. - Highlights: • E4 gene products have a modular structure, and are expressed from the E1{sup ∧}E4 spliced mRNA. • E4 proteins are modified during epithelial differentiation by phosphorylation and proteolysis. • The E4 proteins contribute to genome amplification-efficiency and virus synthesis. • E4 proteins are abundantly expressed and may facilitate efficient virus release and transmission. • High-risk E4 proteins are deposited as amyloid fibres and can be used as infection biomarkers.

  2. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    regulate one of the E1∧E4 proteins main functions, the association with the cellular keratin network, and eventually also its cleavage by the protease calpain which allows assembly into amyloid-like fibres and reorganisation of the keratin network. Although the E4 proteins of different HPV types appear divergent at the level of their primary amino acid sequence, they share a recognisable modular organisation and pattern of expression, which may underlie conserved functions and regulation. Assembly into higher-order multimers and suppression of cell proliferation are common to all E4 proteins examined. Although not yet formally demonstrated, a role in virus release and transmission remains a likely function for E4. - Highlights: • E4 gene products have a modular structure, and are expressed from the E1∧E4 spliced mRNA. • E4 proteins are modified during epithelial differentiation by phosphorylation and proteolysis. • The E4 proteins contribute to genome amplification-efficiency and virus synthesis. • E4 proteins are abundantly expressed and may facilitate efficient virus release and transmission. • High-risk E4 proteins are deposited as amyloid fibres and can be used as infection biomarkers

  3. Protein content and pattern during mucus gland maturation and its ecdysteroid control in honey bee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Colonello, Nínive; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    International audience We analyzed mucus gland protein content and pattern for drones of Africanized honey bees. The effect of exogenous ecdysteroids on mucus gland maturation was judged against the endogenous ecdysteroid titer. During the first 5 days of adult life, the mucus protein content increases steeply, whereas the protein pattern becomes reduced in complexity. Subsequently, the protein content decreases, reaching a plateau level at day 8. The protein pattern of mature glands is ch...

  4. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  5. Protein profile changes during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on protein expression patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Jian Jiang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that oocyte aging critically affects reproduction and development. By using proteomic tools, in the present study, changes in protein profiles during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on oocyte aging were investigated. By comparing control MII oocytes with aging MII oocytes, we identified 23 proteins that were up-regulated and 3 proteins that were down-regulated during the aging process. In caffeine-treated oocytes, 6 proteins were identified as up-regulated and 12 proteins were identified as down-regulated. A total of 38 differentially expressed proteins grouped into 5 regulation patterns were determined to relate to the aging and anti-aging process. By using the Gene Ontology system, we found that numerous functional gene products involved in metabolism, stress response, reactive oxygen species and cell cycle regulation were differentially expressed during the oocyte aging process, and most of these proteins are for the first time reported in our study, including 2 novel proteins. In addition, several proteins were found to be modified during oocyte aging. These data contribute new information that may be useful for future research on cellular aging and for improvement of oocyte quality.

  6. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  7. Protein patterning on polycrystalline silicon-germanium via standard UV lithography for bioMEMS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenci, S., E-mail: silvia.lenci@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, University of Pisa, Via G. Caruso 16, I-56122 Pisa (Italy); imec, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Tedeschi, L.; Domenici, C.; Lande, C. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy); Nannini, A.; Pennelli, G.; Pieri, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, University of Pisa, Via G. Caruso 16, I-56122 Pisa (Italy); Severi, S. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium)

    2010-10-12

    Polycrystalline silicon-germanium (poly-SiGe) is a promising structural material for the post-processing of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) on top of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) substrates. Combining MEMS and CMOS allows for the development of high-performance devices. We present for the first time selective protein immobilization on top of poly-SiGe surfaces, an enabling technique for the development of novel poly-SiGe based MEMS biosensors. Active regions made of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were defined using silane deposition onto photoresist patterns followed by lift-off in organic solvents. Subsequently, proteins were covalently bound on the created APTES patterns. Fluorescein-labeled human serum albumin (HSA) was used to verify the immobilization procedure while the binding capability of the protein layer was tested by an antigen-labeled antibody pair. Inspection by fluorescence microscopy showed protein immobilization inside the desired bioactive areas and low non-specific adsorption outside the APTES pattern. Furthermore, the quality of the silane patches was investigated by treatment with 30 nm-diameter gold nanoparticles and scanning electron microscope observation. The developed technique is therefore a promising first step towards the realization of poly-SiGe based biosensors.

  8. Protein patterning on polycrystalline silicon-germanium via standard UV lithography for bioMEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline silicon-germanium (poly-SiGe) is a promising structural material for the post-processing of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) on top of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) substrates. Combining MEMS and CMOS allows for the development of high-performance devices. We present for the first time selective protein immobilization on top of poly-SiGe surfaces, an enabling technique for the development of novel poly-SiGe based MEMS biosensors. Active regions made of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were defined using silane deposition onto photoresist patterns followed by lift-off in organic solvents. Subsequently, proteins were covalently bound on the created APTES patterns. Fluorescein-labeled human serum albumin (HSA) was used to verify the immobilization procedure while the binding capability of the protein layer was tested by an antigen-labeled antibody pair. Inspection by fluorescence microscopy showed protein immobilization inside the desired bioactive areas and low non-specific adsorption outside the APTES pattern. Furthermore, the quality of the silane patches was investigated by treatment with 30 nm-diameter gold nanoparticles and scanning electron microscope observation. The developed technique is therefore a promising first step towards the realization of poly-SiGe based biosensors.

  9. Protein and cell patterning in closed polymer channels by photoimmobilizing proteins on photografted poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2014-01-01

    Definable surface chemistry is essential for many applications of microfluidic polymer systems. However, small cross-section channels with a high surface to volume ratio enhance passive adsorption of molecules that depletes active molecules in solution and contaminates the channel surface. Here, we...... to greatly improve cell adhesion compared to unexposed areas. This method opens for easy surface modification of closed microfluidic systems through combining a low protein binding PEG-based coating with spatially defined protein patterns of interest....... present a one-step photochemical process to coat the inner surfaces of closed microfluidic channels with a nanometer thick layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), well known to strongly reduce non-specific adsorption, using only commercially available reagents in an aqueous environment. The coating consists...

  10. Determinants of International Competiveness Patterns in Neighboring Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix†. Data is collected from two areas: compet...

  11. Astrocytes alignment and reactivity on collagen hydrogels patterned with ECM proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tony W.; Tresco, Patrick A.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    To modulate the surface properties of collagen and subsequent cell-surface interactions, a method was developed to transfer protein patterns from glass coverslips to collagen type I hydrogel surfaces. Two proteins and one proteoglycan found in central nervous system extracellular matrix as well as fibrinogen were patterned in stripes onto collagen hydrogel and astrocytes were cultured on these surfaces. The addition of the stripe protein patterns to hydrogels created astrocyte layers in which...

  12. Model for evaluating patterned charge regulation contribution to electrostatic interactions between proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Dawn; Martini, K. Michael; Langner, Andreas; Ross, David; Harkin, Anthony; Nelson, Edward; Thurston, George

    2010-03-01

    We study the pattern-specific work of charging for two spherical model proteins in close proximity in ionic solution, using a grand-canonical partition function together with a coarse-grained, linear Debye-Huckel model to calculate the needed work of charging for each possible proton occupancy configuration. We seek to delineate a parameter-space phase diagram to characterize the circumstances under which patterned charge regulation, attractions due to heterogeneous protein charging patterns, and screened net protein charge could individually dominate the electrostatic portion of the interaction between model particles. Within the model, we place titratable residues in accordance with the tertiary protein structure, as is done in the case of a single protein within the Tanford-Kirkwood protein electrostatics model. We use Monte-Carlo simulation and analytical work to evaluate how the local statistics of the charging patterns on each protein respond to close proximity and relative orientation of neighboring proteins.

  13. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  14. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  15. Astrocytes alignment and reactivity on collagen hydrogels patterned with ECM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tony W; Tresco, Patrick A; Hlady, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    To modulate the surface properties of collagen and subsequent cell-surface interactions, a method was developed to transfer protein patterns from glass coverslips to collagen type I hydrogel surfaces. Two proteins and one proteoglycan found in central nervous system extracellular matrix as well as fibrinogen were patterned in stripes onto collagen hydrogel and astrocytes were cultured on these surfaces. The addition of the stripe protein patterns to hydrogels created astrocyte layers in which cells were aligned with underlying patterns and had reduced chondroitin sulfate expression compared to the cells grown on collagen alone. Protein patterns were covalently cross-linked to the collagen and stable over four days in culture with no visible cellular modifications. The present method can be adapted to transfer other types of protein patterns from glass coverslips to collagen hydrogels. PMID:25477179

  16. Extraction of Motif Patterns from Protein Sequences using SVD with Rough K-Means Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elayaraja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Discovering protein sequence motif information is one of the most crucial tasks in bioinformatics research. In this work, we try to obtain protein recurring patterns which are universally conserved across protein family boundaries. In order to generate higher quality protein sequence motif information from Protein Sequence Culling Server (PISCES dataset, we tried several different advanced clustering algorithms, such as hierarchical clustering, Self-Organizing Maps (SOM etc. However, since the dataset itself contains more than 6, 60,000 segments where each segment contains 180 dimensions, any clustering algorithm required more than O(n complexity is not applicable. Therefore, the very first step of our research is trying to reduce segments. The results suggest that the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD computing technique is more suits for reducing segments. After that the reduced segments are followed by applying Rough K-Means clustering algorithm. Our experiments indicate that the Rough K-Means algorithm satisfactorily increases the percentage of sequence segments belonging to clusters with high structural similarity than K-Means. The experimental results suggest that the SVD with Rough K-Means algorithm may be applied to other areas of bioinformatics research in order to explore the underlying relationships between data samples more effectively.

  17. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  18. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-08-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  19. Trehalose glycopolymer resists allow direct writing of protein patterns by electron-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat, Erhan; Lee, Juneyoung; Lau, Uland Y.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2015-03-01

    Direct-write patterning of multiple proteins on surfaces is of tremendous interest for a myriad of applications. Precise arrangement of different proteins at increasingly smaller dimensions is a fundamental challenge to apply the materials in tissue engineering, diagnostics, proteomics and biosensors. Herein, we present a new resist that protects proteins during electron-beam exposure and its application in direct-write patterning of multiple proteins. Polymers with pendant trehalose units are shown to effectively crosslink to surfaces as negative resists, while at the same time providing stabilization to proteins during the vacuum and electron-beam irradiation steps. In this manner, arbitrary patterns of several different classes of proteins such as enzymes, growth factors and immunoglobulins are realized. Utilizing the high-precision alignment capability of electron-beam lithography, surfaces with complex patterns of multiple proteins are successfully generated at the micrometre and nanometre scale without requiring cleanroom conditions.

  20. A truncation method for modelling effective antenna patterns in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, O.C.; Rijken, M.; Matic, D.; Mawira, A.

    2004-01-01

    Signal level predictions for sector antennas in mobile networks strongly depend on the antenna pattern used in the prediction tool. For built-up areas, reflections and scattering often lead to a significant energy component at the back of the antenna, and the theoretical antenna pattern does not acc

  1. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    OpenAIRE

    Moore Daniel R; Areta Jose; Coffey Vernon G; Stellingwerff Trent; Phillips Stuart M; Burke Louise M; Cléroux Marilyn; Godin Jean-Philippe; Hawley John A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8), 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7), or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8) after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exerci...

  2. Easy fabrication of thin membranes with through holes. Application to protein patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Masters

    Full Text Available Since protein patterning on 2D surfaces has emerged as an important tool in cell biology, the development of easy patterning methods has gained importance in biology labs. In this paper we present a simple, rapid and reliable technique to fabricate thin layers of UV curable polymer with through holes. These membranes are as easy to fabricate as microcontact printing stamps and can be readily used for stencil patterning. We show how this microfabrication scheme allows highly reproducible and highly homogeneous protein patterning with micron sized resolution on surfaces as large as 10 cm(2. Using these stencils, fragile proteins were patterned without loss of function in a fully hydrated state. We further demonstrate how intricate patterns of multiple proteins can be achieved by stacking the stencil membranes. We termed this approach microserigraphy.

  3. Areas of cat auditory cortex as defined by neurofilament proteins expressing SMI-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Jeffrey G; Van der Gucht, Estel; Lee, Charles C; Carrasco, Andres; Winer, Jeffery A; Lomber, Stephen G

    2010-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody SMI-32 was used to characterize and distinguish individual areas of cat auditory cortex. SMI-32 labels non-phosphorylated epitopes on the high- and medium-molecular weight subunits of neurofilament proteins in cortical pyramidal cells and dendritic trees with the most robust immunoreactivity in layers III and V. Auditory areas with unique patterns of immunoreactivity included: primary auditory cortex (AI), second auditory cortex (AII), dorsal zone (DZ), posterior auditory field (PAF), ventral posterior auditory field (VPAF), ventral auditory field (VAF), temporal cortex (T), insular cortex (IN), anterior auditory field (AAF), and the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (fAES). Unique patterns of labeling intensity, soma shape, soma size, layers of immunoreactivity, laminar distribution of dendritic arbors, and labeled cell density were identified. Features that were consistent in all areas included: layers I and IV neurons are immunonegative; nearly all immunoreactive cells are pyramidal; and immunoreactive neurons are always present in layer V. To quantify the results, the numbers of labeled cells and dendrites, as well as cell diameter, were collected and used as tools for identifying and differentiating areas. Quantification of the labeling patterns also established profiles for ten auditory areas/layers and their degree of immunoreactivity. Areal borders delineated by SMI-32 were highly correlated with tonotopically-defined areal boundaries. Overall, SMI-32 immunoreactivity can delineate ten areas of cat auditory cortex and demarcate topographic borders. The ability to distinguish auditory areas with SMI-32 is valuable for the identification of auditory cerebral areas in electrophysiological, anatomical, and/or behavioral investigations.

  4. Expression Patterns of Extracellular Matrix Proteins during Posterior Commissure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Karen; Saldivia, Natalia; Förstera, Benjamín; Torrejón, Marcela; Montecinos, Hernán; Caprile, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development. Therefore, this study assessed the molecular expression patterns of tenascin, HNK-1, laminin, fibronectin, perlecan, decorin, and osteopontin along chick embryo prosomere 1 during posterior commissure development. The posterior commissure is the first transversal axonal tract of the embryonic vertebrate brain. Located in the dorso-caudal portion of prosomere 1, posterior commissure axons primarily arise from the neurons of basal pretectal nuclei that run dorsally to the roof plate midline, where some turn toward the ipsilateral side. Expressional analysis of ECM molecules in this area these revealed to be highly arranged, and molecule interactions with axon fascicles suggested involvement in processes other than structural support. In particular, tenascin and the HNK-1 epitope extended in ventro-dorsal columns and enclosed axons during navigation to the roof plate. Laminin and osteopontin were expressed in the midline, very close to axons that at this point must decide between extending to the contralateral side or turning to the ipsilateral side. Finally, fibronectin, decorin, and perlecan appeared unrelated to axonal pathfinding in this region and were instead restricted to the external limiting membrane. In summary, the present report provides evidence for an intricate expression of different extracellular molecules that may cooperate in guiding posterior commissure axons. PMID:27733818

  5. In various protein complexes, disordered protomers have large per-residue surface areas and area of protein-, DNA- and RNA-binding interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhonghua; Hu, Gang; Yang, Jianyi; Peng, Zhenling; Uversky, Vladimir N; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-09-14

    We provide first large scale analysis of the peculiarities of surface areas of 5658 dissimilar (below 50% sequence similarity) proteins with known 3D-structures that bind to proteins, DNA or RNAs. We show here that area of the protein surface is highly correlated with the protein length. The size of the interface surface is only modestly correlated with the protein size, except for RNA-binding proteins where larger proteins are characterized by larger interfaces. Disordered proteins with disordered interfaces are characterized by significantly larger per-residue areas of their surfaces and interfaces when compared to the structured proteins. These result are applicable for proteins involved in interaction with DNA, RNA, and proteins and suggest that disordered proteins and binding regions are less compact and more likely to assume extended shape. We demonstrate that disordered protein binding residues in the interfaces of disordered proteins drive the increase in the per residue area of these interfaces. Our results can be used to predict in silico whether a given protomer from the DNA, RNA or protein complex is likely to be disordered in its unbound form.

  6. Honeycomb-patterned films of polystyrene/poly(ethylene glycol): Preparation, surface aggregation and protein adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Highly ordered honeycomb-patterned polystyrene (PS)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) films were prepared by a water-assisted method using an improved setup, which facilitated the formation of films with higher regularity, better reproducibility, and larger area of honeycomb structures. Surface aggregation of hydrophilic PEG and adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the honeycomb-patterned films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe the surface morphologies of the films before and after being rinsed with water. As confirmed by the FESEM images and the AFM phase images, PEG was enriched in the pores and could be gradually removed by water. The adsorption of fluorescence-labeled BSA on the films was studied in visual form using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Results clearly demonstrated that the protein-resistant PEG was selectively enriched in the pores. This water-assisted method may be a latent tool to prepare honeycomb-patterned biofunctional surfaces.

  7. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  8. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula; Sinvhal, Amita; Wason, Hans Raj

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recorded devastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss in terms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population and infrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya, using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29∘-36∘N and longitude 73∘-80∘E was considered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of features from seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the study area was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptible area, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most of Jammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  9. Valley Density Evaluation and Typical Development Pattern in Mountainous Areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Song-lin; ZHANG Yi-feng; WANG Kai-yong; TANG Cheng-cai; WANG Ling-en; LIU Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on geographical differences and space differentiation, valley economy is a new pattern and new perspective for the development of mountainous areas, integrating ecological protection, industrial nurture, and village integration. On the basis of natural and geographical differentiation of valley, we give an overview of the spatial distribution of valley in mountainous areas of Beijing and spatial difference in valley density, and sum up the typical development pattern of valley economy, using DEM data. The results show that the spatial distribution of valley presents an asymmetric shape of inverted V or branch; Miyun, Yanqing, and Changping have high valley density, while Pinggu, Fangshan and Mentougou have low valley density; there is a significant positive relationship between valley density and the spatial distribution of river and reservoir. The development pattern of valley economy is divided into five types: leisure and high-end upgrade-based pattern, ecological development and transition demonstration-based pattern, folk culture and creation-driven pattern, scenic spots-driven and valley-linked pattern and leisure agriculture and specialty-led pattern.

  10. Regular Patterns for Proteome-Wide Distribution of Protein Abundance across Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zhong; Dong Yang; Yunwei Hao; Chengzhao Lin; Ying Jiang; Wantao Ying; Songfeng Wu; Yunping Zhu; Siqi Liu; Pengyuan Yang; Xiaohong Qian; Fuchu He

    2012-01-01

    A proteome of the bio-entity, including cell, tissue, organ, and organism, consists of proteins of diverse abundance. The principle that determines the abundance of different proteins in a proteome is of fundamental significance for an understanding of the building blocks of the bio-entity. Here, we report three regular patterns in the proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species such as human, mouse, fly, worm, yeast, and bacteria: in most cases, protein abundance is positi...

  11. Periodic nanoscale patterning of polyelectrolytes over square centimeter areas using block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oded, Meirav; Kelly, Stephen T; Gilles, Mary K; Müller, Axel H E; Shenhar, Roy

    2016-05-18

    Nano-patterned materials are beneficial for applications such as solar cells, opto-electronics, and sensing owing to their periodic structure and high interfacial area. Here, we present a non-lithographic approach for assembling polyelectrolytes into periodic nanoscale patterns over cm(2)-scale areas. Chemically modified block copolymer thin films featuring alternating charged and neutral domains are used as patterned substrates for electrostatic self-assembly. In-depth characterization of the deposition process using spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, including the state-of-the-art scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), reveals both the selective deposition of the polyelectrolyte on the charged copolymer domains as well as gradual changes in the film topography that arise from further penetration of the solvent molecules and possibly also the polyelectrolyte into these domains. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of creating nano-patterned polyelectrolyte layers, which opens up new opportunities for structured functional coating fabrication. PMID:27104854

  12. Periodic nanoscale patterning of polyelectrolytes over square centimeter areas using block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oded, Meirav; Kelly, Stephen T; Gilles, Mary K; Müller, Axel H E; Shenhar, Roy

    2016-05-18

    Nano-patterned materials are beneficial for applications such as solar cells, opto-electronics, and sensing owing to their periodic structure and high interfacial area. Here, we present a non-lithographic approach for assembling polyelectrolytes into periodic nanoscale patterns over cm(2)-scale areas. Chemically modified block copolymer thin films featuring alternating charged and neutral domains are used as patterned substrates for electrostatic self-assembly. In-depth characterization of the deposition process using spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, including the state-of-the-art scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), reveals both the selective deposition of the polyelectrolyte on the charged copolymer domains as well as gradual changes in the film topography that arise from further penetration of the solvent molecules and possibly also the polyelectrolyte into these domains. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of creating nano-patterned polyelectrolyte layers, which opens up new opportunities for structured functional coating fabrication.

  13. Invariant patterns in crystal lattices: Implications for protein folding algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HART,WILLIAM E.; ISTRAIL,SORIN

    2000-06-01

    Crystal lattices are infinite periodic graphs that occur naturally in a variety of geometries and which are of fundamental importance in polymer science. Discrete models of protein folding use crystal lattices to define the space of protein conformations. Because various crystal lattices provide discretizations of the same physical phenomenon, it is reasonable to expect that there will exist invariants across lattices related to fundamental properties of the protein folding process. This paper considers whether performance-guaranteed approximability is such an invariant for HP lattice models. The authors define a master approximation algorithm that has provable performance guarantees provided that a specific sublattice exists within a given lattice. They describe a broad class of crystal lattices that are approximable, which further suggests that approximability is a general property of HP lattice models.

  14. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8, 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7, or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8 after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength. Whole-body protein turnover (Q, synthesis (S, breakdown (B, and net balance (NB were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g at regular intervals (~3h throughout the day.

  15. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-shi; ZHU Zhi-liang; LU Heng; XU Da; LIU An-xing; PENG Shi-kui

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns.

  16. Development of High Resolution Data for Irrigated Area and Cropping Patterns in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    K a, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Information of crop phenology and its individual effect on irrigation is essential to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes. We use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 250 m resolution for monitoring temporal changes in irrigation and cropping patterns in India. We used the obtained dataset of cropping pattern for quantifying the effect of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes by using an uncoupled land surface model. The cropping patterns are derived by using the planting, heading, harvesting, and growing dates for each agro-ecological zone separately. Moreover, we developed a high resolution irrigated area maps for the period of 1999-2014 for India. The high resolution irrigated area was compared with relatively coarse resolution (~ 10km) irrigated area from the Food and Agricultural Organization. To identify the seasonal effects we analyzed the spatial and temporal change of irrigation and cropping pattern for different temporal seasons. The new irrigation area information along with cropping pattern was used to study the water budget in India using the Noah Land surface Model (Noah LSM) for the period of 1999-2014.

  17. Unification of soil feedback patterns under different evaporation conditions to improve soil differentiation over flat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanxin; Zhu, A.-Xing; Meng, Lingkui; Burt, James E.; Du, Fei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Detailed and accurate information on the spatial variation of soil types and soil properties are critical components of environmental research and hydrological modeling. Early studies introduced a soil feedback pattern as a promising environmental covariate to predict spatial variation over low-relief areas. However, in practice, local evaporation can have a significant influence on these patterns, making them incomparable at different locations. This study aims to solve this problem by examining the concept of transforming the dynamic patterns of soil feedback from the original time-related space to a new evaporation-related space. A study area in northeastern Illinois with large low-relief farmland was selected to examine the effectiveness of this idea. Images from MODIS in Terra for every April-May period over 12 years (2000-2011) were used to extract the soil feedback patterns. Compared to the original time-related space, the results indicate that the patterns in the new evaporation-related space tend to be more stable and more easily captured from multiple rain events regardless of local evaporation conditions. Random samples selected for soil subgroups from the SSURGO soil map show that patterns in the new space reveal a difference between different soil types. And these differences in patterns are closely related to the difference in the soil structure of the surface layer.

  18. [Regional ecosecurity pattern in urban area based on land use analysis: a case study in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Xiao, Dunin; An, Shuqing

    2005-12-01

    Mid-scale regional ecosecurity, which takes practical ecosecurity issues as its priority, should be viewed as the core of the multi-scale concept of ecosecurity. For urban area, a special region taking ecological infrastructure as its core mission, the construction of regional ecosecurity pattern may provide a good chance to realize its sustainable development. Based on land use analysis, a qualitative and quantitative research on the landscape pattern, ecovalue evaluation, and driving force analysis of social economy could provide an effective approach to construct the ecosecurity pattern in urban area. This study showed that in Lanzhou, the ecosecurity pattern consisted of three parts, i.e., eco-safeguarding system, eco-buffering system and eco-percolating system, among which, eco-buffering system was the decisive part determining ecosecurity pattern construction. The quantitative analysis of urban spatial expansion pattern was taken as the decisive function to determine the security level of the ecosecurity pattern, which was divided into low, middle and high levels. PMID:16515173

  19. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula; Amita Sinvhal; Hans Raj Wason

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recordeddevastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine–Himalayanbelt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29◦–36◦N and longitude 73◦–80◦E wasconsidered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of featuresfrom seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the studyarea was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptiblearea, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most ofJammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  20. Different evolutionary patterns of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever, which is a highly contagious disease of the domestic pig as well as wild boar. The proteins E(rns), E1, and E2 are components of the viral envelope membrane. They are also implicated in virus attachment and entry, replication, and (or) anti-immune response. Here, we studied the genetic variations of these envelope proteins in the evolution of CSFV. The results reveal that the envelope proteins underwent different evolutionary fates. In E(rns) and E1, but not E2, a number of amino acid sites experienced functional divergence. Furthermore, the diversification in E(rns) and E1 was generally episodic because the divergence-related changes of E1 only occurred with the separation of 2 major groups of CSFV and that of E(rns) took place with the division of 1 major group. The major divergence-related sites of E(rns) are located on one of the substrate-binding regions of the RNase domain and C-terminal extension. These functional domains have been reported to block activation of the innate immune system and attachment and entry into host cells, respectively. Our results may shed some light on the divergent roles of the envelope proteins. PMID:26911308

  1. Topographic patterns of vascular disease: HOX proteins as determining factors?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; P; Visconti; Alexander; Awgulewitsch

    2015-01-01

    Steadily increasing evidence supports the idea that genetic diversities in the vascular bed are, in addition to hemodynamic influences, a major contributing factor in determining region-specific cardiovascular disease susceptibility. Members of the phylogenetically highly conserved Hox gene family of developmental regulators have to be viewed as prime candidates for determining these regional genetic differences in the vasculature. During embryonic patterning, the regionally distinct and precisely choreographed expression patterns of HOX transcription factors are essential for the correct specification of positional identities. Apparently, these topographic patterns are to some degree retained in certain adult tissues, including the circulatory system. While an understanding of the functional significance of these localized Hox activities in adult blood vessels is only beginning to emerge, an argument can be made for a role of Hox genes in the maintenance of vessel wall homeostasis and functional integrity on the one hand, and in regulating the development and progression of regionally restricted vascular pathologies, on the other. Initial functional studies in animal models, as well as data from clinical studies provide some level of support for this view. The data suggest that putative genetic regulatory networks of Hox-dependent cardiovascular disease processes include genes of diverse functional categories(extracellular matrix remodeling, transmembrane signaling, cell cycle control, inflammatory response, transcriptional control, etc.), as potential targets in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, as well as cell populations residing in the adventitia.

  2. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adyla Suriadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, tourist movement patterns who concentrated only in Reclamation Losari Beach needs for development of linkage at tourist attractions based on tourist movement patterns. Research method used is descriptive qualitative method with cognitive mapping technique to identify of tourist movement patterns characteristic in visiting tourist attractions at Losari Coastal Area and influence of exterior space to linkage among tourist attractions. Results from this research is determine influence of exterior space to connectivity linkage and tourist movement patterns among tourist attractions and find local criteria of exterior space which can be applied in Losari Coastal Area.

  3. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Young; Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Wolfe, Robert R; Ferrando, Arny A

    2015-01-01

    To examine whole body protein turnover and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) following ingestions of protein in mixed meals at two doses of protein and two intake patterns, 20 healthy older adult subjects (52-75 yr) participated in one of four groups in a randomized clinical trial: a level of protein intake of 0.8 g (1RDA) or 1.5 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (∼2RDA) with uneven (U: 15/20/65%) or even distribution (E: 33/33/33%) patterns of intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the day (1RDA-U, 1RDA-E, 2RDA-U, or 2RDA-E). Subjects were studied with primed continuous infusions of L-[(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(2)H2]tyrosine on day 4 following 3 days of diet habituation. Whole body protein kinetics [protein synthesis (PS), breakdown, and net balance (NB)] were expressed as changes from the fasted to the fed states. Positive NB was achieved at both protein levels, but NB was greater in 2RDA vs. 1RDA (94.8 ± 6.0 vs. 58.9 ± 4.9 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0001), without effects of distribution on NB. The greater NB was due to the higher PS with 2RDA vs. 1RDA (15.4 ± 4.8 vs. -18.0 ± 8.4 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0018). Consistent with PS, MPS was greater with 2RDA vs. 1RDA, regardless of distribution patterns. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance was greater with protein intake above recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in the context of mixed meals, without demonstrated effects of protein intake pattern, primarily through higher rates of protein synthesis at whole body and muscle levels.

  4. Sustainable development pattern and strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development pattern, development situation, and existing problems of land exploitation in Zigui County, Three Gorges Reservoir Areas of China were presented. The sustainable development mode and its strategy in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas was also discussed. A sustainable development framework for low mountain regions, middle mountain regions and high mountain regions was developed, and management countermeasures for structural optimization of complex ecosystems were advanced.

  5. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez‐Moreno, Heidi; Martínez‐Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas‐Soto, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long‐distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North...

  6. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang;

    Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...... induces reduced growth performances that remain partly unexplained. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of exchanging the protein source on protein utilization. Marine (fish meal) and vegetable (pea protein) sources were used with or without supplementation of crystalline amino...

  7. Creating two-dimensional patterned substrates for protein and cell confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M; LaFranzo, Natalie A; Maurer, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    Microcontact printing provides a rapid, highly reproducible method for the creation of well-defined patterned substrates.(1) While microcontact printing can be employed to directly print a large number of molecules, including proteins,(2) DNA,(3) and silanes,(4) the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from long chain alkane thiols on gold provides a simple way to confine proteins and cells to specific patterns containing adhesive and resistant regions. This confinement can be used to control cell morphology and is useful for examining a variety of questions in protein and cell biology. Here, we describe a general method for the creation of well-defined protein patterns for cellular studies.(5) This process involves three steps: the production of a patterned master using photolithography, the creation of a PDMS stamp, and microcontact printing of a gold-coated substrate. Once patterned, these cell culture substrates are capable of confining proteins and/or cells (primary cells or cell lines) to the pattern. The use of self-assembled monolayer chemistry allows for precise control over the patterned protein/cell adhesive regions and non-adhesive regions; this cannot be achieved using direct protein stamping. Hexadecanethiol, the long chain alkane thiol used in the microcontact printing step, produces a hydrophobic surface that readily adsorbs protein from solution. The glycol-terminated thiol, used for backfilling the non-printed regions of the substrate, creates a monolayer that is resistant to protein adsorption and therefore cell growth.(6) These thiol monomers produce highly structured monolayers that precisely define regions of the substrate that can support protein adsorption and cell growth. As a result, these substrates are useful for a wide variety of applications from the study of intercellular behavior(7) to the creation of microelectronics.(8) While other types of monolayer chemistry have been used for cell culture studies, including work from

  8. Permeability across a metropolitan area: conceptualizing and operationalizing a macrolevel crime pattern theory

    OpenAIRE

    Groff, Elizabeth R.; Ralph B Taylor; David B Elesh; Jennifer McGovern; Lallen Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The intrametropolitan relationship between municipality-level physical environment and crime changes appears to have been overlooked by crime and environment researchers. The current effort focuses on permeability; suggests dynamics whereby permeability affects changing municipality-level crime patterns across a metropolitan area; selects and operationalizes theoretically appropriate permeability indicators; and links permeability to unexpected crime changes. Data are from 355 municipalities ...

  9. UV lithography-based protein patterning on silicon: Towards the integration of bioactive surfaces and CMOS electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenci, S., E-mail: silvia.lenci@iet.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, via G.Caruso 16, Pisa I-56122 (Italy); Tedeschi, L. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy); Pieri, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, via G.Caruso 16, Pisa I-56122 (Italy); Domenici, C. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    A simple and fast methodology for protein patterning on silicon substrates is presented, providing an insight into possible issues related to the interaction between biological and microelectronic technologies. The method makes use of standard photoresist lithography and is oriented towards the implementation of biosensors containing Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) conditioning circuitry. Silicon surfaces with photoresist patterns were prepared and hydroxylated by means of resist- and CMOS backend-compatible solutions. Subsequent aminosilane deposition and resist lift-off in organic solvents resulted into well-controlled amino-terminated geometries. The discussion is focused on resist- and CMOS-compatibility problems related to the used chemicals. Some samples underwent gold nanoparticle (Au NP) labeling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, in order to investigate the quality of the silane layer. Antibodies were immobilized on other samples, which were subsequently exposed to a fluorescently labeled antigen. Fluorescence microscopy observation showed that this method provides spatially selective immobilization of protein layers onto APTES-patterned silicon samples, while preserving protein reactivity inside the desired areas and low non-specific adsorption elsewhere. Strong covalent biomolecule binding was achieved, giving stable protein layers, which allows stringent binding conditions and a good binding specificity, really useful for biosensing.

  10. UV lithography-based protein patterning on silicon: Towards the integration of bioactive surfaces and CMOS electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and fast methodology for protein patterning on silicon substrates is presented, providing an insight into possible issues related to the interaction between biological and microelectronic technologies. The method makes use of standard photoresist lithography and is oriented towards the implementation of biosensors containing Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) conditioning circuitry. Silicon surfaces with photoresist patterns were prepared and hydroxylated by means of resist- and CMOS backend-compatible solutions. Subsequent aminosilane deposition and resist lift-off in organic solvents resulted into well-controlled amino-terminated geometries. The discussion is focused on resist- and CMOS-compatibility problems related to the used chemicals. Some samples underwent gold nanoparticle (Au NP) labeling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, in order to investigate the quality of the silane layer. Antibodies were immobilized on other samples, which were subsequently exposed to a fluorescently labeled antigen. Fluorescence microscopy observation showed that this method provides spatially selective immobilization of protein layers onto APTES-patterned silicon samples, while preserving protein reactivity inside the desired areas and low non-specific adsorption elsewhere. Strong covalent biomolecule binding was achieved, giving stable protein layers, which allows stringent binding conditions and a good binding specificity, really useful for biosensing.

  11. Expression patterns of protein kinase D 3 during mouse development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sylke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PKD family of serine/threonine kinases comprises a single member in Drosophila (dPKD, two isoforms in C. elegans (DKF-1 and 2 and three members, PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3 in mammals. PKD1 and PKD2 have been the focus of most studies up to date, which implicate these enzymes in very diverse cellular functions, including Golgi organization and plasma membrane directed transport, immune responses, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Concerning PKD3, a role in the formation of vesicular transport carriers at the trans-Golgi network (TGN and in basal glucose transport has been inferred from in vitro studies. So far, however, the physiological functions of the kinase during development remain unknown. Results We have examined the expression pattern of PKD3 during the development of mouse embryos by immunohistochemistry. Using a PKD3 specific antibody we demonstrate that the kinase is differentially expressed during organogenesis. In the developing heart a strong PKD3 expression is constantly detected from E10 to E16.5. From E12.5 on PKD3 is increasingly expressed in neuronal as well as in the supporting connective tissue and in skeletal muscles. Conclusion The data presented support an important role for PKD3 during development of these tissues.

  12. MRI pattern recognition in multiple sclerosis normal-appearing brain areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weygandt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Here, we use pattern-classification to investigate diagnostic information for multiple sclerosis (MS; relapsing-remitting type in lesioned areas, areas of normal-appearing grey matter (NAGM, and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM as measured by standard MR techniques. METHODS: A lesion mapping was carried out by an experienced neurologist for Turbo Inversion Recovery Magnitude (TIRM images of individual subjects. Combining this mapping with templates from a neuroanatomic atlas, the TIRM images were segmented into three areas of homogenous tissue types (Lesions, NAGM, and NAWM after spatial standardization. For each area, a linear Support Vector Machine algorithm was used in multiple local classification analyses to determine the diagnostic accuracy in separating MS patients from healthy controls based on voxel tissue intensity patterns extracted from small spherical subregions of these larger areas. To control for covariates, we also excluded group-specific biases in deformation fields as a potential source of information. RESULTS: Among regions containing lesions a posterior parietal WM area was maximally informative about the clinical status (96% accuracy, p<10(-13. Cerebellar regions were maximally informative among NAGM areas (84% accuracy, p<10(-7. A posterior brain region was maximally informative among NAWM areas (91% accuracy, p<10(-10. INTERPRETATION: We identified regions indicating MS in lesioned, but also NAGM, and NAWM areas. This complements the current perception that standard MR techniques mainly capture macroscopic tissue variations due to focal lesion processes. Compared to current diagnostic guidelines for MS that define areas of diagnostic information with moderate spatial specificity, we identified hotspots of MS associated tissue alterations with high specificity defined on a millimeter scale.

  13. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  14. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  15. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  16. Assessing Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Observed and Predicted Ozone in Multiple Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Wells, Benjamin; Baker, Kirk R.; Hubbell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient monitoring data show spatial gradients in ozone (O3) across urban areas. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reductions will likely alter these gradients. Epidemiological studies often use exposure surrogates that may not fully account for the impacts of spatially and temporally changing concentrations on population exposure. Objectives: We examined the impact of large NOx decreases on spatial and temporal O3 patterns and the implications on exposure. Methods: We used a photochemical model to estimate O3 response to large NOx reductions. We derived time series of 2006–2008 O3 concentrations consistent with 50% and 75% NOx emissions reduction scenarios in three urban areas (Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Chicago) at each monitor location and spatially interpolated O3 to census-tract centroids. Results: We predicted that low O3 concentrations would increase and high O3 concentrations would decrease in response to NOx reductions within an urban area. O3 increases occurred across larger areas for the seasonal mean metric than for the regulatory metric (annual 4th highest daily 8-hr maximum) and were located only in urban core areas. O3 always decreased outside the urban core (e.g., at locations of maximum local ozone concentration) for both metrics and decreased within the urban core in some instances. NOx reductions led to more uniform spatial gradients and diurnal and seasonal patterns and caused seasonal peaks in midrange O3 concentrations to shift from midsummer to earlier in the year. Conclusions: These changes have implications for how O3 exposure may change in response to NOx reductions and are informative for the design of future epidemiology studies and risk assessments. Citation: Simon H, Wells B, Baker KR, Hubbell B. 2016. Assessing temporal and spatial patterns of observed and predicted ozone in multiple urban areas. Environ Health Perspect 124:1443–1452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP190 PMID:27153213

  17. Regular patterns for proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhong

    Full Text Available A proteome of the bio-entity, including cell, tissue, organ, and organism, consists of proteins of diverse abundance. The principle that determines the abundance of different proteins in a proteome is of fundamental significance for an understanding of the building blocks of the bio-entity. Here, we report three regular patterns in the proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species such as human, mouse, fly, worm, yeast, and bacteria: in most cases, protein abundance is positively correlated with the protein's origination time or sequence conservation during evolution; it is negatively correlated with the protein's domain number and positively correlated with domain coverage in protein structure, and the correlations became stronger during the course of evolution; protein abundance can be further stratified by the function of the protein, whereby proteins that act on material conversion and transportation (mass category are more abundant than those that act on information modulation (information category. Thus, protein abundance is intrinsically related to the protein's inherent characters of evolution, structure, and function.

  18. Regular Patterns for Proteome-Wide Distribution of Protein Abundance across Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Ying, Wantao; Wu, Songfeng; Zhu, Yunping; Liu, Siqi; Yang, Pengyuan; Qian, Xiaohong; He, Fuchu

    2012-01-01

    A proteome of the bio-entity, including cell, tissue, organ, and organism, consists of proteins of diverse abundance. The principle that determines the abundance of different proteins in a proteome is of fundamental significance for an understanding of the building blocks of the bio-entity. Here, we report three regular patterns in the proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species such as human, mouse, fly, worm, yeast, and bacteria: in most cases, protein abundance is positively correlated with the protein's origination time or sequence conservation during evolution; it is negatively correlated with the protein's domain number and positively correlated with domain coverage in protein structure, and the correlations became stronger during the course of evolution; protein abundance can be further stratified by the function of the protein, whereby proteins that act on material conversion and transportation (mass category) are more abundant than those that act on information modulation (information category). Thus, protein abundance is intrinsically related to the protein's inherent characters of evolution, structure, and function. PMID:22427835

  19. Disordered patterns in clustered Protein Data Bank and in eukaryotic and bacterial proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Yu Lobanov

    Full Text Available We have constructed the clustered Protein Data Bank and obtained clusters of chains of different identity inside each cluster, http://bioinfo.protres.ru/st_pdb/. We have compiled the largest database of disordered patterns (141 from the clustered PDB where identity between chains inside of a cluster is larger or equal to 75% (version of 28 June 2010 by using simple rules of selection. The results of these analyses would help to further our understanding of the physicochemical and structural determinants of intrinsically disordered regions that serve as molecular recognition elements. We have analyzed the occurrence of the selected patterns in 97 eukaryotic and in 26 bacterial proteomes. The disordered patterns appear more often in eukaryotic than in bacterial proteomes. The matrix of correlation coefficients between numbers of proteins where a disordered pattern from the library of 141 disordered patterns appears at least once in 9 kingdoms of eukaryota and 5 phyla of bacteria have been calculated. As a rule, the correlation coefficients are higher inside of the considered kingdom than between them. The patterns with the frequent occurrence in proteomes have low complexity (PPPPP, GGGGG, EEEED, HHHH, KKKKK, SSTSS, QQQQQP, and the type of patterns vary across different proteomes, http://bioinfo.protres.ru/fp/search_new_pattern.html.

  20. Prevalence and Pattern of Self-medication Practices in Urban area of Southern Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Jain, Rahul Prakash, Dhriti Bapna, Rohit Jain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-medications is widely practiced in both developed and developing countries. Inappropriate self-medication results in increases resistance of pathogens, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards. Objectives: Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with self-medication among general population of an urban area of Sothern Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among general po...

  1. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes; William Custodio; Fernanda Faot; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1) mesofacial, (2) brachyfacial and (3) dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was eval...

  2. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  3. Distributional patterns of fecal indicator bacteria in spring area of Plitvice Lakes National park

    OpenAIRE

    Vurnek, Maja; Brozinčević, Andrijana; Briški, Felicita; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have widespread use as indicators of water quality and health hazards. The purpose of this study was to determine distributional patterns of FIB and to assess their origin on several sites in spring area and in vertical profile of Prošćansko Lake in Plitvice Lakes National Park. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from March to January 2013 on 9 sampling sites. Standard microbiological methods were used to determine densiti...

  4. Species Richness Patterns in Space and Time in the Himalayan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Baniya, Chitra Bahadur

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The Himalayan Mountains are highly sensitive to current global climate changes and their local impacts. Potentially more sensitive are lichens growing throughout the Himalaya and species living in the alpine zones of the world. In this synthesis I examine the variation in species composition and richness patterns at different scales of spatio-temporal gradients from mountainous areas in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) and the Nepalese Himalaya. Methods: This thesis i...

  5. Distribution Patterns of Human Elephant Conflict in Areas Adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Munuo, Wilbright

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human pressure on terrestrial ecosystems has caused loss and fragmentation of habitats for wildlife species. That has brought humans and wildlife in close proximity intensifying human wildlife conflicts, especially when wild animals with wide home ranges, such as African and Asian elephants, are involved. This study assesses distribution patterns of human elephant conflict (HEC) in areas adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve (RGR) in Tanzania. Questionnaire survey was used as a tool fo...

  6. Species-area relationships in coral communities: evaluating mechanisms for a commonly observed pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, B. E.; Lirman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Landscape-scale attributes of patch size, spatial isolation, and topographic complexity are known to influence diversity and abundance in terrestrial and marine systems, but remain collectively untested for reef-building corals. To investigate the relationship between the coral assemblage and seascape variation in reef habitats, we took advantage of the distinct boundaries, spatial configurations, and topographic complexities among artificial reef patches to overcome the difficulties of manipulating natural reefs. Reef size (m2) was found to be the foremost predictor of coral richness in accordance with species-area relationship predictions. Larger reefs were also found to support significantly higher colony densities, enabling us to reject the null hypothesis of random placement (a sampling artifact) in favor of target area predictions that suggest greater rates of immigration on larger reefs. Unlike the pattern previously documented for reef fishes, topographic complexity was not a significant predictor of any coral assemblage response variable, despite the range of complexity values sampled. Lastly, coral colony density was best explained by both increasing reef size and decreasing reef spatial isolation, a pattern found exclusively among brooding species with shorter larval dispersal distances. We conclude that seascape attributes of reef size and spatial configuration within the seascape can influence the species richness and abundance of the coral community at relatively small spatial scales (island biogeography mechanisms to drive species-area relationships in reef-building corals. Based on the patterns documented in artificial reefs, habitat degradation that results in smaller, more isolated natural reefs may compromise coral diversity.

  7. Variation of morphology, karyotype and protein band pattern of adenium (Adenium obesum varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hastuti D, Suranto, Setyono P. 2009. Variation of morphology, karyotype and protein band pattern of adenium (Adenium obesum varieties. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 78-83. The aim of this research to find out the Adenium obesum variation from six varieties, namely: obesum, cery, red lucas, red fanta , white bigben and harry potter based on morphology, karyotype, as well as protein banding pattern. The chromosome preparation was made using semi-permanent squash method from the tip of root plant; while protein banding pattern was made using SDS-PAGE method. Qualitative data included shape and color of the leave and flower described from each variety. Data were presented in morphometry and analyzed using ANOVA and then followed by DMRT with 5% of confidence levels, indicated significance difference. Protein banding pattern, the root, stem, leave and all organs were analyzed using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis method with Average Linkage (between Groups using SPSS 10.0. The result of research shows that the six A. obesum varieties have morphological character with no variation of light green to dark green leave, not hairy, smooth leave bone, meanwhile for light red to dark red flower crown color although some of them are white and the same funnel color, yellow. All varieties of A. obesum have same number of chromosome, 2n = 22 and shows the difference ranging from 2.56 to 5.13 um. In the banding pattern formed qualitatively, there is variation among the six varieties.

  8. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  9. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Chang

    Full Text Available Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  10. The kinase regulator mob1 acts as a patterning protein for stentor morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Slabodnick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis and pattern formation are vital processes in any organism, whether unicellular or multicellular. But in contrast to the developmental biology of plants and animals, the principles of morphogenesis and pattern formation in single cells remain largely unknown. Although all cells develop patterns, they are most obvious in ciliates; hence, we have turned to a classical unicellular model system, the giant ciliate Stentor coeruleus. Here we show that the RNA interference (RNAi machinery is conserved in Stentor. Using RNAi, we identify the kinase coactivator Mob1--with conserved functions in cell division and morphogenesis from plants to humans-as an asymmetrically localized patterning protein required for global patterning during development and regeneration in Stentor. Our studies reopen the door for Stentor as a model regeneration system.

  11. Determining the area of convergence in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: a probabilistic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Camana, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A complete procedure for identifying the area of convergence of blood drops originated from a single static source is presented. Both for bloodstains lying on an horizontal and on a vertical plane a complete study is developed, based on error analysis and on an opportunely defined joint probability density for the orientation of the horizontal projections of the trajectories of the drops. The method generates a probabilistic map for the area of convergence, directly linking the angles of impact, and their uncertainties, to the projection on the ground of the point of origin. One of the objectives consists in providing a statistical definition of area of convergence, extending to this topic the mathematical accuracy of the calculation of the angle of impact in bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA).

  12. Employment patterns of Notre Dame graduate physiotherapists 2006-12: targeting areas of workforce need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopanos, Eleni; Edgar, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Objectives The Australian physiotherapy workforce is changing both in demographics and service needs. Physiotherapy curriculum and clinical education focus is ideally based on up-to-date knowledge of this changing workforce. The aim of the present study was to determine the employment patterns of physiotherapy graduates from The University of Notre Dame Australia (Notre Dame). Methods An online survey was conducted of Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates (2006-12) with a 50% response rate (n=157). Results Survey results established the employment location, employment status, healthcare sector, area of practice, salary and employment history of Notre Dame graduates. The results highlighted links between curriculum, clinical placements and workforce areas, with the spread of workforce directly linked to focuses in the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion The present study highlights the effect of directing undergraduate curriculum and clinical placement experiences towards areas of workforce need. The findings identify the importance of producing graduates equipped to meet the changing service needs of the healthcare industry. What is known about the topic? No previous studies have been conducted on the employment patterns of Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates and specifically the impact of targeting curriculum and clinical placements towards areas of workforce need. What does this paper add? Through a self-administered survey design, the present study demonstrated that Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates have increased uptake in areas targeted within the curriculum, specifically geriatrics, paediatrics and rural health. Although graduates were more attracted to the rural health setting, they were not retained. What are the implications for practitioners? The present study informs educational institutions and workforce planners on the importance of linking curriculum, clinical placements and workforce to develop a sustainable workforce adaptable to clinical settings and

  13. Groundwater occurrence and flow patterns in the Ishiagu mining area of southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.C.EZEKWE; E.ODUBO; G.N.CHIMA; I.S.ONWUCHEKWA

    2012-01-01

    The Ishiagu area is a water scarce region and has played host to mining activities for more than four decades.Mining-related activities have become a threat to potable water supply in the area.This paper is an attempt to show the extent of this threat and in particular,investigate the regional groundwater occurrence and flow pattern based on GPS,water well and geological data.This basinwide model can be used for further groundwater assessment,pollution control and contaminant management.Groundwater occurs between 2.4 and 9 m in the Lekwesi-Lokpaukwu area; 1.5-3.7 m in the Ndi-Ugbugbor-Ayaragu axis and 1.2-4.6 m in the Ishiagu area.Recharge areas include the Leru-Amaubiri-Lekwesi sandstone hills and the lhetutu-Ugwuajirija mine field.While the ultimate sink of contamiants is the Ivo River system,other discharge axis is the Ishiagu-Ayaragu axis and the Ogwor Ndi-Ugbugbor zone.An unconfined and a confined (> 10)circulation groundwater system was inferred,and flow model reveals that a large part of Ishiag-Ayaragu and NdiUgbugbor part of the study area suffer polluted recharge from the Pb/Zn mining area.Groundwater was also subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and the existence of 3-4 hydrological regimes,which revealed:Unpolluted recharge areas,areas affected by polluted recharge,a deep water and shallow water circulation and mine effluents.

  14. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A computational study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyali Ganguli; Saikat Chowdhury; Rupa Bhowmick; Ram Rup Sarkar

    2015-10-01

    Various T-cell co-receptor molecules and calcium channel CRAC play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell’s functional responses by regulating the production of effector molecules (mostly cytokines) that aids in immune clearance and also maintaining the cell in a functionally active state. Any defect in these co-receptor signalling pathways may lead to an altered expression pattern of the effector molecules. To study the propagation of such defects with time and their effect on the intracellular protein expression patterns, a comprehensive and largest pathway map of T-cell activation network is reconstructed manually. The entire pathway reactions are then translated using logical equations and simulated using the published time series microarray expression data as inputs. After validating the model, the effect of in silico knock down of co-receptor molecules on the expression patterns of their downstream proteins is studied and simultaneously the changes in the phenotypic behaviours of the T-cell population are predicted, which shows significant variations among the proteins expression and the signalling routes through which the response is propagated in the cytoplasm. This integrative computational approach serves as a valuable technique to study the changes in protein expression patterns and helps to predict variations in the cellular behaviour.

  15. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Piyali; Chowdhury, Saikat; Bhowmick, Rupa; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2015-10-01

    Various T-cell co-receptor molecules and calcium channel CRAC play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell's functional responses by regulating the production of effector molecules (mostly cytokines) that aids in immune clearance and also maintaining the cell in a functionally active state. Any defect in these co-receptor signalling pathways may lead to an altered expression pattern of the effector molecules. To study the propagation of such defects with time and their effect on the intracellular protein expression patterns, a comprehensive and largest pathway map of T-cell activation network is reconstructed manually. The entire pathway reactions are then translated using logical equations and simulated using the published time series microarray expression data as inputs. After validating the model, the effect of in silico knock down of co-receptor molecules on the expression patterns of their downstream proteins is studied and simultaneously the changes in the phenotypic behaviours of the T-cell population are predicted, which shows significant variations among the proteins expression and the signalling routes through which the response is propagated in the cytoplasm. This integrative computational approach serves as a valuable technique to study the changes in protein expression patterns and helps to predict variations in the cellular behaviour. PMID:26564978

  16. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions—The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jansch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern, typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface. The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  17. Exploring Urbanization Patterns for Counties in Underdeveloped Mountainous Areas: A Case Study of Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Xiaoru

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, features of urbanization of 24 underdeveloped mountainous counties(UMCs) in Hubei Province are analyzed and summarized, which includes low rates of urbanization, signifi cant nonlocal urbanization, undeveloped three industries, and a homogeneous spatial layout of underdeveloped towns. Moreover, our analysis reveals that driving forces originating from favorable macro policies, medium economy, and micro elements are needed to speed up the urbanization in such areas. Based on the case study, we proposes a new path pattern for urbanization of these UMCs in western & central China. In principle, this pattern mainly consists of two important strategies which are driven by a simultaneous development of industry and trade and the exploitation of local characteristics in both economics and culture. In addition, the practice of such a new urbanization path should be carried out through incremental development together with the construction of node-centralizing towns.

  18. Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria include root mean squared deviation (RMSD), MaxSub score, TM-score, GDT-TS and GDT-HA scores. All these criteria require calculation of rigid transformations to superimpose the the predicted protein structure to the native protein structure. Yet, how to obtain the rigid transformations is unknown or with high time complexity, and, hence, heuristic algorithms were proposed. In this work, we carefully design various small structure patterns, including the ones specifically tuned for local pockets. Such structure patterns are biologically meaningful, and address the issue of relying on a sufficient number of backbone residue fragments for existing methods. We sample the rigid transformations from these small structure patterns; and the optimal superpositions yield by these small structures are refined and reported. As a result, among 11; 669 pairs of predicted and native local protein pocket models from the CASP10 dataset, the GDT-TS scores calculated by our method are significantly higher than those calculated by LGA. Moreover, our program is computationally much more efficient. Source codes and executables are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/

  19. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  20. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  1. Recording of building development patterns in rural areas: Case of Podravska region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuša Voda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural areas of today involve a range of different activities. On the one hand, this is perceived as changes that are reflected in the frequent abandonment of utilised agricultural areas or in the changed land use, and, on the other hand, in the continuous transformation of the image of our villages, and the artistic and aesthetic transformation of the built form (Fikfak, 2008. We can see that the connection between the house in the countryside, and the land on which it stands, has been devalued in the last decades in terms of the quality of living and functional connections inside the building and with exterior areas. The primary objective of the research was the recording of the existing patterns of development in selected rural settlements and to find the connection between the residential buildings and appertaining land, and, furthermore, the connection with adjacent structures and land. The research into development patterns in the Slovenian countryside was performed through the application on a case study, i.e. on three rural settlements of the Podravska Region (the region along the Drava River. The research methodology was based on a systematic elaboration of presentations from the geographic information system (GIS, surveying groundwork, field observations and photography of incidence of three different types of building (a traditional rural house, a standard detached house design and a contemporary rural house. The existing development patterns in the settlements were recorded and the relationships between the respective land plots and residential buildings, and the adjacent land and residential buildings, were described.

  2. Lattice-Boltzmann modeling of experimental fluid displacement patterns, interfacial area and capillary trapped CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Kang, Q.; Tarimala, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Backhaus, S.; Carey, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Successful sequestration of CO2 into deep saline aquifers presents an enormous challenge that requires fundamental understanding of reactive-multiphase flow and transport across many temporal and spatial scales. Of critical importance is accurately predicting the efficiency of CO2 trapping mechanisms. At the pore scale (e.g., microns to millimeters) the interfacial area between CO2 and brine, as well as CO2 and the solid phase, directly influences the amount of CO2 trapped due to capillary forces, dissolution and mineral precipitation. In this work, we model immiscible displacement micromodel experiments using the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. We focus on quantifying interfacial area as a function of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios typically encountered in CO2 sequestration operations. We show that the LB model adequately predicts the steady-state experimental flow patterns and interfacial area measurements. Based on the steady-state agreement, we use the LB model to investigate interfacial dynamics (e.g., fluid-fluid interfacial velocity and the rate of production of fluid-fluid interfacial area). In addition, we quantify the amount of interfacial area and the interfacial dynamics associated with the capillary trapped nonwetting phase. This is expected to be important for predicting the amount of nonwetting phase subsequently trapped due to dissolution and mineral precipitation.

  3. Area-Efficient Low Power CMOS Image Sensor Readout Circuit with Fixed Pattern Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士彬; 姚素英; 聂凯明; 徐江涛

    2010-01-01

    A low cost of die area and power consumption CMOS image sensor readout circuit with fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation is proposed.By using only one coupling capacitor and switch in the double FPN cancelling correlative double sampling(CDS),pixel FPN is cancelled and column FPN is stored and eliminated by the sampleand-hold operation of digitally programmable gain amplifier(DPGA).The bandwidth balance technology based on operational amplifier(op-amp) sharing is also introduced to decrease the power dissi...

  4. Proteomic profiling reveals a severely perturbed protein expression pattern in aged skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathleen; Gannon, Joan; Doran, Philip; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2007-08-01

    Extended longevity is often accompanied by frailty and increased susceptibility to a variety of crippling disorders. One of the most striking features of human aging is sarcopenia, which is defined as the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Although various metabolic and functional defects in aging muscle fibres have been described over the last decade, it is not known whether a pathophysiological hierarchy exists within degenerative pathways leading to muscle wasting. Hence, in order to identify novel biomarkers of age-dependent skeletal muscle degeneration, we have here applied mass spectrometry-based proteomics for studying global muscle protein expression patterns. As a model system of sarcopenia, we have employed crude extracts from senescent rat gastrocnemius muscle, as compared to young adult tissue preparations. Using the highly sensitive protein dye Deep Purple for the analysis of the 2-D separated muscle proteome and peptide mass fingerprinting for the identification of individual protein spots, a differential expression pattern was observed for contractile proteins, metabolic factors, regulatory components and heat shock elements. A drastic increase was shown for alpha B-crystallin, myosin light chain MLC-1, phosphoglycerate kinase, adenylate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, albumin, aconitase and nucleoside-diphosphate kinase in aged fibres. In contrast, the expression of pyruvate kinase, aldolase, creatine kinase, transferrin, alpha-tropomyosin and myosin light chain MLC-3 was decreased in old skeletal muscle. Comparative 2-D immunoblotting of selected candidate proteins has confirmed the effect of aging on the skeletal muscle proteome. These findings demonstrate a severely perturbed protein expression pattern in aged skeletal muscle, which reflects the underlying molecular alterations causing a drastic decline of muscle strength in the senescent organism. In the long-term, the systematic deduction of abnormal protein expression

  5. Electrophoretic separation of purified myelin: a method to improve the protein pattern resolving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Bartolucci, Martina; Barbarito, Giulia; Calzia, Daniela; Panfoli, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Myelin sheath is a lipid-rich membrane, consisting of 70% lipid and 30% proteins, that is involved in physiological and pathological processes. For this reason its protein composition has been often investigated, principally by two-dimensional electrophoresis; however, the consistent lipid content makes it difficult to obtain good proteins separation. To improve the resolution of myelin proteins in a denaturing monodimensional gel electrophoresis, we examined several mixtures for the denaturation of the sample, utilizing different detergents and reducing agents. The definition of the protein pattern was analyzed by both "Blue Silver" Coomassie staining and Western Blot analysis against myelin basic protein, one of the most represented myelin proteins. The best resolution is observed when the sample was incubated with a mixture containing 1.25% dithiothreitol, 4 M urea, and 1% dodecyl maltoside or 1 % 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate, prior to addition of denaturing agents. In conclusion, this work describes a novel method to improve the separation of myelin proteins in a monodimensional gel electrophoresis. It may be also useful for investigating other lipid-rich samples.

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of diarrhoea in the Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D; Huang, C; Rutherford, S; Chu, C; Wang, X; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, N H; Do, C M; Nguyen, T H

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the temporal and spatial patterns of diarrhoea in relation to hydro-meteorological factors in the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. A time-series design was applied to examine the temporal pattern of the climate-diarrhoea relationship using Poisson regression models. Spatial analysis was applied to examine the spatial clusters of diarrhoea using Global Moran's I and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). The temporal pattern showed that the highest peak of diarrhoea was from weeks 30-42 corresponding to August-October annually. A 1 cm increase in river water level at a lag of 1 week was associated with a small [0·07%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·01-0·1] increase in the diarrhoeal rate. A 1 °C increase in temperature at lag of 2 and 4 weeks was associated with a 1·5% (95% CI 0·3-2·7) and 1·1% (95% CI 0·1-2·3) increase in diarrhoeal risk, respectively. Relative humidity and diarrhoeal risk were in nonlinear relationship. The spatial analysis showed significant clustering of diarrhoea, and the LISA map shows three multi-centred diarrhoeal clusters and three single-centred clusters in the research location. The findings suggest that climatic conditions projected to be associated with climate change have important implication for human health impact in the Mekong Delta region. PMID:25876699

  7. Pattern of diseases among rice farmers exposed to pesticides in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to find out the pattern of diseases among rice farmers exposed to pesticides in the Muda area, Kedah; and to identify those who suffered from these diseases so that they can be referred to the nearest clinic for treatment. A cross sectional study was conducted in August 1994 to identify the pattern of diseases among rice farmers exposed to pesticides. Cluster Random Sampling was employed and the sample size was 136 farmers. A guided questionnaire was used for assessing the usage of protective clothing, symptoms of the farmers diseases and the distribution of these symptoms. Blood obtained by finger prick was taken for cholesterol level, triglycerides, and blood glucose analysis by using the Reflotron. A medical examination was also conducted. The pattern of diseases detected among the rice farmers shows that 57.4% suffered from pterygium., 81.6% suffered contact dermatitis and 97.1% had central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Regarding the cholesterol level, 47.1% of rice farmers were found with total cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/L and 40.0% with triglycerides > 2.3 mmol/L. The blood glucose level measured was > 6.1 mmol/L in 55.03% of rice farmers. Usage of protective equipment among rice farmers was: gloves (68.4%), boots (52.2%), goggles (40.4%), apron (38.3%) and face mask (77.2%). (Author)

  8. Large-area regular nanodomain patterning in He-irradiated lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofan, A; Gaathon, O; Osgood, R M Jr [Center for Integrated Science and Technology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lilienblum, M; Hoffmann, A; Soergel, E [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Sehrbrock, A; Irsen, S [Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (CAESAR), Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Bakhru, S; Bakhru, H, E-mail: ao2199@columbia.edu, E-mail: soergel@uni-bonn.de [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Large-area ferroelectric nanodomain patterns, which are desirable for nonlinear optical applications, were generated in previously He-implanted lithium niobate crystals by applying voltage pulses to the tip of a scanning force microscope. The individual nanodomains were found to be of uniform size, which depended only on the inter-domain spacing and the pulse amplitude. We explain this behavior by the electrostatic repulsion of poling-induced buried charges between adjacent domains. The domain patterns were imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy and investigated by domain-selective etching in conjunction with focused ion beam etching followed by scanning electron microscopy imaging. In order to optimize the He-irradiation parameters for easy and reliable nanodomain patterning a series of samples subjected to various irradiation fluences and energies was prepared. The different samples were characterized by investigating nanodomains generated with a wide range of pulse parameters (amplitude and duration). In addition, these experiments clarified the physical mechanism behind the facile poling measured in He-irradiated lithium niobate crystals: the damage caused by the energy loss that takes place via electronic excitations appears to act to stabilize the domains, whereas the nuclear-collision damage degrades the crystal quality, and thus impedes reliable nanodomain generation.

  9. Automated classification of immunostaining patterns in breast tissue from the human protein Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Niwas Swamidoss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Human Protein Atlas (HPA is an effort to map the location of all human proteins (http://www.proteinatlas.org/. It contains a large number of histological images of sections from human tissue. Tissue micro arrays (TMA are imaged by a slide scanning microscope, and each image represents a thin slice of a tissue core with a dark brown antibody specific stain and a blue counter stain. When generating antibodies for protein profiling of the human proteome, an important step in the quality control is to compare staining patterns of different antibodies directed towards the same protein. This comparison is an ultimate control that the antibody recognizes the right protein. In this paper, we propose and evaluate different approaches for classifying sub-cellular antibody staining patterns in breast tissue samples. Materials and Methods: The proposed methods include the computation of various features including gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM features, complex wavelet co-occurrence matrix (CWCM features, and weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM-inspired features. The extracted features are used into two different multivariate classifiers (support vector machine (SVM and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier. Before extracting features, we use color deconvolution to separate different tissue components, such as the brownly stained positive regions and the blue cellular regions, in the immuno-stained TMA images of breast tissue. Results: We present classification results based on combinations of feature measurements. The proposed complex wavelet features and the WND-CHARM features have accuracy similar to that of a human expert. Conclusions: Both human experts and the proposed automated methods have difficulties discriminating between nuclear and cytoplasmic staining patterns. This is to a large extent due to mixed staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. Methods for

  10. Sex dependent alterations in the protein characterization patterns of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Pandey, Vijay; Singh, Amit; Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Nigam, Rajesh; Shanker, Daya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to highlight the sex dependent differences in the electrophoretic protein patterns of male and female Haemonchus contortus worms SDS based polyacrylamide gels of both male and female worms were run side by side for comparison. A total of 33 and 35 polypeptides were detected in polyacrylamide gels stained with coomassie brilliant blue R-250, respectively. Besides many of the fundamental homologies in protein profile, some of the polypeptides specific to either sex were also observed. Most of the characteristic polypeptides were of low molecular weight. These polypeptides needs deeper unrevealing regarding the nature of protein, through well planned zymographic studies, so as to ascertain the true nature and/or type of protein involved in those bands. This will help us in better understanding of parasite immunology and sex influenced differences amongst the worm and the possible variations in their pathogenesis contributed thereof, if any. PMID:27605828

  11. Protein micro patterned lattices to probe a fundamental lengthscale involved in cell adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Herve; Chaussy, Jacques; Block, Marc R

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion, a fundamental process of cell biology is involved in the embryo development and in numerous pathologies especially those related to cancers. We constrained cells to adhere on extracellular matrix proteins patterned in a micro lattices. The actin cytoskeleton is particularly sensitive to this constraint and reproducibly self organizes in simple geometrical patterns. Such highly organized cells are functional and proliferate. We performed statistical analysis of spread cells morphologies and discuss the existence of a fundamental lengthscale associated with active processes required for spreading.

  12. Patterns of HIV-1 protein interaction identify perturbed host-cellular subsystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I MacPherson

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exploits a diverse array of host cell functions in order to replicate. This is mediated through a network of virus-host interactions. A variety of recent studies have catalogued this information. In particular the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database (HHPID has provided a unique depth of protein interaction detail. However, as a map of HIV-1 infection, the HHPID is problematic, as it contains curation error and redundancy; in addition, it is based on a heterogeneous set of experimental methods. Based on identifying shared patterns of HIV-host interaction, we have developed a novel methodology to delimit the core set of host-cellular functions and their associated perturbation from the HHPID. Initially, using biclustering, we identify 279 significant sets of host proteins that undergo the same types of interaction. The functional cohesiveness of these protein sets was validated using a human protein-protein interaction network, gene ontology annotation and sequence similarity. Next, using a distance measure, we group host protein sets and identify 37 distinct higher-level subsystems. We further demonstrate the biological significance of these subsystems by cross-referencing with global siRNA screens that have been used to detect host factors necessary for HIV-1 replication, and investigate the seemingly small intersect between these data sets. Our results highlight significant host-cell subsystems that are perturbed during the course of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, we characterise the patterns of interaction that contribute to these perturbations. Thus, our work disentangles the complex set of HIV-1-host protein interactions in the HHPID, reconciles these with siRNA screens and provides an accessible and interpretable map of infection.

  13. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL ABUSE IN A RURAL AREA OF PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: “Drug abuse” is defined as self - administration of a drug for non - medical reasons, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individual’s ability to function effectively and which may result in social, physical, or emotional harm. About 190 million people all over the world consume one drug or the other. Drug abuse causes immense human distress and the illegal production and distribution of drugs have spawned crime and violence worldwide. According to World Drug Report (2009 there were 25,71,52582 alcohol users , alcohol dependents were 8,22,88826 . Cannabis users were 82,28,883 and Opiate users were 2,057,221 in India. Alcohol is one of the leading causes of death and disability globally. Overall, 3.5% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for as much death and disability as tobacco and hypertension. As lot of changes have occurred in the last two decades and variations in consumption patterns is present in different regions, thus the findings of studies conducted earlier and at distant places may not be of much interest in the present scenario. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Ludhiana, Punjab. OBJECTIVES: a To find out the prevalence of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab; b To assess pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study done in t he field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana (i.e. Rural Health Training Center (RHTC located at village Pohir, Block Dehlon, District Ludhiana, Punjab. One thousand seven hundred thirty two study subjects of fifteen years and above were part of study. Primary tools in this study were predesigned and pretested interview schedule and Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test V3 (ASSIST V3 questioner, to collect

  14. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  15. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  16. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  17. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  18. Structure-factor analysis of femtosecond microdiffraction patterns from protein nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirian, R. A.; White, T. A.; Holton, J. M.; Chapman, H. N.; Fromme, P.; Barty, A.; Lomb, L.; Aquila, A.

    2011-03-01

    A complete set of structure factors has been extracted from hundreds of thousands of femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns from randomly oriented Photosystem I membrane protein nanocrystals, using the Monte Carlo method of intensity integration. The data, collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source, are compared with conventional single-crystal data collected at a synchrotron source, and the quality of each data set was found to be similar.

  19. S100B Protein, a Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Protein in the Brain and Heart, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Sorci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available S100B belongs to a multigenic family of Ca2+-binding proteins of the EF-hand type and is expressed in high abundance in the brain. S100B interacts with target proteins within cells thereby altering their functions once secreted/released with the multiligand receptor RAGE. As an intracellular regulator, S100B affects protein phosphorylation, energy metabolism, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents (and hence, of cell shape and migration, Ca2+ homeostasis, and cell proliferation and differentiation. As an extracellular signal, at low, physiological concentrations, S100B protects neurons against apoptosis, stimulates neurite outgrowth and astrocyte proliferation, and negatively regulates astrocytic and microglial responses to neurotoxic agents, while at high doses S100B causes neuronal death and exhibits properties of a damage-associated molecular pattern protein. S100B also exerts effects outside the brain; as an intracellular regulator, S100B inhibits the postinfarction hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes, while as an extracellular signal, (high S100B causes cardiomyocyte death, activates endothelial cells, and stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

  20. Gradient analysis of landscape spatial and temporal pattern changes in Beijing metropolitan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gradient based landscape metrics analysis is now widely used to study the landscape pattern changes in respond to the urbanization.In order to discover the trend of spatio-temporal changes in Beijing metropolitan area during the past 15 years,several landscape metrics are computed using a moving window along a 96 km long transect across Beijing metropolitan area from west to east.Specially,the spatial extent of sub-landscape,which is determined by the moving window’s size,is profoundly examined.The results show that the metrics varies smoothly and regularly along the selected transect when the window size is greater than 6 km×6 km,and irregularly fluctuated for the smaller window size,that the spatial and temporal landscape characteristics of Beijing city match the hypothetical framework of spatio-temporal urban sprawl in the form of alternating processes of diffusion and coalescence well,and that some new trends of the urban sprawl style in Beijing metropolitan area,such as leap-frog manner,are also detected by the gradient landscape analysis.

  1. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  2. Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy; Scholpp, Steffen; Brand, Michael; Moens, Cecilia B; Waskiewicz, Andrew Jan

    2007-01-15

    Pbx proteins are a family of TALE-class transcription factors that are well characterized as Hox co-factors acting to impart segmental identity to the hindbrain rhombomeres. However, no role for Pbx in establishing more anterior neural compartments has been demonstrated. Studies done in Drosophila show that Engrailed requires Exd (Pbx orthologue) for its biological activity. Here, we present evidence that zebrafish Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to compartmentalize the midbrain by regulating the maintenance of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary (DMB). Embryos lacking Pbx function correctly initiate midbrain patterning, but fail to maintain eng2a, pax2a, fgf8, gbx2, and wnt1 expression at the MHB. Formation of the DMB is also defective as shown by a caudal expansion of diencephalic epha4a and pax6a expression into midbrain territory. These phenotypes are similar to the phenotype of an Engrailed loss-of-function embryo, supporting the hypothesis that Pbx and Engrailed act together on a common genetic pathway. Consistent with this model, we demonstrate that zebrafish Engrailed and Pbx interact in vitro and that this interaction is required for both the eng2a overexpression phenotype and Engrailed's role in patterning the MHB. Our data support a novel model of midbrain development in which Pbx and Engrailed proteins cooperatively pattern the mesencephalic region of the neural tube. PMID:16959235

  3. Expression Pattern of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Celiac Disease Enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Bottasso Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs: intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs’ expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa.

  4. Expression Pattern of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Celiac Disease Enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottasso Arias, Natalia M; García, Marina; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Redondo, Agustina; Chopita, Nestor; Córsico, Betina; Chirdo, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs): intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs' expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa. PMID:26346822

  5. Exploiting pattern and sustainable development of marginal lands in the Three Gorge Reservoir Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studied the distribution and utilization status,reasonable exploitation patterns and potential productivity, and sustainable development of marginal lands in the Three Gorge Reservoir Areas. It has been pointed that problems of the soil fertility degradation, poor productivity in crop lands, natural disasters and environmental deterioration existed in all the exploited marginal lands. In order to maintain the sustainability of the marginal lands, following measure have been proposed: prohibiting cultivation in the crop lands with a slope more than 25°, restoring vegetation in the slope more than 25°, strengthening the basic agricultural construction, establishing the production base of woody feeds and oils, establishing a multi-dimensional management model with reasonable structure and optimumfunction for forestry, agriculture and fishing.

  6. Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-02-01

    The use of marine protected area (MPA) networks to sustain fisheries and conserve biodiversity is predicated on two critical yet rarely tested assumptions. Individual MPAs must produce sufficient larvae that settle within that reserve\\'s boundaries to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years. However, dispersal from this reserve to two other nodes in an MPA network varied between species and through time. The stability of our estimates of self-recruitment suggests that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, our results caution against applying optimization strategies to MPA network design without accounting for variable connectivity among species and over time. 2012 The Authors.

  7. Seasonal Abundance and Host-Feeding Patterns of Anopheline Vectors in Malaria Endemic Area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Basseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. The objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern Iran. This study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern Iran. Mosquito vectors were collected from indoor as well as outdoor shelters and the blood meals were examined by ELISA test. Over all 7654 female Anopheles spp. were captured, the most common species were Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. d'thali. The overall human blood index was 37.50%, 19.83%, 16.4%, and 30.1% for An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, and An. d'thali, respectively. In addition, An. fluviatilis fed on human blood during the entire year but the feeding behavior of An. stephensi and An. culicifacies varied according to seasons. Overall, the abundance of the female mosquito positive to human blood was 4.25% per human shelter versus 17.5% per animal shelter. This result indicates that the vectors had tendency to rest in animal shelters after feeding on human. Therefore, vector control measure should be planned based on such as feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of these vectors in the area.

  8. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  9. Inheritance of Protein Patterns in a Synthetic Allopolyploid of Triticum Monococcum (AA) and Aegilops Ventricosa (DDMvMv)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddiqui, K. A.; Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1972-01-01

    Patterns of seed proteins in Triticum monococcum (2n = 2x = 14 = AA), Aegilops ventricosa (2n = 4x = 28 = DDMVMV), and their synthetic amphiploid were studied. The distribution of proteins in the individual Osborne protein fractions of the amphiploid was characterized by a 14 per cent increase...

  10. Multivariate data analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein patterns from few samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Jessen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    One application of 2D gel electrophoresis is to reveal differences in protein pattern between two or more groups of individuals, attributable to their group membership. Multivariate data analytical methods are useful in pinpointing the spots relevant for discrimination by focusing not only...... on single spot differences, but on the covariance structure between proteins. However, their outcome is dependent on data scaling, and they may fail in producing valid multivariate models due to the much higher number of "irrelevant" spots present in the gels. The case where only few gels are available...... 'autoscaling' of the full data set based on within-group standard deviations is introduced and shown to be advantageous in revealing potential group-dependent proteins additional to those found by prefiltering....

  11. [Control of Soil Nutrient Loss of Typical Reforestation Patterns Along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhi-lin; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong

    2015-10-01

    Annual soil nutrient loss characteristics on typical reforestation patterns in watershed along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were studied based on runoff plot experiment. Runoff and sediment nutrition content from May to October 2014 of typical reforestation patterns including garden plot (tea garden), forest land (Chinese chestnut) and the original slope farmland were determined and then analyzed. The results showed that: (1) After the Returning Farmland to Forest Project the quantity of annual soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus, the sum of them in sediment and runoff) loss decreased. The output of total nitrogen (TN) was in the order of slope farmland (2 444.27 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (998.70 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (532.61 g x hm(-2)), and for total phosphorus (TP) loss was slope farmland (1 690.48 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (488.06 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (129.00 g x hm(-2)) . Compared with slope farmland, the load of TN and TP output of reforestation patterns decreased 68.68% and 81.75%, respectively. (2) Compared with slope farmland, available nitrogen loss decreased in reforestation patterns. Total nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) loss ranked in the order of slope farmland (113.79 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (73.75 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (56.06 g x hm(-2)) The largest amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was found in tea garden (69.34 g x hm(-2)), then in farmland (52.45 g x hm(-2)), and the least in Chinese chestnut forest (47.23 g x hm(-2)). (3) The main route of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N loss was both through runoff, the quantity of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N output in which accounted for 91.4% and 92.2% of the total, respectively. The quantity of TN and TP in sediment accounted for 86.6% and 98.4% of the total. TN and TP loss showed an extremely significant correlation with sediments, which showed that sediment output was the main approach of TN and TP loss. PMID:26841618

  12. Honeycomb-patterned films of polystyrene/poly(ethylene glycol):Preparation,surface aggregation and protein adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LingShu; KE BeiBei; LI XiaoKai; MENG XiangLin; ZHANG LuYao; XU ZhiKang

    2009-01-01

    Highly ordered honeycomb-patterned polystyrene (PS)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) films were prepared by a water-assisted method using an improved setup,which facilitated the formation of films with higher regularity,better reproducibility,and larger area of honeycomb structures.Surface aggregation of hydrophilic PEG and adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the honeycomb-patterned films were investigated.Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe the surface morphologies of the films before and after being rinsed with water.As confirmed by the FESEM images and the AFM phase images,PEG was enriched in the pores and could be gradually removed by water.The adsorption of fluorescence-labeled BSA on the films was studied in visual form using laser scanning confocal microscopy.Results clearly demonstrated that the protein-resistant PEG was selectively enriched in the pores.This water-assisted method may be a latent tool to prepare honeycomb-patterned biofunctional surfaces.

  13. Different alternative splicing patterns are subject to opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Trees-Juen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP, as a measure of selection pressure, has been reported to be higher in alternatively spliced exons (ASEs than in constitutively spliced exons (CSEs. However, recently it has been reported that different ASE types – simple and complex ASEs – may be subject to opposite selection forces. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the evolutionary effects of such splicing patterns on frame preservation. Results Here we show that simple and complex ASEs, respectively, have higher and lower FRFPs than CSEs. Since complex ASEs may alter the ends of their flanking exons, the selection pressure on frame preservation is likely relaxed in this ASE type. Furthermore, conservation of the ASE/CSE splicing pattern increases the FRFPs of simple ASEs but decreases those of complex ASEs. Contrary to the well-recognized concept of strong selection pressure on conserved ASEs for protein reading frame preservation, our results show that conserved complex ASEs are relaxed from such pressure and the frame-disrupting effect caused by the insertion of complex ASEs can be offset by compensatory changes in their flanking exons. Conclusion In this study, we find that simple and complex ASEs undergo opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation, with CSEs in-between. Simple ASEs have much higher FRFPs than complex ones. We further find that the FRFPs of complex ASEs coupled with flanking exons are close to those of simple ASEs, indicating that neighboring exons of an ASE may evolve in a coordinated way to avoid protein dysfunction. Therefore, we suggest that evolutionary analyses of AS should take into consideration the effects of different splicing patterns and the joint effects of multiple AS events.

  14. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  15. Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone in Shennongjia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, increasingly more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, 42 sampling belts (10 m×100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia Area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. 14 species of rare plants were found distributing in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of the total rare plant species in Shennongjia Area. The main distribution range of the 14 rare plant species was the evergreen and deciduous mixed broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where, species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. The analysis of TWINSPAN divided the 14 rare species into 3 groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation species group. The analysis of DCA ordination showed similar results to that of TWINSPAN. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out that the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  16. Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção–Albuquerque, M. J. T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010′ re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. Identifying areas of high–value for biodiversity conservation is an important issue to meet this target. We investigated the geographic pattern of terrestrial vertebrate diversity status in Europe by assessing the species richness, rarity, vulnerability (according to IUCN criteria, and a combined index of the three former for the amphibians, reptiles, bird and mammals of this region. We also correlated the value of all indices with climate and human influence variables. Overall, clear geographic gradients of species diversity were found. The combined biodiversity index indicated that high–value biodiversity areas were mostly located in the Mediterranean basin and the highest vulnerability was found in the Iberian peninsula for most taxa. Across all indexes, the proportion of variance explained by climate and human influence factors was moderate to low. The results obtained in this study have the potential to provide valuable support for nature conservation policies in Europe and, consequently, might contribute to mitigate biodiversity decline in this region.

  17. Prevalence and Pattern of Self-medication Practices in Urban area of Southern Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain, Rahul Prakash, Dhriti Bapna, Rohit Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medications is widely practiced in both developed and developing countries. Inappropriate self-medication results in increases resistance of pathogens, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards. Objectives: Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with self-medication among general population of an urban area of Sothern Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among general population in urban field practice area of Department of community medicine, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan from May 2015 to August 2015. Individuals aged 18 years and above were included as study participants using Simple random method of sampling. Results: Out of total 440 study participants, 324 (73.6% had used self-medication within last three months recall period. The practice of self-medication was more common among younger age groups, male gender and higher levels of education. Paracetamol (73.77% and other analgesics (41.98% were most commonly used drugs. Most common symptoms warranting self-medication were fever (75.31% and headache (62.04%. Conclusion: Rising prevalence of self-medication is a matter of serious concern. IEC activities should be strengthened among general population to minimize the practice of self-medication.

  18. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  19. Area-Efficient Low Power CMOS Image Sensor Readout Circuit with Fixed Pattern Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shibin; YAO Suying; NIE Kaiming; XU Jiangtao

    2010-01-01

    A low cost of die area and power consumption CMOS image sensor readout circuit with fixed pattern noise(FPN)cancellation is proposed.By using only one coupling capacitor and switch in the double FPN cancelling correlative double sampling(CDS),pixel FPN is cancelled and column FPN is stored and eliminated by the sample-and-hold operation of digitally programmable gain amplifier(DPGA).The bandwidth balance technology based on operational amplifier(op-amp)sharing is also introduced to decrease the power dissipation of traditional multi-stage switched capacitor DPGA.The circuit is designed and simulated using 1P6M 0.18 μm 1.8 V/3.3 V process.Simulation results indicate that the proposed CDS scheme can achieve an FPN of less than 1 mV.The total sampling capacitor per column is 0.9 pF and no column-wise power is dissipated.The die area and FPN value are cut by 70% and 41% respectively compared with amplifier-based CDS.The op-amp sharing gain stage can achieve a 12-bit precision and also implement an 8-bit gain controlling within a gain range of 24 dB.Its power consumption is 1.4 mW,which is reduced by 57% compared with traditional schemes.The proposed readout circuit is suitable for the application of low power cost-sensitive imaging systems.

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns of water table fluctuations and evapotranspiration induced by riparian vegetation in a semiarid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Weifeng; Wang, Tiejun; Franz, Trenton E.; Chen, Xunhong

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg) links various ecohydrological processes and is an important component in regional water budgets. In this study, an extensive monitoring network was established in a semiarid riparian area to investigate various controls on the spatiotemporal pattern of water table fluctuations (WTFs) and ETg induced by riparian vegetation. Along a vegetation gradient (˜1200 m), diurnal WTFs were observed during a growing season in areas covered by woody species (Populus sect. Aigeiros and Juniperus virginiana) and wet slough vegetation (Panicum virgatum and Bromus inermis) with deeper root systems; whereas, no diurnal WTFs were found in the middle section with shallower-rooted grasses (Poa pratensis and Carex sp.). The occurrence of diurnal WTFs was related to temperature-controlled plant phenology at seasonal scales and to radiation at subdaily scales. Daily ETg in the mid-growing season was calculated using the White method. The results revealed that depth to water table (DTWT) was the dominant control on ETg, followed by potential evapotranspiration (ETp). By combining the effects of DTWT and ETp, it was found that at shallower depths, ETg was more responsive to changes in ETp, due to the closer linkage of land surface processes with shallower groundwater. Finally, exponential relationships between ETg/ETp and DTWT were obtained at the study site, although those relationships varied considerably across the sites. This study demonstrates the complex interactions of WTFs and ETg with surrounding environmental variables and provides further insight into modeling ETg over different time scales and riparian vegetation.

  1. Site-selective adsorption of protein induced by a metal pattern on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiali; Wu, Zhongkui; Li, Shaoying; Tang, Hongxiao; Mei, Qilin

    2013-11-01

    A novel technique for inducing site-selective adsorption of protein through constructing metal patterns on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces is presented. The substrates were first modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation through a photomask to introduce regions with different functional groups. Then the designed metal patterns were constructed on the surfaces of VUV-treated substrates. The surface rearrangement was effectively prevented by constructing silver patterns on poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces, thus significantly improving the stability and selectivity of protein adsorption on the surfaces. Moreover, the protein-repulsive layer further reinforced the effect. Finally, protein patterns were successfully obtained. As confirmed by fluorescence microscope, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and static water contact angle measurement, the protein patterns possess both excellent selectivity and high fidelity. Feature size of the protein patterns surrounded by a protein-repulsive layer was exactly the same as that of the photomask. And the grain sizes of silver particles were approximately 50 nm. This work could potentially be used in various fields such as biomedicine, bioelectronic components, and tissue repair and replacement, where selective adsorption of protein is desired.

  2. Mapping functional group free energy patterns at protein occluded sites: nuclear receptors and G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Yu, Wenbo; Raman, E Prabhu; Hershfeld, Alena V; Fang, Lei; Deshpande, Deepak A; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2015-03-23

    Occluded ligand-binding pockets (LBP) such as those found in nuclear receptors (NR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) represent a significant opportunity and challenge for computer-aided drug design. To determine free energies maps of functional groups of these LBPs, a Grand-Canonical Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (GCMC/MD) strategy is combined with the Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) methodology. SILCS-GCMC/MD is shown to map functional group affinity patterns that recapitulate locations of functional groups across diverse classes of ligands in the LBPs of the androgen (AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated-γ (PPARγ) NRs and the metabotropic glutamate (mGluR) and β2-adreneric (β2AR) GPCRs. Inclusion of protein flexibility identifies regions of the binding pockets not accessible in crystal conformations and allows for better quantitative estimates of relative ligand binding affinities in all the proteins tested. Differences in functional group requirements of the active and inactive states of the β2AR LBP were used in virtual screening to identify high efficacy agonists targeting β2AR in Airway Smooth Muscle (ASM) cells. Seven of the 15 selected ligands were found to effect ASM relaxation representing a 46% hit rate. Hence, the method will be of use for the rational design of ligands in the context of chemical biology and the development of therapeutic agents.

  3. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  4. A Medipix quantum area detector allows rotation electron diffraction data collection from submicrometre three-dimensional protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasensitive Medipix2 detector allowed the collection of rotation electron-diffraction data from single three-dimensional protein nanocrystals for the first time. The data could be analysed using the standard X-ray crystallography programs MOSFLM and SCALA. When protein crystals are submicrometre-sized, X-ray radiation damage precludes conventional diffraction data collection. For crystals that are of the order of 100 nm in size, at best only single-shot diffraction patterns can be collected and rotation data collection has not been possible, irrespective of the diffraction technique used. Here, it is shown that at a very low electron dose (at most 0.1 e− Å−2), a Medipix2 quantum area detector is sufficiently sensitive to allow the collection of a 30-frame rotation series of 200 keV electron-diffraction data from a single ∼100 nm thick protein crystal. A highly parallel 200 keV electron beam (λ = 0.025 Å) allowed observation of the curvature of the Ewald sphere at low resolution, indicating a combined mosaic spread/beam divergence of at most 0.4°. This result shows that volumes of crystal with low mosaicity can be pinpointed in electron diffraction. It is also shown that strategies and data-analysis software (MOSFLM and SCALA) from X-ray protein crystallography can be used in principle for analysing electron-diffraction data from three-dimensional nanocrystals of proteins

  5. A Medipix quantum area detector allows rotation electron diffraction data collection from submicrometre three-dimensional protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederlof, Igor; Genderen, Eric van; Li, Yao-Wang; Abrahams, Jan Pieter, E-mail: abrahams@chem.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    An ultrasensitive Medipix2 detector allowed the collection of rotation electron-diffraction data from single three-dimensional protein nanocrystals for the first time. The data could be analysed using the standard X-ray crystallography programs MOSFLM and SCALA. When protein crystals are submicrometre-sized, X-ray radiation damage precludes conventional diffraction data collection. For crystals that are of the order of 100 nm in size, at best only single-shot diffraction patterns can be collected and rotation data collection has not been possible, irrespective of the diffraction technique used. Here, it is shown that at a very low electron dose (at most 0.1 e{sup −} Å{sup −2}), a Medipix2 quantum area detector is sufficiently sensitive to allow the collection of a 30-frame rotation series of 200 keV electron-diffraction data from a single ∼100 nm thick protein crystal. A highly parallel 200 keV electron beam (λ = 0.025 Å) allowed observation of the curvature of the Ewald sphere at low resolution, indicating a combined mosaic spread/beam divergence of at most 0.4°. This result shows that volumes of crystal with low mosaicity can be pinpointed in electron diffraction. It is also shown that strategies and data-analysis software (MOSFLM and SCALA) from X-ray protein crystallography can be used in principle for analysing electron-diffraction data from three-dimensional nanocrystals of proteins.

  6. Patterning of Functional Antibodies and Other Proteins by Photolithography of Silane Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, J. F.; Hunt, A. J.; McIntosh, J. R.; Liberko, C. A.; Walba, D. M.; Rogers, C. T.

    1996-10-01

    We have demonstrated the assembly of two-dimensional patterns of functional antibodies on a surface. In particular, we have selectively adsorbed micrometer-scale regions of biotinylated immunoglobulin that exhibit specific antigen binding after adsorption. The advantage of this technique is its potential adaptability to adsorbing arbitrary proteins in tightly packed monolayers while retaining functionality. The procedure begins with the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) on a silicon dioxide surface. This monolayer can then be selectively removed by UV photolithography. Under appropriate solution conditions, the OTMS regions will adsorb a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA), while the silicon dioxide regions where the OTMS has been removed by UV light will adsorb less than 2% of a monolayer, thus creating high contrast patterned adsorption of BSA. The attachment of the molecule biotin to the BSA allows the pattern to be replicated in a layer of streptavidin, which bonds to the biotinylated BSA and in turn will bond an additional layer of an arbitrary biotinylated protein. In our test case, functionality of the biotinylated goat antibodies raised against mouse immunoglobulin was demonstrated by the specific binding of fluorescently labeled mouse IgG.

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns of the Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related gene in the mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tomoyuki; Sakuma, Chie; Ueno, Takayuki; Yamada, Yuriko; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ueda, Shuichi; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (Hip1r) was originally identified due to its homology to Huntingtin-interacting protein 1, which contributes to the development of Huntington's disease (HD). We studied the expression of the mouse Hip1r (mHip1r) gene in the mouse head by in situ hybridization. In early embryogenesis at embryonic day (E) 13, mHip1r expression was especially prominent in the olfactory epithelium, cerebral cortex layer 1, cortical plate, and dentate gyrus. During later development from E15 to E17, strong expression of mHip1r transcripts continued to be observed in the olfactory epithelium, cortical plate, and dentate gyrus. Furthermore, not only the subplate and subventricular zone of the cortex, but also secretory glands, such as the nasal gland and the submandibular gland, were mHip1r-positive. Other positive tissues included the retinal ganglion cells, vomeronasal organ, trigeminal ganglion, and the developing molar tooth. In the adult mouse brain, similar expression patterns were observed in the cerebral cortex layers and other brain regions except the cerebellum. Additionally, by using an antibody against mHip1r, we confirmed these expression patterns at the protein level. Specific expression of mHip1r in the embryonic brain and secretory glands suggests a possible role for Hip1r in normal development and in the pathology of HD. PMID:24712472

  8. An LRR-only protein representing a new type of pattern recognition receptor in Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Guo, Ying; Yi, Qilin; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-only proteins could mediate protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions and were involved in the immune response. In the present study, an LRR-only protein (designed as CfLRRop-1) was cloned from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri. The complete cDNA sequence of CfLRRop-1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1377 bp, which encoded a protein of 458 amino acids. An LRRNT motif, an LRR_7 motif and seven LRR motifs were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of CfLRRop-1. And these seven LRR motifs contained a conserved signature sequence LxxLxLxxNxL. The mRNA transcripts of CfLRRop-1 were constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, including haemocytes, muscle, mantle, gill, hepatopancreas and gonad, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. After the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), glucan (GLU) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), the mRNA transcripts of CfLRRop-1 in haemocytes all increased firstly within the first 6 h and secondly during 12-24 h post stimulation. The mRNA expression level of CfLRRop-1 was continuously up-regulated, after the expression of CfTLR (previously identified Toll-like receptor in C. farreri) was suppressed via RNA interference (RNAi). The recombinant CfLRRop-1 protein could directly bind LPS, PGN, GLU and poly I:C, and induce the release of TNF-α in mixed primary cultured scallop haemocytes. These results collectively indicated that CfLRRop-1 would function as a powerful pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and play a pivotal role in the immune response of scallops.

  9. Endemic mansonellosis in Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria: human parasitaemia and Culicoides biting patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Uttah, S. Etim, C. Okonofua & O.E. Effiom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at elucidating the prevalence and intensity of Mansonellaperstans microfilaraemia in the Emohua Local Government Area, Nigeria, and ascertaining the abundance,circadian, and the annual biting patterns of the Culicoides vector.Methods: Thick smear of 50 μl finger-prick blood stained with Giemsa was examined microscopically in across-sectional study. Vector landing collection on human bait was employed in a longitudinal study of thevector biting patterns, carried out between July 2005 and August 2006.Results: Of 1486 individuals examined, 11.2% of both males and females were positive for M. perstansmicrofilaraemia. Microfilaraemia appeared early in life. The overall geometric mean intensity among those withpositive microfilaraemia was 117 mf/ml (121 mf/ml for males and 113 mf/ml for females. The differences ingeometric mean intensity between different age groups were statistically significant (one-way analysis of variance;p <0.05, being highest in the oldest age group (266 mf/ml. A total of 1183 female Culicoides sp were caughtfrom September 2005 to August 2006. The abundance of Culicoides sp was seasonal. The circadian bitingactivity had a broad peak between 0700 and 1200 hrs. The monthly biting rates ranged from zero bite per personper month in January 2006 to 1151 bites per person per month in June 2006. The annual biting rate was 7382bites per person per year.Conclusion: Majority of those with positive microfilaraemia were poor socioeconomically, underscoring theneed for health education and application of effective control measures against Culicoides biting midges inEmohua.

  10. Polymorphism patterns in Duffy-binding protein among Thai Plasmodium vivax isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaecher Kurt E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Duffy-binding protein II of Plasmodium vivax (PvDBPII has been considered as an attractive target for vaccine-mediated immunity despite a possible highly polymorphic nature. Among seven PvDBP domains, domain II has been shown to exhibit a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism, which has been suggested to be a potential immune (antibody binding evasion mechanism. This study aimed to determine the extent of genetic polymorphisms and positive natural selection at domain II of the PvDBP gene among a sampling of Thai P. vivax isolates. Methods The PvDBPII gene was PCR amplified and the patterns of polymorphisms were characterized from 30 Thai P. vivax isolates using DNA cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences and positive selection were done using DnaSP ver 4.0 and MEGA ver 4.0 packages. Results This study demonstrated a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism. Using Sal I as the reference strain, a total of 30 point-mutations were observed in the PvDBPII gene among the set of Thai P. vivax isolates, of which 25 nonsynonymous and five synonymous were found. The highest frequency of polymorphism was found in five variant amino acids (residues D384G, R390H, L424I, W437R, I503K with the variant L424I having the highest frequency. The difference between the rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations estimated by the Nei and Gojobori's method suggested that PvDBPII antigen appears to be under selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of PvDBPII Thai P. vivax isolates to others found internationally demonstrated six distinct allele groups. Allele groups 4 and 6 were unique to Thailand. Conclusion Polymorphisms within PvDBPII indicated that Thai vivax malaria parasites are genetically diverse. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences using the Neighbour-Joining method demonstrated that Thai isolates shared distinct alleles with P. vivax isolates from different geographical areas. The study reported here

  11. Land Use of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and the Effect on Its Landscape Pattern in the Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiqin; ZHOU Wancun; ZHOU Jieming; ZHU Mingcang

    2006-01-01

    The paper makes detailed analysis on the changing processes of the main types of land use in Three Gorges Reservoir Area through the techniques of RS (Remote Sense) and GIS (Geography Information System). Based on the theory of landscape ecology, many types of landscape pattern indexes are calculated and made correlation analysis. The results indicate that: in 1995 the ecological environment of Three Gorges Reservoir Area was the most vulnerable in the recent 50 years, but resumed in 2002; the landscape pattern diversity index, fractal dimension index and fragmentation index has close correlation with the area of land use/cover change (LUCC). The research also releases that the increase of the cultivated land, grassland and construction land deteriorates the landscape ecological pattern, while the increase of forest land area will help restore the landscape ecological pattern to its original state. The rapid change of grassland is an important index of the change of landscape pattern, because it has the most effect on change of landscape pattern index.

  12. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  13. Light at night alters daily patterns of cortisol and clock proteins in female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, T A; Galan, A; Vaughn, C A; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2013-06-01

    Humans and other organisms have adapted to a 24-h solar cycle in response to life on Earth. The rotation of the planet on its axis and its revolution around the sun cause predictable daily and seasonal patterns in day length. To successfully anticipate and adapt to these patterns in the environment, a variety of biological processes oscillate with a daily rhythm of approximately 24 h in length. These rhythms arise from hierarchally-coupled cellular clocks generated by positive and negative transcription factors of core circadian clock gene expression. From these endogenous cellular clocks, overt rhythms in activity and patterns in hormone secretion and other homeostatic processes emerge. These circadian rhythms in physiology and behaviour can be organised by a variety of cues, although they are most potently entrained by light. In recent history, there has been a major change from naturally-occurring light cycles set by the sun, to artificial and sometimes erratic light cycles determined by the use of electric lighting. Virtually every individual living in an industrialised country experiences light at night (LAN) but, despite its prevalence, the biological effects of such unnatural lighting have not been fully considered. Using female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we investigated the effects of chronic nightly exposure to dim light on daily rhythms in locomotor activity, serum cortisol concentrations and brain expression of circadian clock proteins (i.e. PER1, PER2, BMAL1). Although locomotor activity remained entrained to the light cycle, the diurnal fluctuation of cortisol concentrations was blunted and the expression patterns of clock proteins in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus were altered. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to dim LAN can dramatically affect fundamental cellular function and emergent physiology.

  14. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  15. Climatic patterns and extreme rainfalls on coastal areas in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, M. C.; Tarragoni, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the extreme values analysis to estimate the rainfall return levels for some Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas in central Italy. Two approaches are mainly considered: the first one is based on the maximum annual daily rainfall series (1-day, 2-day and 3-day) for which suitable probability distributions are fitted, whereas the second one is based on the series of peaks over annual thresholds (POT) for which the best fitting Generalized Pareto distribution is identified. Spectral analysis and appropriate tests for stationarity and homogeneity are run in order to verify the hypothesis under which the analysis performed is valid. From the density plots and the parameter estimates of the fitted distributions to the various annual maximum rainfall series we can conclude that there is a different pattern in the occurrence of extreme events for the western coast with respect to the eastern coast. Specifically, on the Tyrrhenian side extreme rainfalls are more likely to happen in correspondence of longer time spans (i.e. 3-day series) as the effect of cumulated stable rainfalls over time. On the opposite, for the Adriatic coast extremes are more frequent in shorter time spans (1-day). A vector autoregressive model is then estimated and through a causal ordering the identifying restrictions are set. The impulse response analysis shows a lag in the transmission of rainfall shocks of the central Adriatic coast to the Tyrrhenian one. This paper is prepared as a background paper to the SECOA N1.2 Report: Assessment of frequency-magnitude of extreme rainfall events and flooding. Project SECOA (Solutions for Environmental contrast in Coastal Areas) is funded by the EU Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013).

  16. Injury, nerve, and wound epidermis related electrophoretic and fluorographic protein patterns in forelimbs of adult newts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, D.J.; Tassava, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    Polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and (/sup 35/S)methionine fluorography were used to examine proteins in regenerating newt limbs, amputated denervated limbs, unamputated denervated limbs, and separated blastema mesodermal core and wound epidermis. A total of 27 protein electrophoretic bands were obtained from amputated limbs and 24 bands from unamputated limbs. Amputation resulted in the appearance of 4 new bands and the loss of 1 band as compared to unamputated limbs. These 5 banding differences were apparent on stained gels 3 days postamputation and were maintained through 10 weeks postamputation (complete regenerate stage). Only one band in unamputated limbs was always detectable on fluorographs, whereas virtually all of the stainable bands of amputated limbs were visible on fluorographs. Amputation clearly stimulated a marked, generalized increase in the synthesis of limb proteins. The 5 amputation induced changes were equally evident in stained gels of both innervated and denervated limbs. Amputated denervated limbs possessed a full set of fluorographic bands (including the 5 differences) through 18 days postamputation. However, denervation without amputation was not sufficient to alter the stainable banding pattern. Wound epidermis and mesodermal core both displayed the 5 banding differences and had identical banding patterns with the exception of one epidermal specific band. This band was also present in whole limb skin but was absent in unamputated mesodermal limb tissue. This was the only band of unamputated limbs that was consistently detectable by fluorography. It is concluded that amputation induces nerve independent changes in protein synthesis that are common to both mesodermal core and wound epidermis. These changes may represent preparation for cellular proliferation.

  17. Transparent self-cleaning lubricant-infused surfaces made with large-area breath figure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Liwen; Ran, Tong; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-11-01

    Nepenthes pitcher inspired slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces greatly impact the understanding of liquid-repellent surfaces construction and have attracted extensive attention in recent years due to their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-fouling, anti-icing, etc. In this work, we have successfully fabricated transparent slippery lubricant-infused surfaces based on breath figure patterns (BFPs). Large-area BFPs with interconnected pores were initially formed on the glass substrate and then a suitable lubricant was added onto the surfaces. The interconnected pores in BFPs were able to hold the lubricant liquid in place and form a stable liquid/solid composite surface capable of repelling a variety of liquids. The liquid-repellent surfaces show extremely low critical sliding angles for various liquids, thus providing the surfaces with efficient self-cleaning property. It was also found that the liquid droplets' sliding behaviors on the surfaces were significantly influenced by the tilting angle of the substrate, liquid volume, liquid chemical properties, and pore sizes of the surfaces.

  18. Effect of Perforation Area and Arrangement Pattern on Structural Behaviour of Nature Inspired Perforated Hollow Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Yian Peen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholla cactus skeleton has been the inspiration source for this study, in our effort to search forlight and more structural effective structures. This woody skeleton of Cholla with oval shaped perforationsarranged in spiral pattern is found strong enough to support the cactus self weight. This research has beencarried out to investigate the effects of percentage of perforations and perforations arrangements on structuralbehaviour of cylindrical hollow section. A total of eleven models consisting of one cylindrical hollow sectionwithout perforation as the control model and ten simplified perforated cylindrical hollow sections have beenconstructed using a finite element method software. The perforated models have been assigned with 10 to 50percent of perforations area by fixing the number of perforations to twenty and altering the perforation size toachieve the percentage variable. Computational analyses have been carried out for three loading conditions:compressive, flexural and torsional. Findings have shown that the increment in percentage of perforationsproduces higher stresses to the cylindrical hollow section. This has effects on the structural capacity of thecylindrical hollow section. Array arrangement of the perforations shows better structural performance incompression and flexural loading conditions while spiral arrangement exhibits better structural performanceunder torsional loading condition.

  19. Aligning protein sequence and analysing substitution pattern using a class-specific matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hai Song Xu; Wen Ke Ren; Xiao Hui Liu; Xiao Qin Li

    2010-06-01

    Aligning protein sequences using a score matrix has became a routine but valuable method in modern biological research. However, alignment in the ‘twilight zone’ remains an open issue. It is feasible and necessary to construct a new score matrix as more protein structures are resolved. Three structural class-specific score matrices (all-alpha, all-beta and alpha/beta) were constructed based on the structure alignment of low identity proteins of the corresponding structural classes. The class-specific score matrices were significantly better than a structure-derived matrix (HSDM) and three other generalized matrices (BLOSUM30, BLOSUM60 and Gonnet250) in alignment performance tests. The optimized gap penalties presented here also promote alignment performance. The results indicate that different protein classes have distinct amino acid substitution patterns, and an amino acid score matrix should be constructed based on different structural classes. The class-specific score matrices could also be used in profile construction to improve homology detection.

  20. Pattern recognition analysis and classification modeling of selenium-producing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Established chemometric and geochemical techniques were applied to water quality data from 23 National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) study areas in the Western United States. These techniques were applied to the NIWQP data set to identify common geochemical processes responsible for mobilization of selenium and to develop a classification model that uses major-ion concentrations to identify areas that contain elevated selenium concentrations in water that could pose a hazard to water fowl. Pattern recognition modeling of the simple-salt data computed with the SNORM geochemical program indicate three principal components that explain 95% of the total variance. A three-dimensional plot of PC 1, 2 and 3 scores shows three distinct clusters that correspond to distinct hydrochemical facies denoted as facies 1, 2 and 3. Facies 1 samples are distinguished by water samples without the CaCO3 simple salt and elevated concentrations of NaCl, CaSO4, MgSO4 and Na2SO4 simple salts relative to water samples in facies 2 and 3. Water samples in facies 2 are distinguished from facies 1 by the absence of the MgSO4 simple salt and the presence of the CaCO3 simple salt. Water samples in facies 3 are similar to samples in facies 2, with the absence of both MgSO4 and CaSO4 simple salts. Water samples in facies 1 have the largest selenium concentration (10 ??gl-1), compared to a median concentration of 2.0 ??gl-1 and less than 1.0 ??gl-1 for samples in facies 2 and 3. A classification model using the soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA) algorithm was constructed with data from the NIWQP study areas. The classification model was successful in identifying water samples with a selenium concentration that is hazardous to some species of water-fowl from a test data set comprised of 2,060 water samples from throughout Utah and Wyoming. Application of chemometric and geochemical techniques during data synthesis analysis of multivariate environmental databases from other

  1. Proteomic profiling identifies distinct protein patterns in acute myelogenous leukemia CD34+CD38- stem-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Kornblau

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is believed to arise from leukemic stem-like cells (LSC making understanding the biological differences between LSC and normal stem cells (HSC or common myeloid progenitors (CMP crucial to understanding AML biology. To determine if protein expression patterns were different in LSC compared to other AML and CD34+ populations, we measured the expression of 121 proteins by Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA in 5 purified fractions from AML marrow and blood samples: Bulk (CD3/CD19 depleted, CD34-, CD34+(CMP, CD34+CD38+ and CD34+CD38-(LSC. LSC protein expression differed markedly from Bulk (n =31 cases, 93/121 proteins and CD34+ cells (n = 30 cases, 88/121 proteins with 54 proteins being significantly different (31 higher, 23 lower in LSC than in either Bulk or CD34+ cells. Sixty-seven proteins differed significantly between CD34+ and Bulk blasts (n = 69 cases. Protein expression patterns in LSC and CD34+ differed markedly from normal CD34+ cells. LSC were distinct from CD34+ and Bulk cells by principal component and by protein signaling network analysis which confirmed individual protein analysis. Potential targetable submodules in LSC included the proteins PU.1(SP1, P27, Mcl1, HIF1α, cMET, P53, Yap, and phospho-Stats 1, 5 and 6. Protein expression and activation in LSC differs markedly from other blast populations suggesting that studies of AML biology should be performed in LSC.

  2. Factors controlling spatial distribution patterns of biocrusts in a heterogeneous and topographically complex semiarid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Roncero, Beatriz; Raúl Román, José; Cantón, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Biocrusts are widespread soil components in drylands all over the world. They are known to play key roles in the functioning of these regions by fixing carbon and nitrogen, regulating hydrological processes, and preventing from water and wind erosion, thus reducing the loss of soil resources and increasing soil fertility. The rate and magnitude of services provided by biocrusts greatly depend on their composition and developmental stage. Late-successional biocrusts such as lichens and mosses have higher carbon and nitrogen fixation rates, and confer greater protection against erosion and the loss of sediments and nutrients than early-successional algae and cyanobacteria biocrusts. Knowledge of spatial distribution patterns of different biocrust types and the factors that control their distribution is important to assess ecosystem services provided by biocrusts at large spatial scales and to improve modelling of biogeochemical processes and water and carbon balance in drylands. Some of the factors that condition biocrust cover and composition are incoming solar radiation, terrain attributes, vegetation distribution patterns, microclimatic variables and soil properties such as soil pH, texture, soil organic matter, soil nutrients and gypsum and CaCO3 content. However, the factors that govern biocrust distribution may vary from one site to another depending on site characteristics. In this study, we examined the influence of abiotic attributes on the spatial distribution of biocrust types in a complex heterogeneous badland system (Tabernas, SE Spain) where biocrust cover up to 50% of the soil surface. From the analysis of relationships between terrain attributes and proportional abundance of biocrust types, it was found that topography exerted a main control on the spatial distribution of biocrust types in this area. SW-facing slopes were dominated by physical soil crusts and were practically devoid of vegetation and biocrusts. Biocrusts mainly occupied the pediments

  3. Surface characteristics and coverage pattern of the new damietta port area, as mapped by high resolution remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Moufaddal, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The New Damietta port area has been subjected to large landscape changes and reformations since construction of the port in early 1980s. The area still under development and is expected to experience some more changes during the next few years. This reveals the urgent need for assessment of the present coverage pattern and land-uses of the port area. The present study attempts to determine details of land cover and land use information of the New Damietta port and surrounding area using hi...

  4. Protein profiles of field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from different endemic areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhakti Poerwadikarta

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonicated cell-free extract proteins of 14 field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from six different endemic areas of Indonesia were analyzed by the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods . The protein profiles of each field isolate tested demonstrated slightly different at the protein bands with molecular weights of 18, 37, 52, 65 and 70 kDa, and varied between the field isolates and vaccine strains. The variation could provide clues to the source of anthrax transmission whether it was originated from similar strain or not.

  5. Discovering approximate-associated sequence patterns for protein-DNA interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Tak Ming

    2010-12-30

    Motivation: The bindings between transcription factors (TFs) and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are fundamental protein-DNA interactions in transcriptional regulation. Extensive efforts have been made to better understand the protein-DNA interactions. Recent mining on exact TF-TFBS-associated sequence patterns (rules) has shown great potentials and achieved very promising results. However, exact rules cannot handle variations in real data, resulting in limited informative rules. In this article, we generalize the exact rules to approximate ones for both TFs and TFBSs, which are essential for biological variations. Results: A progressive approach is proposed to address the approximation to alleviate the computational requirements. Firstly, similar TFBSs are grouped from the available TF-TFBS data (TRANSFAC database). Secondly, approximate and highly conserved binding cores are discovered from TF sequences corresponding to each TFBS group. A customized algorithm is developed for the specific objective. We discover the approximate TF-TFBS rules by associating the grouped TFBS consensuses and TF cores. The rules discovered are evaluated by matching (verifying with) the actual protein-DNA binding pairs from Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3D structures. The approximate results exhibit many more verified rules and up to 300% better verification ratios than the exact ones. The customized algorithm achieves over 73% better verification ratios than traditional methods. Approximate rules (64-79%) are shown statistically significant. Detailed variation analysis and conservation verification on NCBI records demonstrate that the approximate rules reveal both the flexible and specific protein-DNA interactions accurately. The approximate TF-TFBS rules discovered show great generalized capability of exploring more informative binding rules. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. A pairwise residue contact area-based mean force potential for discrimination of native protein structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshk Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering energy function to detect a correct protein fold from incorrect ones is very important for protein structure prediction and protein folding. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are certainly the most popular type of interaction function for protein threading. They are derived from statistical analyses of interacting groups in experimentally determined protein structures. These potentials are developed at the atom or the amino acid level. Based on orientation dependent contact area, a new type of knowledge-based mean force potential has been developed. Results We developed a new approach to calculate a knowledge-based potential of mean-force, using pairwise residue contact area. To test the performance of our approach, we performed it on several decoy sets to measure its ability to discriminate native structure from decoys. This potential has been able to distinguish native structures from the decoys in the most cases. Further, the calculated Z-scores were quite high for all protein datasets. Conclusions This knowledge-based potential of mean force can be used in protein structure prediction, fold recognition, comparative modelling and molecular recognition. The program is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/surfield

  7. Improved Discriminability of Spatiotemporal Neural Patterns in Rat Motor Cortical Areas as Directional Choice Learning Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eMao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

  8. Changing Pattern of Hepatitis A Virus Epidemiology in an Area of High Endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Campagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous assessment of hepatitis A virus (HAV seroepidemiology is a useful tool to control the risk of infection.Objectives:This study aimed to evaluate the changing patterns of anti-HAV seroprevalence in a population,which isgenerally considered to be anarea ofhigh endemicity.Patients and Methods: Overall, the results of 3349 sera collected during the period 2005-2008 from patients attending the University Hospital of Cagliari, Italy were studied; their mean age was 52.7 years, (s + 16.22. Patients with liver disease were excluded from the study. Age specific seroprevalence results were compared with those observed in similar previous studies carried out in the same area.Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HAV was 74.6% with consistently lower values in subjects younger than 40 years (17.5%; P < 0.0001 particularly in those under 30 years of age (8.9%, CI 5.8-11.9. A significant declining trend in age specific seroprevalence has been foundin people under 30 years;61% in 1988, 33% in 1995 and 8.9% in 2005-2008.Conclusions: Our findings show that a significant decline inherd immunity has occurred in the last 20 years as a consequence of lower HAV circulation due to improvementsin socio-economical and hygienic conditions. Adolescents and young adults are becoming increasingly susceptible to HAV infections, as recent outbreaks of acute HAV hepatitis have occurred. Persistent environmental monitoring and the implementation of prevention measures must be considered in order to contain the risk related to this epidemiological shift..

  9. Evolution at Two Levels in Fire Ants: The Relationship between Patterns of Gene Expression and Protein Sequence Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, B. G.; Ometto, L.; Keller, L.; Goodisman, M. A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in protein sequence and gene expression each contribute to phenotypic diversity, and may be subject to similar selective pressures. Eusocial insects are particularly useful for investigating the evolutionary link between protein sequence and condition-dependent patterns of gene expression because gene expression plays a central role in determining differences between eusocial insect sexes and castes. We investigated the relationship between protein coding sequence evolution and gene...

  10. Zebrafish Thsd7a is a neural protein required for angiogenic patterning during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chieh-Huei; Chen, I-Hui; Kuo, Meng-Wei; Su, Pei-Tsu; Lai, Zih-Yin; Wang, Chian-Huei; Huang, Wei-Chang; Hoffman, Jana; Kuo, Calvin J; You, May-Su; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2011-06-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly organized process under the control of guidance cues that direct endothelial cell (EC) migration. Recently, many molecules that were initially described as regulators of neural guidance were subsequently shown to also direct EC migration. Here, we report a novel protein, thrombospondin type I domain containing 7A (Thsd7a), that is a neural molecule required for directed EC migration during embryonic angiogenesis in zebrafish. Thsd7a is a vertebrate conserved protein. Zebrafish thsd7a transcript was detected along the ventral edge of the neural tube in the developing zebrafish embryos, correlating with the growth path of angiogenic intersegmental vessels (ISVs). Morpholino-knockdown of Thsd7a caused a lateral deviation of angiogenic ECs below the thsd7a-expressing sites, resulting in aberrant ISV patterning. Collectively, our study shows that zebrafish Thsd7a is a neural protein required for ISV angiogenesis, and suggests an important role of Thsd7a in the neurovascular interaction during zebrafish development.

  11. Low Temperature Stress Induced Changes in Biochemical Parameters, Protein Banding Pattern and Expression of Zat12 and Myb Genes in Rice Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Perveen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature stress is one of the main abiotic factors that reduce the productivity of many crops in hilly areas around the world. In this study, rice seedling were exposed to low temperature stress (control, 0°C, -2°C, -4°C and -6°C for 2 hr to observe its effect on two rice varieties (Basmati-385 and Shaheen Basmati through ion and proline contents, photosynthetic pigments, total protein content, protein banding pattern and expression of Zat12 and Myb genes. Resulted showed different patterns of accumulation of Na+ K+ and Ca+2 ions with the decrease in temperature in both varieties. Proline accumulation was gradually increased in both varieties with the decrease in temperature. Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll (Chl a, b and carotene were negatively affected by low temperature stress in both varieties, however, carotene content was much affected than Chl a and b. Nonsignificant variation in protein contents was observed at all levels of low temperature, but the effects of low temperature stress on protein banding pattern of Basmti-385 and Shaheen Basmati were different at different treatments. RT-PCR results indicated that ZAT12 was upregulated by short term low temperature stress while OsMYB show slight upregulation at -2°C as compared to the other treatments. This study identified that ZAT12 and OsMYB function as a positive regulator to mediate tolerance of rice seedlings at low temperature stress.

  12. Extraction of consensus protein patterns in regions containing non-proline cis peptide bonds and their functional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigas Georgios

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In peptides and proteins, only a small percentile of peptide bonds adopts the cis configuration. Especially in the case of amide peptide bonds, the amount of cis conformations is quite limited thus hampering systematic studies, until recently. However, lately the emerging population of databases with more 3D structures of proteins has produced a considerable number of sequences containing non-proline cis formations (cis-nonPro. Results In our work, we extract regular expression-type patterns that are descriptive of regions surrounding the cis-nonPro formations. For this purpose, three types of pattern discovery are performed: i exact pattern discovery, ii pattern discovery using a chemical equivalency set, and iii pattern discovery using a structural equivalency set. Afterwards, using each pattern as predicate, we search the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM resource to identify potential functional implications of regions with cis-nonPro peptide bonds. The patterns extracted from each type of pattern discovery are further employed, in order to formulate a pattern-based classifier, which is used to discriminate between cis-nonPro and trans-nonPro formations. Conclusions In terms of functional implications, we observe a significant association of cis-nonPro peptide bonds towards ligand/binding functionalities. As for the pattern-based classification scheme, the highest results were obtained using the structural equivalency set, which yielded 70% accuracy, 77% sensitivity and 63% specificity.

  13. Automated Learning of Subcellular Variation among Punctate Protein Patterns and a Generative Model of Their Relation to Microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial distribution of proteins directly from microscopy images is a difficult problem with numerous applications in cell biology (e.g. identifying motor-related proteins and clinical research (e.g. identification of cancer biomarkers. Here we describe the design of a system that provides automated analysis of punctate protein patterns in microscope images, including quantification of their relationships to microtubules. We constructed the system using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images from the Human Protein Atlas project for 11 punctate proteins in three cultured cell lines. These proteins have previously been characterized as being primarily located in punctate structures, but their images had all been annotated by visual examination as being simply "vesicular". We were able to show that these patterns could be distinguished from each other with high accuracy, and we were able to assign to one of these subclasses hundreds of proteins whose subcellular localization had not previously been well defined. In addition to providing these novel annotations, we built a generative approach to modeling of punctate distributions that captures the essential characteristics of the distinct patterns. Such models are expected to be valuable for representing and summarizing each pattern and for constructing systems biology simulations of cell behaviors.

  14. Landscape pattern and its restoration for coal mine subsidence area in southern part of Tangshan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; ZHANG Tie-min; BIAN Lu-feng; BO Li-jie; CUI Jian-yu; HU Lin

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the ecosystem damage and environment pollution resulted from coal resources exploitation, based on remote sensing image, the landscape pattern was quantitatively analyzed with GIS and landscape pattern analysis software FRAGSTATS by utilizing multiform landscape pattern indexes, such as patch area,patch circumference, patch number, fractal dimension, fragmentation index, connectivity index and so on. Resuits indicate that the restored landscape type occupies the control status and accounts for the majority of the whole area, and needs to be further restored and adjusted because of its internal body with smaller patches,lower fractal dimension and better connectivity. The landscape type without restoration has destroyed the ecology and beauty of the whole landscape. In addition, some suggestive instructions for restoring various kinds of patches are put forward according to the quantitative analysis.

  15. Two different immunostaining patterns of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) may distinguish traumatic from nontraumatic axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ogata, Mamoru

    2015-09-01

    Immunostaining for beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is recognized as an effective tool for detecting traumatic axonal injury, but it also detects axonal injury due to ischemic or other metabolic causes. Previously, we reported two different patterns of APP staining: labeled axons oriented along with white matter bundles (pattern 1) and labeled axons scattered irregularly (pattern 2) (Hayashi et al. (Leg Med (Tokyo) 11:S171-173, 2009). In this study, we investigated whether these two patterns are consistent with patterns of trauma and hypoxic brain damage, respectively. Sections of the corpus callosum from 44 cases of blunt head injury and equivalent control tissue were immunostained for APP. APP was detected in injured axons such as axonal bulbs and varicose axons in 24 of the 44 cases of head injuries that also survived for three or more hours after injury. In 21 of the 24 APP-positive cases, pattern 1 alone was observed in 14 cases, pattern 2 alone was not observed in any cases, and both patterns 1 and 2 were detected in 7 cases. APP-labeled injured axons were detected in 3 of the 44 control cases, all of which were pattern 2. These results suggest that pattern 1 indicates traumatic axonal injury, while pattern 2 results from hypoxic insult. These patterns may be useful to differentiate between traumatic and nontraumatic axonal injuries.

  16. Polaris, a protein involved in left-right axis patterning, localizes to basal bodies and cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulman, P D; Haycraft, C J; Balkovetz, D F; Yoder, B K

    2001-03-01

    Mutations in Tg737 cause a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including random left-right axis specification, polycystic kidney disease, liver and pancreatic defects, hydrocephalus, and skeletal patterning abnormalities. To further assess the biological function of Tg737 and its role in the mutant pathology, we identified the cell population expressing Tg737 and determined the subcellular localization of its protein product called Polaris. Tg737 expression is associated with cells possessing either motile or immotile cilia and sperm. Similarly, Polaris concentrated just below the apical membrane in the region of the basal bodies and within the cilia or flagellar axoneme. The data suggest that Polaris functions in a ciliogenic pathway or in cilia maintenance, a role supported by the loss of cilia on the ependymal cell layer in ventricles of Tg737(orpk) brains and by the lack of node cilia in Tg737(Delta2-3betaGal) mutants. PMID:11251073

  17. Crustal deformation pattern of the Morocco-Iberian area: constraints from 14 years of GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo; Fernandez, Josè

    2014-05-01

    We present an improved rendition of crustal motion field of the Morocco-Iberian area, based on an extensive GPS dataset covering about 14 years of observations from 1999.00 up to 2013.79 in order to provide a detailed spatial resolution of geodetic velocity and strain-rate fields. In particular, we included all available data from public continuous GPS stations, considering also data coming from networks developed mainly for mapping, engineering and cadastre purposes. In addition to continuous GPS sites, we included data from 31 episodic GPS sites located in Morocco with surveys spanning the 1999-2006 time interval, whose data are available through the UNAVCO archive (www.unavco.org). All GPS data were processed by using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, taking into account precise ephemerides from the IGS (International GNSS Service; http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov) and Earth orientation parameters from the International Earth Rotation Service (http://www.iers.org). To improve the overall configuration of the network and tie the regional measurements to an external global reference frame, data coming from more than 25 continuously operating global tracking stations, largely from the IGS and EUREF permanent networks, were introduced in the processing. All stations were organized (and processed) into seven sub-networks of about 40-50 sites each, on average, sharing a few common sites to provide ties between them. Finally, by using the GLORG module of GLOBK, the GAMIT-solutions and their full covariance matrices were combined to estimated a consistent set of positions and velocities in the ITRF2008 reference frame by minimizing the horizontal velocity of the continuously operating global tracking stations mentioned above. To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern over the study area, we aligned our estimated GPS velocities to an Eurasian and a Nubian fixed reference frames. In addition, by taking into account the observed GPS horizontal velocity field and

  18. Multiplex protein pattern unmixing using a non-linear variable-weighted support vector machine as optimized by a particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Zou, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Li-Juan; Shen, Guo-Li; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-15

    Most of the proteins locate more than one organelle in a cell. Unmixing the localization patterns of proteins is critical for understanding the protein functions and other vital cellular processes. Herein, non-linear machine learning technique is proposed for the first time upon protein pattern unmixing. Variable-weighted support vector machine (VW-SVM) is a demonstrated robust modeling technique with flexible and rational variable selection. As optimized by a global stochastic optimization technique, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, it makes VW-SVM to be an adaptive parameter-free method for automated unmixing of protein subcellular patterns. Results obtained by pattern unmixing of a set of fluorescence microscope images of cells indicate VW-SVM as optimized by PSO is able to extract useful pattern features by optimally rescaling each variable for non-linear SVM modeling, consequently leading to improved performances in multiplex protein pattern unmixing compared with conventional SVM and other exiting pattern unmixing methods.

  19. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Adyla Suriadi; Endang Titi Sunarti; Murni Rachmawati

    2015-01-01

    Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, to...

  20. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriollo Marcelo Fabiano Gomes

    2003-01-01

    restricted dissemination route of these microorganisms in some groups of healthy scholars, which may be dependent of either socioeconomic categories or geographic site of each child. In contrast to the higher similarity, the lower similarity or higher polymorphism degree (0.499 < S D < 0.788 of protein profiles was shown in 23 (30.6% C. albicans oral isolates. Considering the social epidemiological aspect, 42.1%, 41.7%, 26.6%, 23.5%, and 16.7% were isolates from children concerning to socioeconomic categories A, D, C, B, and E, respectively, and geographically, 63.6%, 50%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 30%, 25%, and 14.3% were isolates from children from schools LAE (Liceu Colégio Albert Einstein, MA (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Elias de Melo Ayres", CS (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Carlos Sodero", AV (Alphaville, HF (E.E.P.S.G. "Honorato Faustino, FMC (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Francisco Mariano da Costa", and MEP (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Manasses Ephraim Pereira, respectively. Such results suggest a higher protein polymorphism degree among some strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic strata or geographic sites. Complementary studies, involving healthy students and their families, teachers, servants, hygiene and nutritional habits must be done in order to establish the sources of such colonization patterns in population groups of healthy children. The whole-cell protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE associated with computer-assisted numerical analysis may provide additional criteria for the taxonomic and epidemiological studies of C. albicans.

  1. A Comparative Study on the Selected Area Electron Diffraction Pattern of Fe Oxide/Au Core-shell Structured Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianghua LU; Kailun YAO; Dong XI; Zuli LIU; Xiaoping LUO; Qin NING

    2007-01-01

    The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of magnetic iron oxide core/gold shell nanoparticles has been studied. For the composite particles with mean size less than 10 nm, their SAED pattern is found to be different from either the pattern of pure Fe oxide nanoparticles or that of pure Au particles. Based on the fact that the ring diameters of these composite particles fit the characteristic relation for the fcc structure, the Au atoms on surfaces of the concerned particles are supposed to pack in a way more tightly than they usually do in pure Au nanoparticles. The driving force for this is the coherency strain which enables the shell material at the heterostructured interface to adapt the lattice parameters of the core.

  2. The pattern of fibrosis in the acinar zone 3 areas in early alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Horn, T; Vyberg, M;

    1991-01-01

    The degree of fibrosis and the pattern of collagen distribution in the acinar zone 3, as well as the thickness of the terminal hepatic vein walls (THV) were analyzed in 48 consecutive liver needle biopsies from 48 alcoholics with preserved liver architecture. The fibrosis occurred to more or less...

  3. STUDIES ON BLOOD GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE PROTEIN LEVEL OF CHILDREN IN KESHAN DISEASE AND KASHIN-BECK DISEASE AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭武红; 种晓红; 杨占田; 翟连榜; 王立新; 徐光禄

    2002-01-01

    Objective To oberve the change in blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein levels of residents in the low-selenium (Se) area by contrasting the blood GSH-Px protein level of the children in the Keshan disease area with those in the Kashin-Beck disease and non-endemic areas. Methods GSH-Px protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The Se content and GSH-Px activity were assayed by the 2,3-diaminonaphthalene spectrofluorimetric method and glutathione reductase-coupled method respectively. Results ①The blood Se content and GSH-Px protein level of children in Keshan disease area (Moding) were significantly lower than those in Xi'an non-endemic area, however, there was no significant difference when compared with the low-Se non-endemic area; ②The blood Se content, GSH-Px activity and GSH-Px protein level of children in the Kashin-Beck disease area (Yulin) were significantly lower than those of children in two non-endemic areas and in the Keshan disease area; ③The blood Se content and GSH-Px activity were positively correlated to the GSH-Px protein level respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that the blood GSH-Px protein level is decreased in the low-Se residents. The Se status not only affects the GSH-Px activity but also regulate the GSH-Px protein level.

  4. Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

  5. Colonization pattern of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 on barley seeds visualized by using green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolini, R; van der Gaag, D J; Gerhardson, B; Jansson, J K

    1999-08-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 is a potent biocontrol agent that can be used against several seed-borne diseases of cereal crops, including net blotch of barley caused by the fungus Drechslera teres. In this study, strain MA 342 was tagged with the gfp gene (encoding the green fluorescent protein) in order to study the fate of cells after seed inoculation. The gfp-tagged strain, MA 342G2, had the same biocontrol efficacy as the wild type when it was applied at high cell concentrations to seeds but was less effective at lower cell concentrations. By comparing cell counts determined by microscopy to the number of CFU, we found that the number of culturable cells was significantly lower than the total number of bacteria on seeds which were inoculated and dried for 20 h. Confocal microscopy and epifluorescence stereomicroscopy were used to determine the pattern of MA 342G2 colonization and cell aggregation on barley seeds. Immediately after inoculation of seeds, bacteria were found mainly under the seed glume, and there was no particular aggregation pattern. However, after the seeds were sown, irregularly distributed areas of bacterial aggregation were found, which reflected epiphytic colonization of glume cells. There was a trend towards bacterial aggregation near the embryo but never within the embryo. Bacterial aggregates were regularly found in the groove of each seed formed by the base of the coleoptile and the scutellum. Based on these results, we suggest that MA 342 colocalizes with the pathogen D. teres, which facilitates the action of the fungistatic compound(s) produced by this strain.

  6. Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Koji; Valderrama, Anayansi; Gottdenker, Nicole; Cerezo, Lizbeth; MINAKAWA, NOBORU; Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E.; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected vector-borne zoonosis that persists despite increasing socio-economic development and urbanization in Panamá. Here, we investigate the association between environmental changes and spatio-temporal ACL transmission in the Republic of Panamá (1980–2012). We employ a macroecological approach, where patterns of variation in ACL incidence at the spatially coarse-grained scale of health areas are studied considering factors linked to the ecology...

  7. Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randazzo Davide

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

  8. Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI from the Class Arachnida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R Young

    Full Text Available Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625. It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels-among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10-0.39, while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07-0.35. BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is 'locked down' in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in 'locked down' taxa.

  9. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  10. Mining frequent patterns for AMP-activated protein kinase regulation on skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yi-Ping

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has emerged as a significant signaling intermediary that regulates metabolisms in response to energy demand and supply. An investigation into the degree of activation and deactivation of AMPK subunits under exercise can provide valuable data for understanding AMPK. In particular, the effect of AMPK on muscle cellular energy status makes this protein a promising pharmacological target for disease treatment. As more AMPK regulation data are accumulated, data mining techniques can play an important role in identifying frequent patterns in the data. Association rule mining, which is commonly used in market basket analysis, can be applied to AMPK regulation. Results This paper proposes a framework that can identify the potential correlation, either between the state of isoforms of α, β and γ subunits of AMPK, or between stimulus factors and the state of isoforms. Our approach is to apply item constraints in the closed interpretation to the itemset generation so that a threshold is specified in terms of the amount of results, rather than a fixed threshold value for all itemsets of all sizes. The derived rules from experiments are roughly analyzed. It is found that most of the extracted association rules have biological meaning and some of them were previously unknown. They indicate direction for further research. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AMPK has a great impact on most metabolic actions that are related to energy demand and supply. Those actions are adjusted via its subunit isoforms under specific physical training. Thus, there are strong co-relationships between AMPK subunit isoforms and exercises. Furthermore, the subunit isoforms are correlated with each other in some cases. The methods developed here could be used when predicting these essential relationships and enable an understanding of the functions and metabolic pathways regarding AMPK.

  11. Large area micro-/nano-structuring using direct laser interference patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni, Andrés. F.; Kunze, Tim; Bieda, Matthias; Günther, Denise; Gärtner, Anne; Lang, Valentin; Rank, Andreas; Roch, Teja

    2016-03-01

    Smart surfaces are a source of innovation in the 21st Century. Potential applications can be found in a wide range of fields where improved optical, mechanical or biological properties can enhance the functions of products. In the last years, a method called Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) has demonstrated to be capable of fabricating a wide range of periodic surface patterns even with resolution at the nanometer and sub-micrometer scales. This article describes recent advances of the DLIP method to process 2D and 3D parts. Firstly, the possibility to fabricate periodic arrays on metallic substrates with sub-micrometer resolution is shown. After that, different concepts to process three dimensional parts are shown, including the use of Cartesian translational stages as well as an industrial robot arm. Finally, some application examples are described.

  12. Spatial patterns of large natural fires in Sierra Nevada wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.M.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fire on vegetation vary based on the properties and amount of existing biomass (or fuel) in a forest stand, weather conditions, and topography. Identifying controls over the spatial patterning of fire-induced vegetation change, or fire severity, is critical in understanding fire as a landscape scale process. We use gridded estimates of fire severity, derived from Landsat ETM+ imagery, to identify the biotic and abiotic factors contributing to the observed spatial patterns of fire severity in two large natural fires. Regression tree analysis indicates the importance of weather, topography, and vegetation variables in explaining fire severity patterns between the two fires. Relative humidity explained the highest proportion of total sum of squares throughout the Hoover fire (Yosemite National Park, 2001). The lowest fire severity corresponded with increased relative humidity. For the Williams fire (Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks, 2003) dominant vegetation type explains the highest proportion of sum of squares. Dominant vegetation was also important in determining fire severity throughout the Hoover fire. In both fires, forest stands that were dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) burned at highest severity, while red fir (Abies magnifica) stands corresponded with the lowest fire severities. There was evidence in both fires that lower wind speed corresponded with higher fire severity, although the highest fire severity in the Williams fire occurred during increased wind speed. Additionally, in the vegetation types that were associated with lower severity, burn severity was lowest when the time since last fire was fewer than 11 and 17 years for the Williams and Hoover fires, respectively. Based on the factors and patterns identified, managers can anticipate the effects of management ignited and naturally ignited fires at the forest stand and the landscape levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  13. Assessing Patterns of Human-Wildlife Conflicts and Compensation around a Central Indian Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Ruth DeFries; Natasha Ballal

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as ...

  14. Alterations in the protein pattern of subcellular fractions isolated from Paramecium cells suppressed in phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmacz, L; Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    2001-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and quantitative densitometric analysis revealed alterations in the protein pattern of subcellular fractions (100,000 x g) isolated from Paramecium aurelia (299s axenic) cells suppressed in phagocytosis as compared with the control. Two different agents were used to block phagocytosis: the beta-adrenergic antagonist-1-propranolol (200 microM) and inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent processes--trifluoperazine (20 microM). More than 40 polypeptides were identified in the cytosolic (soluble) fractions S1 and S2. A considerable decrease in band intensity was found for three polypeptides: by 60% for 87 kDa band, 52% for 75 kDa and 37% for 42 kDa in comparison to the control, when S2 fractions from propranolol-treated cells of equal load were quantified. TFP treatment evoked only a small decrease in the intensity of the same bands: 9%, 10% and 6%, respectively. The 42 kDa band was identified by Western blot analysis and chemiluminiscent detection to be actin. This result suggests that actin may be a primary target of pharmacological agents used in this study to inhibit Paramecium phagocytic activity.

  15. Expression pattern of the CsPK3 auxin-responsive protein kinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, M; Suzuki, Y; Nemoto, K; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N; Yamaguchi, I

    2001-03-01

    We have previously cloned a cDNA of a putative serine/threonine protein kinase gene named CsPK3 from cucumber, the mRNA level of which was up-regulated by auxin and down-regulated by light irradiation. To examine the CsPK3 gene expression in detail, we cloned a genomic DNA of CsPK3 gene and made transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) plants containing the fused CsPK3 promoter-beta-glucuronidase gene. The beta-glucuronidase expression was detected in the shoot apex, vascular tissues, and the outermost layer of cortex. The histological distribution of CsPK3 mRNA in cucumber seedlings was supported by in situ hybridization, where the positive signals were observed in similar tissues as those observed by beta-glucuronidase staining. The responsiveness of the CsPK3 gene to auxin and light was also confirmed for beta-glucuronidase activity. The pattern of beta-glucuronidase staining changed during the development of the tobacco seedlings. The results of our experiment showed that CsPK3 was expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cells in which the developmental and growth controls by auxin are suggested.

  16. Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and associated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, M-ficolin and H-ficolin are all complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with recognition domains linked to collagen-like regions. All four may form complexes with four structurally related proteins, the three MBL-associated serine...

  17. Transition areas in the domain patterns of storeyed cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of interlocked grain, generated by storeyed cambium, was observed in the wood of linden. The inclination of the grain changed periodically every two to four years. In general, the direction of the change of grain was compatible with the occurrence of configuration Z or S of cellular events. 1f, in the cambium during the generation of a growth ring, the domain border did not pass the examined area, the events were of one configuration type only, otherwise, there were two types of events aggregated into microareas. The microareas were the result of unsynchronous activities of groups of cambium cells. A growth ring area through which a domain border passed during the year under consideration was called the transition area.

  18. WEREWOLF, a MYB-related protein in Arabidopsis, is a position-dependent regulator of epidermal cell patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M M; Schiefelbein, J

    1999-11-24

    The formation of the root epidermis of Arabidopsis provides a simple and elegant model for the analysis of cell patterning. A novel gene, WEREWOLF (WER), is described here that is required for position-dependent patterning of the epidermal cell types. The WER gene encodes a MYB-type protein and is preferentially expressed within cells destined to adopt the non-hair fate. Furthermore, WER is shown to regulate the position-dependent expression of the GLABRA2 homeobox gene, to interact with a bHLH protein, and to act in opposition to the CAPRICE MYB. These results suggest a simple model to explain the specification of the two root epidermal cell types, and they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms used to control cell patterning.

  19. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  20. A Study on Energy Consumption Pattern in Developing Areas of Western Himalayan State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on energy consumption and carbon emission in growth oriented Dharmpur block of Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. The energy consumption pattern revealed that fuelwood consumption contributed highest (80.43% proportion of total energy mix followed by electricity (11.55%, kerosene (2.87%, dung cake (2.79%, LPG (2.31% and diesel (0.08%. The daily energy consumption pattern in kg of coal equivalent for fuelwood, electricity, kerosene, dung cake, LPG and diesel was worked to be as 10.09, 1.45, 0.36, 0.35, 0.29 and 0.01, respectively. The per capita annual energy consumption of electricity was estimated to be 160 kWh, kerosene (1.29 liters, dung cake (0.07 tonnes and fuelwood (0.76 tonnes. Annual CO2 emission from households in Dharmpur block was estimated as 86,603 tonnes out of which 74,275 tonnes (80.64% was emitted from the fuelwood consumption only. The annual per capita energy consumption from all sources for Dharmpur block was estimated to be 12.5 tonnes of coal equivalent. The per capita CO2 emission from different energy sources in Dharmpur block was 1.1 tonnes.

  1. [Soil physical and chemical characteristics under different vegetation restoration patterns in China south subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bing; Liu, Shi-rong; Cai, Dao-xiong; Lu, Li-hua; He, Ri-ming; Gao, Yan-xia; Di, Wei-zhi

    2010-10-01

    This paper studied the change of soil physical and chemical properties under eleven vegetation restoration patterns (1 kind of secondary forest, 2 kinds of pure coniferous plantations, 5 kinds of evergreen broad-leaved plantations, 2 kinds of conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations, and 1 kind of shrub) typical in Daqingshan of Guangxi. Obvious differences were observed in the soil physical and chemical properties under different vegetation restoration patterns. The soil physical properties were better in secondary forest but poorer in pure conifer plantations. Conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations had lower soil bulk density, and their soil total porosity and water-holding capacity were higher than those in pure plantations. There were no significant differences in the soil porosity among the 5 evergreen broad-leaved plantations. Except that of soil total K, the contents of soil nutrients in secondary forest were higher than those in plantations, and the soil C/N ratio and pH value were relatively lower. Comparing with shrub, the 9 plantations had an obvious change in their soil nutrient contents, e. g. , the increase of soil total N and available K. The 2 pure coniferous plantations had lower soil nutrient contents, but after mixed planted with evergreen broad-leaved trees, their soil nutrient contents increased markedly, and the soil C/N ratio decreased. PMID:21328932

  2. Patterns of Kindergarten Children's Social Interaction with Peers in the Computer Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Mee

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how young children interact with their peers in the computer area of a public kindergarten classroom. Children's social interaction, as defined in this study, is the action of giving and taking information that results in children's knowledge construction and cognitive development that can be accomplished through peer-to-peer…

  3. Annual Rainfall and Seasonality Predict Pan-tropical Patterns of Liana Density and Basal Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWalt, S.J.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Chave, J.; Bongers, F.; Cai, Z.Q.; Ewango, C.E.N.; Parren, M.P.E.

    2010-01-01

    We test the hypotheses proposed by Gentry and Schnitzer that liana density and basal area in tropical forests vary negatively with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and positively with seasonality. Previous studies correlating liana abundance with these climatic variables have produced conflicting res

  4. Patterns, rates and possible causes of saltmarsh erosion in the Greater Thames area (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, D.; Pye, K.

    2004-01-01

    The estuary-dominated coast of the Greater Thames in England has experienced rapid lateral erosion and internal dissection of saltmarshes. This paper provides an overview of saltmarsh development in this area, and re-examines the role of environmental and human forcing factors. It draws on documenta

  5. Human cellular protein patterns and their link to genome DNA mapping and sequencing data: towards an integrated approach to the study of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Rasmussen, H H; Leffers, H;

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of cellular protein patterns by computer-aided two-dimensional gel electrophoresis together with recent advances in protein sequence analysis and expression systems have made possible the establishment of comprehensive two-dimensional gel protein databases that may link protein and DNA m...

  6. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6% for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1 and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2 was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry.

  7. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Cristiana S B; Reis, Sílvia R L; Pessoa, Ana F M; De Souza, Letícia M I; Stoppiglia, Luiz F; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise A B; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Colodel, Edson M; Arantes, Vanessa C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC) protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry. PMID:25860970

  8. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  9. EMPLOYMENT PATTERN OF HUMAN LABOUR IN THE FLOOD PRONE AREA OF SIVASAGAR DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    OpenAIRE

    PROMOD BORGOHAIN

    2013-01-01

    The rural mass of Sivasagar district are primarily dependent on Agriculture. Farming has been the mainstay of the large majority of the people. Settled cultivation is the general characteristics and rice has been the most dominant crop activity in the area. Of course, mustard, sugarcane, pulses and various types of vegetables are also grown to a limited expect. In addition dairy, poultry, piggery, sericulture, weaving and fishery are some of the subsidiary occupation of the inhabitants of the...

  10. Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of Drought in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Areas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyuan Cai; Yuhu Zhang; Qiuhua Chen; Yunjun Yao

    2015-01-01

    Drought identification and assessment are essential for regional water resources management. In this paper, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were evaluated based on monthly precipitation data from 33 synoptic stations during the period of 1960–2010. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan areas (BTHMA) (1965, 1997, and 2002). The modified Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) was applied to capture the drou...

  11. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON’S HAWKS

    OpenAIRE

    Kochert, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    From 1995–1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer are...

  12. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON’S HAWKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochert, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    From 1995–1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson’s Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 – 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson’s Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson’s Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers. PMID:26380528

  13. Pattern of Hepatitis A Incidence According to Area Characteristics Using National Health Insurance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Joo Youn; Seo, Jae Hee; Kim, Myoung Hee; Ki, Moran; Park, Hee Suk; Choi, Bo Youl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Over the past several years, the incidence of hepatitis A infection has been increasing rapidly in the young-adult population in Korea. We examined the effects of area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene on the incidence of hepatitis A. Methods This study is based on the registered national population of Korea and the national health insurance data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 73 459 individuals were confirmed to have had hepatitis A. The standardized incidences o...

  14. A Methodological Assessment of Immigrants#180; Settlement Patterns and Housing Typologies in Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Emília Malcata Rebelo

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this chapter fits into recent international researches on therelevance of immigrants for urban and regional sustainability, and on the relationshipbetween immigrants#180; settlements and socio-economic, territorial and dwellingscharacteristics.An innovative methodology is proposed in order to describe settlement and housingtypologies of different groups of immigrants that live in a certain metropolitan area,according to respective demographic, economic, professional a...

  15. Distribution patterns and sources of metals and PAHs in an intensely urbanized area: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Ferullo, Giampiero; De Vivo, Benedetto; Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the URGE (URban GEochemistry) project is to define, map and interpretate the geochemical baseline patterns of potentially harmful elements and compounds in the soils of 12 european urban areas using shared procedures for both sampling and analytical techniques. In Italy, in the framework of the URGE project, the north-eastern sector of the Napoli metropolitan area, namely the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation, has undergone a geochemical characterization based on 145 soil samples collected over an area of 90 sq km. This area has been selected on the basis of the results obtained from previous regional studies [1, 2, 3] and because of the presence on its territory of an historical industrial settlement (formerly devoted to plastic materials and synthetic fibres production) which was partly dismantled and party converted to a power plant fuelled by palm oil. Furthermore, in March 2009 also an incinerator came into operation in the northern sector of the study area. The main objective of the study carried out for the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation was to define the local geochemical baselines for both 53 elements (among which the toxic ones) and some organic compounds, including PAHs and OCPs. The study also aimed at supporting epidemiological researches at local scale and at establishing a record of the actual environmental conditions to evaluate the future impact of the incinerator on both the territory and the public health. Results obtained showed that Pb, Zn and V exceed the trigger limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006) especially in correspondence with the most densely populated areas of the conurbation and where the traffic load is higher (Road junctions and fast lanes). Furthermore, most of the soils collected in the surroundings of the urbanized areas resulted to be generally enriched in Cu, Co, Cd, Be, Ni and P suggesting the presence of a relevant influence on their chemistry of an

  16. Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

    This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the

  17. Connectivity patterns of coastal fishes following different dispersal scenarios across a transboundary marine protected area (Bonifacio strait, NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Barbara; Gérigny, Olivia; Durieux, Eric Dominique Henri; Coudray, Sylvain; Garsi, Laure-Hélène; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François; Agostini, Sylvia

    2015-03-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio constitutes one of the rare transboundary Marine Protected Areas (MPA) of the Mediterranean Sea (between Sardinia, Italy and Corsica, France). Based on the hypothesis that no-take zones will produce more fish larvae, compared to adjacent fished areas, we modeled the outcome of larvae released by coastal fishes inside the no-take zones of the MPA in order to: (1) characterize the dispersal patterns across the Strait of Bonifacio; (2) identify the main potential settlement areas; (3) quantify the connectivity and the larval supply from the MPAs to the surrounding areas. A high resolution hydrodynamic model (MARS 3D, Corse 400 m) combined to an individual based model (Ichthyop software) was used to model the larval dispersal of fish following various scenarios (Pelagic Larval Duration PLD and release depth) over the main spawning period (i.e. between April and September). Dispersal model outputs were then compared with those obtained from an ichthyoplankton sampling cruise performed in August 2012. There was a significant influence of PLD to the connectivity between coastal areas. The synchronization between spawning and hydrodynamic conditions appeared to be determinant in the larval transport success. Biotic and abiotic parameters affecting the dispersal dynamic of fish larvae within the Strait of Bonifacio were identified and synthesis maps were established as a tool for conservation planning.

  18. NMR spin relaxation in proteins: The patterns of motion that dissipate power to the bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Yury E., E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il, E-mail: yuryeshapiro@gmail.com; Meirovitch, Eva, E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il, E-mail: yuryeshapiro@gmail.com [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900-02 (Israel)

    2014-04-21

    We developed in recent years the two-body coupled-rotator slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach for the analysis of NMR relaxation in proteins. The two bodies/rotators are the protein (diffusion tensor D{sub 1}) and the spin-bearing probe, e.g., the {sup 15}N−{sup 1}H bond (diffusion tensor, D{sub 2}), coupled by a local potential (u). A Smoluchowski equation is solved to yield the generic time correlation functions (TCFs), which are sums of weighted exponentials (eigenmodes). By Fourier transformation one obtains the generic spectral density functions (SDFs) which underlie the experimental relaxation parameters. The typical paradigm is to characterize structural dynamics in terms of the best-fit values of D{sub 1}, D{sub 2}, and u. Additional approaches we pursued employ the SRLS TCFs, SDFs, or eigenmodes as descriptors. In this study we develop yet another perspective. We consider the SDF as function of the angular velocity associated with the fluctuating fields underlying NMR relaxation. A parameter called j-fraction, which represents the relative contribution of eigenmode, i, to a given value of the SDF function at a specific frequency, ω, is defined. j-fraction profiles of the dominant eigenmodes are derived for 0 ≤ ω ≤ 10{sup 12} rad/s. They reveal which patterns of motion actuate power dissipation at given ω-values, what are their rates, and what is their relative contribution. Simulations are carried out to determine the effect of timescale separation, D{sub 1}/D{sub 2}, axial potential strength, and local diffusion axiality. For D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} ≤ 0.01 and strong local potential of 15 k{sub B}T, power is dissipated by global diffusion, renormalized (by the strong potential) local diffusion, and probe diffusion on the surface of a cone (to be called cone diffusion). For D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} = 0.1, power is dissipated by mixed eigenmodes largely of a global-diffusion-type or cone-diffusion-type, and a nearly bare renormalized

  19. New algorithmic approaches to protein spot detection and pattern matching in two-dimensional electrophoresis gel databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, K P; Hoffmann, F; Kriegel, K; Wenk, C; Wegner, S; Sahlström, A; Oswald, H; Alt, H; Fleck, E

    1999-01-01

    Protein spot identification in two-dimensional electrophoresis gels can be supported by the comparison of gel images accessible in different World Wide Web two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel protein databases. The comparison may be performed either by visual cross-matching between gel images or by automatic recognition of similar protein spot patterns. A prerequisite for the automatic point pattern matching approach is the detection of protein spots yielding the x(s),y(s) coordinates and integrated spot intensities i(s). For this purpose an algorithm is developed based on a combination of hierarchical watershed transformation and feature extraction methods. This approach reduces the strong over-segmentation of spot regions normally produced by watershed transformation. Measures for the ellipticity and curvature are determined as features of spot regions. The resulting spot lists containing x(s),y(s),i(s)-triplets are calculated for a source as well as for a target gel image accessible in 2-DE gel protein databases. After spot detection a matching procedure is applied. Both the matching of a local pattern vs. a full 2-DE gel image and the global matching between full images are discussed. Preset slope and length tolerances of pattern edges serve as matching criteria. The local matching algorithm relies on a data structure derived from the incremental Delaunay triangulation of a point set and a two-step hashing technique. For the incremental construction of triangles the spot intensities are considered in decreasing order. The algorithm needs neither landmarks nor an a priori image alignment. A graphical user interface for spot detection and gel matching is written in the Java programming language for the Internet. The software package called CAROL (http://gelmatching.inf.fu-berlin.de) is realized in a client-server architecture.

  20. Pattern recognition in pulmonary tuberculosis defined by high content peptide microarray chip analysis representing 61 proteins from M. tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simani Gaseitsiwe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum antibody-based target identification has been used to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs for development of anti-cancer vaccines. A similar approach can be helpful to identify biologically relevant and clinically meaningful targets in M. tuberculosis (MTB infection for diagnosis or TB vaccine development in clinically well defined populations. METHOD: We constructed a high-content peptide microarray with 61 M. tuberculosis proteins as linear 15 aa peptide stretches with 12 aa overlaps resulting in 7446 individual peptide epitopes. Antibody profiling was carried with serum from 34 individuals with active pulmonary TB and 35 healthy individuals in order to obtain an unbiased view of the MTB epitope pattern recognition pattern. Quality data extraction was performed, data sets were analyzed for significant differences and patterns predictive of TB+/-. FINDINGS: Three distinct patterns of IgG reactivity were identified: 89/7446 peptides were differentially recognized (in 34/34 TB+ patients and in 35/35 healthy individuals and are highly predictive of the division into TB+ and TB-, other targets were exclusively recognized in all patients with TB (e.g. sigmaF but not in any of the healthy individuals, and a third peptide set was recognized exclusively in healthy individuals (35/35 but no in TB+ patients. The segregation between TB+ and TB- does not cluster into specific recognition of distinct MTB proteins, but into specific peptide epitope 'hotspots' at different locations within the same protein. Antigen recognition pattern profiles in serum from TB+ patients from Armenia vs. patients recruited in Sweden showed that IgG-defined MTB epitopes are very similar in individuals with different genetic background. CONCLUSIONS: A uniform target MTB IgG-epitope recognition pattern exists in pulmonary tuberculosis. Unbiased, high-content peptide microarray chip-based testing of clinically well-defined populations allows to visualize

  1. Patterns and Determinants of Essential Newborn Care Practices in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was designed to understand the patterns and determinants of three essential newborn care practices: safe cord care, optimal thermal care, and neonatal feeding practices. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 lactating mothers who have delivered a live baby at home within the past one year prior to the study. Results. Overall, the prevalence of essential newborn practices on safe cord care and optimal thermal care was exceptionally low. Of the 404 newborns, only 0.2% (1 had safe cord care, 5.2% (21 optimal thermal care, and 50.2% (203 were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. In logistic regression analysis, the main predictors of good neonatal feeding were maternal age, timing of the first antenatal care (ANC, and maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Women who could mention at least 4 danger signs of the neonate were 4 times more likely to give good neonatal feeding to their babies (AOR = 4.7, Cl: 2.43–9.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. Evidence from this study strongly suggests that the expected essential newborn care practices are not available to a substantial number of the newborns. Efforts should therefore be made by the Ghana Health Service (GHS to expand essential newborn care interventions beyond institutional level into the communities.

  2. Large-Area Sub-Wavelength Optical Patterning via Long-Range Ordered Polymer Lens Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Liow, Chihao; Tao, Kai; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaotian; Miao, Jianmin

    2016-06-29

    Fabrication of large-area, highly orderly, and high-resolution nanostructures in a cost-effective fashion prompts advances in nanotechnology. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a unique strategy to prepare a long-range highly regular polymer lens from photoresist nanotrenches based templates, which are obtained from underexposure. The relationship between exposure dose and the cross-sectional morphology of produced photoresist nanostructures is revealed for the first time. The polymer lens arrays are repeatedly used for rapid generation of sub-100 nm nanopatterns across centimeter-scale areas. The light focusing properties of the nanoscale polymer lens are investigated by both simulation and experiment. It is found that the geometry, size of the lens, and the exposure dose can be deployed to adjust the produced feature size, spacing, and shapes. Because the polymer lenses are derived from top-down photolithography, the nearly perfect long-range periodicity of produced nanopatterns is ensured, and the feature shapes can be flexibly designed. Because this nanolithographic strategy enables subwavelength periodical nanopatterns with controllable feature size, geometry, and composition in a cost-effective manner, it can be optimized as a viable and potent nanofabrication tool for various technological applications. PMID:27301636

  3. Comparison of expression patterns of fibroblast growth factor 8, bone morphogenetic protein 4 and sonic hedgehog in jaw development of the house shrew, Suncus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Hidenao; Tabata, Makoto J; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yasui, Kinya; Uemura, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying jaw development in mammals, we used a new laboratory animal, Suncus murinus (house shrew, an insectivore) as the subject for the investigation, because Suncus has all types of teeth (incisor, canine, premolar and molar) in its upper and lower jaws and is thought to be a good model animal having a general mammalian tooth pattern. At the start, by use of degenerate primers we cloned Suncus homologues of fibroblast growth factor 8 (sFgf8), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (sBmp4) and sonic hedgehog (sShh) genes from cDNA library derived from whole Suncus embryos at day 12 (E12). Thereafter, we examined the expression patterns of these genes in the jaw development of Suncus E11-16 embryos (for mouse E9.5-12 embryos). sFgf8 and sBmp4 were expressed in E11 but not in E15 and onward during orofacial development. sShh was expressed from E11 onward, and its expression was increased in the orofacial area. The expression pattern of sFgf8 in the maxillary and mandibular arches of E14 coincided with the area of the presumptive tooth arch. However, sShh and sBmp4 were expressed only in the outer area (= buccal/labial side) of presumptive tooth arch. Thus, these 3 genes showed specific expression pattern in jaw development of Suncus, and their distributions did not overlap each other except in a few regions. These findings suggest that sFgf8, sBmp4 and sShh have a specific function respectively during jaw development in Suncus murinus.

  4. Large-area ordered Ge-Si compound quantum dot molecules on dot-patterned Si (001) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hui; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Shuguang; Fan, Yongliang; Zhong, Zhenyang

    2014-08-29

    We report on the formation of large-area ordered Ge-Si compound quantum dot molecules (CQDMs) in a combination of nanosphere lithography and self-assembly. Truncated-pyramid-like Si dots with {11n} facets are readily formed, which are spatially ordered in a large area with controlled period and size. Each Si dot induces four self-assembled Ge-rich dots at its base edges that can be fourfold symmetric along directions. A model based on surface chemical potential accounts well for these phenomena. Our results disclose the critical effect of surface curvature on the diffusion and the aggregation of Ge adatoms and shed new light on the unique features and the inherent mechanism of self-assembled QDs on patterned substrates. Such a configuration of one Si QD surrounded by fourfold symmetric Ge-rich QDs can be seen as a CQDM with unique features, which will have potential applications in novel devices. PMID:25078348

  5. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    Full Text Available Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2 area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  6. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  7. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur. PMID:23227173

  8. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  9. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  10. Tissue distribution and deposition pattern of a cellulosic parenchyma-specific protein from cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio A.S. Souza

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein with a molecular mass of 22kDa was purified from the cellulosic parenchyma of cassava roots. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and antibodies generated against the purified protein were used to show that the concentration of the protein remains unchanged during root "tuber" formation. By using a tissue printing technique, as well as western blot, it was shown that the cellulosic parenchyma was the only root tissue in which the protein was deposited.

  11. Resting Energy Expenditure and Its Relationship With Patterns of Obesity and Visceral Fat Area in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; MING YANG; XIN-YU SHAO; YU-QIAN BAO; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and patterns of obesity/regional fat parameters in Chinese adults. Methods Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed in 109 Chinese adults (52 men and 57 women), and their abdominal visceral adipose tissue area (VA) and subcutaneous fat area (SA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry and compared with normal and obese subjects. Multivariate analysis was used to study the factors related to REE. Results The resting energy expenditure per kilogram of body weight (REE/kg) was closely related with the area of abdominal visceral fat measured with MRI. REE/kg was significantly lower in overweight/obesity subjects than in normal-weighted subjects, and significantly lower in subjects with abdominal obesity (VA≥100 cm2) than in subjects with non-abdominal obesity (VA< 100 cm2, BMI≥25 kg/m2). In the stepwise regression analysis of REE/kg on regional fat parameters, VA in men and women and SA in women were independent factors reversely related to REE/kg. Conclusion REE/kg is associated with the visceral fat area and more prominent in men. REE/kg can be used as an index in the pathophysiology of intra-abdominal obesity.

  12. Notch-mediated post-translational control of Ngn3 protein stability regulates pancreatic patterning and cell fate commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Afelik, Solomon; Jensen, Jan Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    Ngn3 is recognized as a regulator of pancreatic endocrine formation, and Notch signaling as an important negative regulator Ngn3 gene expression. By conditionally controlling expression of Ngn3 in the pancreas, we find that these two signaling components are dynamically linked. This connection...... involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation...... protein stabilization in the normal mouse pancreas explants. We conclude that the mutually exclusive expression pattern of Ngn3/Hes1 proteins in the mammalian pancreas is partially controlled through Notch-mediated post-translational regulation and we demonstrate that the formation of insulin...

  13. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of biomineralization proteins during early development in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Putnam, Hollie M; Drake, Jeana L; Zelzion, Ehud; Gates, Ruth D; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Falkowski, Paul G

    2016-04-27

    Reef-building corals begin as non-calcifying larvae that, upon settling, rapidly begin to accrete skeleton and a protein-rich skeletal organic matrix that attach them to the reef. Here, we characterized the temporal and spatial expression pattern of a suite of biomineralization genes during three stages of larval development in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis: stage I, newly released; stage II, oral-aborally compressed and stage III, settled and calcifying spat. Transcriptome analysis revealed 3882 differentially expressed genes that clustered into four distinctly different patterns of expression change across the three developmental stages. Immunolocalization analysis further reveals the spatial arrangement of coral acid-rich proteins (CARPs) in the overall architecture of the emerging skeleton. These results provide the first analysis of the timing of the biomineralization 'toolkit' in the early life history of a stony coral. PMID:27122561

  14. [Effects of different ridge-furrow planting patterns of potato on soil evaporation in semiarid area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Liu, Xiao-Lan

    2007-04-01

    This paper studied the soil evaporation in potato field in semi-arid area under effects of covering ridge with plastic film (CR), uncovering ridge but compacted (UR), and belt planting on flat soil without ridge (CK). The results showed that in the whole growth season of potato, soil evaporation was 122.9-165 mm, 90.9-101.2 mm, and 80.7 mm under CR, UR, and CK, respectively. Treatment CR60 had the maximum soil evaporation (2.6 mm x d(-1)) at maturing stage, with a mean of 1. 46 mm x d(-1), while the soil evaporation in CK was 0.65 mm x d(-1). In treatment UR30, soil evaporation was the minimum (0.2 mm x d(-1)) at seedling stage, with a mean of 0.39 mm x d(-1), while CK was 0.58 mm x d(-1). However, water surface evaporation was the maximum at budding and flowering stages, with the daily average evaporation being 8.3 mm and 9.0 mm, respectively, and not in-phase with soil evaporation. At maturing stage, soil evaporation was the maximum in all treatments. It was suggested that covered ridge had high efficiency of rainfall harvesting, but owing to its maximum soil evaporation, measures should be taken to inhibit soil evaporation to increase water use efficiency. PMID:17615874

  15. Diagenetic Pattern in the Citarate Carbonate Rocks, Cilograng Area, Lebak Regency, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Basuki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.142The carbonate sequence overlies conformably the tuffaceous sandstone unit, and in turn is conformably underlain by the tuff-sandstone unit, both of which are members of the Citarate Formation. The Citarate carbonate rocks were deposited in an open platform back reef environment, which was temporarily drowned by local sea level rise. Regional Middle Miocene deformation formed NNE-WSW trend faults and E-W trend folds in the researched area. This paper discusses the nature of diagenetic alteration of the Citarate carbonate rocks based on petrographic analyses of twenty surface samples. Carbonate rocks from bottom to top comprise algae packstone, packstone-grainstone, coral-algae packstone, and foraminifer wackestone-packstone. Fragments of coral, coralline red algae, and large foraminifera are the dominant bioclasts in most of the observed samples, whereas echinoids and bivalves are less abundant; they are set in a recrystallized micrite matrix. Planktonic foraminifera are abundant only in few samples. Fragments of plagioclase, igneous volcanic rocks, pyroclastic rocks (tuff, and much less abundant quartz are commonly present in all the studied samples. A generalized diagenesis includes early marine cementation by fibrous aragonite, compaction, aragonite dissolution and/or neomorphism, precipitation of equant-grained calcite cement in a phreatic environment, dissolution to form moldic porosities, dolomitization, the formation of stylolites and fractures, and precipitation of late ferroan calcite during burial. Multiple carbonate cements occur as pore-filling phases, with ferroan calcite cementation taking place during later-stage burial. Secondary porosities were formed during different stages in diagenetic processes, such as dissolution, dolomitization, and stylolite and fracture formations. Although precipitation of nonferroan and ferroan calcite cement occluded porosities, porosity enhancement during early selective

  16. Activation of protein kinase A alters subnuclear distribution pattern of human steroidogenic factor 1 in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei刘伟; FAN Wu-qiang范吴强; Toshihiko Yanase; Masayuki Saitoh; WU Yin吴茵

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the subnuclear distribution pattern of human orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in living cells with and without the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signal pathway, and thus try to explain the unknown mechanism by which PKA potentiates SF-1 transactivation. Methods Full-length cDNAs of wild type and a naturally occurring mutant (G35E) human SF-1 were cloned and fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Subcellular distribution pattern of human SF-1 in living cells, whose PKA signaling was either activated or not, was studied by laser confocal microscopy after the validity of the gene sequence was confirmed.Results The transactivation ability of the GFP-SF-1 chimeric protein was highly conserved. Wild type human SF-1 diffused homogeneously within the nuclei of cells when PKA was not active, and converged to clear foci when PKA was activated. Mutant SF-1 diffused within the nuclei even in the presence of PKA activation, surprisingly aggregating as fluorescent dots inside the nucleoli, a phenomenon not altered by PKA.Conclusions Activation of PKA causes wild type, but not mutant SF-1 to alter its subnuclear distribution pattern to a transactivationally active form (foci formation). This finding may throw new light on the mechanism by which PKA activates the orphan nuclear receptor.

  17. Ultrasound Technologies for the Spatial Patterning of Cells and Extracellular Matrix Proteins and the Vascularization of Engineered Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kelley A.

    Technological advancements in the field of tissue engineering could save the lives of thousands of organ transplant patients who die each year while waiting for donor organs. Currently, two of the primary challenges preventing tissue engineers from developing functional replacement tissues and organs are the need to recreate complex cell and extracellular microenvironments and to vascularize the tissue to maintain cell viability and function. Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy that can noninvasively and nondestructively interact with tissues at the cell and protein level. In this thesis, novel ultrasound-based technologies were developed for the spatial patterning of cells and extracellular matrix proteins and the vascularization of three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields were utilized to noninvasively control the spatial organization of cells and cell-bound extracellular matrix proteins within collagen-based engineered tissue. Additionally, ultrasound induced thermal mechanisms were exploited to site-specifically pattern various extracellular matrix collagen microstructures within a single engineered tissue construct. Finally, ultrasound standing wave field technology was used to promote the rapid and extensive vascularization of three-dimensional tissue constructs. As such, the ultrasound technologies developed in these studies have the potential to provide the field of tissue engineering with novel strategies to spatially pattern cells and extracellular matrix components and to vascularize engineered tissue, and thus, could advance the fabrication of functional replacement tissues and organs in the field of tissue engineering.

  18. Gene expression profiles and phosphorylation patterns of AMP-activated protein kinase subunits in various mesenchymal cell types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yugang; Fan Qiming; Ma Rui; Lin Wentao; Tang Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies on bone have shown an endocrine role of the skeleton,which could be impaired in various human diseases,including osteoporosis,obesity,and diabetes-associated bone diseases.As a sensor and regulator of energy metabolism,AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may also play an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism.The current study aimed to establish the expression profiles and phosphorylation patterns of AMPK subunits in several mesenchymal cell types.Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for relative quantification,real-time PCR for absolute quantification,and Western blotting were used to investigate the gene expression profiles and phosphorylation patterns of AMPK subunits in several mesenchymal cell types,including primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hFOB,Saos-2,C3H/10T1/2,MC3T3-E1,3T3-L1,and C2C12 cells.Results AMPKα1 and AMPKβ1 mRNAs were abundantly expressed in all cell types.AMPKY1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in C3H/10T1/2,MC3T3-E1,3T3-L1,and C2C12 but not detected in human-derived cell types.AMPKY2 mRNA was mildly expressed in all cell types.AMPKα1 protein was highly expressed in all cell types and AMPKα2 protein was highly expressed only in hFOB and Saos-2 cells.AMPKβ1 protein was abundantly expressed in all cell types except for Saos-2,in which AMPKβ2 protein overwhelmed AMPKβ1 expression.AMPKy1 and AMPKY2 proteins were expressed in C3H/10T1/2,MC3T3-E1,3T3-L1,and C2C12 cells and only AMPKY2 protein was expressed in hMSCs,hFOB and Saos2 cells.AMPKα was phosphorylated at Thr172 and Ser485 and AMPKβ1 was phosphorylated at Ser108 and Ser182 in all cell types with a specific pattern in each cell type.Conclusion The combination of AMPK α,β,and Y subunits and phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172 and Ser485) and AMPKβ1 (Ser108 and Ser182) showed a specific pattern in each cell type.

  19. Long-term and wide-area subsidence pattern from time series of Envisat Asar Data in Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Konya Basin as a sub-part of Konya Closed Basin is dominated by the Neogene and Quaternary sediments that are largely fluvial and lacustrine characteristic. The wide plains cultivated over the last 10000 years are the remnants of the Pluvial lake basin during wet and humid climate environment after the last glacial period. With the form of isolated depression-block, the geomorphological landscape has been mainly driven by the neotectonic activity of striking normal fault systems of the region. Konya that has doubled in size over the last two and half decades is both expanding into the agricultural areas and increasing its building expansion in the city center. The level observations recorded at the monitoring stations indicate that groundwater resources have been exploited permanently or seasonally in some parts where water demand exceeds supply. In this study, a long-term and wide area subsidence pattern in Konya Basin has been analyzed by stacking the deformation interferograms for time series. The study area that covers approximately 7500 km squared was investigated through a large number of the raw images of Asar sensor onboard Envisat from December 2002 to October 2010. Almost a hundred SAR scenes imaged over three tracks in both ascending and descending modes have been used to create a set of 127 differential interferograms using GMTSAR processing system. A continuous deformation map on the basinwide scale has been produced by combining the stacked interferograms. The average contour map shows that the DInSAR detected line of sight subsidence (or uplift) rates vary between 0.6 and -3.3 cm/yr throughout 8 years. The subsidence pattern significantly is correlated with the land and groundwater use within the basin and it states that the anthropogenic effect is much greater than the identified geological and hydrogeological processes.

  20. Connectivity patterns and key non–breeding areas of white–throated bluethroat (Luscinia svecica European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using ring recovery data from the EURING databank, the aims of this study were: (1 to identify the chief migration and wintering areas of white–throated bluethroat European subspecies, L. s. namnetum, L. s. cyanecula and L. s. azuricollis, (2 to evaluate the degree of connectivity between breeding and non–breeding regions and determine the migration patterns of each subspecies, and (3 to evaluate whether recovery data are sufficient to answer the previous questions adequately. Most of the recoveries were obtained during the autumn migration period (n = 155, 68.9%, followed by winter (n = 49, 21.8% and spring (n = 21, 9.3%. For L. s. azuricollis, we did not find any ring recoveries at more than 100 km in autumn or spring, and there were none at all in winter. All analyses thus relate to L. s. cyanecula and L. s. namnetum. Both subspecies move across a NE–SW axis from their breeding to their wintering areas within the circum–Mediterranean region, mainly in Iberia, following population–specific parallel migration routes. L. s. namnetum mainly uses the Atlantic coastal marshes from France to south–western Iberia, where the chief wintering areas are found. L. s. cyanecula, however, uses both Atlantic and Mediterranean wetlands in autumn, but only those in the Mediterranean in spring, thus giving rise to a loop–migration pattern. Telescopic migration was demonstrated for L. s. cyanecula. Recovery data were insufficient to identify in detail the entire wintering range for all white–throated bluethroat European populations. Technologies such as the use of geolocators will play a relevant role in this scenario

  1. A novel C1qDC protein acting as pattern recognition receptor in scallop Argopecten irradians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Kong, Pengfei; Yang, Jialong; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhou, Zhi; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2012-08-01

    The C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins refer to a family of proteins containing the versatile charge pattern recognition globular C1q domain in the C-terminus, which could bind various ligands including PAMPs and trigger a serial of immune response. In this study, a novel C1qDC protein was identified from Argopecten irradians (designated as AiC1qDC-2). Its full-length cDNA was of 1062 bp with an open reading frame of 720 bp encoding a polypeptide of 240 amino acids containing a typical gC1q domain. This gC1q domain possessed the typical 10-stranded β-sandwich fold with a jelly-roll topology common to all C1q family members, and shared high homology with most of the other identified gC1q domains. The mRNA transcripts of AiC1qDC-2 were mainly detected in hepatopancreas, and also marginally detectable in mantle, gonad, adductor, gill and hemocytes. Its relative expression level in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated after challenges of fungi Pichia pastoris GS115 (P pattern recognition receptor to recognize various PAMPs on different pathogens in the innate immune responses of scallop, and provided new clues to understand the role of invertebrate C1qDC proteins in the ancient complement system.

  2. CapsidMaps: protein-protein interaction pattern discovery platform for the structural analysis of virus capsids using Google Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Montiel-García, Daniel Jorge; Brooks, Charles L; Reddy, Vijay S

    2015-04-01

    Structural analysis and visualization of protein-protein interactions is a challenging task since it is difficult to appreciate easily the extent of all contacts made by the residues forming the interfaces. In the case of viruses, structural analysis becomes even more demanding because several interfaces coexist and, in most cases, these are formed by hundreds of contacting residues that belong to multiple interacting coat proteins. CapsidMaps is an interactive analysis and visualization tool that is designed to benefit the structural virology community. Developed as an improved extension of the φ-ψ Explorer, here we describe the details of its design and implementation. We present results of analysis of a spherical virus to showcase the features and utility of the new tool. CapsidMaps also facilitates the comparison of quaternary interactions between two spherical virus particles by computing a similarity (S)-score. The tool can also be used to identify residues that are solvent exposed and in the process of locating antigenic epitope regions as well as residues forming the inside surface of the capsid that interact with the nucleic acid genome. CapsidMaps is part of the VIPERdb Science Gateway, and is freely available as a web-based and cross-browser compliant application at http://viperdb.scripps.edu.

  3. Protein subcellular localization in human and hamster cell lines: employing local ternary patterns of fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Khan, Asifullah; Kaya, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Discriminative feature extraction technique is always required for the development of accurate and efficient prediction systems for protein subcellular localization so that effective drugs can be developed. In this work, we showed that Local Ternary Patterns (LTPs) effectively exploit small variations in pixel intensities; present in fluorescence microscopy based protein images of human and hamster cell lines. Further, Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique is applied to balance the feature space for the classification stage. We observed that LTPs coupled with data balancing technique could enable a classifier, in this case support vector machine, to yield good performance. The proposed ensemble based prediction system, using 10-fold cross-validation, has yielded better performance compared to existing techniques in predicting various subcellular compartments for both 2D HeLa and CHO datasets. The proposed predictor is available online at: http://111.68.99.218/Protein_SubLoc/, which is freely accessible to the public. PMID:23988793

  4. Analysis of Protein Expression Patterns of Silkworm Jinqiu and Its Cross Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fang; YANG Hui-juan; LI Jian-ying; DING Nong; ZHOU Zhong-hua; YE Jian; ZHANG Jin-wei; DUAN Jia-long; ZHONG Bo-xiong

    2009-01-01

    The differences of protein expression between the improved cross breeding race Jinqiu and its parents were analyzed to discuss the gene construction.and to form a base for illuminating the molecular mechanisms of successful cross breeding in silkworm.Protein samples from silk gland,hemolymph,and midgut were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE).In the three tissues the matched protein spots between Jinqiu and its cross parents were approximately 70% with approximately 30% specific protein spots.In the matched protein spots,9-24% was differentially expressed representing up-and down-regulated expression.These specific protein spots might be either the newly appeared,which were produced from the genie interaction of cross parents'genes in cross breeding,or posttranscriptionally modified,which were produced from che different modifications on the same original proteins.These results indicate that it is important for a new successful breed,by cross breeding,relying on the actions of some newly produced functional proteins from genic interaction,in addition to marshaling excellent genes of cross parents.

  5. The Disulfide Bond Pattern of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Induced protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Marie V; Scavenius, Carsten; Thøgersen, Ida B;

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is an extracellular matrix protein composed of an NH2-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) annotated as an emilin (EMI) domain, and four fasciclin-1 (FAS1-1 to FAS1-4) domains. Mutations in the gene cause corneal dystrophies, a group...

  6. Evolutionary Pattern of N-Glycosylation Sequon Numbers in Eukaryotic ABC Protein Superfamilies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    and their underlying causes have largely been unexplored. We computed the actual and probabilistic occurrence of NXS/T sequons in ABC protein superfamilies from eight diverse eukaryotic organisms. The ABC proteins contained significantly higher NXS/T sequon numbers compared to respective genome-wide average...

  7. Distribution, abundance and vertical migration pattern of krill - Euphausia superba Dana at fishing area 58 of the Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    The First Indian Antarctic Krill Expedition (FIKEX) was an attempt to examine and obtain first-hand information pertaining to distribution, abundance and vertical migration pattern of krill –Euphausia superba Dana at fishing area 58 of the Indian...

  8. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, TA; Pulford, Bruce; Wyckoff, A Christy; Meyerett, Crystal; Michel, Brady; Gertig, Kevin; Hoover, Edward A; Jewell, Jean E; Telling, Glenn C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown, substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating components thereof as potential prion reservoirs and transmission vehicles.1–4 CWD-positive animals may contribute to environmental prion load via decomposing carcasses and biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces.5–7 Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in soil and water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify a 1.3 × 10−7 dilution of CWD-infected brain homogenate spiked into water samples, equivalent to approximately 5 × 107 protease resistant cervid prion protein (PrPCWD) monomers. We also detected PrPCWD in one of two environmental water samples from a CWD endemic area collected at a time of increased water runoff from melting winter snow pack, as well as in water samples obtained concurrently from the flocculation stage of water processing by the municipal water treatment facility. Bioassays indicated that the PrPCWD detected was below infectious levels. These data demonstrate detection of very low levels of PrPCWD in the environment by sPMCA and suggest persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission. PMID:19823039

  9. Diagnostic significance of Schistosoma mansoni proteins Sm31 and Sm32 in human schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, L H; Ghoneim, H; Demian, S R; El-Sayed, M H; Tawfik, N M; Sakr, I; Abou-Basha, L M; Renganathan, E; Klinkert, M Q; Abou-Rawash, N

    1998-09-01

    We performed a series of ELISAs to evaluate the diagnostic significance of two Schistosoma mansoni proteins, Sm31 (cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B) and Sm32 (asparaginyl endopeptidase). Our study populations were chosen from two villages in an endemic area close to Alexandria. Using fusion proteins MS2-Sm31 and MS2-Sm32 as antigens, 70% and 78.9%, respectively, of patient sera from 134 parasitologically confirmed cases reacted positively. The percentage of seropositivity increased to 84.5% when parasite-derived proteins Sm31 and Sm32 were used. The serum levels of antibodies to these two proteins in recombinant or native forms do not correlate with intensity of infection and hence are detected even when egg counts are low, which makes proteins Sm31 and Sm32 useful antigens in the identification of S. mansoni infected cases, particularly in endemic areas in Egypt. PMID:9754667

  10. Ovocalyxin-36 is a pattern recognition protein in chicken eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Cristianne M M; Esmaili, Hamed; Ansah, George; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2013-01-01

    The avian eggshell membranes are essential elements in the fabrication of the calcified shell as a defense against bacterial penetration. Ovocalyxin-36 (OCX-36) is an abundant avian eggshell membrane protein, which shares protein sequence homology to bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC) proteins. We have developed an efficient method to extract OCX-36 from chicken eggshell membranes for purification with cation and anion exchange chromatographies. Purified OCX-36 protein exhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding activity and bound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli O111:B4 in a dose-dependent manner. OCX-36 showed inhibitory activity against growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. OCX-36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were verified at cDNA 211 position and the corresponding proteins proline-71 (Pro-71) or serine-71 (Ser-71) were purified from eggs collected from genotyped hens. A significant difference between Pro-71 and Ser-71 OCX-36 for S. aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA) binding activity was detected. The current study is a starting point to understand the innate immune role that OCX-36 may play in protection against bacterial invasion of both embryonated eggs (relevant to avian reproductive success) and unfertilized table eggs (relevant to food safety). PMID:24391897

  11. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance.

  12. Patterns of food and nutrient consumption in northern Iran, a high-risk area for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar; Kimiagar, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Wakefield, Jon; Goglani, Goharshad; Rakhshani, Nasser; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Salahi, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate patterns of food and nutrient consumption in Golestan province, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer (EC) in northern Iran. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls were administered during a 1-yr period to 131 healthy participants in a pilot cohort study. We compare here nutrient intake in Golestan with recommended daily allowances (RDAs) and lowest threshold intakes (LTIs). We also compare the intake of 27 food groups and nutrients among several population subgroups using mean values from the 12 recalls. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake, which was even lower than LTIs (P Golestan, with high incidence rates among women and people with low socioeconomic status and the highest incidence rate among rural women. PMID:19838919

  13. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  14. Effects of light on protein patterns in gravitropically stimulated root caps of corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.; Gildow, V.

    1984-01-01

    In certain cultivars of corn (Zea mays var. Merit), light stimulates gravitropic bending of the root by influencing events in the root cap. In this paper, we report on changes in root cap proteins which occur as a result of the light treatment and single out specific proteins as potentially having a role in mediating the gravitropic response. For this work, we have used root caps maintained aseptically in culture media supplemented with auxin. If auxin is deleted from the culture medium, the protein profiles observed following illumination differ from that seen in caps provided light while in auxin-supplemented media. We also report that several of the proteins for which synthesis is stimulated by light appear to turn over rapidly, usually within 0.5 hour of formation.

  15. Identification of Methanococcus Jannaschii Proteins in 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Patterns by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.

    1998-06-10

    The genome of Methanococcus jannaschii has been sequenced completely and has been found to contain approximately 1,770 predicted protein-coding regions. When these coding regions are expressed and how their expression is regulated, however, remain open questions. In this work, mass spectrometry was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify which proteins the genes produce under different growth conditions, and thus investigate the regulation of genes responsible for functions characteristic of this thermophilic representative of the methanogenic Archaea.

  16. Diversity in transcripts and translational pattern of stress proteins in marine extremophiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, I.V.A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -shocked cells by decreasing the membrane fluidity and acting as RNA chaperones (Yamanaka et al., 1998). They are different from CAPs. CSPs are induced in response to a sudden shock to a low temperature, whereas CAPs are specifically synthesized to acclimatize.... Lipid desaturases and genes involved in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity have been found in the P. haloplanktis genome. Proteins concerned with membrane fluidity- β-keto-acyl-carrier proteins, β-keto-acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid cis...

  17. Effect of heat stress on the pattern of protein synthesis in wheat endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inwood, W.; Bernardin, J. (USDA, Albany, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The exposure of detached wheat heads (T. aestivum L. cv Cheyenne) to elevated temperatures resulted not only in the induction of a typical set of high and low molecular weight heat shock proteins (hsps), but also in a differential effect on the synthesis of wheat storage proteins in endosperm tissue when monitored by SDS PAGE of {sup 35}S-labeled polypeptides. The synthesis of hsps in the endosperm had a rapid onset, reached a maximum rate within the first 2 hours at 40{degree}C, and then steadily decreased during the next four hours. When heads were returned to 25{degree}C after 3 hours at 40{degree}C, hsp synthesis did not cease abruptly, but gradually declined over the next several hours. High molecular weight glutenin protein synthesis was drastically reduced with the same time course as heat shock protein synthesis was induced at 40{degree}C. Conversely, the synthesis of gliadin proteins remained at a high level at 40{degree}C. The synthesis rates for glutenin and gliadin proteins remained at low and high levels, respectively, for as long as the elevated temperature was maintained up to 7 hours.

  18. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and enolase from Echinococcus granulosus: genes, expression patterns and protein interactions of two potential moonlighting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzatto, Karina Rodrigues; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Paredes, Rodolfo; Paludo, Gabriela Prado; da Fonsêca, Marbella Maria; Galanti, Norbel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2012-09-10

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and enolase, have been described as complex multifunctional proteins that may perform non-glycolytic moonlighting functions, but little is known about such functions, especially in parasites. We have carried out in silico genomic searches in order to identify FBA and enolase coding sequences in Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease. Four FBA genes and 3 enolase genes were found, and their sequences and exon-intron structures were characterized and compared to those of their orthologs in Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar hydatid disease. To gather evidence of possible non-glycolytic functions, the expression profile of FBA and enolase isoforms detected in the E. granulosus pathogenic larval form (hydatid cyst) (EgFBA1 and EgEno1) was assessed. Using specific antibodies, EgFBA1 and EgEno1 were detected in protoscolex and germinal layer cells, as expected, but they were also found in the hydatid fluid, which contains parasite's excretory-secretory (ES) products. Besides, both proteins were found in protoscolex tegument and in vitro ES products, further suggesting possible non-glycolytic functions in the host-parasite interface. EgFBA1 modeled 3D structure predicted a F-actin binding site, and the ability of EgFBA1 to bind actin was confirmed experimentally, which was taken as an additional evidence of FBA multifunctionality in E. granulosus. Overall, our results represent the first experimental evidences of alternative functions performed by glycolytic enzymes in E. granulosus and provide relevant information for the understanding of their roles in host-parasite interplay.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition protein, lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengsong; Li, Fuhua; Dong, Bo; Wang, Xiaomei; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    A pattern recognition protein (PRP), lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) cDNA was cloned from the haemocyte of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by the techniques of homology cloning and RACE. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the full-length cDNA of 1,275 bp has an open reading frame of 1,098 bp encoding a protein of 366 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. Sequence comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of F. chinensis LGBP showed a high identity of 94%, 90%, 87%, 72% and 63% with Penaeus monodon BGBP, Litopenaeus stylirostris LGBP, Marsupenaeu japonicus BGBP, Homarus gammarus BGBP and Pacifastacus leniusculus LGBP, respectively. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein is 39,857 Da with a deduced pI of 4.39. Two putative integrin binding motifs, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a potential recognition motif for beta-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides were observed in LGBP sequence. RT-PCR analysis showed that LGBP gene expresses in haemocyte and hepatopancreas only, but not in other tissues. Capillary electrophoresis RT-PCR method was used to quantify the variation of mRNA transcription level during artificial infection with heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum and Staphylococcus aureusin. A significant enhancement of LGBP transcription was appeared at 6 h post-injection in response to bacterial infection. These results have provided useful information to understand the function of LGBP in shrimp. PMID:18163220

  20. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, J.; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  1. In-situ device integration of large-area patterned organic nanowire arrays for high-performance optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Zhang, Xiujuan; Pan, Huanhuan; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiwei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystalline organic nanowires (NWs) are important building blocks for future low-cost and efficient nano-optoelectronic devices due to their extraordinary properties. However, it remains a critical challenge to achieve large-scale organic NW array assembly and device integration. Herein, we demonstrate a feasible one-step method for large-area patterned growth of cross-aligned single-crystalline organic NW arrays and their in-situ device integration for optical image sensors. The integrated image sensor circuitry contained a 10 × 10 pixel array in an area of 1.3 × 1.3 mm(2), showing high spatial resolution, excellent stability and reproducibility. More importantly, 100% of the pixels successfully operated at a high response speed and relatively small pixel-to-pixel variation. The high yield and high spatial resolution of the operational pixels, along with the high integration level of the device, clearly demonstrate the great potential of the one-step organic NW array growth and device construction approach for large-scale optoelectronic device integration. PMID:24287887

  2. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Niepel, Mario; McDermott, Jason E; Gao, Yuqian; Nicora, Carrie D; Chrisler, William B; Markillie, Lye M; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Smith, Richard D; Rodland, Karin D; Sorger, Peter K; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wiley, H Steven

    2016-01-01

    Various genetic mutations associated with cancer are known to alter cell signaling, but it is not clear whether they dysregulate signaling pathways by altering the abundance of pathway proteins. Using a combination of RNA sequencing and ultrasensitive targeted proteomics, we defined the primary components-16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators-of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells and then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and breast cancer cell lines as well as fibroblasts. We found that core pathway proteins were present at very similar concentrations across all cell types, with a variance similar to that of proteins previously shown to display conserved abundances across species. In contrast, EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were present at highly variable concentrations. The absolute abundance of most core proteins was between 50,000 and 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower amounts (2000 to 5000 copies per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3000 and 10,000 occupied EGFRs, consistent with the idea that adaptors limit signaling. Our results suggest that the relative stoichiometry of core MAPK pathway proteins is very similar across different cell types, with cell-specific differences mostly restricted to variable amounts of feedback regulators and receptors. The low abundance of adaptors relative to EGFR could be responsible for previous observations that only a fraction of total cell surface EGFR is capable of rapid endocytosis, high-affinity binding, and mitogenic signaling. PMID:27405981

  3. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Niepel, Mario; McDermott, Jason E.; Gao, Yuqian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chrisler, William B.; Markillie, Lye M.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Sorger, Peter K.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wiley, H. Steven

    2016-01-01

    Various genetic mutations associated with cancer are known to alter cell signaling, but it is not clear whether they dysregulate signaling pathways by altering the abundance of pathway proteins. Using a combination of RNA sequencing and ultrasensitive targeted proteomics, we defined the primary components—16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators—of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells and then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and breast cancer cell lines as well as fibroblasts. We found that core pathway proteins were present at very similar concentrations across all cell types, with a variance similar to that of proteins previously shown to display conserved abundances across species. In contrast, EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were present at highly variable concentrations. The absolute abundance of most core proteins was between 50,000 and 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower amounts (2000 to 5000 copies per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3000 and 10,000 occupied EGFRs, consistent with the idea that adaptors limit signaling. Our results suggest that the relative stoichiometry of core MAPK pathway proteins is very similar across different cell types, with cell-specific differences mostly restricted to variable amounts of feedback regulators and receptors. The low abundance of adaptors relative to EGFR could be responsible for previous observations that only a fraction of total cell surface EGFR is capable of rapid endocytosis, high-affinity binding, and mitogenic signaling. PMID:27405981

  4. Correlation of acidic and basic carrier ampholyte and immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns based on mass spectrometric protein identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrocki, A; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Podtelejnikov, A V;

    1998-01-01

    -MS) to determine the identities of 335 protein spots in these two 2-D gel systems, including a substantial number of basic proteins which had never been identified before. Proteins that were identified in both gel systems allowed us to cross-reference the gel patterns. Vector analysis of these cross......-references demonstrated that there is no obvious pattern by which the mobility of a protein in one gel system can be used to predict its mobility in the other. Thus, as laboratories adopt the immobilized pH gradient-based 2-D gel systems, the only reliable means of translating the data gained with the carrier ampholyte...

  5. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas G.;

    2012-01-01

    The ability to immobilize biomolecules at specific locations on the surface of solid supports is central to many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in thiol-ene microfluidic chips. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of "thi...

  6. Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andres; Galvis, Nelson; Fleming, Erin; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    Mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. Although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the ingestion of soil at mineral licks. We studied the temporal patterns of mineral lick use by white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) and red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in a lowland rain forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Using camera and video traps at four different mineral licks, combined with behavioral follows of one group of spider monkeys, we documented rates of mineral lick visitation by both primate species and the relative frequency and intensity of mineral lick use by spider monkeys. On the basis of 1,612 days and 888 nights of mineral lick monitoring, we found that A. belzebuth and A. seniculus both visit mineral licks frequently throughout the year (on average ∼14% of days for both species), and mineral lick visitation was influenced by short-term environmental conditions (e.g. sunny and dry weather). For spider monkeys, the area surrounding the lick was also the most frequently and most intensively used region within the group's home range. The fact that spider monkeys spent long periods at the lick area before coming to the ground to obtain soil, and the fact that both species visited the lick preferentially during dry sunny conditions (when predator detectability is presumed to be relatively high) and visited simultaneously more often than expected by chance, together suggest that licks are indeed perceived as risky areas by these primates. We suggest that howler and spider monkeys employ behavioral strategies aimed at minimizing the probability of predation while visiting the forest floor at risky mineral lick sites. PMID:21328597

  7. Protein Coding Gene Nucleotide Substitution Pattern in the Apicomplexan Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtao Ge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are related protozoan pathogens which infect the intestinal epithelium of humans and other vertebrates. To explore the evolution of these parasites, and identify genes under positive selection, we performed a pairwise whole-genome comparison between all orthologous protein coding genes in C. parvum and C. hominis. Genome-wide calculation of the ratio of nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitutions (dN/dS was performed to detect the impact of positive and purifying selection. Of 2465 pairs of orthologous genes, a total of 27 (1.1% showed a high ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions, consistent with positive selection. A majority of these genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins. In addition, proteins with transmembrane and signal peptide domains are significantly more frequent in the high dN/dS group.

  8. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes; Roberto Daniel Sainz; Paulo Roberto Leme

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus) cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake). Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight) were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 ste...

  9. On studying protein phosphorylation patterns using bottom-up LC-MS/MS: the case of human alpha-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Savitski, Mikhail M; Nielsen, Michael L;

    2007-01-01

    occupancy rates of phosphosites in proteins may differ by orders of magnitude, and thus the occupancy rate must be reported for each occupied phosphosite. To highlight potential pitfalls in quantifying the occupancy rates, alpha(s1)-casein from human milk was selected as a model molecule representing...... moderately phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, human milk from one Caucasian woman in the eighth month of lactation was used. The phosphorylation level of caseins is believed to have major implications for the formation of micelles that are involved in delivering valuable calcium phosphate and other...... minerals to the new-born. Human alpha(s1)-casein has been reported to be much less phosphorylated than ruminant caseins, which may indicate a different function of caseins in humans. Revealing the phosphorylation pattern in human casein can thus shed light on its function. The current study found that the...

  10. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake. Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 steers of lowest (Low-RFI, most efficient RFI and the 12 ones of highest RFI (High-RFI, least efficient were evaluated with respect to their behavior patterns and plasma cortisol concentration. Urine was collected for determination of daily 3-methylhistidine excretion (3MH and myofibrillar protein breakdown rates. Urinary, gaseous and fecal energy losses were determined as well as the N retention and excretion. High-RFI steers tended to have shorter lying and idle periods and greater feeding time and plasma cortisol levels than low-RFI cattle. No RFI effects were seen for urine 3MH excretion and for rates of protein degradation and synthesis. No effects of efficiency class were observed for N excretion or N retention. No RFI effects were observed for dry matter digestibility, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content and DE/ME ratio. Methane energy losses were lower for low-compared with high-RFI steers. Protein turnover seems not to affect feed efficiency in Nellore steers. Improved RFI in Nellore steers is probably associated with lower degrees of activity and responsiveness to stress and lower losses of dietary energy as methane.

  11. Expression patterns of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-delta in epilepsy-associated lesional pathologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Martinian; K. Boer; J. Middeldorp; E.M. Hol; S.M. Sisodiya; W. Squier; E.M.A. Aronica; M. Thom

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-delta is a novel isoform that differs in its C-terminal sequence from other GFAP isoforms. Previous studies suggest restriction of expression to the subpial layer, subventricular zone and the subgranular zone astrocytes, with an absence in pathological co

  12. Brain inflammation in a chronic epilepsy model : Evolving pattern of the translocator protein during epileptogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amhaoul, Halima; Hamaide, Julie; Bertoglio, Daniele; Reichel, Stephanie Nadine; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Geerts, Elly; Dam, van Debby; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Katsifis, Andrew; Van der Linden, Annemie; Staelens, Steven; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A hallmark in the neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy is brain inflammation which has been suggested as both a biomarker and a new mechanistic target for treatments. The translocator protein (TSPO), due to its high upregulation under neuroinflammatory conditions and the availability of se

  13. Raft protein clustering alters N-Ras membrane interactions and activation pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, Sharon; Beckett, Alison J; Prior, Ian A; Dekker, Frank J; Hedberg, Christian; Waldmann, Herbert; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Henis, Yoav I; Dekker, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The trafficking, membrane localization, and lipid raft association of Ras proteins, which are crucial oncogenic mediators, dictate their isoform-specific biological responses. Accordingly, their spatiotemporal dynamics are tightly regulated. While extensively studied for H- and K-Ras, such informati

  14. Electron transfer patterns of the di-heme protein cytochrome c(4) from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Schmidt, L.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2009-01-01

    We report kinetic data for the two-step electron transfer (ET) oxidation and reduction of the two-domain di-heme redox protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome (cyt) c(4) by [Co(bipy)(3)](2- 3-) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Following earlier reports, the data accord with both bi- and tri-exponential ...

  15. Micro patterning of cell and protein non-adhesive plasma polymerized coatings for biochip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaidat, Salim; Berendsen, C.; Thomsen, P.;

    2004-01-01

    conventional cleanroom photolithography and lift-off. Single cell arrays showed sharp contrast in cell adhesion between the untreated glass surface and the ppCrown layer. Similarly, proteins adsorbed selectively to untreated glass but not to ppCrown. The simplicity of the liftoff technique and the sturdiness...

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  17. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu [SAIL Technologies Co., Inc. (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@nmr.chem.metro-u.ac.j [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines ({epsilon}- and {zeta}-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine ({epsilon}-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized {delta}-SAIL Phe and {delta}-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign {delta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the {delta}-, {epsilon}- or {zeta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {zeta}-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of {zeta}-SAIL Phe and {epsilon}-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  18. "Hot cores" in proteins: Comparative analysis of the apolar contact area in structures from hyper/thermophilic and mesophilic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossa Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of stabilizing factors have been invoked so far to elucidate the structural basis of protein thermostability. These include, amongst the others, a higher number of ion-pairs interactions and hydrogen bonds, together with a better packing of hydrophobic residues. It has been frequently observed that packing of hydrophobic side chains is improved in hyperthermophilic proteins, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. In this work, protein crystal structures from hyper/thermophilic organisms and their mesophilic homologs have been compared, in order to quantify the difference of apolar contact area and to assess the role played by the hydrophobic contacts in the stabilization of the protein core, at high temperatures. Results The construction of two datasets was carried out so as to satisfy several restrictive criteria, such as minimum redundancy, resolution and R-value thresholds and lack of any structural defect in the collected structures. This approach allowed to quantify with relatively high precision the apolar contact area between interacting residues, reducing the uncertainty due to the position of atoms in the crystal structures, the redundancy of data and the size of the dataset. To identify the common core regions of these proteins, the study was focused on segments that conserve a similar main chain conformation in the structures analyzed, excluding the intervening regions whose structure differs markedly. The results indicated that hyperthermophilic proteins underwent a significant increase of the hydrophobic contact area contributed by those residues composing the alpha-helices of the structurally conserved regions. Conclusion This study indicates the decreased flexibility of alpha-helices in proteins core as a major factor contributing to the enhanced termostability of a number of hyperthermophilic proteins. This effect, in turn, may be due to an increased number of buried methyl groups in

  19. Spatial patterns and stability of soil water content in forested slope and terraced area on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoce; Li, Zhanbin; Li, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) plays a vital role in hydrological and vegetation restoration processes. It is the principal limiting factor for vegetation restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. This study aimed to analyze the spatial patterns and stability of SWC in a terraced area containing jujube trees (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and a forested slope with Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) following rainfall. The SWCs in nine soil layers at intervals of 0.2 m down to a depth of 1.8 m were measured at 21 locations both in the terraces and in the forested slope from July 19 to September 3 in 2014. The results showed that the SWCs at different soil depths were normally distributed. The SWC in terraces and forestland at each soil depth all had strong temporal stability. The temporal stability of SWC was lower in the 0-0.4 m soil layer than at the deeper soil depths. The representative locations for SWC were depth-dependent and the number of representative locations was not constant. The mean SWC was largest in the lower terrace slopes. The lowest mean SWC in the forested slope was at the mid-slope point due to the highest root distribution. The 0.4-0.6 m soil depth was generally the wettest in both terraces and forestland. The driest soil depth in terraces was 1.0-1.2 m while the driest soil depth in forestland was 0.8-1.0 m. The SWC had a significant positive correlation with clay and silt content. Moerover, the SWC had a significant positive correlation with SOC and did not have a significant correlation with root conten in the terraced area. But in the forested slope, the SWC had a significant negative correlation with roots and did not have a significant correlation with SOC. Although it is feasible to use the representative locations of SWC to represent the mean SWC of a hillslope over a period of time, the cumulative absolute error increases with the cumulative number of days. In conclusion, the SWC at different soil depths and locations showed strong spatial

  20. Icariin and differential protein expression in the entorhinal area of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Zhang; Zhanwei Zhang; Keli Dong; Guangcheng Li; Hong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to explore the mechanism of action by which icariin, an active component of Epimedii Herba, treats Alzheimer's disease at the proteomics level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to isolate total protein from the entorhinal cortex of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, and differential protein spots were obtained. Corresponding peptide mass fingerprinting was conducted through mass spectrography to identify differential protein spots. Twenty-six differential protein spots were found in the entorhinal area of SAMP8 mice at 8 weeks following intragastric perfusion with icariin and double distilled water. Fourteen spots were identified, which were involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and neuronal function. The results revealed that icariin can regulate the expression of various proteins in the entorhinal cortex of SAMP8 mice, and treat Alzheimer's disease by improving mitochondrial function, suppressing oxidative stress, inhibiting neuracell apoptosis, and protecting neurons.

  1. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  2. *CHANGING PATTERN OF THE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF ERYTHROBLAST MACROPHAGE PROTEIN (EMP) DURING MACROPHAGE DIFFERENTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Shivani; Bala, Shashi; Kumar, Ajay; Hanspal, Manjit

    2006-01-01

    Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp), mediates the attachment of erythroid cells to macrophages, and is required for normal differentiation of both cell lineages. In erythroid cells Emp is believed to be involved in nuclear extrusion however, its role in macrophage differentiation is unknown. Information on the changes in the expression level and subcellular distribution of Emp in differentiating macrophages is essential for understanding the function of Emp. Macrophages of varying maturity ...

  3. Competitive Immunoassays for Simultaneous Detection of Metabolites and Proteins Using Micromosaic Patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian M.; He, Xinya; Dandy, David; Charles S. Henry

    2007-01-01

    New high-throughput immunoassay methods for rapid point-of-care diagnostic applications represent an unmet need and current focus of numerous innovative methods. We report a new micromosaic competitive immunoassay developed for the analysis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP), and the oxidative damage marker 3-nitrotyrosine (BSA–3NT) on a silicon nitride substrate. To demonstrate the versatility of the method, both direct and indirect format ...

  4. Expression pattern of GPI-anchored non-specific lipid transfer proteins in Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    During the water-to-land transition, that occurred approximately 450 MYA, novel habitats wererevealed to the emerging plants. This terrestrial habitat was a harsh environment compared to theaquatic, with shifting substrate content, irregular supply of water, damaging UV-radiation andrapid fluctuating temperatures. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) are today only foundin the land living plants and not in the green algae. This suggests that these genes might haveevolved to help the p...

  5. The pattern of protein retention in pigs from 2 to 120 kg live weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    obtained was: RP, g/d = 11.55 x kg0.75 - 0.185 x kg1.50 with a maximum of 180 g/d at 98 kg LW. 5. The RP-values were compared with data from the literature with other races and the function seems well established to describe maximum protein retention in non-hormone treated or specific selected pigs....

  6. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  7. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of humpback whales at the southern limit of the Southeast Pacific breeding area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Guidino

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of spatial and temporal distribution in threshold habitats of highly migratory and endangered species is important for understanding their habitat requirements and recovery trends. Herein, we present new data about the distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in neritic waters off the northern coast of Peru: an area that constitutes a transitional path from cold, upwelling waters to warm equatorial waters where the breeding habitat is located. Data was collected during four consecutive austral winter/spring seasons from 2010 to 2013, using whale-watching boats as platforms for research. A total of 1048 whales distributed between 487 groups were sighted. The spatial distribution of humpbacks resembled the characteristic segregation of whale groups according to their size/age class and social context in breeding habitats; mother and calf pairs were present in very shallow waters close to the coast, while dyads, trios or more whales were widely distributed from shallow to moderate depths over the continental shelf break. Sea surface temperatures (range: 18.2-25.9°C in coastal waters were slightly colder than those closer to the oceanic realm, likely due to the influence of cold upwelled waters from the Humboldt Current system. Our results provide new evidence of the southward extension of the breeding region of humpback whales in the Southeast Pacific. Integrating this information with the knowledge from the rest of the breeding region and foraging grounds would enhance our current understanding of population dynamics and recovery trends of this species.

  8. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  9. Tissue microarray analysis reveals a tight correlation between protein expression pattern and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zu-gen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC progresses a multistage process, collectively known as precursor lesions, also called dysplasia (DYS and carcinoma in situ (CIS, subsequent invasive lesions and final metastasis. In this study, we are interested in investigating the expression of a variety of functional classes of proteins in ESCC and its precursor lesions and characterizing the correlation of these proteins with ESCC malignant progression. Methods Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were analyzed using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing 205 ESCC and 173 adjacent precursor lesions as well as corresponding normal mucosa. To confirm the immunohistochemical results, three proteins, fascin, CK14 and laminin-5γ2, which were overexpressed in ESCC on tissue microarray, were detected in 12 ESCC cell lines by Western blot assay. Results In ESCC and its precursor lesions, FADD, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were overexpressed, while Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I were underexpressed. The abnormalities of these proteins could be classified into different groups in relation to the stages of ESCC development. They were "early" corresponding to mild and moderate DYS with overexpression of fascin, FADD and CDC25B and underexpression of Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I, "intermediate" to severe DYS and CIS with overexpression of FADD and CK14, and "late" to invasive lesions (ESCC and to advanced pTNM stage ESCC lesions with overexpression of CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC. Conclusion Analyzing the protein expression patterns of Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC would be valuable to develop rational strategies for early detection of lesions at risk in advance as well as for prevention and treatment of ESCC.

  10. Development-related expression patterns of protein-coding and miRNA genes involved in porcine muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F J; Jin, L; Guo, Y Q; Liu, R; He, M N; Li, M Z; Li, X W

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth and development is associated with remarkable changes in protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression. To determine the expression patterns of genes and miRNAs related to muscle growth and development, we measured the expression levels of 25 protein-coding and 16 miRNA genes in skeletal and cardiac muscles throughout 5 developmental stages by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The Short Time-Series Expression Miner (STEM) software clustering results showed that growth-related genes were downregulated at all developmental stages in both the psoas major and longissimus dorsi muscles, indicating their involvement in early developmental stages. Furthermore, genes related to muscle atrophy, such as forkhead box 1 and muscle ring finger, showed unregulated expression with increasing age, suggesting a decrease in protein synthesis during the later stages of skeletal muscle development. We found that development of the cardiac muscle was a complex process in which growth-related genes were highly expressed during embryonic development, but they did not show uniform postnatal expression patterns. Moreover, the expression level of miR-499, which enhances the expression of the β-myosin heavy chain, was significantly different in the psoas major and longissimus dorsi muscles, suggesting the involvement of miR-499 in the determination of skeletal muscle fiber types. We also performed correlation analyses of messenger RNA and miRNA expression. We found negative relationships between miR-486 and forkhead box 1, and miR-133a and serum response factor at all developmental stages, suggesting that forkhead box 1 and serum response factor are potential targets of miR-486 and miR-133a, respectively.

  11. Cloning, tissue expression pattern, and chromosome localization of human protein kinase Bγ gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB) is a member of the second messenger-regulated subfamily of protein kinases, and plays a key role in cell-cycle regulation, glucose uptake and promotion of cell differentiation. Evidence shows that PKB undergoes activation in some human tumors and is involved in Ras pathway, which implies that PKB can trigger a pathway to induce oncogenic transformation. A nucleotide sequence of mouse Pkb? was used as a probe to screen homolog in a human liver cDNA library. A fragment of 1998 bp containing a 1440 bp ORF encoding 479 amino acid residues was obtained. Then the 3'-terminal of this fragment was extended to 2788 bp by 'electronic walking' screening, and the extended fragment was confirmed by PCR amplification. The protein deduced by the gene had a high identity of 83% and 78% to the human PKBγ and γ, respectively, and was designated as human PKB?. Northern hybridization detected two equally expressed transcripts of 8.5 and 6.5 kb in length in all 16 human tissues tested, with the highest expression level in brain, and lower levels with variation in the other tissues. By RH mapping, the PKBγ was placed on chromosome 1q43, between markers D1S304 and D1S2693. It is a valuable clue for cloning the candidate genes related to prostate cancer; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia (ARVD); Chediak-Higashi, NK cell Deficiency (CHS); and Hypoparathyrodism with Short Stature, Mental Retardation and Seizures which have already been mapped in this chromosomal region.

  12. Expression patterns of CREB binding protein (CREBBP) and its methylated species during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batut, Julie; Duboé, Carine; Vandel, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Proper embryonic development requires a fine-tuned control of gene expression, which is achieved in part through the activity of transcription coactivators or corepressors. The nuclear coactivator cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CREBBP or CBP) interacts with numerous transcription factors and thereby plays a key role in various signaling pathways. Interestingly, in cell-based studies CREBBP activity is modulated by post-translational modifications such as methylation on arginine residues which is catalyzed by coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). However, whether and where CREBBP, and in particular its methylated forms, are expressed during development in vertebrates has not been addressed so far. Here, we analyzed the expression of the two crebbp genes (crebbpa & crebbpb) during zebrafish development using both RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization. We found that while crebbpa expression is higher in posterior, caudal nascent somites during somitogenesis, crebbpb accumulates in anterior, rostral, and more mature somites. In addition, crebbpa mRNA is enriched in the central myotome at 24 hpf indicating that its expression is spatially and temporally controlled. We next characterized the expression of CREBBP protein from blastula to gastrula stages by immunohistochemistry. We found that while CREBBP is clearly cytoplasmic in the early blastula, it becomes both cytoplasmic and nuclear at 30% epiboly before turning mainly nuclear during gastrulation. Of interest, CREBBP methylated species appear to be mainly nuclear from 30% epiboly to 6-somite stage. This suggests that methylation may regulate CREBBP import to the nucleus during zebrafish development and could therefore participate in the control of early developmental processes.

  13. Expression patterns of Wnt signaling component, secreted frizzled-related protein 3 in astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEĆINA-ŠLAUS, NIVES; KAFKA, ANJA; VAROŠANEC, ANA MARIA; MARKOVIĆ, LEON; KRSNIK, ŽELJKA; NJIRIĆ, NIKO; MRAK, GORAN

    2016-01-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (SFRP3) is a member of the family of soluble proteins, which modulate the Wnt signaling cascade. Novel research has identified aberrant expression of SFRPs in different types of cancer. In the present study the expression intensities and localizations of the SFRP3 protein across different histopathological grades of astrocytic brain tumors were investigated by immunohistochemistry, digital scanning and image analysis. The results demonstrated that the differences between expression levels and malignancy grades were statistically significant. Tumors were classified into four malignancy grades according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Moderate (P=0.014) and strong (P=0.028) nuclear expression levels were significantly different in pilocytic (grade I) and diffuse (grade II) astrocytomas demonstrating higher expression values, as compared with anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma (grade IV). When the sample was divided into two groups, the moderate and high cytoplasmic expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in glioblastomas than in the group comprising astrocytoma II and III. Furthermore, the results indicated that high grade tumors were associated with lower values of moderate (P=0.002) and strong (P=0.018) nuclear expression in comparison to low grade tumors. Analysis of cytoplasmic staining demonstrated that strong cytoplasmic expression was significantly higher in the astrocytoma III and IV group than in the astrocytoma I and II group (P=0.048). Furthermore, lower grade astrocytomas exhibited reduced membranous SFRP3 staining when compared with higher grade astrocytomas and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.036). The present results demonstrated that SFRP3 protein expression levels were decreased in the nucleus in higher grade astrocytoma (indicating the expected behavior of an antagonist of Wnt signaling), whereas when the SFRP3 was located in the cytoplasm an

  14. Expression patterns of Wnt signaling component, secreted frizzled‑related protein 3 in astrocytoma and glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Kafka, Anja; Varošanec, Ana Maria; Marković, Leon; Krsnik, Željka; Njirić, Niko; Mrak, Goran

    2016-05-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (SFRP3) is a member of the family of soluble proteins, which modulate the Wnt signaling cascade. Novel research has identified aberrant expression of SFRPs in different types of cancer. In the present study the expression intensities and localizations of the SFRP3 protein across different histopathological grades of astrocytic brain tumors were investigated by immunohistochemistry, digital scanning and image analysis. The results demonstrated that the differences between expression levels and malignancy grades were statistically significant. Tumors were classified into four malignancy grades according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Moderate (P=0.014) and strong (P=0.028) nuclear expression levels were significantly different in pilocytic (grade I) and diffuse (grade II) astrocytomas demonstrating higher expression values, as compared with anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma (grade IV). When the sample was divided into two groups, the moderate and high cytoplasmic expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in glioblastomas than in the group comprising astrocytoma II and III. Furthermore, the results indicated that high grade tumors were associated with lower values of moderate (P=0.002) and strong (P=0.018) nuclear expression in comparison to low grade tumors. Analysis of cytoplasmic staining demonstrated that strong cytoplasmic expression was significantly higher in the astrocytoma III and IV group than in the astrocytoma I and II group (P=0.048). Furthermore, lower grade astrocytomas exhibited reduced membranous SFRP3 staining when compared with higher grade astrocytomas and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.036). The present results demonstrated that SFRP3 protein expression levels were decreased in the nucleus in higher grade astrocytoma (indicating the expected behavior of an antagonist of Wnt signaling), whereas when the SFRP3 was located in the

  15. Hepatic DNA Damage and Abnormality in Serum Protein Pattern Due to Long Term Use of Tramadol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Abd El kawy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a widely used analgesic that stimulates the μ opioid receptor and inhibits serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake. In this study, we investigate the effect of chronic administration of 200 and 400mg of tramal for 15,30 ,45 days followed by withdrawal periods(w15 on protein activity in male rats as manifested by changes in electrophoretic serum protein patterns and gene expression manifested by DNA damage, measured by Comet Assay . Materials and methods:100 male Wistar rats (100-150 g were included and divided into three groups, control group (n = 20, Tramal(I group (n = 40, received the drug orally at doses of 200mg/kg/day for 15,30,45 days of the study, respectively(10 rats for each subgroup.TR45 group was followed by 15 withdrawal period(W15 ,Tramal(II group (n = 40, received the drug orally at doses of400mg/kg/day for 15,30,45 days of the study, respectively. TR45 group was followed by 15 withdrawal period (W15. Results:Results exhibited major changes in the protein pattern which included changes in the molecular weight of the control bands and the relative percentage of protein fraction as well as the total number of bands, as a result of disappearance of some original bands and appearance of other new one. Serum protein fraction revealed an increase in total number of protein fractions being in Tr200mg (14 and 16 bands, whileTR400mg revealed a decrease in total number of bands (except TR15 which exhibited an increase in bands (14. The changes were observed all over the treated groups as well as in the withdrawal groups In this study, the alkaline version of the comet assay has been used to determine the effect of tramal administration (200 and 400mg/Kg on peroxide-initiated free radical-mediated DNA damage in rat liver cells. Indeed, levels of strand breaks in rat liver cell exposed to tramal400mg/Kg were significantly higher than in cells exposed to 200mg/Kg, especially after a long administration period (TR45 days. The intensity

  16. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories. During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child’s environment reinforce lifestyle habits rega rding diet and activity. OBJECTIVES: To study the fast food consumptions pattern and fast food preferences among the school going children (9 - 13yrs and some of the determinants related to fast food consumption . STUDY SETTING: Department of Community Medic ine in an Urban field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. STUDY DURATION: Three months duration ( Oct – Dec 2014. STUDY POPULATION: school students studying in V th standard to X th standar d. SAMPLE SIZE : The selected school had a strength of 200 students. Hence complete enumeration of the students was considered for this study. DATA COLLECTION : by using pre - structured questionnaire by interview method. The variables included were socio - demographic profile, measurement of height, weight and questions related to junk food consumption and its patterns. DATA ANALYSIS: using statistics software SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for anthropometric measurements. Test of significance for proportions was done by Chi - square test. RESULTS: Among 200 study subjects, 107 were male (53.5% and 93 females (46.5%. Majority of the students wer e in the age group of 12 - 15 years ( 66% and 9 - 11 years ( 34%. Snacks (41%, Fast food (25.50%, soft drinks (17.50% and candies (16% were the favourite junk foods among the study subjects. Taste and time factors, watching television while consuming

  17. Electrophoretic and spectroscopic characterization of the protein patterns formed in different surfactant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2008-01-01

    The complexations between catalase and the sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium octanoate and sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium dodecanoate systems have been studied by a combination of electrophoresis and spectroscopy measurements. The numbers of adsorption sites on the protein were determined from the observed increases of the zeta-potential as a function of surfactant concentration in the regions where the adsorption was a consequence of the hydrophobic effect. The Gibbs energies of adsorption of the surfactants onto the protein were evaluated and the results show that for all systems, Gibbs energies are negative and larger, in absolute values, at low values of surfactant concentration where binding to the high energy sites takes place, and become less negative as more surfactant molecules bind, suggesting a saturation process. The role of hydrophobic interactions in these systems has been demonstrated to be the predominant. Spectroscopy measurements suggest conformational changes on catalase depending on the surfactant mixture as well as the mixed ratio. No isosbestic point or shifts have been found showing that catalase has spectrophotometrically one kind of binding site for these surfactant mixtures.

  18. Two novel LRR-only proteins in Chlamys farreri: Similar in structure, yet different in expression profile and pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Xin, Lusheng; Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Lin; Xu, Jianchao; Jia, Zhihao; Yue, Feng; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-only proteins could mediate protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions and be involved in the immune response. In the present study, two novel LRR-only proteins, CfLRRop-2 and CfLRRop-3, were identified and characterized from scallop Chlamys farreri. They both contained nine LRR motifs with the consensus signature sequence LxxLxLxxNxL and formed typical horseshoe structure. The CfLRRop-2 and CfLRRop-3 mRNA transcripts were constitutively expressed in haemocytes, muscle, mantle, gill, haepatopancreas and gonad, with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas and gill, respectively. During the ontogenesis of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfLRRop-2 were kept at a high level in oocytes and embryos, while those of CfLRRop-3 were expressed at a rather low level from oocytes to blastula. Their mRNA transcripts were significantly increased after the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), glucan (GLU) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and the mRNA expression of CfLRRop-2 rose more intensely than that of CfLRRop-3. After the suppression of CfTLR (previously identified Toll-like receptor in C. farreri) via RNA interference (RNAi), CfLRRop-3 mRNA transcripts increased more intensely and lastingly than those of CfLRRop-2. The rCfLRRop-3 protein could bind LPS, PGN, GLU and poly I:C, while rCfLRRop-2 exhibited no significant binding activity to them. Additionally, rCfLRRop-2 could significantly induce the release of TNF-α from the mixed primary cultured scallop haemocytes, but rCfLRRop-3 failed. These results collectively indicated that CfLRRop-2 might act as an immune effector or pro-inflammatory factor, while CfLRRop-3 would function as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR), suggesting the function of LRR-only protein family has differentiated in scallop. PMID:26826425

  19. Automated mapping of burned areas in Landsat imagery; tracking spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas and greenhouse gas emissions in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd; Vanderhoof, Melanie; French, Nancy; Billmire, Michael; Beal, Yen-Ju Grace; Takacs, Josh; Bosshart, Robbert; Caldwell, Megan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions depend on precise mapping of burned area extent and timing. Consequently, fire disturbance has been identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program as one of the 14 Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Landsat's temporal resolution and sensor characteristics make it more suitable for mapping burned area than existing burned area products from coarse resolution sensors. We have developed an automated algorithm to identify burned areas in temporally rich stacks of Landsat surface reflectance data using boosted regression trees and spatial filters. For this analysis, we quantified trends in burned area and fire emissions using the USGS Burned Area ECV data and the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity data, the latter of which is known to be incomplete. Both datasets were combined with the LANDFIRE Fuel Characteristic Classification System to assign pre-fire biomass loads, and the CONSUME model was used to estimate biomass consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Both data sets show a dramatic increase in burned area between 1984-1999 and 2000-2015, but the Burned Area ECV included more small fires and fires in non-forest ecosystems. Emission estimates were similar between the two burned area datasets, but were generally greater for the Burned Area ECV. Our results suggest that national and regional scale emission estimates could be improved by incorporating the more complete Burned Area ECV dataset.

  20. RNA-binding protein VICKZ is expressed in a germinal center associated pattern among lymphoma subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natkunam, Y.; Vainer, G.; Zhao, S.C.;

    2005-01-01

    to the cytoplasm. Among 868 non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas tested by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, staining for VICKZ protein was present in 76% (126/165) of follicular lymphoma, 78% (155/200) of DLBCL, 90% (9/10) of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, and 100% (2/2) of Burkitt lymphoma. A subset...... of mantle cell lymphoma (11%, 2/19), extranodal (8%, 2/25), and nodal (20%, 1/5) marginal zone lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma (25%, 4/13), showed VICKZ staining. The majority of lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin (92%, 12/13) and classical Hodgkin (94%, 101/108) lymphoma were found to be positive. Among T......Recent effort in the molecular characterization of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has led to the recognition that patients with DLBCL of germinal center origin exhibit a better overall survival. Thus, identification and characterization of markers of germinal center derivation...

  1. Quasistationary areas of NDVI trend dynamics is a powerful research tool for studying spatial patterns of land vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, Anatoly; Larko, Aleksandr

    The most important task for humankind is to study and understand global processes on Earth. Large factual material on the dynamics of the optical spectral characteristics of the land surface has been accumulated in recent decades. This has been only made possible due to the use of satellite information. The development of satellite measurement technologies and new methods for pre-processing and interpretation of satellite data allowed the research adequate to the scale of the Earth. This adequacy includes the compliance of scale terrestrial objects to the scale of satellite measurements. Research is not limited by any latitude or longitude of the objects studied. The second most important quality is the adequacy of the technologies used to velocities of processes on Earth. This is enabled by long-term continuous satellite measurements at almost all latitudes. Effectiveness of this approach to the study of natural systems has been shown by the authors in ASR publications (AP Shevyrnogov, GS Vysotskaya, JI Gitelson, Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentration in the world ocean as observed satellite data Advances in Space Research, Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 129-132, 1996), which reported a method for determining the ocean surface quasistationary zones. This approach allowed us to identify different types of phytopigment dynamics and the hydrological structure of the ocean. We proposed a similar approach for the study of land vegetation. In some aspects, it is similar to the previously published approach, despite the different nature of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The results are based on the processing of satellite data from 1981 to 2006. Dynamics is the most interesting and important parameter of ecosystems, especially their trends. Therefore, it has been chosen for the analysis of spatial patterns of plant biota. The first results showed great heterogeneity of variances in nonlinear trends of the study areas of the Earth's surface. They corresponded

  2. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  3. The role of profilin and lipid transfer protein in strawberry allergy in the Mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zuidmeer; E. Salentijn; M.F. Rivas; E.G. Mancebo; R. Asero; C.I. Matos; K.T.B. Pelgrom; L.J.W.J. Gilissen; R. van Ree

    2006-01-01

    Background In contrast to other Rosaceae fruit, only few cases of patients with adverse reactions to strawberry are listed in literature. Objective To identify allergenic proteins in strawberry and to express and characterize recombinant strawberry lipid transfer protein (LTP; rFra a 3). Methods Est

  4. GLIMPSE ON PROTEIN DRUG DELIVERY: AN UTMOST RESEARCH AREA FOR BIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAGNESH A BHATT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge confronting pharmaceutical scientists in the future will be to design successful dosage forms for the next generation of drugs. Many of these drugs will be complex polymers of amino acids (e.g., peptides, proteins, nucleosides (e.g., antisense molecules, carbohydrates (e.g., polysaccharides, or complex lipids. Protein and peptide therapeutics currently represent eight of the top 100 prescription pharmaceuticals in the US, and biotechnology products are projected to account for 15% of the total US Prescription drug market by 2003. Conventional drug formulation has the same focus but, due to the unique structures of peptide and protein molecules, formulation of these compounds is more complex and challenging. Therapeutic peptides and proteins always enjoyed unique place in pharmaceutical biotechnology. Peptides and proteins are expected to mitigate suffering in coming years as anticancer, hormones, analgesic antihypertensive, thrombolytics, growth factors, and many others. This review represents outstanding contributions in the field of biopharmaceuticals.

  5. Competitive immunoassays for simultaneous detection of metabolites and proteins using micromosaic patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian M; He, Xinya; Dandy, David; Henry, Charles S

    2008-01-15

    New high-throughput immunoassay methods for rapid point-of-care diagnostic applications represent an unmet need and current focus of numerous innovative methods. We report a new micromosaic competitive immunoassay developed for the analysis of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP), and the oxidative damage marker 3-nitrotyrosine (BSA-3NT) on a silicon nitride substrate. To demonstrate the versatility of the method, both direct and indirect format competitive immunoassays were developed and could be applied simultaneously for single samples. Signals from standard solutions were fit to a logistic equation, allowing simultaneous detection of T4 (7.7-257.2 nM), CRP (0.3-4.2 microg/mL), and BSA-3NT (0.03-22.3 microg/mL). Total assay time including sample introduction, washing, and fluorescence measurement was less than 45 min. Dissociation constants for affinity pairs in the system have been estimated using regression. This proof-of-concept experiment shows that both small and macromolecular biomarkers can be quantified from a single sample using the method and suggests that groups of clinically related analytes may be analyzed by competitive micromosaic immunoassay techniques. PMID:18092765

  6. Specificity patterns indicate that auxin exporters and receptors are the same proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössel, D; Schmeiser, C; Hertel, R

    2005-01-01

    A study of transport and action of synthetic auxin analogues can help to identify transporters and receptors of this plant hormone. Both aspects--transportability and action on growth--were tested with 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA) and compared across several plant species. 2-NOA stimulates elongation effectively at low concentrations in petioles of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba L., in hypocotyls or internodes of the dicot legumes, mung bean (Vigna mungo L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.), in cotyledons of onion (Allium cepa L.) and in leaf bases of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.), the latter two of the monocot order Asparagales. In contrast, elongation of coleoptile segments of maize (Zea mays L.) is poorly responsive to 2-NOA. Significant auxin-like transport of 2-NOA was observed in segments of mung bean hypocotyls, pea internodes, and chive leaf bases, but not in segments of the grass coleoptiles. Thus, for the two assays, elongation and polar transportability, the same difference in ligand specificity was observed between the grass and all other species assayed. This finding supports the hypothesis that a common protein mediates auxin efflux as well as auxin action on elongation. PMID:15666213

  7. Novel odorant-binding proteins and their expression patterns in grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Pang, Baoping; Zhang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Insects use olfaction to detect exogenous odors and adapt to environments. In their olfaction systems, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are believed to be a key component. The unique OBP system of each species reflects the evolution of chemosensation of insects with habits. Here, we for the first time identified 15 OBPs, OasiOBP1-15, of a grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus, that lives in the grasslands of Northern China and is closely related to the locust, Locusta migratoria. OasiOBP9 and OasiOBP10 are specifically expressed in the antennae. Other OBPs are expressed in the antennae as well as other chemosensory organs, such as the mouthparts and wings. Significantly more OasiOBP7 was detected in male than female antennae, but there are 9 OBPs that were more expressed in female than male antennae by quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the O. asiaticus OBPs are similar to those of L. migratoria, but some are substantially different. This indicates that the OBPs originally evolved in a common ancestor, but their unique chemosensory systems are adapted to different ecosystems. PMID:25778868

  8. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Uddenfeldt Wort; I. Hastings; T.K. Mutabingwa; B.J. Brabin

    2006-01-01

    Background: The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable co

  9. Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (DmPTB regulates dorso-ventral patterning genes in embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Heimiller

    Full Text Available The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus plays an important role during embryogenesis. A loss of function mutation, heph(03429, results in varied defects in embryonic developmental processes, leading to embryonic lethality. However, the suite of molecular functions that are disrupted in the mutant remains unknown. We have used an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach to identify transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Misregulated transcripts show evidence of significantly altered patterns of splicing (exon skipping, 5' and 3' splice site switching, alternative 5' ends, and mRNA level changes (up and down regulation. These findings are independently supported by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. We show that a group of genes, such as Zerknüllt, z600 and screw are among the most upregulated in the mutant and have been functionally linked to dorso-ventral patterning and/or dorsal closure processes. Thus, loss of dmPTB function results in specific misregulated transcripts, including those that provide the missing link between the loss of dmPTB function and observed developmental defects in embryogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive repertoire of genes affected in vivo in the heph mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during embryonic development.

  10. Alterations in penicillin binding protein gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and their correlation with susceptibility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Tachibana, Mineji; Nakanishi, Kyoko; Nakao, Shoko; Saito, Kumiko; Toyoshima, Eri; Sato, Maki; Takahashi, Toru; Osanai, Shinobu; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2003-08-01

    Penicillin binding protein (pbp) gene alterations of 328 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for a correlation with their antibiotic-resistance. The frequency of penicillin G (PEN-G) resistance was determined to clarify susceptibility to several antibiotics, namely PEN-G, ampicillin, sulbactam/ampicillin, cefozopram, panipenem (PAPM), clarithromycin (CLR), azithromycin (AZM) and levofloxacin (LVX). Oligonucleotide primers for three pbp genes (pbp1a, pbp2x and pbp2b) were used to detect mutations in pbp. Of the strains, 25.9% were classified as Pen-Gs, 68.0% as Pen-Gir and 6.1% as Pen-Gr. The polymerase chain reaction product for wild-type pbp1a was found in 185 isolates, that for wild-type pbp2x was found in 66 isolates and that for wild-type pbp2b was found in 213 isolates. None of these three genes was detectable in 100 isolates while all of them were detected in 64 isolates (1aw/2xw/2bw). Of those 64 isolates with 1aw/2xw/2bw, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PEN-G was or =4.0 mg/l included one Pen-Gs and two Pen-Gir isolates. The MICs of CLR correlated significantly with those of AZM. The MIC of CLR was > or =1 mg/l for 216 isolates, and the MIC of AZM was > or =1 mg/l for 244 of them. These data suggested that PAPM may be effective against S. pneumoniae infection, although acquisition of resistance should be considered. LVX also seemed to be effective against S. pneumoniae.

  11. Study on the Comprehensive Tourism Development Pattern in Periphery Minority Area:A Case Study of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lin; Li Yu; Wang Lili

    2007-01-01

    The paper took the human-land relations as a basic point,and the theories of tourism industry system and sustainable development as the guidance,with Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture(Gannan)as the case study area.From microcosmic and macroscopic viewpoints,the author carried out function orientation and evaluation to the tourism industry development,and research on the comprehensive tourism industry development pattern of Gannan.Results show that the fragile ecological environment and the traditional economic growth pattern have restricted regional sustainable development,and made Gannan to bocome a representative of the periphery minonty areas in Northwest China.Tourism development of Gannan is at the primary phase,with the characteristics of short industry chain and low economic efficiency.It iS an inevitable choice to transform the way of regional economic growth and the development pattern of tourism industry from the traditional pattern to the pattern of snstainable development.Simultaneously,Gannan's natural,uational and religious culture makes Gannan a broad prospect on the comprehensive tourism development.Gannan should choose the comprehensive tourism industry as its scientific pattern to realize sustainable development,promote harmonious social,economic and ecological development,alleviate the human-land contradictory,and realize dual goals in terms of ecology construction and economical development. For Gannan and the similar areas in China,studies on the sustainable development pattern of tourism have extremely important strategic sense with respect to tourism development and the sustainable development of regional economy.

  12. Uncoupling protein 2 and 4 expression pattern during stem cell differentiation provides new insight into their putative function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rupprecht

    Full Text Available Apart from the first family member, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, the functions of other UCPs (UCP2-UCP5 are still unknown. In analyzing our own results and those previously published by others, we have assumed that UCP's cellular expression pattern coincides with a specific cell metabolism and changes if the latter is altered. To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of UCP1-5 in mouse embryonic stem cells before and after their differentiation to neurons. We have shown that only UCP2 is present in undifferentiated stem cells and it disappears simultaneously with the initiation of neuronal differentiation. In contrast, UCP4 is simultaneously up-regulated together with typical neuronal marker proteins TUJ-1 and NeuN during mESC differentiation in vitro as well as during murine brain development in vivo. Notably, several tested cell lines express UCP2, but not UCP4. In line with this finding, neuroblastoma cells that display metabolic features of tumor cells express UCP2, but not UCP4. UCP2's occurrence in cancer, immunological and stem cells indicates that UCP2 is present in cells with highly proliferative potential, which have a glycolytic type of metabolism as a common feature, whereas UCP4 is strongly associated with non-proliferative highly differentiated neuronal cells.

  13. Patterns of mouse reticulon 3 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin; QIANG Boqin; YUAN Jiangang; HUANG Xiaowei; PENG Xiaozhong; YANG Hongbo; YIN Bin; TAN Xinyu; FAN Ming; FAN Wenhong; LIU Bingyan

    2003-01-01

    Reticulons (RTN) are endoplasmic reticulumassociated protein complexes, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and identified as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. At least four different RTN genes have been identified in mammals, but in most cases,the functions of the encoded proteins except mammalian RTN4-A and RTN4-B are still elusive. In the present study,mouse reticulon 3 (mRTN3) is cloned and its expression pattern in a variety of tissues is investigated. Three alternatively spliced transcripts of 1.8, 2.8 and 4.2 kb are revealed by Northern blotting hybridization. The 1.8 and 2.8 kb transcripts are expressed in many tissues. The 2.8 kb transcript has a high level in brain and the 4.2 kb transcript is only found in brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis indicated its high expression in non-glial cells in some particular region of mouse central nervous system, such as hippocampus, sub-thalamus nucleus, thalamus nucleus and cerebrum cortex.

  14. Intraspecific variation in protein pattern of red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus, coconsis, pocock venoms from Western and Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Badhe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Red scorpions Mesobuthus tamulus (Coconsis, Pocock were obtained from different regions of West and South India (Ratnagiri, Chiplun and Ahmednagar from Maharashtra and Chennai from Tamil Nadu, respectively. Their venoms composition was analyzed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. All venom samples shared six bands of 170, 80, 60, 57, 43, and 38 kDa molecular weights. Bands of 115 kDa and 51.5 kDa were characteristic of venoms obtained from red scorpions of Chiplun region, and the 26kDa band was absent in scorpion venom from Tamil Nadu. The separated protein band patterns suggest that the venoms from Ratnagiri, Ahmednagar and Tamil Nadu had high similarities in their biochemical composition but differed from that of Chiplun region. These data were also supported by the Jaccard (J index. The J value was 0.33 for venom obtained from Ratnagiri-Ahmednagar, 0.31 for venom from Ratnagiri-Tamil Nadu, and 0.3 for venom from Ratnagiri-Chiplun region. This suggests the existence of genetic variation among the different strains of red scorpion in western and southern India. The antiserum produced by Haffkine Biopharmaceuticals Corporation Ltd. completely neutralized proteins of venoms from all the regions studied.

  15. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns.

  16. PROCOV: maximum likelihood estimation of protein phylogeny under covarion models and site-specific covarion pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huai-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The covarion hypothesis of molecular evolution holds that selective pressures on a given amino acid or nucleotide site are dependent on the identity of other sites in the molecule that change throughout time, resulting in changes of evolutionary rates of sites along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. At the sequence level, covarion-like evolution at a site manifests as conservation of nucleotide or amino acid states among some homologs where the states are not conserved in other homologs (or groups of homologs. Covarion-like evolution has been shown to relate to changes in functions at sites in different clades, and, if ignored, can adversely affect the accuracy of phylogenetic inference. Results PROCOV (protein covarion analysis is a software tool that implements a number of previously proposed covarion models of protein evolution for phylogenetic inference in a maximum likelihood framework. Several algorithmic and implementation improvements in this tool over previous versions make computationally expensive tree searches with covarion models more efficient and analyses of large phylogenomic data sets tractable. PROCOV can be used to identify covarion sites by comparing the site likelihoods under the covarion process to the corresponding site likelihoods under a rates-across-sites (RAS process. Those sites with the greatest log-likelihood difference between a 'covarion' and an RAS process were found to be of functional or structural significance in a dataset of bacterial and eukaryotic elongation factors. Conclusion Covarion models implemented in PROCOV may be especially useful for phylogenetic estimation when ancient divergences between sequences have occurred and rates of evolution at sites are likely to have changed over the tree. It can also be used to study lineage-specific functional shifts in protein families that result in changes in the patterns of site variability among subtrees.

  17. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  18. Seismicity patterns before MD >= 4.1 earthquakes in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy) and western Slovenia areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gentili, Stefania; Bressan, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    International audience The spatial-temporal pattern of seismicity, preceding 5 moderate-sized earthquakes with MD ≥ 4.1, that occurred in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (northeastern Italy) and in western Slovenia, is investigated with the Region-Time-Length (RTL) and the PI algorithms. These algorithms were originally formulated to reveal the variation of seismicity patterns before large earthquakes. The RTL algorithm detects seismic quiescences before the 1996 Claut earthquake (MD 4.3)...

  19. C4b-binding protein is present in affected areas of myocardial infarction during the acute inflammatory phase and covers a larger area than C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leendert A Trouw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During myocardial infarction reduced blood flow in the heart muscle results in cell death. These dying/dead cells have been reported to bind several plasma proteins such as IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP. In the present study we investigated whether fluid-phase complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP would also bind to the infarcted heart tissue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Initial studies using immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays for several cardiovascular disorders indicated that C4BP can be found in heart tissue in several cardiac diseases but that it is most abundantly found in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This condition was studied in more detail by analyzing the time window and extent of C4BP positivity. The binding of C4BP correlates to the same locations as C3b, a marker known to correlate to the patterns of IgM and CRP staining. Based on criteria that describe the time after infarction we were able to pinpoint that C4BP binding is a relatively early marker of tissue damage in myocardial infarction with a peak of binding between 12 hours and 5 days subsequent to AMI, the phase in which infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes in the heart is the most extensive. CONCLUSIONS: C4BP, an important fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation binds to jeopardized cardiomyocytes early after AMI and co-localizes to other well known markers such as C3b.

  20. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-09-02

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  1. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI. Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS, and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  2. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST. PMID:27598186

  3. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST. PMID:27598186

  4. Using Recombinant Proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva to Estimate Human Vector Exposure in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Clarissa Teixeira; Regis Gomes; Nicolas Collin; David Reynoso; Ryan Jochim; Fabiano Oliveira; Amy Seitz; Dia-Eldin Elnaiem; Arlene Caldas; Ana Paula Souza; Cláudia I Brodskyn; Camila Indiani de Oliveira; Ivete Mendonca; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Petr Volf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sand flies deliver Leishmania parasites to a host alongside salivary molecules that affect infection outcomes. Though some proteins are immunogenic and have potential as markers of vector exposure, their identity and vector specificity remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened human, dog, and fox sera from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis to identify potential markers of specific exposure to saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Human and dog sera were further ...

  5. Alternative mRNA Splicing from the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) Gene Generates Isoforms with Distinct Subcellular mRNA Localization Patterns in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Daugaard, Tina Fuglsang; Holm, Ida E;

    2013-01-01

    The intermediate filament network of astrocytes includes Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) as a major component. Gfap mRNA is alternatively spliced resulting in generation of different protein isoforms where Gfapa is the most predominant isoform. The Gfapd isoform is expressed in proliferating......RNA localization patterns were dependent on the different 39-exon sequences included in Gfapd and Gfapa mRNA. The presented results show that alternative Gfap mRNA splicing results in isoform-specific mRNA localization patterns with resulting different local mRNA concentration ratios which have potential...

  6. Registered Trademarks… Reflections on the use of trademarks, consumption patterns and marketing strategies in rural areas of Argentina (1900-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lluch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trademarks are highly valuable devices that serve a relevant purpose in trade and consumption patterns. However, trademarks have been largely neglected by Argentina's economic history historiography. This article discusses how and when trademarks emerged and spread in Argentina's rural area in the early 20th century. It describes this gradual process, pointing out that, by the late 1920s, trademarks had already become a prominent feature in rural marketing strategies and consumption patterns. The study also analyzes how these processes contributed to shaping retailers' business practices as well as generic consumer goods' marketing channels (particularly, in the food and beverage industries

  7. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    Full Text Available Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the

  8. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  9. Structural factors influencing patterns of drug selling and use and HIV risk in the San Salvador metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2010-06-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern.

  10. Solution processed large area fabrication of Ag patterns as electrodes for flexible heaters, electrochromics and organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ritu; Walia, Sunil; Hösel, Markus;

    2014-01-01

    A simple method for producing patterned Ag electrodes on transparent and flexible substrates is reported. The process makes use of laser printed toner as a sacrificial template for an organic precursor, which upon thermolysis and toner lift off produced highly conducting Ag electrodes. Thus......, the process takes only a few minutes without any expensive instrumentation. The electrodes exhibited excellent adhesion and mechanical properties, important for flexible device application. Using Ag patterned electrodes, heaters operating at low voltages, pixelated electrochromic displays as well as organic...

  11. Human salivary gland acinar cells spontaneously form three-dimensional structures and change the protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yen-Hui; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Young, Tai-Horng; Lou, Pei-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Applying tissue engineering principles to design an auto-secretory device is a potential solution for patients suffering loss of salivary gland function. However, the largest challenge in implementing this solution is the primary culture of human salivary gland cells, because the cells are highly differentiated and difficult to expand in vitro. This situation leads to the lack of reports on the in vitro cell biology and physiology of human salivary gland cells. This study used a low-calcium culture system to selectively cultivate human parotid gland acinar (PGAC) cells from tissues with high purity in cell composition. This condition enables PGAC cells to continuously proliferate and retain the phenotypes of epithelial acinar cells to express secreting products (α-amylase) and function-related proteins (aquaporin-3, aquaporin-5, and ZO-1). Notably, when the cells reached confluence, three-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates were observed in crowded regions. These self-formed cell spheres were termed post-confluence structures (PCSs). Unexpectedly, despite being cultured in the same media, cells in PCSs exhibited higher expression levels and different expression patterns of function-related proteins compared to the two-dimensional (2D) cells. Translocation of aquoporin-3 from cytosolic to alongside the cell boundaries, and of ZO-1 molecules to the boundary of the PCSs were also observed. These observations suggest that when PGAC cells cultured on the 2D substrate would form PCSs without the help of 3D scaffolds and retain certain differentiation and polarity. This phenomenon implies that it is possible to introduce 2D substrates instead of 3D scaffolds into artificial salivary gland tissue engineering.

  12. The respective roles of polar/nonpolar binary patterns and amino acid composition in protein regular secondary structures explored exhaustively using hydrophobic cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebehmed, Joseph; Quintus, Flavien; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have highlighted the leading role of the sequence periodicity of polar and nonpolar amino acids (binary patterns) in the formation of regular secondary structures (RSS). However, these were based on the analysis of only a few simple cases, with no direct mean to correlate binary patterns with the limits of RSS. Here, HCA-derived hydrophobic clusters (HC) which are conditioned binary patterns whose positions fit well those of RSS, were considered. All the HC types, defined by unique binary patterns, which were commonly observed in three-dimensional (3D) structures of globular domains, were analyzed. The 180 HC types with preferences for either α-helices or β-strands distinctly contain basic binary units typical of these RSS. Therefore a general trend supporting the "binary pattern preference" assumption was observed. HC for which observed RSS are in disagreement with their expected behavior (discordant HC) were also examined. They were separated in HC types with moderate preferences for RSS, having "weak" binary patterns and versatile RSS and HC types with high preferences for RSS, having "strong" binary patterns and then displaying nonpolar amino acids at the protein surface. It was shown that in both cases, discordant HC could be distinguished from concordant ones by well-differentiated amino acid compositions. The obtained results could, thus, help to complement the currently available methods for the accurate prediction of secondary structures in proteins from the only information of a single amino acid sequence. This can be especially useful for characterizing orphan sequences and for assisting protein engineering and design. Proteins 2016; 84:624-638. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26868538

  13. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group...... and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...... patterns related to the seabed topography, water layer depth, and the presence of hydrographic frontal zones (pycnoclines) as well as intraspecific patterns in relation to the presence of adult cod. The extent of the nursery areas also depends on the cod year class strength. Juvenile cod (≥3 cm...

  14. Design and Implementation of Integrated Solid Wastes Management Pattern in Industrial areas, Case Study of Shahroud, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Yaghmaeian

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that implementation of this pattern, i.e. running source separation, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  15. MODELING FLOW PATTERNS IN A SMALL VEGETATED AREA IN THE NORTHERN CHICHUAHUAN DESERT USING QUIC ( QUIC URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstorms are frequent in the northern Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, an area characterized by open areas lacking vegetation, individual mesquite bushes, and mesquite coppice dunes. Field measurements of sand fluxes and wind velocities over a two year period provided a descri...

  16. Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chidi E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p 2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females though the difference was significant (p Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.

  17. Landscape pattern and its effect on ecosystem functions in Seoul Metropolitan area: Urban ecology on distribution of the naturalized plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    During land transformation process in the human history, naturalized plants were introduced to several land use patterns by thedifferent ways of plant itself.Including some naturalized plants that had been contribute to land restoration, many naturalized plants have beeninvaded to original habitat or landscape for native plants.Once the plants were colonized, they extend their area and population size.Urbandeveloped areas often give an important role of source habitat for naturalized plants and expanding their population size.In recent, this situationis appearing as one of environmental problems about the urban landscape management controlling the naturalized plants that invaded in thedeveloped area and conserving the native vegetation.This paper is focusing on relationships between distribution of habitat of naturalized plantsand landscape patch in urban area in Seoul.Gangdong-Gu, one of the administrative areas in Seoul was selected for this study.We examinedthe recent land use change using LANDSAT TM data and spreading of the representative naturalized plants ( Robinia pseudoacacia andEupatorium rugosum) by Seoul Biotope Mapping Project and field survey in 1999.As a result, these two species were often occurred in thesame habitat and distributed in forest edge disturbed by man.Their distribution patterns were related to landscape indices (patch size andshape) in the forest edge.

  18. [Effect of freezing and cooking on the texture and electrophoretic pattern of the proteins of octopus arms (Octopus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Genara; Nirchio, Mauro; Bello, Rafael; Borderías, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Texture is the most valuable feature in cephalopods. Factors that mainly affect the texture of octopus are: freezing, scalding and cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of freezing, scalding and length of cooking time on the texture and electrophoretic pattern of proteins of octopus arms. Octopuses were trapped near Margarita Island and carried with ice to the laboratory where they were packed and subjected to: a) freezing at -27 degrees C or at -20 degrees C b) scalding c) cooking for 25 min, 35 min or 45 min. Shear force was determined by Kramer cell on strips of octopus arms. SDS-PAGE was done according to the Laemmli method with 12% polyacrilamide gels. A sensory evaluation of the preference of texture was carried out using a hedonic scale of 7-points and a non-trained panel. Octopus texture was not affected by freezing temperature or scalding. Frozen octopus was softer after cooking than fresh. The longer the cooking time was, the softer the octopus was. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not significantly affected by scalding or cooking; however large aggregates heavier than MHC, new bands and loss of resolution of the bands appeared. Myosin and paramyosin bands were more affected by freezing prior to cooking.

  19. Increased dopamine D2 receptor activity in the striatum alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area

    OpenAIRE

    Krabbe, Sabine; Duda, Johanna; Schiemann, Julia; Poetschke, Christina; Schneider, Gaby; Kandel, Eric R.; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen; Simpson, Eleanor H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from cognitive and negative deficits that are largely resistant to current therapeutic strategies. Here, using a genetic mouse model that displays phenotypes similar to these cognitive and negative symptoms, we found that increased postsynaptic D2 receptor (D2R) activity in the striatum leads to changes in the firing pattern of presynaptic dopamine (DA) neurons of the midbrain. These alterations occur in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, but ...

  20. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking.

  1. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    The '500-foot' sand is the major source of water supply for the Memphis area. Thick layers of impervious clay above and below the sand confine the water in the aquifer under artesian pressure and also protect the aquifer from contamination. Recharge from rainfall enters the '500-foot' sand in the outcrop, or intake area south and east of Memphis. Recharge from other aquifers enters the sand wherever the confining beds are breached or absent. Some of the recharge that enters the '500-foot' sand in eastern Arkansas moves down the gradients created by pumping in the Memphis area. All discharge from the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area results from well pumping. Since 1886 continuous withdrawals at gradually increasing rates of pumping have lowered water levels and altered hydraulic gradients in the area. These withdrawals have resulted in changes in direction and velocity of movement of water through the '500-foot' sand. Water in the sand in the southeaster n part of the Memphis area normally moves from the (outcrop area east and south of Memphis northwestward toward points of withdrawal. In the northwestern part of the area, water moves southeastward toward points of withdrawal. A flow-net analysis of the aquifer shows that the rate of water movement through the '500-foot' sand in 1964, toward the major cones of depression in the Memphis area, was about 350 feet per year, or 1 mile in 15 years. A flow-net analysis projected for the year 1975 indicates the rate will increase by about 20 percent in the 12-year period 1964-75. Water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area is generally a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate type. It is soft, low in dissolved solids, high in concentrations of iron and carbon dioxide, and slightly to moderately corrosive. The softest and least mineralized water occurs in the southeastern part of the area, and the water becomes slightly harder and more mineralized as it moves downdip toward Memphis. The hardest and most mineralized

  2. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Perini, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea), which receives contamina...

  3. [C and N allocation patterns in planted forests and their release patterns during leaf litter decomposition in subalpine area of west Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-wen; Duan, Er-jun; Pan, Kai-wen; Zhang, Li-ping; Du, Hong-xia

    2009-01-01

    With the planted forest ecosystems of Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Betula utilis, Pinus yunnansinsis, and Picea asperata in subalpine area of west Sichuan as test objects, their total biomass and the C and N contents in soils and tree organs were determined. The results showed that the allocation of C in tree organs had less correlation with the age of the organs, while that of N and C/N ratio had closer relationship with the age. The N content in young organs was higher than that in aged ones, whereas the C/N ratio was higher in aged organs than in young organs, and higher in the leaf litters of needle-leaved forests than in those of broad-leaved forests. There was an obvious enrichment of C and N in the topsoil of test forests. The accumulated amounts of C and N in the whole planted forest ecosystem, including tree, litter, and 0-40 cm soil layer, were 176.75-228.05 t x hm(-2) and 11.06-16.54 t x hm(-2), respectively, and the nutrients allocation ratio between soil-litter and tree was (1.9-3.3):1 for C and (15.6-41.5):1 for N. Needle-leaved forests functioned as a stronger "C-sink" than broad-leaved forests. The decomposition rate of the leaf litters in needle-leaved forests was larger than that in broad-leaved forests, with the turnover rate being 2.2-3.7 years and 3.9-4.2 years, respectively. During the decomposition of leaf litter, the C in all of the four forests released at super-speed, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.4 years. As for N, it also released at super-speed in C. japonicum and B. utilis forests, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.2 years, but released at low speed in P. yunnansinsis and P. asperata forests, with the turnover rate being 6.7-8.5 years. PMID:19449557

  4. Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins. Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm. Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm. Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.

  5. Diversity, distribution pattern and seasonal variation in moth assemblages along altitudinal gradient in Gangotri landscape area, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sanyal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field survey was conducted at different altitudes and land-use areas in the two protected areas, viz., Gangotri National Park and Govind National Park of Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 475 specimens of moth representing 436 morphospecies were collected using light trap method during the survey conducted between September 2008-May 2010. Preliminary findings show a decreasing diversity with increasing altitude. Subalpine areas were least diverse and subtropical areas had the highest diversity of moths. The greatest number of specimens were collected during the summer and post-monsoon period. The lunar phase had a significant effect on catch success with new moon days resulting in the largest catches and full moon days resulting in the least number of species as well as individuals. Of the thirty two species mentioned in Appendix 1, nine species are first time record from the state Uttarakhand. Four species are new record from Western Himalaya within Indian Territory, and also first time recorded from entire Himalayan landscape. As there was no previous comprehensive study on the moth diversity of Gangotri landscape area, all the 32 species described could be regarded as new record from these two protected areas.

  6. Cloned s-Lap Gene Coding Area, Expression and Localizationof s-Lap/GFP Fusion Protein in Mammal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yi-shu; SONG Zhi-yu; LI Hong-jun; Wu Yin; BAO Yong-li; TAN Da-peng; LI Yu-xin

    2005-01-01

    s-Lap is a new gene sequence from pig retinal pigment epithelial(RPE) cells, which was found and cloned in the early period of apoptosis of RPE cells damaged with visible light. We cloned the coding area sequence of the novel gene of s-Lap and constructed its recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA3.1-GFP/s-lap with the recombinant DNA technique. The expression and localization of s-lap/GFP fusion protein in CHO and B16 cell lines were studied with the instantaneously transfected pcDNA3.1-GFP/s-lap recombinant plasmid. s-Lap/GFP fusion protein can be expressed in CHO and B16 cells with a high rate expression in the nuclei.

  7. The Change of Land Use/Cover and Characteristics of Landscape Pattern in Arid Areas Oasis: An Application in Jinghe, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei; TASHPOLAT·Tiyip; Hsiang-te KUNG; DING Jianli

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses 3S technology in macroscopic. Combining the integrated technology of ecological quantity analytical method with GIS technology through ArcGIS and Fragstats, the authors study the images of 1972, 1990, 2001, and 2005 and obtained land use data in Jinghe County. Then, the change of land use/cover and landscape pattern had been analyzed in the Jinghe County of Xinjiang. The conclusions were as follows: (1) The trend of LUCC is that the area of oasis expands slowly in nearly 33years between 1972 to 2005 in Jinghe County. (2) The water area is mainly influenced by Ebinur Lake, so the area expands a little in this period. (3) The area of salinization-land expands at first and reduces later. The area of sand land decreases and the other land class increases, while the probability of transfer is always high. (4) Landscape change is also obvious throughout the decades.Overall, landscape density increases, the largest path index decreases at first and expends later, the weight area index decreases, and the shape of landscape becomes regulated. The nearest distances, the degrees of reunite, and outspread decreases. It shows that the connection of the main path in 1972 is better than 2005, wherein the patch becomes more complex. From the changes of Shannon's Diversity Index and Shannon's Evenness Index, we know that the diversity of landscape and the Interspersion Juxtaposition Index increase. The degree of diversity landscape and fragmentation increase also shows that the land uses become more complex. All in all, it is essential to intensify the spatial relationships among landscape elements and to maintain the continuity of landscape ecological process and pattern in the course of area expansion.

  8. Distribution Patterns of Burned Areas in the Brazilian Biomes: An Analysis Based on Satellite Data for the 2002–2010 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira de Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires modify the structure of vegetation communities, the carbon and water cycles, the soil’s chemistry, and affect the climate system. Within this context, this work aimed to understand the distribution patterns of burned areas in Brazil, during the period of 2002 to 2010, taking into consideration each one of the six Brazilian biomes (Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pampa and Pantanal and the respective major land cover classes. Data from the MODIS MCD45A1 product (burned area, as well as thermal anomalies (MOD14 and MYD14 and precipitation (TRMM, were analyzed according to the 2002 Brazilian official land cover and land use map (PROBIO. The Brazilian savanna biome, known as Cerrado, presented the largest concentration of burned areas detected by MODIS (73%, followed by the Amazon (14%, Pantanal (6%, Atlantic Forest (4%, Caatinga (3%, and Pampa (0,06% biomes. Indeed, in the years of 2007 and 2010, 90% and 92% of Brazil’s burned areas were concentrated in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, respectively. TRMM data indicated that during these two years there was a significant influence of La Niña, causing low rainfall in the Amazon, Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Regarding the land cover classes, approximately 81% of the burned areas occurred over remnant vegetation areas. Although no unequivocal correlation can be established between burned areas and new land conversions, the conspicuous concentration of fire scars, particularly in Amazon–Cerrado transition (i.e., the Arc of Deforestation is certainly not a simple coincidence. Such patterns and trends corroborate the need of improved territorial governance, in addition to the implementation of systematic fire warning and preventive systems.

  9. Insecticides in sediment cores from a rural and a suburban area in South China: A reflection of shift in application patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Yi, Xiaoyi; You, Jing

    2016-10-15

    A shift in pesticide application pattern has occurred in recent decades, yet little information is available in the consequence of this shift. To better understand how the shift is reflected in aquatic environment, two sediment cores were collected from a rural (RLY) and a suburban (SGZ) river in South China. A variety of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs), including organophosphate, pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole insecticides were quantified at distinct increments of the sediment cores. Total insecticide concentrations were in the ranges of 67.6-1671 and 99.2-231ng/g dry weight in RLY and SGZ with pyrethroids and organochlorines being the dominant components, respectively. In general, the shifting profile of sediment-bound insecticides from legacy OCPs to CUPs over time followed their historical application pattern, but significant differences were noted between the temporal profiles of the rural and suburban cores in regards to concentrations and composition of insecticides. The observed difference between the suburban and rural cores was synchronous with land use pattern and local economic changes. A steep increased occurrence of CUPs in the 1990s was observed in the RLY core, which is consistent with the onset of economic growth in this area. In contrast, the suburban SGZ area has been historically contaminated by legacy OCPs, with fresh input of OCPs in SGZ believed to be caused by soil erosion, caused by land reclamation activities associated with urban expansion. The current study shows the shift in insecticide application pattern from legacy OCPs to CUPs leading to an elevated CUP occurrence in the environment. It also suggests a stronger need for understanding not only environmental fate and risk, but also how their use pattern and land use changes impact the occurrence of pesticides. PMID:27281551

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of mercury in Antarctica and the role of cryptogams to assess deposition patterns in coastal ice-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2016-11-01

    Mercury in the Antarctic troposphere has a distinct chemistry and challenging long-term measurements are needed for a better understanding of the atmospheric Hg reactions with oxidants and the exchanges of the various mercury forms among air-snow-sea and biota. Antarctic mosses and lichens are reliable biomonitors of airborne metals and in short time they can give useful information about Hg deposition patterns. Data summarized in this review show that although atmospheric Hg concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere are lower than those in the Northern Hemisphere, Antarctic cryptogams accumulate Hg at levels in the same range or higher than those observed for related cryptogam species in the Arctic, suggesting an enhanced deposition of bioavailable Hg in Antarctic coastal ice-free areas. In agreement with the newest findings in the literature, the Hg bioaccumulation in mosses and lichens from a nunatak particularly exposed to strong katabatic winds can be taken as evidence for a Hg contribution to coastal ecosystems by air masses from the Antarctic plateau. Human activities on the continent are mostly concentrated in coastal ice-free areas, and the deposition in these areas of Hg from the marine environment, the plateau and anthropogenic sources raises concern. The use of Antarctic cryptogams as biomonitors will be very useful to map Hg deposition patterns in costal ice-free areas and will contribute to a better understanding of Hg cycling in Antarctica and its environmental fate in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. The impact of endemic and epidemic malaria on the risk of stillbirth in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutabingwa TK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of malaria on the risk of stillbirth is still under debate. The aim of the present analysis was to determine comparative changes in stillbirth prevalence between two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns in order to estimate the malaria attributable component. Methods A retrospective analysis was completed of stillbirth differences between primigravidae and multigravidae in relation to malaria cases and transmission patterns for two different areas of Tanzania with a focus on the effects of the El Niño southern climatic oscillation (ENSO. One area, Kagera, experiences outbreaks of malaria, and the other area, Morogoro, is holoendemic. Delivery and malaria data were collected over a six year period from records of the two district hospitals in these locations. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of low birthweight in primigravidae compared to multigravidae for both data sets. Low birthweight and stillbirth prevalence (17.5% and 4.8% were significantly higher in Kilosa compared to Ndolage (11.9% and 2.4%. There was a significant difference in stillbirth prevalence between Ndolage and Kilosa between malaria seasons (2.4% and 5.6% respectively, p Conclusion Malaria exposure during pregnancy has a delayed effect on birthweight outcomes, but a more acute effect on stillbirth risk.

  12. Assessing differences in phenology patterns between burned and non burned areas using MODIS and Landsat time series satellite images. A case study in Peloponnisos (Greece) and Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Bajocco, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus can be helpful for assessing, for example, phenology patterns between burned and non-burned areas. The aim of this study is to define phenological patterns for the fire ignition points in two Mediterranean study areas located in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece (Peloponnisos) and compare them with control points created after random sampling techniques restricted to certain buffer zones. Remotely sensed data from MODIS (2000-2015) and LANDSAT (1984-2015) satellites were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal of fire ignition points and of control points. Apart of the use of the original spectral data, we used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been derived and used to assess vegetation phenology in the fire-affected areas.

  13. Ceramic thin films on plastics: a versatile transfer process for large area as well as patterned coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Hiromitsu; Fukui, Takafumi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Tsuboi, Shohei

    2012-12-01

    A versatile technique for fabricating ceramic thin films on plastics has been proposed. The technique comprises (i) the deposition of a gel film by spin- or dip-coating on a silicon substrate coated beforehand with a release layer, (ii) the firing of the gel film into a ceramic film, and (iii) its transfer onto plastics by melting or softening the plastics surface. Reflective anatase and electrically conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on acrylic resin and polycarbonate substrates. Patterned ITO thin films could also be fabricated on plastics by using a mother silicon substrate with periodic grooves. PMID:23211312

  14. Patterns of use of the Mar Chiquita lagoon (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and adjacent coastal area by fish early life stages.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Daniel O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Mar Chiquita lagoon and its adjacent coastal area as nursery ground for fish larvae and juveniles and the factors which regulate their recruitment process, was evaluated. To do so, we analyzed the fish early life stages composition and spatio-temporal variation over the marine-estuarine gradient of the lagoon and its relationship with environmental factors; the diel variation of these stages in the immediate area at the mouth of the lagoon; and the source of the organic carbon...

  15. Carbon Storage Patterns of Caragana korshinskii in Areas of Reduced Environmental Moisture on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunmei; Bai, Juan; Wang, Junhui; Zhou, Yulu; Kang, Tai; Wang, Jiajia; Hu, Congxia; Guo, Hongbo; Chen, Peilei; Xie, Pei; Li, Yuanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation patterns are influenced by climate change and profoundly alter the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems. Carbon uptake by shrubbery alone accounts for approximately one-third of the total carbon sink; however, whether such uptake is altered by reduced precipitation is unclear. In this study, five experimental sites characterised by gradual reductions in precipitation from south to north across the Loess Plateau were used to evaluate the Caragana korshinskii's functional and physiological features, particularly its carbon fixation capacity, as well as the relationships among these features. We found the improved net CO2 assimilation rates and inhibited transpiration at the north leaf were caused by lower canopy stomatal conductance, which enhanced the instantaneous water use efficiency and promoted plant biomass as well as carbon accumulation. Regional-scale precipitation reductions over a certain range triggered a distinct increase in the shrub's organic carbon storage with an inevitable decrease in the soil's organic carbon storage. Our results confirm C. korshinskii is the optimal dominant species for the reconstruction of fragile dryland ecosystems. The patterns of organic carbon storage associated with this shrub occurred mostly in the soil at wetter sites, and in the branches and leaves at drier sites across the arid and semi-arid region. PMID:27412432

  16. Carbon Storage Patterns of Caragana korshinskii in Areas of Reduced Environmental Moisture on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunmei; Bai, Juan; Wang, Junhui; Zhou, Yulu; Kang, Tai; Wang, Jiajia; Hu, Congxia; Guo, Hongbo; Chen, Peilei; Xie, Pei; Li, Yuanfeng

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation patterns are influenced by climate change and profoundly alter the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems. Carbon uptake by shrubbery alone accounts for approximately one-third of the total carbon sink; however, whether such uptake is altered by reduced precipitation is unclear. In this study, five experimental sites characterised by gradual reductions in precipitation from south to north across the Loess Plateau were used to evaluate the Caragana korshinskii’s functional and physiological features, particularly its carbon fixation capacity, as well as the relationships among these features. We found the improved net CO2 assimilation rates and inhibited transpiration at the north leaf were caused by lower canopy stomatal conductance, which enhanced the instantaneous water use efficiency and promoted plant biomass as well as carbon accumulation. Regional-scale precipitation reductions over a certain range triggered a distinct increase in the shrub’s organic carbon storage with an inevitable decrease in the soil’s organic carbon storage. Our results confirm C. korshinskii is the optimal dominant species for the reconstruction of fragile dryland ecosystems. The patterns of organic carbon storage associated with this shrub occurred mostly in the soil at wetter sites, and in the branches and leaves at drier sites across the arid and semi-arid region.

  17. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  18. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, A; Klenz, J E; Kohalmi, S E; Risseeuw, E; Haughn, G W; Crosby, W L

    1999-11-01

    Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene, from Arabidopsis thaliana, is expressed in all shoot apical meristems, and is involved in the regulation of a complex set of developmental events during floral development, including floral meristem and floral organ identity. Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia. Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA. In an attempt to understand the biochemical mode of action of the UFO gene product, we show here that UFO is an F-box protein that interacts with Arabidopsis SKP1-like proteins, both in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In yeast and other organisms both F-box proteins and SKP1 homologues are subunits of specific ubiquitin E3 enzyme complexes that target specific proteins for degradation. The protein selected for degradation by the complex is specified by the F-box proteins. It is therefore possible that the role of UFO is to target for degradation specific proteins controlling normal growth patterns in the floral primordia, as well as proteins that negatively regulate APETALA 3 transcription.

  19. Next generation non-vacuum, maskless, low temperature nanoparticle ink laser digital direct metal patterning for a large area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Lee, Daehoo; Hotz, Nico; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight modification of conventional processes for flexible electronics fabrication cannot work. The future flexible electronics fabrication requires totally new low-temperature process development optimized for flexible substrate and it should be based on new material too. Here we present a simple approach to developing a flexible electronics fabrication without using conventional vacuum deposition and photolithography. We found that direct metal patterning based on laser-induced local melting of metal nanoparticle ink is a promising low-temperature alternative to vacuum deposition- and photolithography-based conventional metal patterning processes. The "digital" nature of the proposed direct metal patterning process removes the need for expensive photomask and allows easy design modification and short turnaround time. This new process can be extremely useful for current small-volume, large-variety manufacturing paradigms. Besides, simple, scalable, fast and low-temperature processes can lead to cost-effective fabrication methods on a large-area polymer substrate. The developed process was successfully applied to demonstrate high-quality Ag patterning (2.1 µΩ·cm) and high-performance flexible organic field effect transistor arrays.

  20. Next generation non-vacuum, maskless, low temperature nanoparticle ink laser digital direct metal patterning for a large area flexible electronics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyeob Yeo

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight modification of conventional processes for flexible electronics fabrication cannot work. The future flexible electronics fabrication requires totally new low-temperature process development optimized for flexible substrate and it should be based on new material too. Here we present a simple approach to developing a flexible electronics fabrication without using conventional vacuum deposition and photolithography. We found that direct metal patterning based on laser-induced local melting of metal nanoparticle ink is a promising low-temperature alternative to vacuum deposition- and photolithography-based conventional metal patterning processes. The "digital" nature of the proposed direct metal patterning process removes the need for expensive photomask and allows easy design modification and short turnaround time. This new process can be extremely useful for current small-volume, large-variety manufacturing paradigms. Besides, simple, scalable, fast and low-temperature processes can lead to cost-effective fabrication methods on a large-area polymer substrate. The developed process was successfully applied to demonstrate high-quality Ag patterning (2.1 µΩ·cm and high-performance flexible organic field effect transistor arrays.

  1. Focal cerebral ischemia induces increased myelin basic protein and growth-associated protein-43 gene transcription in peri-infarct areas in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, R; Christensen, Thomas; Lehrmann, E;

    2001-01-01

    , in peri-infarct areas in adult rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and correlated it to the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), a marker for axonal regeneration and sprouting, using non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques. Within the infarct, MBP......, corresponding to the appearance of process-bearing MBP and occasional MOG-immunoreactive oligodendrocytes in parallel sections. Quantitative analysis revealed significant increases in the density of oligodendrocytes (up to 7.6-fold) and in the level of MBP mRNA expressed by individual cells. Parallel sections...... showed that increased expression of GAP-43 mRNA in neurons was concomitant to MBP mRNA upregulation in oligodendrocytes. While the mechanisms regulating oligodendrocyte survival and myelination signals are not clear at this point, axonal sprouting could putatively serve as a stimulus for the upregulation...

  2. Influence of biological oxygen demand degradation patterns on water-quality modeling for rivers running through urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Wang, Wei-Shen

    2008-10-01

    Water-quality modeling has been used as a support tool for water-resources management. The Streeter-Phelps (SP) equation is one often-used algorithm in river water-quality simulation because of its simplicity and ease in use. To characterize the river dissolved oxygen (DO) sag profile, it only considers that the first-order biological oxygen demand (BOD) degradation and atmospheric reaeration are the sink and source in a river, respectively. In the river water-quality calculation, the assumption may not always provide satisfactory simulation due to an inappropriate description of BOD degradation. In the study, various patterns of BOD degradation were combined with the oxygen reaeration to simulate the DO sag profile in a river. Different BOD degradation patterns used include the first-order decay, mixed second-order decay, and oxygen-inhibition decay. The results shows that the oxygen-inhibition SP equation calculates higher BOD and DO concentration, while the mixed second SP equation calculates the least among the three tested models. In river-water calculation of Keelung River, the SP and oxygen-inhibition SP equations calculate similar BOD and DO concentrations, and the mixed second SP equation calculates the least BOD and DO concentration. The pollution loading of BOD and atmospheric reaeration constant are the two important factors that have significant impacts on aqueous DO concentration. In the field application, it is suggested that the mixed second SP equation be employed in water-quality simulation when the monitoring data exhibits a faster trend in BOD decay. The oxygen-inhibition SP equation may calculate the water quality more accurately when BOD decay is slower.

  3. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R G Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  4. National Scale Operational Mapping of Burnt Areas as a Tool for the Better Understanding of Contemporary Wildfire Patterns and Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleimon Xofis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an operational nationwide burnt area mapping service realized over Greece for the years 2007–2011, through the implementation of the so-called BSM_NOA dedicated method developed at the National Observatory of Athens for post-fire recovery management. The method exploits multispectral satellite imagery, such as Landsat-TM, SPOT, FORMOSAT-2, WorldView and IKONOS. The analysis of fire size distribution reveals that a high number of fire events evolve to large and extremely large wildfires under favorable wildfire conditions, confirming the reported trend of an increasing fire-severity in recent years. Furthermore, under such conditions wildfires affect to a higher degree areas at high altitudes, threatening the existence of ecologically significant ecosystems. Finally, recent socioeconomic changes and land abandonment has resulted in the encroachment of former agricultural areas of limited productivity by shrubs and trees, resulting both in increased fuel availability and continuity, and subsequently increased burnability.

  5. Sequence and expression pattern of a novel human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPRC5B, a family C receptor with a short amino-terminal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2000-01-01

    Query of GenBank with the amino acid sequence of human metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) identified a predicted gene product of unknown function on BAC clone CIT987SK-A-69G12 (located on chromosome band 16p12) as a homologous protein. The transcript, entitled GPRC5B, was cloned f...... pattern is markedly different from that of RAIG1, which shows a slightly more restricted expression pattern with highest abundance in lung tissue....

  6. Patterns of diversity, areas of endemism, and multiple glacial refuges for freshwater crabs of the genus Sinopotamon in China (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Hongying; Zhao, Qiang; Lin, Congtian; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhou, Junying; Ge, Feng; Liu, Naifa

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the geographical distribution patterns of freshwater fishes and amphibians have been influenced by past climatic oscillations in China resulting from Pleistocene glacial activity. However, it remains unknown how these past changes have impacted the present-day distribution of Chinese freshwater crabs. This work describes the diversity and endemism of freshwater crabs belonging to Sinopotamon, a highly speciose genus endemic to China, and evaluates its distribution in terms of topography and past climatic fluctuations. Species diversity within Sinopotamon was found to be concentrated in an area from the northeastern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the Jiangnan Hills, and three areas of endemism were identified. Multiple regression analysis between current climatic variables and Sinopotamon diversity suggested that regional annual precipitation, minimum temperature in the coldest month, and annual temperature range significantly influenced species diversity and may explain the diversity patterns of Sinopotamon. A comparison of ecological niche models (ENMs) between current conditions and the last glacial maximum (LGM) showed that suitable habitat for Sinopotamon in China severely contracted during the LGM. The coincidence of ENMs and the areas of endemism indicated that southeast of the Daba Mountains, and central and southeastern China, are potential Pleistocene refuges for Sinopotamon. The presence of multiple Pleistocene refuges within the range of this genus could further promote inter- and intraspecific differentiations, and may have led to high Sinopotamon species diversity, a high endemism rate and widespread distribution.

  7. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  8. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures. PMID:25319243

  9. Effects of future rainfall patterns on density and diversity of predatory mites (Gamasida) in characteristic agricultural soils of the Pannonian area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissuwa, Janet; Berthold, Helene; Bruckner, Alexander; Zaller, Johann; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for the end of this century predict fewer but heavier rainfalls and longer lasting droughts during the vegetation period without substantial changes in the total annual amount of rainfall for Eastern Austria (Pannonian region). In a multidisciplinary study, the consequences of future precipitation patterns on agroecosystem processes and functions in one of the most productive agricultural areas of Austria are tested at the AGES Lysimeter station. The lysimeter station comprises the three main soil types of the pannonian agricultural area (calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem, calcic chernozem) together covering about 80% of the agricultural area. Lysimeters are a valuable tool to study the effects of climate change on the complete soil ecosystem interacting with plants. Precipitation rates are modified according to the predicted 2050 scenario in comparison to the current precipitation patterns. The abundance and diversity of soil arthropods (Collembola, Gamasida, Oribatida) is monitored for three years. Five randomly taken soil samples per lysimeter (ø 5 cm, 10 cm depth) are pooled for arthropod extraction. Here we will present first year results for Gamasida. As one of the dominant acarine predators Gamasida play a crucial role in soil food webs contributing to nutrient cycling. Preliminary results indicate a stronger influence of soil type than rainfall patterns on mite density. Gamasida density decreased in the order calcaric phaeozem > calcic chernozem > gleyic phaeozem for every sampling date. No difference between current and predicted rainfall was found in May, where the different irrigation measures were launched, and July. Mite density tended to be higher for current rainfall in September.

  10. SEDIMENTARY PATTERN OF PROTOTYPE BASIN IN THE DEPOSITION PERIOD OF LAIYANG FORMATION AND THE ADVANTAGEOUS AREAS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION OF JIAOLAI BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiping; LI Ling; LI Wei; ZHOU Yaoqi

    2004-01-01

    Laiyang formation of Jiaolai Basin is the target stratum for oil and gas exploration. By measuring several field sections, the authors find that Laiyang formation reveals the whole processes from development to death of the lake basin and its sedimentary facies differ in different structural locations.Analyses about sedimentary facies and paleocurrent orientations in association with researches about the positive tectonic units such as Dayetou horseback and Chaigou horst indicate that Laiyang sag is a relatively independent sedimentary unit that shows great water depth typical of deep lake or semideep lake and was controlled by Wulongcun fault during the deposition period of Laiyang formation. Its sediments mainly originated from Jiaobei uplift area and Dayetou horseback. Gaomi-Zhucheng sag was a fast-filled basin controlled by Wurong fault and Yishu fault zone, being high in the northeast and low in the northwest and characterized by the development of pluvial facies and fluvial facies in most areas, and with the development of lake facies being limited to local low-lying regions. Selection of advantageous hydrocarbon reservoir areas for exploration purpose mainly relies on the sedimentation pattern of prototype basin and conservation conditions. The central-west area of Laiyang sag covered by overlying Laiyang formation is the most advantageous exploration area.

  11. Hyporheic flow pattern based on the coupling of regional and stream scales: Case of Krycklan Catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarrad, Morteza; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2016-04-01

    Water resources intense development within the past century has had an enormous impact on hydrological systems especially on rivers and groundwater resources. A river basin is a flow system involving the interaction between surface water and groundwater. This interaction occurs in terrestrial and coastal zone and even in arid and semi-arid areas, where surface water overlie on a permeable sediment. A key zone for the interaction between surface water and groundwater is the hyporheic zone, which forms by stream water that in- and exfiltrating in the permeable sediments surrounding the river corridor. Groundwater and hyporheic flows arise due to different range of topographical scales and their relative importance is investigated in this study. Krycklan is a well-monitored research catchment in which the data collection for more than 90 years has comprised hydrology, biochemistry, and aquatic ecology. The catchment is located in a boreal area of northern Sweden. The head-water streams begin in mountainous area and fall to the Baltic Sea near the city of Umea. In this paper, COMSOL Multi-physics simulation software has been used to model the subsurface flow of the whole Krycklan catchment in order to reach a comprehensive understanding of large-scale groundwater circulation and its impact of the stream hyporheic flows. The model statement is based on the 3D Laplace equation, which has been applied independently on two ranges of topographical scales to obtain a superimposed solution. Steady state simulation has been done based on the simplified assumption of constant boundary conditions of the groundwater surface and otherwise non-flow boundaries. The hydraulic head of the groundwater surface was taken as the topography, which apply as an approximation in wet climate with shallow soil layers. The results demonstrated how the ratio of the topographical amplitudes on different scales affect the size (depth) and fragmentation of the hyporheic zone. "Fragmentation" was

  12. Morbidity Pattern Among the Elderly Population in a Rural Area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka - A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahul Hameed, Nanjesh Kumar, Prashanth M Naik, Sachidananda K., Prasanna K S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As the ageing population is increasing, the burden of their health problems is on a rise. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above residing in the rural field practice area of A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Results: The mean age of the participants was 66.9±6.3years. Out of 375 elderly participants, females were 57.9%. In the st...

  13. Study on Seamless Service Pattern of Tour Guide for City Tourist Scenic Areas%面向城市导游的无缝服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永; 龙毅; 许越; 郑星雨

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, intelligent tour guide system is not only providing services for single tourist scenic area any more, and it is now developing into providing services for many tourist scenic areas in cities, so the service pattern is usually consisted of both tour guide in scenic area (tour guide) and tour guide on routes which link scenic areas (road guide), and what's more, the city tour guide provides services to individual tourist further, and can runs on any mobile terminal as an application(App). But in general, tour guide system and road guide system are self-contained, so there would be an unavoidable transfer between these two guide systems when a visitor entering and leaving a scenic area, and the progress of transfer is mainly manually operated, which cannot realize automatic and seamless transfer. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a seamless service pattern for any scenic area in one city, and analyses the architecture and work ranchman of the pattern, and then discusses these key technologies such as conforming tourist entering or leaving a scenic area, which is as a trigger for the automatic seamless switching between applications, and seamless integrating tour guide status on the level of content, such as designing data structure, transferring of the seamless integration of tourist status. The instances tests prove that the pattern can realize switch automatically between Apps and city road navigation, and can realize seamless tour guide process with dynamic status transferring, and can be seen as a new service pattern, also a solution to integrate exited tour guide Apps.%智能导游服务已从传统的单一景区导游发展为城市多景区导游,因此,包含了景区间导游和景区内导游两大部分;表现为更加注重面向散客服务、兼容多移动智能终端以应用程序(App)的方式运行。由于景区间导游和景区内导游往往自成系统,在游客进出景区的过程中存在着两种系统

  14. Study on Seamless Service Pattern of Tour Guide for City Tourist Scenic Areas%面向城市导游的无缝服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永; 龙毅; 许越; 郑星雨

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays, intelligent tour guide system is not only providing services for single tourist scenic area any more, and it is now developing into providing services for many tourist scenic areas in cities, so the service pattern is usually consist of both tour guide in scenic area(tour guide)and tour guide on routes which link scenic areas(road guide), and what's more, the city tour guide porvides services to individual tourist futher, and it can runs on any mobile terminal as an application(App). But in general, tour guide system and road guide system are self-contained, so there would be an unavoidable transfer between these two guide systems when a visitor entering and leaving a scenic area and the progress of transfer is mainly manually operated, and cannot realize automatic, seamless transfer. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a seamless service pattern for any scenic area in one city, analyses the architecture and work manchmain mechanism of the pattern, and then discusses these key technologies such as conforming tourist enteriing or leaving a scenic area, which are as triggers for the automatic seamless switching between applications, and seamless integrating tour guide status on the level of content, such as designing data structure, transfering of the seamless integration of tourist status. Through the instances test, it proves that the pattern can realize switch automaticlly between Apps and city road navigation and seamless tour guide process with dynamic status transfering, and can be seen as a new service pattern. It is also a solution to integrate existing tour guide Apps.%智能导游服务已从传统的单一景区导游发展为城市多景区导游,因此包含了景区间导游和景区内导游两大部分;表现为更加注重面向散客服务、兼容多移动智能终端以应用程序(App)的方式运行。由于景区间导游和景区内导游往往自成系统,在游客进出景区的过程中存在着两种系统的

  15. Proteomic analysis of blood level of proteins before and after operation in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at high-incidence area in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Ye An; Zong-Min Fan; Ze-Hao Zhuang; Yan-Ru Qin; Shan-Shan Gao; Ji-Lin Li; Li-Dong Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the protein files in blood from same patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)before and after operation at the high-incidence area for ESCC in Henan Province, China.METHODS: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, silver staining and ImageMaster 2-DE analysis software were applied to the determination of protein files in the blood obtained from normal controls and ESCC patients before and after operation.RESULTS: A total of 655, 662 and 677 protein spots were identified, respectively, from the normal controls and ESCC patients before and after operation. No significant difference in the number of protein spots was observed between the normal group and ESCC patients. A total of seven protein spots were identified with a dramatic difference among the samples before and after operation. Six protein spots were up-regulated and one protein spot was down-regulated in the group after operation compared with those in normal and before operation. Three protein spots were further characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flying mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The proteins from these three spots were identified as serum amyloid A(SAA), amyloid related serum protein and haptoglobin.CONCLUSION: Serum amyloid A, amyloid related serum protein and haptoglobin may be related with ESCC and/or surgery. The significance of these proteins needs to be further characterized. The present study provides informative data for the establishment of serum protein profiles related with ESCC.

  16. Association of rearing patterns with diet and temperament traits among infants in urban areas%城市地区抚养模式与幼儿饮食特征及气质的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁影; 朱鹏; 高荣; 梁贞贞; 黄文; 陶芳标

    2012-01-01

    cereals-based food pattern, with relatively poor rhythmicity; infants in Group C tended to adopt aquatic products and fruit/vegetable-based food pattern, with good rhythmicity and adaptability. Linear regression model showed that infants who consumed more aquatic products, high-protein food, and fruits/vegetables had more positive temperamental traits, whereas infants who consumed more processed foods had more negative temperamental traits. Conclusions A joint rearing pattern may be a favorable rearing style for infants aged 25-30 months in urban areas in terms of diet and temperament traits.

  17. Study on contamination of sheep meat in Shahrekord area with Listeria ivanovii and determination its antibiotic resistance pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Khalili Borujeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii are two pathogenic species of Listeria. The role of Listeria ivanovii is important in abortion, stillbirth, septicemia in animals and this bacterium sometimes is pathogenic in humans. Contamination of ovine carcasses during the slaughter and processing can cause foodborne infections in humans. In this study we examined the contamination of sheep meat in slaughter house of Shahrekord city to Listeria ivanovii and determined its antibiotic resistance pattern.Material and Methods: A total 200 samples of sheep meat were collected from abattoir and processed by use of two enrichment method. After doing specific biochemical tests and PCR, Listeria spp was identified and antibiotic resistance of isolated Listeria were tested by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The contamination of sheep carcasses with listeria was 2.5% (5 out of 200 samples. All five isolates (2.5% were recognized as Listeria ivanovii and were resistant to four antibiotics, sensitive to six antibiotics and intermediate to other antibiotics.  Conclusion: According to the contamination rate in sheep carcasses with Listeria ivanovii and the relatively high antibiotic resistance specified in this bacteria, the role of red meat in transmission of Listeria spp. and appropriate use of antibiotics against this bacteria should be considered.

  18. MATERIAL UTILISATION PATTERNS IN HISTORICAL - SOCIAL CONTEXT REGARDING THE RURAL BUILT ENVIRONMENT OF THE SUBCARPATHIAN AREA, ROMANIA

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    Alin M. OLĂRESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural vernacular architecture represents an important social-cultural and identity indicator mainly because/due to its lack of an architect; its realisation according to the owner’s aesthetic feel/individuality; its reflection of the social status of the inhabitant; its protean nature, being able to adapt rapidly to the social context and mainly to the cultural progress / development but also to the needs of the owner, sometimes, becoming the creative source concerning parallel functional systems. The study embraces the evolution of the rural homestead starting from the 30s in the 19th century (the first modern systematisation of Romanian villages until present times. In this research important elements are considered, which constitute strong social-cultural and identity indicators: housing position in relation to the road; house typologies; main façade position in relation to the road and the cardinal points; the structure of the foundation, walls, ceiling and roof. This approach has facilitated the relievence of a series of material utilisation patterns. These are significantly reflected in the rural vernacular architecture of southern Romania, offering a large variety of information regarding the constructive capacity.

  19. Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central Tien Shan, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Glacioclimatological research in the central Tien Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central Tien Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the Tien Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in Tien Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Crustal thickening and attenuation as revealed by regional fold interference patterns: Ciudad Rodrigo basement area (Salamanca, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gómez Barreiro, Juan; Martínez Catalán, José R.; Ayarza, Puy

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the Ciudad Rodrigo area (Iberian Massif, Central Iberian Zone) has been revisited in order to integrate new geological data with recent models of the evolution of the Iberian Massif. Detailed mapping of fold structures along with a compilation of field data have been used to constrain the geometry and relative timing of ductile deformation events in this section of the hinterland of the Variscan belt. The structural evolution shows, in the first place, the development of a regional train of overturned folds with associated axial planar foliation (D1). Towards the lower structural levels, the deflection of the fold limbs and a subhorizontal crenulation cleavage depict the upper structural boundary of a superimposed low angle shear zone (D2), which extends at least to the deepest parts of the basement exposed in the study area. The amplification and rotation of D1 folds about a horizontal axis also occurred within this shear zone. The flat-lying character of the D2 structures accounts for the attenuation of the previously thickened crust, which developed following gravity gradients during thermal re-equilibration. Subsequent deformation led to the formation of two orthogonal sets of upright folds (D3), representing a new shift between crustal thinning and crustal thickening in the region.

  1. Achieving single-lobed far-field patterns of broad area laser diode with external cavity feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhong Ge(葛剑虹); Jun Chen(陈军); Andreas Hermerschmidt; H.J.Eichler

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for single transverse mode operation of high-power broad area laser diode(BAL). In the experiment, the HR mirror is used as an external cavity mirror and the grating is used as a wavelength selective component. By tiling the HR mirror and the grating, the number of transverse modes oscillating in the cavity can be limited and the spectral bandwidth of the laser diode can be reduced. A single-lobed near diffraction-limited laser beam with the beam divergence (FWHM) of 0.43°, the spectral line-width of 0.7 nm and the output power of 350 mW are obtained. With the feedback, the power density of the output laser beam is increased 6 times in comparison with the free running.

  2. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  3. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  4. Analysis on pattern changes and traits of rural residential areas during 30 years in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区近30a农村居民点格局变化与特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 曹银贵; 王静; 袁春

    2011-01-01

    the purpose of this paper is to analyze on pattern changes and traits of rural residential areas during 30 years in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and provide the basis for rational use of rural residential areas and potential mining. Apply of combining of the methods of qualitative and quantitative analyses, analyze on the changing rules from the whole to the local. The results are that, 1) Rural residential areas are located surrounding the urban areas, and distributed along the river bank, while rural residential areas are small in the middle and downstream area. 2) The increasing of rural residential areas is due to occupying cultivated land, forestry land and grassland, and rural residential areas occupying cultivated land is gradually reducing because of the policy of cultivated land protection. 3) Regional differences are relatively large about rural residential area changes, and the scale is enlarging from scattering to concentrating, the compact degree is relatively low, the potential of intensive use is large. The conclusion is that the research can understand the structure and changing traits of rural residential areas.%为了了解三峡库区农村近30 a农村居民点用地的格局与变化特征,为农村居民点用地的合理利用、潜力挖掘提供基础.在研究中主要采用了定性描述与定量分析相结合的方法,分析了三峡库区从整体到局部的农村居民点用地的变化规律.研究结果表明:三峡库区农村居民点多分布在城市的周边地区,并且沿河岸分布;农村居民点对耕地占用的依赖性逐渐减轻;农村居民点用地变化区域差异比较大,农村居民点的规模在逐渐扩大,由居住分散逐渐向居住集中发展,农村居民点紧凑度相对较低,集约利用的潜力较大.此项研究可以较好地了解三峡库区农村居民点用地结构与变化规律.

  5. Recent Advances in Ideal Protein Pattern for Aquatic Animals%水产动物理想蛋白质模式研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙龙生; 魏凯; 安振华; 王秀英

    2011-01-01

    Ideal protein pattern attributes to a proportional relationship among amino acids or/and peptides orig inating from dietary proteins. Formulated diets based on ideal protein pattern could apparently improve animal growth performance and feed utilization, make proper use of feed resources, decrease protein level in diets and reduce nitrogen release. That would be benefit technically for reducing feeding costs, promoting incomes from aquaculture and effectively controlling total nitrogen pollution to aquatic farming water. The concept, research advances and application, as well as related methods with respect to ideal protein pattern for aquatic animals are reviewed in this paper.%理想蛋白质模式是饲粮中组成蛋白质的氨基酸或肽之间的平衡关系.以理想蛋白质模式配制饲粮可以显著提高动物的生长性能和饲料利用率,充分利用饲料资源,降低饲粮蛋白质水平,减少氮的排放.这对降低养殖成本、提高养殖效益、有效控制养殖水体总氮污染具有现实指导意义.本文综述了水产动物理想蛋白质模式的定义、研究与应用现状及研究方法等方面取得的进展,旨在为水产动物理想蛋白质模式研究提供参考.

  6. Corridor effect of the spatial changes of landscape patterns in arid areas: A case study of the river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huarong; XIAO Duning; ZHOU Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are dominated by the traditional green corridors along the river section from the Qara Reservoir in Yuli County to the Taitema Lake in Ruoqiang County, which plays an important role in the social and economic development in the Tarim River Watershed with a extremely significant ecological functions. The buffer zones perpendicular to the watercourse were defined along both riversides at a 5-km interval beginning from the watercourse (10 km wider) using the method of the buffer zone analysis. The landscape pattern indexes of each buffer zone were calculated, and the indexes of the main landscape patterns were analyzed so as to reveal the radiative effect and the characteristics of the river corridors on landscape and patch levels.The results show that the radiative width is generally 30 km in the study area, and can be up to 50-70 km in sub- region FG1 because the study area is located in two drainage basins, with an ecological interstitial zone between them. The landscapes of woodlands and wetlands are generally distributed within the 10km buffer zone (it means that the buffer zone is 5 km away from the watercourse; the same hereafter)along both riversides. Moreover, the closer the buffer zone is to the watercourse, the higher the patch density and the largest patch index are. In the ecological and environmental regeneration for the study area,the extent of ecological effect of the river corridors 82must be fully considered, and the projects must be scientifically and rationally planned and designed.

  7. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes. PMID:24830253

  8. MORBIDITY PATTERN AMO NG THE ELDERLY POPULATION IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF GUNTUR MEDICAL COLLEGE, GUNTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Phan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: India, the world’s second most populous country, has experienced a dramatic demographic transition in the past 50 years, entailing almost a tripling of the population over the age of 60 years (i.e., the elderly (Gove rnment of India, 2011.Discoveries in medical science and improved social conditions during past few decades have increased the life span of man. The ageing population is both a medical and sociological problem. It creates a greater demand on the health se rvices of a community. In rapidly graying world, healthy aging is vital for countries. The Predicted explosion of non - communicable diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and depression in the ever increasing number of older persons globally, will r esult in enormous human and social costs unless preventive action is taken. 1 Morbidity among elderly people has an important influence on their physical functioning and psychological well - being. This study was undertaken to know the prevalence of various mo rbidities among the elderly patients. OBJECTIVE : To assess the morbidity profile of geriatric population . METHODOLOGY : A cross sectional study was conducted in Mallikarjun pet which is in theurban field practice area of Guntur medical college, Guntur. Mallik arjun pet consists of 1156 families with a population of 4114.The study was conducted to assess the health status of elderly population during October 2012 – November 2012. Study has included all the households and residents of the study area who were abov e 60 years of age.Outof 297elderly persons, 283participated in the study and data were collected using pretested questionnaire followed by physical examination. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 21.0. RESULTS : Out of 283 study participants, 76(26.9% are males and 207(73.1% are females with a mean age of 70 + 6.8 yrs. Majority of them are living with spouse 225(79.5% whereas 53(18.7% are widows, 5(1.8% are widowers. About 133(47% belong to

  9. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  10. Patterns of Social Marginalization and its Spatial Expression in the Urban Area of Râmnicu Vâlcea: Preventing vs. Controlling the Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MĂLĂESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to underline the dynamic patterns of social marginalization, which ultimately leads to social exclusion within the urban area of Râmnicu Vâlcea from the communist period to present. Conclusions were drawn from field observations, semi-structural interviews conducted with the guaranteed minimum income (GMI beneficiaries (according to the Law no. 416/2001, the meta-analysis of the statistical data collected by the Directorate for Labour and Social Protection, content analysis of the local press and cartographic and historical materials. Data confirm the clustering of the GMI beneficiaries, mostly in the peripheral areas (Nuci Colony, Morilor-Izvorului, Alunului-Poienari and Gib Mihăescu colonies, as well as the ethnic fingerprint of the urban poverty along with the absence of the spatial concentration of the ethnic majority, only the areas with a high rate of marginalization (social as well as spatial making an exception. In areas with concentrated social dwellings such as Nuci Colony, the effects of the intensive social contamination and disorganization emphasize that once installed, the social disorganization is much more difficult to eradicate or even to control the sprawl than to prevent the social disorganization, conflicts and increasing crime.

  11. Spatial-temporal Patterns of Land-use Change in Typical Transect Area Along China National Highway 106 During 1996-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; LIU Yansui; GUO Liying; LU Shasha

    2011-01-01

    Based on land-use database updated with the survey of 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008, this paper analyzed the land-use changes in the typical transect area along National Highway 106 with the aid of GIS technology and quantitative models. The results showed that arable land had been continuously decreased from 1996 to 2008, with a loss of 65.85× 10^3 hm2 and an average decrement of 5.49×10^3 hm^2 per year, and the loss in northern areas was larger; garden land and woodland were gradually centralized to the predominance area with an increment of 25.73×10^3 hm2 and 22.37×10^3 hm2, respectively; residential and industrial land increased year after year, and the transportation land showed the equalized developing spatial pattern; the increment of construction land and encroachment on arable land in the area were deeply influenced by the national macroscopic land-use policies, the rapid advance of urbanization and the development level of the regional economy. Through this case study, it is suggested that differential land- use policies should be adopted to create good environmental conditions to guarantee food security and to promote the economic development.

  12. Partial Sequence Analysis of Merozoite Surface Proteine-3α Gene in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Malarious Areas of Iran

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    H Mirhendi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 85-90% of malaria infections in Iran are attributed to Plasmodium vivax, while little is known about the genetic of the parasite and its strain types in this region. This study was designed and performed for describing genetic characteristics of Plasmodium vivax population of Iran based on the merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequence. Methods: Through a descriptive study we analyzed partial P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequences from 17 clinical P. vivax isolates collected from malarious areas of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted by Q1Aamp® DNA blood mini kit, amplified through nested PCR for a partial nucleotide sequence of PvMSP-3 gene in P. vivax. PCR-amplified products were sequenced with an ABI Prism Perkin-Elmer 310 sequencer machine and the data were analyzed with clustal W software. Results: Analysis of PvMSP-3 gene sequences demonstrated extensive polymorphisms, but the sequence identity between isolates of same types was relatively high. We identified specific insertions and deletions for the types A, B and C variants of P. vivax in our isolates. In phylogenetic comparison of geographically separated isolates, there was not a significant geo­graphical branching of the parasite populations. Conclusion: The highly polymorphic nature of isolates suggests that more investigations of the PvMSP-3 gene are needed to explore its vaccine potential.

  13. Pattern of Tobacco and Alcohol Use among Elderly Population in a Rural Area of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Sharvanan E Udayar, Praveen B Ashok, Arun D , Sai Sravan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the leading cause of preventable death. Fewer studies have focused on tobacco and alcohol use among rural elderly. Objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among rural elderly population and its association with various sociodemographic factors. Methods: Cross-sectional community based study was conducted in the rural area of V.Kota mandal of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Studyparticipants were selected using multistage random sampling method. Results: The prevalence of current tobacco users was 40.5%, among them 37.2% men and 1.4% women were current smokers. Among tobacco chewers 37.3% were women and 17.3% were men.Alcohol consumption was seen in 28.7% of the men compared with 0.9% of the women.Tobacco and alcohol use was significantly associated with age, education, economic status, marital status and living arrangements. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among men in this rural elderly population which needs to addressed immediately to prolong health living years."

  14. Changing patterns of malaria during 1996-2010 in an area of moderate transmission in Southern Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaillant Michel T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is reportedly receding in different epidemiological settings, but local long-term surveys are limited. At Mlomp dispensary in south-western Senegal, an area of moderate malaria transmission, year-round, clinically-suspected malaria was treated with monotherapy as per WHO and national policy in the 1990s. Since 2000, there has been a staggered deployment of artesunate-amodiaquine after parasitological confirmation; this was adopted nationally in 2006. Methods Data were extracted from clinic registers for the period between January 1996 and December 2010, analysed and modelled. Results Over the 15-year study period, the risk of malaria decreased about 32-times (from 0.4 to 0.012 episodes person-year, while anti-malarial treatments decreased 13-times (from 0.9 to 0.07 treatments person-year and consultations for fever decreased 3-times (from 1.8 to 0.6 visits person-year. This was paralleled by changes in the age profile of malaria patients so that the risk of malaria is now almost uniformly distributed throughout life, while in the past malaria used to concern more children below 16 years of age. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of malaria risk receding between 1996-2010 and becoming equal throughout life where transmission used to be moderate. Infection rates are no longer enough to sustain immunity. Temporally, this coincides with deploying artemisinin combinations on parasitological confirmation, but other contributing causes are unclear.

  15. Pattern of Survival and Mortality of Mangrove Populations Grown at Al-Jubail Area (Saudi Arabia of the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The life table and fecundity schedule were produced for [Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh] populations of four habitat types at Al-Jubail area, KSA. These types are sand mounds, salt flats, shoreline and intertidal sites. Survivorship (lx was least in sand mounds and similar in all other sites. Age-specific-mortality rates (qx where parallel in the flower bud, flower, fruiting and seedling stages in all sites, while demonstrated site-specific variations in adult stages with highest values in the shoreline and salt flat sites. The killing power (kx values were parallel in all sites except for the sand mounds. The expectations of future life (ex were variable at different age classes and sites with highest values attained in the intertidal and shoreline sites. Plants in the sand mounds and salt flats showed lower expectations for future life than in the other habitats. The reproductive values were close to zero in all age classes of the salt flats site. The net reproduction rate (R0 ranged from 0.023 to 0.4 with negative or close to zero intrinsic rate of increase per capita (r. The generation time (T ranged from 25.6 years in the sand flats to 53.75 years in the sand mounds. This study supported that the conservation of Avicennia marina may allow for continued dynamic adaptation to different habitat types in the Arabian Gulf coast.

  16. Microarray analysis of ncRNA expression patterns in Caenorhabditis elegans after RNAi against snoRNA associated proteins

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    Skogerbø Geir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs perform their cellular functions in ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes, which are also essential for maintaining the stability of the ncRNAs. Depletion of individual protein components of non-coding ribonucleoprotein (ncRNP particles by RNA interference (RNAi may therefore affect expression levels of the corresponding ncRNA, and depletion of candidate associated proteins may constitute an alternative strategy when investigating ncRNA-protein interactions and ncRNA functions. Therefore, we carried out a pilot study in which the effects of RNAi against protein components of small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs in Caenorhabditis elegans were observed on an ncRNA microarray. Results RNAi against individual C. elegans protein components of snoRNPs produced strongly reduced mRNA levels and distinct phenotypes for all targeted proteins. For each type of snoRNP, individual depletion of at least three of the four protein components produced significant (P ≦ 1.2 × 10-5 reductions in the expression levels of the corresponding small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, whereas the expression levels of other ncRNAs were largely unaffected. The effects of depletion of individual proteins were in accordance with snoRNP structure analyses obtained in other species for all but two of the eight targeted proteins. Variations in snoRNA size, sequence and secondary structure characteristics were not systematically reflected in the affinity for individual protein component of snoRNPs. The data supported the classification of nearly all annotated snoRNAs and suggested the presence of several novel snoRNAs among unclassified short ncRNA transcripts. A number of transcripts containing canonical Sm binding element sequences (Sm Y RNAs also showed reduced expression after depletion of protein components of C/D box snoRNPs, whereas the expression of some stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs was increased after depletion of the same proteins. Conclusion

  17. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  18. Assessment of the immigration effect and choice of development pattern for scenic areas:a case study of Wuyi Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Peixian; Dong Suocheng; Zhang Yuanyuan; Xu Lin; Yan Shenghu

    2008-01-01

    Mountainous regions face a series of conflicts between the natural resources conservation and the economic development,especially in protected areas,where are the home to some of the poorest people in the world.In China,the Protected Areas Authorities(such as Protected Areas Authorities of Wuyi Mountain) transferred the mountainous people out of the protected areas.We found that it is not a good approach of immigration project,as far as economic and ecological effect is concerned.Although remote and mahestic beauty attracted many tourists,mass tourism is not a good approach to solve the development prohlem in mountainous areas because it can not provide enough opportunities to make local people live a comfortable life,and the high volume of tourists indicates that the resources face significant threats.Because many,landscapes are run by private enterprises,local residents and government only get limited benefus.Although ecotourism principles expatiate on economic development and resources conservation,local people income and tourists feelings,it has discordance between the theory and the practice Therefore,the term of"integrated ecotourism"was coined in the paper based on the ecotourism theory.Integrated ecotourism means a broadly tourism resources and pendulum spatial pattern which will come into being with the movement of local people and tourists from protected areas to the nearby town or city,and it also tries to soh,e the property right conflict of mountain land between the local people and the private enterprises according to property right theory.

  19. Application of cluster analysis to surface ozone, NO₂ and SO₂ daily patterns in an industrial area in Central-Southern Spain measured with a DOAS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, J A; Notario, A; Villanueva, F; Albaladejo, J

    2012-07-01

    The daily variations of surface ozone, NO₂ and SO₂ have been investigated in a heavily industrialised area in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula (Puertollano) using hourly values recorded during two years (2008-2009) with an active LP-DOAS system. The meteorological conditions and air masses have been studied using the HYSPLIT model. The maximum hourly levels of these air pollutants exceeded 100 ppb for ozone, 150 ppb for SO₂ and 210 ppb for NO₂. However, mean values for ozone, NO₂ and SO₂ were of 49, 10 and 3 ppb respectively. Daily-monthly evolutions (defined as daily evolutions for different months) have been analysed in order to know the general daily behaviour of these species. Air pollution problems have been identified using the thresholds defined in the European Directive 2008. The limits to protect human health (human health protection limitations) have been exceeded during the study period. In order to find a set of representative daily cycles for each pollutant at different air quality regimes, a K-mean cluster technique has been applied. Five and four optimal cluster numbers have been obtained for the daily patterns of ozone and SO₂ respectively. In addition, we studied the daily variation of the temperature, relative and specific humidity and wind speed associated with each air pollutant daily pattern. Ozone daily patterns showed typical daily variations with one exception of a cluster which presents a peak in the early morning. For SO₂, the first two clusters present a low mixing ratio, however cluster 3 and 4 are less frequent but with higher levels. The more frequent air pollutant daily patterns do not exceed the threshold defined in the Directive. Nevertheless, clusters with lower frequency (representing between 5 and 7% of days) exceed the thresholds and could be considered as air pollution events. PMID:22591990

  20. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  1. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1.

  2. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1.

  3. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel [Departamento Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Sistemas Telemáticos y Computación, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Telecomunicación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada, Madrid 28943 (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1.

  4. Vegetation biomass, leaf area index, and NDVI patterns and relationships along two latitudinal transects in arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kelley, A. M.; Jia, G.; Ping, C.; Michaelson, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Khomutov, A.; Kuss, P.; Moskalenko, N.; Orekhov, P.; Matyshak, G.; Forbes, B. C.; Yu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of vegetation properties along climatic gradients provide first order approximations as to how vegetation might respond to a temporally dynamic climate. Until recently, no systematic study of tundra vegetation had been conducted along bioclimatic transects that represent the full latitudinal extent of the arctic tundra biome. Since 1999, we have been collecting data on arctic tundra vegetation and soil properties along two such transects, the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT). The NAAT spans the arctic tundra from the Low Arctic of the North Slope of Alaska to the polar desert of Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Archipelago. The Yamal Arctic Transect located in northwest Siberia, Russia, presently ranges from the forest-tundra transition at Nadym to the High Arctic tundra on Belyy Ostrov off the north coast of the Yamal Peninsula. The summer warmth indices (SWI - sum of mean monthly temperatures greater than 0°C) range from approximately 40 °C months to 3 °C months from south to north. For largely zonal sites along these transects, we systematically collected leaf area index (LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI - PSII hand-held spectro-radiometer), and vegetation biomass (clip harvests). Site-averaged LAI ranges from 1.08 to 0 along the transects, yet can be highly variable at the landscape scale. Site-averaged NDVI ranges from 0.67 to 0.26 along the transects, and is less variable than LAI at the landscape scale. Total aboveground live biomass ranges from approximately 700 g m-2 to < 50 g m-2 along the NAAT, and from approximately 1100 g m-2 to < 400 g m-2 along the YAT (not including tree biomass at Nadym). LAI and NDVI are highly correlated logarithmically (r = 0.80) for the entire dataset. LAI is significantly related to total aboveground (live plus dead) vascular plant biomass, although there is some variability in the data (r = 0.63). NDVI is

  5. The Effect of Water, Sugars, and Proteins on the Pattern of Ice Nucleation and Propagation in Acclimated and Nonacclimated Canola Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusta, L.V.; Wisniewski, M.; Nesbitt, N.T.; Gusta, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared video thermography was used to observe ice nucleation temperatures, patterns of ice formation, and freezing rates in nonacclimated and cold acclimated leaves of a spring (cv Quest) and a winter (cv Express) canola (Brassica napus). Distinctly different freezing patterns were observed, and the effect of water content, sugars, and soluble proteins on the freezing process was characterized. When freezing was initiated at a warm subzero temperature, ice growth rapidly spread throughout nonacclimated leaves. In contrast, acclimated leaves initiated freezing in a horseshoe pattern beginning at the uppermost edge followed by a slow progression of ice formation across the leaf. However, when acclimated leaves, either previously killed by a slow freeze (2°C h−1) or by direct submersion in liquid nitrogen, were refrozen their freezing pattern was similar to nonacclimated leaves. A novel technique was developed using filter paper strips to determine the effects of both sugars and proteins on the rate of freezing of cell extracts. Cell sap from nonacclimated leaves froze 3-fold faster than extracts from acclimated leaves. The rate of freezing in leaves was strongly dependent upon the osmotic potential of the leaves. Simple sugars had a much greater effect on freezing rate than proteins. Nonacclimated leaves containing high water content did not supercool as much as acclimated leaves. Additionally, wetted leaves did not supercool as much as nonwetted leaves. As expected, cell solutes depressed the nucleation temperature of leaves. The use of infrared thermography has revealed that the freezing process in plants is a complex process, reminding us that many aspects of freezing tolerance occur at a whole plant level involving aspects of plant structure and metabolites rather than just the expression of specific genes alone. PMID:15247390

  6. Changes in the distribution pattern of Claudin tight junction proteins during the progression of mouse skin tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that morphological and physiological observations suggest that the tight junction (TJ)-based permeability barrier is modified/disrupted in tumorigenesis, the role of members of the Claudin (Cldn) family of TJ proteins is not well-understood. Using a well-established two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model, we investigated the temporal and spatial changes in expression of those Cldns that we have previously demonstrated to be important in epidermal differentiation and the formation of the epidermal permeability barrier, i.e., Cldn1, Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12 and Cldn18. The lower dorsal backskin of mice was treated topically with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA; 0.25 mg/ml in acetone) and following a 10-day incubation period, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 25 μg/ml in acetone) was applied three times a week to the same area. Backskin samples were dissected 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after the initiation of the experimental protocol and immunohistochemistry was performed on sections using antibodies against the following: Cldn1, Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, Cldn18, Ki67 and CD3. Our data indicate that along with the changes in epidermal cell morphology and differentiation that occur during tumor formation, there is a dramatic change in Cldn distribution consistent with cell polarity and barrier selectivity changes. Specifically, in the early stages of DMBA/TPA treatment, the suprabasal-specific Cldns occupy an expanded zone of expression corresponding to an increased number of suprabasal epidermal cell layers. As tumorigenesis progressed, the number of suprabasal epidermal layers positive for Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12 and Cldn18 was reduced, especially in the lower strata of the expanded suprabasal zone. In addition, a variably reduced cell membrane association of those differentiation-specific Cldns was observed, especially within the infiltrating epidermal structures. In contrast, Cldn1 (which is normally expressed in all the living layers of the

  7. Studies on physically and chemically induced soybean mutations of high protein and oil content and their genetic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, two different varieties were treated with five doses of fast neutrons and two concentrations of ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) in order to study the effects of different mutagens on the production of mutations with high protein and oil content. The experiment seems to show that EMS had a better effect in inducing such mutations. It showed not only a large variation in extent, but also a higher frequency of mutations. Fast neutrons could also induce mutations with high protein and oil content, but the rate was lower than for EMS. For high protein and oil content mutations induced by fast neutrons, the correlation between the M2 and M3 generations was unstable; it is difficult to forecast the protein and oil content of subsequent generations from seeds of the M2 generation. The high protein and oil content mutations induced by EMS showed a high hereditary value in the M2 and M3 lines. The values of such parameters as hereditary variation, the hereditary variance coefficient, the hereditary capacity and the genetic advance of high protein content mutations were higher than those for high oil content mutations. Thus, it seems easier to induce mutations with high protein rather than high oil content. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Incidence and pattern of injuries among residents of a rural area in South-Western Nigeria: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoaje Eme T

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high incidence of infectious diseases in developing countries, injuries still contribute significantly to the health burden. There are few reports of rural, community-based injury surveys in Nigeria. This study describes the incidence and pattern of injuries among the residents of a rural area in South-Western Nigeria. Methods It was a community based cross-sectional study. Two of six census areas were randomly selected and all households in the two areas visited. Information on the sociodemographic characteristics, individual injury events and outcomes was obtained with a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. Results Information was obtained on the 1,766 persons in 395 households. Fifty-nine injuries were recorded by 54 people, giving an injury incidence of 100 per 1,000 per year (95% CI = 91.4–106.9. Injury incidence among Conclusion Injuries were common in Igbo-Ora, though resultant disability and fatality were low. Males and those aged ≥ 30 years had significantly higher proportions of the injured. Falls and traffic injuries were the most commonly reported injuries. Appropriate interventions to reduce the occurrences of injuries should be instituted by the local authorities. There is also need to educate the community members on how to prevent injuries.

  9. Basic nuclear protein pattern and chromatin condensation in the male germ cells of a tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphamungmee, Worawit; Apisawetakan, Somjai; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Poomtong, Tanes; Sobhon, Prasert

    2005-02-01

    The basic nuclear proteins (BNPs) in spermatozoa of a tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, were composed of a majority of protamine-like (PL) protein and a small amount of histones H1 and H4. Abalone H1 and PL proteins exhibited strong immunological cross reactivities among themselves as well as with chick H5 and calf thymus H1. Thus, all these proteins may belong to the same family. Immunolocalization by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that H1 and H4 were present in all steps of the male germ cells, however, with decreasing amount in late stage cells, particularly spermatids and spermatozoa. On the other hand, PL was present in middle step cells (secondary spermatocytes) with increasing amount in spermatids and spermatozoa when the chromatin became tightly packed. Thus, PL may be involved in the condensation of chromatin in the spermatozoa of this species.

  10. Distinct patterns of spread of prion infection in brains of mice expressing anchorless or anchored forms of prion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Alejandra; Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Kurtz, Nancy; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background In humans and animals, prion protein (PrP) is usually expressed as a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, but anchorless PrP may be pathogenic in humans with certain familial prion diseases. Anchored PrP expressed on neurons mediates spread of prions along axons in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the mechanism of prion spread in individuals expressing anchorless PrP is poorly understood. Here we studied prion spread within brain of mice ex...

  11. The effect of albumin fusion patterns on the production and bioactivity of the somatostatin-14 fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuedi; Fan, Jun; Li, Wenxin; Yang, Runlin; Peng, Ying; Deng, Lili; Wu, Yu; Fu, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Somatostatin is a natural inhibitor of growth hormone, and its analogues are clinically used for the therapy of acromegaly, gigantism, thyrotropinoma, and other carcinoid syndrome. However, natural somatostatin is limited for clinical usage because of its short half-life in vivo. Albumin fusion technology was used to construct long-acting fusion proteins, and Pichia pastoris was used as an expression system. Three fusion proteins, (somatostatin (SS)14)2-human serum albumin (HSA), (SS14)3-HSA, and HSA-(SS14)3, were constructed with different fusion copies of somatostatin-14 and fusion orientations. The expression level of (SS14)3-HSA and HSA-(SS14)3 was much lower than (SS14)2-HSA due to the additional fusion of the somatostatin-14 molecule. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that severe degradation occurred in the fermentation process. Similar to the standard of somatostatin-14, all three fusion proteins were able to inhibit growth hormone secretion in the blood, with (SS14)2-HSA being the most effective one. On the whole, (SS14)2-HSA was the most effective protein in both production level and bioactivity, and increasing the number of small protein copies fused to HSA may not be a suitable method to improve the protein bioactivity. PMID:23712794

  12. Discovery of EST-SSRs in lung cancer: tagged ESTs with SSRs lead to differential amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats are found in both coding and non-coding sequences of higher organisms. These sequences can be used in cancer genetics and diagnosis to unravel the genetic basis of tumor formation and progression. In this study, a possible relationship between SSR distributions and lung cancer was studied by comparative analysis of EST-SSRs in normal and lung cancerous tissues. While the EST-SSR distribution was similar between tumorous tissues, this distribution was different between normal and tumorous tissues. Trinucleotides tandem repeats were highly different; the number of trinucleotides in ESTs of lung cancer was 3 times higher than normal tissue. Significant negative correlation between normal and cancerous tissue showed that cancerous tissue generates different types of trinucleotides. GGC and CGC were the more frequent expressed trinucleotides in cancerous tissue, but these SSRs were not expressed in normal tissue. Similar to the EST level, the expression pattern of EST-SSRs-derived amino acids was significantly different between normal and cancerous tissues. Arg, Pro, Ser, Gly, and Lys were the most abundant amino acids in cancerous tissues, and Leu, Cys, Phe, and His were significantly more abundant in normal tissues than in cancerous tissues. Next, the putative functions of triplet SSR-containing genes were analyzed. In cancerous tissue, EST-SSRs produce different types of proteins. Chromodomain helicase DNA binding proteins were one of the major protein products of EST-SSRs in the cancerous library, while these proteins were not produced from EST-SSRs in normal tissue. For the first time, the findings of this study confirmed that EST-SSRs in normal lung tissues are different than in unhealthy tissues, and tagged ESTs with SSRs cause remarkable differences in amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissue. We suggest that EST-SSRs and EST-SSRs differentially expressed in cancerous tissue may be suitable candidate

  13. Spatial patterning in PM2.5 constituents under an inversion-focused sampling design across an urban area of complex terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunno, Brett J; Dalton, Rebecca; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Tripathy, Sheila; Cambal, Leah; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    Health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary by chemical composition, and composition can help to identify key PM2.5 sources across urban areas. Further, this intra-urban spatial variation in concentrations and composition may vary with meteorological conditions (e.g., mixing height). Accordingly, we hypothesized that spatial sampling during atmospheric inversions would help to better identify localized source effects, and reveal more distinct spatial patterns in key constituents. We designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture fine-scale intra-urban variability in PM2.5 composition across Pittsburgh, PA, and compared both spatial patterns and source effects during "frequent inversion" hours vs 24-h weeklong averages. Using spatially distributed programmable monitors, and a geographic information systems (GIS)-based design, we collected PM2.5 samples across 37 sampling locations per year to capture variation in local pollution sources (e.g., proximity to industry, traffic density) and terrain (e.g., elevation). We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine elemental composition, and unconstrained factor analysis to identify source suites by sampling scheme and season. We examined spatial patterning in source factors using land use regression (LUR), wherein GIS-based source indicators served to corroborate factor interpretations. Under both summer sampling regimes, and for winter inversion-focused sampling, we identified six source factors, characterized by tracers associated with brake and tire wear, steel-making, soil and road dust, coal, diesel exhaust, and vehicular emissions. For winter 24-h samples, four factors suggested traffic/fuel oil, traffic emissions, coal/industry, and steel-making sources. In LURs, as hypothesized, GIS-based source terms better explained spatial variability in inversion-focused samples, including a greater contribution from roadway, steel, and coal-related sources. Factor analysis produced

  14. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border.

  15. White Residential Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Conceptual Issues, Patterns, and Trends from the US Census, 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-10-01

    Racial and ethnic diversity continues to spread to communities across the United States. Rather than focus on the residential patterns of specific minority or immigrant groups, this study examines changing patterns of white residential segregation in metropolitan America. Using data from the 1980 to 2010 decennial censuses, we calculate levels of white segregation using two common measures, analyze the effect of defining the white population in different ways, and, drawing upon the group threat theoretical perspective, we examine the metropolitan correlates of white segregation. We find that white segregation from others declined significantly from 1980 to 2010, regardless of the measure of segregation or the white population used. However, we find some evidence consistent with the group threat perspective, as white dissimilarity is higher in metro areas that are more diverse, and especially those with larger black populations. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that whites having been living in increasingly integrated neighborhoods over the last few decades, suggesting some easing of the historical color line. PMID:24187411

  16. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  17. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  18. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paulo Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection.

  19. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno de Paulo; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; de Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros; Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Grisotto, Marcos Augusto Grigolin; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection.

  20. C-fos protein expression in the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens in the hypoxic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Siniša S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. By examining the production of c-Fos protein, we analyzed the response to the ischemic attack in different brain tissue, two of which are regions of the limbic system: the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens. Material and Methods. We used the model of rat brain ischemia - four-vessel occlusion, and Pulsinelli’s method. The rats were treated in two ways, according to which they were divided into two groups: a total ischemia (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery with bilateral ligation of the carotid artery - the so-called R-group rats, and transient ischemic attack (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery, with mutual re-ligation of the carotid arteries in the form of transient ischemia - the so-called T-group rats, which can also be called “pre-conditioned group”. Both groups had their own control group. Conclusion. We have concluded that parts of the brain with an important role for the survival have a strong expression of c-fos gene.

  1. Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Study of RNA-protein Folding Patterns in Human hnRNP A3 and Their Implications in Human Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.SüLEYMANO(G)LU

    2004-01-01

    In human cells, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) are represented by a group of polypeptides, with various molecular properties, comprizing the most abundant constituents of the cell nucleus. Autoantibodies to hnRNPs have been reported in patients suffering from different rheumatic dieseases since 1980s. Experimental evidence indicates that hnRNP complexes undergo substantial structural changes during mRNA formation and export. However, how this contributes to disease development still has to be elucidated. Here some preliminary physicochemical features of RNA-protein folding and stability patterns of newly characterized hnRNP A3 with further functional implications in development of systemic human autoimmune states are reported.

  2. Spatial Turing-type Pattern Formation in a Model of Signal Transduction Involving Membrane-based Receptors Coupled by G Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannapong Triampo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of signaling pathways involving G proteins is investigated. The model incorporates reaction-diffusion mechanisms in which various reactants participate inside and on the extra-cellular surface membrane. The messenger molecules may diffuse over the surface of the cell membrane and signal transduction across the cell membrane is mediated by membrane receptor bound proteins which connect the genetically controlled biochemical intra-cellular reactions to the production of the second messenger, leading to desired functional responses. Dynamic and steady-state properties of the model are then investigated through weakly nonlinear stability analysis. Turing-type patterns are shown to form robustly under different delineating conditions on the system parameters. The theoretical predictions are then discussed in the context of some recently reported experimental evidence.

  3. Evolvement of the Street Pattern of Xi' an Ancient Urban Area%西安古城区街道形态演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高茜

    2012-01-01

    Xi'an ancient streets and historic building have suffered severe damage. From the perspective of historical development and on the basis of the four Main streets, the paper analyzes the functions, nature and the patterns of the ancient streets in the ancient urban area. The study of the morphological evolution of the ancient city helps the gorenment understand the urban context, protect the structure of the ancient city area and make a plan for the network of main roads, providing guidance for the urban construction in the future.%针对西安古城区街道、历史建筑遭受严重破坏的现象.本文从历史发展的角度,以西安古城区四条大街交通主轴为基础,分析了古城区主要街道的功能、性质以及街道的形态演变.古城区形态演变的研究有助于西安市政府对城市文脉的理解,古城区完整格局的保护和城市主干道网络的规划,为今后城市建设提供发展空间.

  4. Distinct in vitro interaction pattern of dopamine receptor subtypes with adaptor proteins involved in post-endocytotic receptor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Søndergaard, Birgitte P; Hadrup, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying targeted sorting of endocytosed receptors for recycling to the plasma membrane or degradation in lysosomes are poorly understood. In this report, the C-terminal tails of the five dopamine receptors (D1-D5) were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins...

  5. Plasma protein adsorption pattern and tissue-implant reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling Chong; Chen, Xi Guang; Xu, Quan Chen; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Yu, Le Jun; Zhou, Ying Min

    2008-01-01

    Various poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (PVA/CMCS) blend films were prepared by a mechanical blending method and characterized by SEM for their surface and cross-section morphologies. It indicated that blending high CMCS content in PVA plastic led to a rough surface and loose structure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine fibrinogen (BFG) were chosen as representative plasma proteins to carry out adsorption tests. Equilibrium adsorption amount of proteins onto the blends decreased with the increase of CMCS content in film matrix, and BSA was more easily adsorbed onto the films than BFG in the same conditions. The blend films also exhibited different trends for BSA and BFG adsorption when pH of the media changed, but maximum adsorption approximately occurred at the isoelectric point of proteins. Moreover, increasing the ionic strength would always decrease the adsorptions of protein onto the films. In animal experiments, it was found that incorporation of CMCS and PVA gave a lower tissue reaction than pure PVA films when they were subcutaneously implanted in Wistar rats. After two weeks subcutaneous implantation, surfaces of PVA became wrinkled and cracked; however, the blend implants exhibited a alveolate porous microstructure.

  6. Effect of diet composition on the protein synthetic pattern of the rat pancreas after a feeding period of five days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, S.R.; Poort, C.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were fed for five days on a protein-rich and on a carbohydrate-rich diet, respectively. One half of the pancreas of these rats was incubated with [3H]-leucine and the other half with [14C]leucine and extracts from these pancreas halves were prepared. Mixtures of the differently labeled extracts

  7. Analysis of the expression pattern of the carrier protein transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Transthyretin is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid protein synthesized early in development by the liver, choroid plexus and several other tissues. It is a carrier protein for the antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and thyroid hormones. Transthyretin helps internalize thyroxine and retinol-binding protein into cells by binding to megalin, which is a multi-ligand receptor expressed on the luminal surface of various epithelia. We investigated the expression of transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human skin; however, their expression pattern in the hair follicle is still to be elucidated. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of transthyretin and megalin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes." A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 53-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10, and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively). Transthyretin and megalin were prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The concentrations of transthyretin and megalin were 0.12 and 0.03 Ul/ml, respectively, as indicated by PCR. The expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e., strong expression during early and mature anagen, very weak expression during catagen and moderate expression during telogen. The expression values of these proteins in the anagen were statistically significantly higher than those of either catagen or telogen hair follicles (P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that transthyretin and megalin are variably expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles. It also reports variations in the expression of these proteins during hair follicle cycling. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  8. Novel circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in marine invertebrates reveal high sequence diversity and consistent predicted intrinsic disorder patterns within putative structural proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna eRosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs, which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses.

  9. Prediction of O-glycosylation of mammalian proteins: specificity patterns of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O; Engelbrecht, J; Bohr, H;

    1995-01-01

    also found to have an increased preference for three different classes of beta-turns. No simple consensus-like rule could be deduced for the complex glycosylation sequence acceptor patterns. The neural networks were trained on the hitherto largest data material consisting of 48 carefully examined...... mammalian glycoproteins comprising 264 O-glycosylation sites. For detection neural network algorithms were much more reliable than weight matrices. The networks correctly found 60-95% of the O-glycosylated serine/threonine residues and 88-97% of the non-glycosylated residues in two independent test sets......The specificity of the enzyme(s) catalysing the covalent link between the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine and the sugar moiety N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is unknown. Pattern recognition by artificial neural networks and weight matrix algorithms was performed to determine the exact...

  10. Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities and Protein Pattern of Avocado Fruit Ripened in Air and in Low Oxygen, with and without Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, A K; Solomos, T; Mattoo, A K

    1989-05-01

    The effect of 2.5% O(2) atmosphere with and without ethylene on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell walls, and total protein profile during ripening of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill., cv Hass) were investigated. The low 2.5% O(2) atmosphere prevented the rise in the activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, and acid phosphatase in avocado fruits whose ripening was initiated with ethylene. Addition of 100 microliters per liter ethylene to low O(2) atmosphere did not alter these suppressive effects of 2.5% O(2). Furthermore, 2.5% O(2) atmosphere delayed the development of a number of polypeptides that appear during ripening of avocado fruits while at the same time new polypeptides accumulated. The composition of the extraction buffer and its pH greatly affected the recovery of cellulase activity and its total immunoreactive protein.

  11. Glycotope sharing between snail hemolymph and larval schistosomes: larval transformation products alter shared glycan patterns of plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Timothy P; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hongdi; Gonzalez, Laura A; Deelder, André M; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the involvement of inducible, highly diverse lectin-like recognition molecules in snail hemocyte-mediated responses to larval Schistosoma mansoni. Because host lectins likely are involved in initial parasite recognition, we sought to identify specific carbohydrate structures (glycans) shared between larval S. mansoni and its host Biomphalaria glabrata to address possible mechanisms of immune avoidance through mimicry of elements associated with the host immunoreactivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) to specific S. mansoni glycans was used to identify the distribution and abundance of shared glycan epitopes (glycotopes) on plasma glycoproteins from B. glabrata strains that differ in their susceptibilities to infection by S. mansoni. In addition, a major aim of this study was to determine if larval transformation products (LTPs) could bind to plasma proteins, and thereby alter the glycotopes exposed on plasma proteins in a snail strain-specific fashion. Plasma fractions ( 100 kDa) from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) snail strains were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses using mAB to LacdiNAc (LDN), fucosylated LDN variants, Lewis X and trimannosyl core glycans. Results confirmed a high degree of glycan sharing, with NMRI plasma exhibiting a greater distribution/abundance of LDN, F-LDN and F-LDN-F than BS-90 plasma (LTPs significantly altered the reactivity of specific mABs to shared glycotopes on blots, mainly through the binding of LTPs to plasma proteins resulting in either glycotope blocking or increased glycotope attachment to plasma. Many LTP-mediated changes in shared glycans were snail-strain specific, especially those in the 100 kDa fraction. Our data suggest that differential binding of S. mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains may significantly impact early anti-larval immune reactivity, and in turn, compatibility, in this parasite-host system. PMID:22448293

  12. Sequence-stratigraphic frameworks and their palaeogeographic patterns for the Permian Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Permian Lopingian in the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas is marked by the coal measures of the Wuchiapingian and the carbonate strata of the Changhsingian stages. For the Lopingian of the Dianqiangui Basin and its adjacent areas,the diversity of sedimentary facies and the obviousness of facies change provide an advantaged condition on a study of sequence stratigraphy. Approximately,the Wuchiapingian stage constitutes a third-order sequence and the Changhsingian stage forms an-other. For the Wuchiapingian stage in the study area,coal-measures were developed on the attached platform and,in addition,a special coal-measure that is composed of both limestone beds and coal beds was also developed in the central part of some isolated platforms. Grain-bank grainstones and packstones were formed on the margin of the attached platform as well as in the windward part of iso-lated platforms. For the Changhsingian stage in the study area,open-platform limestones were formed on the attached platform,while sponge-reef limestones were developed both on the margin of the at-tached platform and on the isolated platforms. The Lopingian Series is a set of basin-facies muddy shales with interbeds of silicalites in the inter-platform basin,which appears a set of the large-thick coarse clastic strata of molasses covering direct the deep-water strata from the Devonian to the Per-mian Yangsingian in the Qinzhou-Fangcheng region in the southern part of the study area. All of these features indicate the complexity of temporal-spatial facies-changes. Sequence-stratigraphic frame-works could be established,which would illustrate two types of facies-changing surfaces and dia-chronisms in the stratigraphic records,based on the combination of both biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic materials and the regularity reflected by temporal evolutionary succession of sediments as well as spatial distributional patterns of sedimentary facies. Ultimately,features of sedi

  13. 刘家峡库区景观空间格局分析%Analysis on the spatial pattern of landscape in Liujiaxia Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景凌云; 何有华; 张新民; 吴玉峰; 孙浩峰; 张晓虹; 陆惠萍; 金毅

    2013-01-01

    为了给研究区域农业生产的合理布局及生态恢复方案提供依据,以刘家峡库区北部东乡县典型小流域碾子沟和库区南部积石山县典型小流域三坪沟为研究对象,采用野外调查和遥感解译的方法,利用ArcGIS、ArcView等软件对航摄地形图进行目视解译,分析土地利用结构、人工干扰方式和强度等对景观空间格局的影响特征.结果表明:1)库区南北景观基质均为未利用土地(主要指荒沟荒坡),土地利用难度大;2)库区北部景观斑块特征较南部复杂,南部较北部更适合农业生产;3)库区南部景观多样性较北部高,景观类型丰富,而库区北部由于降水少,景观总体受人类活动干扰小,连通性高;4)在土地利用结构和农村产业结构调整方面,库区南部应以加强复合生态农林业生产为主,北部应加强陡坡退耕种草、农牧业协同发展,并实行封育保护,促进生态环境恢复.%In order to provide the basis for the layout of agricultural production and ecological recovery plan,Nianzigou typical small watershed in Dongxiang County in the north of Liujiaxia Reservoir and Sanpinggou typical small watershed in Jishishan County in south of Liujiaxia Reservioir were researched in this paper.Combined with field investigation,aerial photo were interpreted by ArcGIS and ArcView,impact of land use pattern,the way and intensity of artificial interference on landscape spatial pattern were analysed.The results showed that:1)The landscape matrix in north and south of Liujiaxia Reservoir were waste hillside and gully.It is difficult to make use of this land.2) Characteristics of landscape patch in north of reservoir area was more complex than the south,so ecological condition in south of the reservoir area was suitable for agricultural production.3) Landscape diversity in south of the reservoir area was higher and landscape types was richer than the north,however,landscape in north of the reservoir area was

  14. Molecular anatomy of ascending aorta in atherosclerosis by MS Imaging: Specific lipid and protein patterns reflect pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Balluff, Benjamin; Maroto, Aroa S; Carreira, Ricardo J; van Zeijl, Rene J M; Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F; Padial, Luis R; McDonnell, Liam A; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued here to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a novel unexplored ex vivo imaging approach in CVD able to provide in-tissue molecular maps. A rabbit model of early atherosclerosis was developed and high-spatial-resolution MALDI-MSI was applied to comparatively analyze histologically-based arterial regions of interest from control and early atherosclerotic aortas. Specific protocols were applied to identify lipids and proteins significantly altered in response to atherosclerosis. Observed protein alterations were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in rabbit tissue, and additionally in human aortas. Molecular features specifically defining different arterial regions were identified. Localized in the intima, increased expression of SFA and lysolipids and intimal spatial organization showing accumulation of PI, PG and SM point to endothelial dysfunction and triggered inflammatory response. TG, PA, SM and PE-Cer were identified specifically located in calcified regions. Thymosin β4 (TMSB4X) protein was upregulated in intima versus media layer and also in response to atherosclerosis. This overexpression and localization was confirmed in human aortas. In conclusion, molecular histology by MS Imaging identifies spatial organization of arterial tissue in response to atherosclerosis. PMID:26079611

  15. Bringing the magic of light to remote areas where resources are scarce: beautiful demonstrations of interference patterns using laser pens and fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignard, D.

    2016-09-01

    The training of physics teachers in remote areas in the developing world requires dedicated trainers (who typically are volunteers), as well as robust logistics. The latter must include the supply of equipment for experiments in the classroom. This task is greatly aided by the use of cheap, safe and readily available consumer goods that do not require local power supplies. In this paper, a simple experiment using a laser pointer pen and samples of hair as well as wire and transparent thin fibre is presented, reproducing a variant of Thomas Youngs’ famed double slit experiment. The spread of the interference pattern as it projects itself on a screen is sufficiently large to catch the interest of students, and its orientation being perpendicular to that of the hair is also strikingly counter-intuitive. The students are then encouraged to apply the simplified Fraunhofer equation to the various samples to find out the width of their hair. Ideally, these samples would also include calibrating materials like fibres and wires of known diameters, the use of which should give confidence in the model by confirming that it can predict the sample diameter. A fruitful discussion supported by diagrams can also be conducted on the differences that could be expected between a straight edge and a rounded edge, the latter throwing an unexpected challenge to the initial model. However, the use of a transparent fibre also clearly illustrate the limitations of this model, a perception that is amplified by the particularly wide and bright interference pattern that it produces. This mismatch between the model and the real system should prompt the students to further refine their description of the physical system and the resulting model. Throughout the session, their reasoning may be helped by encouraging them to produce diagrams showing the path of optical rays.

  16. Prediction of O-glycosylation of mammalian proteins: specificity patterns of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Lund, O; Engelbrecht, J;

    1995-01-01

    The specificity of the enzyme(s) catalysing the covalent link between the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine and the sugar moiety N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is unknown. Pattern recognition by artificial neural networks and weight matrix algorithms was performed to determine the exact...... position of in vivo O-linked GalNAc-glycosylated serine and threonine residues from the primary sequence exclusively. The acceptor sequence context for O-glycosylation of serine was found to differ from that of threonine and the two types were therefore treated separately. The context of the sites showed...

  17. Periodontal inflamed surface area and C-reactive protein as predictors of HbA1c : a study in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, Hendri; Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Hoedemaker, Evelien; van Reenen, Yvonne Huijser; Agustina, Dewi; Vissink, Arjan; Abbas, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis may exert an infectious and inflammatory burden, evidenced by increased C-reactive protein (CRP). This burden may impair blood glucose control (HbA1c). The aim of our study was to analyze whether periodontitis severity as measured with the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) and C

  18. Mitochondrial protein-derived cryptides: Are endogenous N-formylated peptides including mitocryptide-2 components of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Takayuki; Hattori, Tatsuya; Tsutsumi, Koki; Koike, Yusuke; Harada, Akihiko; Noguchi, Kosuke; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Mukai, Hidehito

    2016-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to "nonclassical" bioactive peptides, which are fragmented peptides simultaneously produced during maturation and degradation of various functional proteins. We identified many fragmented peptides derived from various mitochondrial proteins including mitocryptide-1 and mitocryptide-2 that efficiently activate neutrophils. These endogenous, functionally active, fragmented peptides are referred to as "cryptides." Among them, mitocryptide-2 is an N-formylated cryptide cleaved from mitochondrial cytochrome b that is encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is known that 13 proteins encoded in mtDNA are translated in mitochondria as N-formylated forms, suggesting the existence of endogenous N-formylated peptides other than mitocryptide-2. Here, we investigated the effects of N-formylated peptides presumably cleaved from mtDNA-encoded proteins other than cytochrome b on the functions of neutrophilic cells to elucidate possible regulation by endogenous N-formylated cryptides. Four N-formylated cryptides derived from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4, 5, and 6 among 12 peptides from mtDNA-encoded proteins efficiently induced not only migration but also β-hexosaminidase release, which is an indicator of neutrophilic phagocytosis, in HL-60 cells differentiated into neutrophilic cells. These activities were comparable to or higher than those induced by mitocryptide-2. Although endogenous N-formylated peptides that are contained in mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have yet to be molecularly identified, they have been implicated in innate immunity. Thus, N-formylated cryptides including mitocryptide-2 are first-line candidates for the contents of mitochondrial DAMPs to promote innate immune responses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 580-587, 2016.

  19. Mitochondrial protein-derived cryptides: Are endogenous N-formylated peptides including mitocryptide-2 components of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Takayuki; Hattori, Tatsuya; Tsutsumi, Koki; Koike, Yusuke; Harada, Akihiko; Noguchi, Kosuke; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Mukai, Hidehito

    2016-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to "nonclassical" bioactive peptides, which are fragmented peptides simultaneously produced during maturation and degradation of various functional proteins. We identified many fragmented peptides derived from various mitochondrial proteins including mitocryptide-1 and mitocryptide-2 that efficiently activate neutrophils. These endogenous, functionally active, fragmented peptides are referred to as "cryptides." Among them, mitocryptide-2 is an N-formylated cryptide cleaved from mitochondrial cytochrome b that is encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is known that 13 proteins encoded in mtDNA are translated in mitochondria as N-formylated forms, suggesting the existence of endogenous N-formylated peptides other than mitocryptide-2. Here, we investigated the effects of N-formylated peptides presumably cleaved from mtDNA-encoded proteins other than cytochrome b on the functions of neutrophilic cells to elucidate possible regulation by endogenous N-formylated cryptides. Four N-formylated cryptides derived from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4, 5, and 6 among 12 peptides from mtDNA-encoded proteins efficiently induced not only migration but also β-hexosaminidase release, which is an indicator of neutrophilic phagocytosis, in HL-60 cells differentiated into neutrophilic cells. These activities were comparable to or higher than those induced by mitocryptide-2. Although endogenous N-formylated peptides that are contained in mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have yet to be molecularly identified, they have been implicated in innate immunity. Thus, N-formylated cryptides including mitocryptide-2 are first-line candidates for the contents of mitochondrial DAMPs to promote innate immune responses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 580-587, 2016. PMID:26600263

  20. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF MORBIDITY PATTERN AMONGST U NDER FIVE CHILDREN IN RURAL FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF J.S.S .M.C, MYSORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Preschool morbidity is an important index of the hea lth status of a community. To organize the child health services the importance of reliable information on morbidity is obvious. Aims and objectives: • To study the morbidity pattern and changes occurrin g over time among the under fives of a rural area in Mysore district. • To study health action pattern of episodes of morbidi ty in the community Material and Methods: The selection of the study area was done on the ba sis of the two-stage random sampling technique. The total population of the selected Subcentre Sinduvalli was 4900 and there were 608 children in the 0-5 year age gro up which constituted the study population. A pre-tested schedule was used for collection of inf ormation in the surveyed family. Statistical Analysis: The statistical software (SPSS was used for analys is. Analysis was done by using mean values, standard deviation, T test (unpai red, ANOVA, Chi-square test and proportion test. Results: In the present study, the major causes of morbidity we re respiratory diseases (34% diarrhoeal diseases (23.5%, and ski n diseases (10.2%.The yearly incidence rate (spells was 4446 per 1000 children. The average number of episodes of sickness per child was 3.6. The average duration of sickness being 50. 1 days in the 0 – l yr age group and 28.3 days in the 4-5 year age group respectively.288 children ( 47.4% were found to be malnourished with the majority in the Grade I (49.3% followed b y Grade II (27.8%. Incidence of illness was highest during the quarter July to September with an incidence rate in spells of 155 per 100 children. The most frequently availed health agency was the primary health centre (25.2%, next being the district hospital (24.6% and the lea st being the qualified practitioners of indigenous medicine (5.8%.

  1. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. PMID:24215063

  2. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails.

  3. Glycotope sharing between snail hemolymph and larval schistosomes: larval transformation products alter shared glycan patterns of plasma proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Yoshino

    Full Text Available Recent evidence supports the involvement of inducible, highly diverse lectin-like recognition molecules in snail hemocyte-mediated responses to larval Schistosoma mansoni. Because host lectins likely are involved in initial parasite recognition, we sought to identify specific carbohydrate structures (glycans shared between larval S. mansoni and its host Biomphalaria glabrata to address possible mechanisms of immune avoidance through mimicry of elements associated with the host immunoreactivity. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mABs to specific S. mansoni glycans was used to identify the distribution and abundance of shared glycan epitopes (glycotopes on plasma glycoproteins from B. glabrata strains that differ in their susceptibilities to infection by S. mansoni. In addition, a major aim of this study was to determine if larval transformation products (LTPs could bind to plasma proteins, and thereby alter the glycotopes exposed on plasma proteins in a snail strain-specific fashion. Plasma fractions ( 100 kDa from susceptible (NMRI and resistant (BS-90 snail strains were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses using mAB to LacdiNAc (LDN, fucosylated LDN variants, Lewis X and trimannosyl core glycans. Results confirmed a high degree of glycan sharing, with NMRI plasma exhibiting a greater distribution/abundance of LDN, F-LDN and F-LDN-F than BS-90 plasma ( 100 kDa fraction. Our data suggest that differential binding of S. mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains may significantly impact early anti-larval immune reactivity, and in turn, compatibility, in this parasite-host system.

  4. Evaluation of mosaic pattern areas in HRCT with Min-IP reconstructions in patients with pulmonary hypertension: Could this evaluation replace lung perfusion scintigraphy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate a possible correlation between areas of lung attenuation, found in minimum intensity projection (Min-IP) reconstruction images performed with high resolution computed tomography without contrast medium (HRCT), and areas of lung perfusion alteration, found in lung perfusion scintigraphy (LPS). Materials and methods: Two independent radiologists, unaware of LPS results, evaluated retrospectively a group of 113 patients affected by pulmonary hypertension (HP) of different aetiology. These have been examined in a period of two years in our centre both by spiral computed tomography (CT) with and without contrast-medium and by LPS. The final diagnosis was determined on clinical data, right heart catheterisation and contrast enhanced CT in angiographic phase (CTPA). We reconstructed the Min-IP images of lung parenchyma in all the cases both in HRCT without contrast-medium, and in contrast enhanced CT in angiographic phase (CTPA) in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The obtained images were qualitatively graded into three categories of pulmonary attenuation: homogeneous, inhomogeneous with non-segmental patchy defects, inhomogeneous with segmental defects. The same criteria of classification were used also for LPS images. In the group of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) we also compared the number of areas of lung attenuation found in Min-IP images in HRCT without contrast-medium, and their exact localization, with not perfused areas in LPS. Gold standard for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was spiral contrast enhanced CT in angiographic phase (CTPA). Results: In all cases we found exact correspondence between the Min-IP images in HRCT with and without contras agent. The attenuation pattern seen on Min-IP images was concordant with those of LPS in 96 out of 113 patients (85%). In the remaining 17 cases (15%) it was discordant: in 12 cases inhomogeneous in Min-IP images (7 with non

  5. Differential sensing using proteins: exploiting the cross-reactivity of serum albumin to pattern individual terpenes and terpenes in perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michelle M; Anslyn, Eric V

    2009-12-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of differential sensing for analyte classification. In an effort to mimic the mammalian senses of taste and smell, which utilize protein-based receptors, we have introduced serum albumins as nonselective receptors for recognition of small hydrophobic molecules. Herein, we employ a sensing ensemble consisting of serum albumins, a hydrophobic fluorescent indicator (PRODAN), and a hydrophobic additive (deoxycholate) to detect terpenes. With the aid of linear discriminant analysis, we successfully applied our system to differentiate five terpenes. We then extended our terpene analysis and utilized our sensing ensemble for terpene discrimination within the complex mixtures found in perfume.

  6. Gamma irradiation and sodium azide induced changes in growth, leaf protein patterns and genomic DNA of two strains of maize under drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth potentials of two pure strains (G4 and Rg11) of maize (Zea mays L.) were evaluated under normal irrigation and drought stress. It could be generally concluded that Rg 11 was more fitting under normal irrigation, whereby G4 strain coped better with drought stress. Grain treatment with gamma irradiation (60 Gy) or sodium azide (0.001 M) induced significantly enhanced growth in case of strain G4, under normal irrigation or drought condition, with a higher performance by gamma rays. Treatment with sodium azide gave better results with Rg11 plants. These changes were accompanied with a marked modulation in the protein patterns of leaves of both strains. The most interesting results were the induction of a least six new protein bands in strain G4 under drought stress and three in the Rg11 plants, as compared with those in corresponding control plants subjected to normal irrigation. Meanwhile, similar three proteins (MR: 74, 53, 41 KDa) were repressed in each strain in response to drought

  7. P-glycoprotein and CYP1A protein expression patterns in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tissues after waterborne exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Wilson, Jonathan M; Ferreira, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The protein levels and tissue distribution patterns of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) were investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after waterborne exposure to different benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations, using immunochemical approaches. The Pgp mammalian monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 cross reacted with a ∼170kDa protein, almost exclusively localized to the bile canaliculi, while probing with the Pgp mammalian mAb C494, resulted in a positive reaction in liver, gills and intestine of Nile tilapia and covered a wider set of cell types. Levels of Pgp expression were not altered after in vivo exposure to BaP. CYP1A, detected with the mAb C10-7, reacted positively in liver, gills and intestine and followed a BaP dose-dependent fold induction. Taken together, these results indicate that CYP1A is involved in BaP metabolism in liver, gills and intestine, however, further studies are needed to elucidate the possible interaction of the efflux protein Pgp with BaP and/or its metabolites.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of single-repeat R3 MYB proteins in epidermal cell patterning and their transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein John

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors are critical components of the lateral inhibition machinery that mediates epidermal cell patterning in plants. Sequence analysis of the Arabidopsis genome using the BLAST program reveals that there are a total of six genes, including TRIPTYCHON (TRY, CAPRICE (CPC, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, and ENHANCER of TRY and CPC 1, 2, and 3 (ETC1, ETC2 and ETC3 encoding single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors that are approximately 50% identical to one another at the amino acid level. Previous studies indicate that these single-repeat R3 MYBs regulate epidermal cell patterning. However, each of the previous studies of these single-repeat R3 MYBs has been limited to an analysis of only a subset of these six genes, and furthermore, they have limited their attention to epidermal development in only one or two of the organs. In addition, the transcriptional regulation of these single-repeat R3 MYB genes remains largely unknown. Results By analyzing multiple mutant lines, we report here that TCL1 functions redundantly with other single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors to control both leaf trichome and root hair formation. On the other hand, ETC1 and ETC3 participate in controlling trichome formation on inflorescence stems and pedicles. Further, we discovered that single-repeat R3 MYBs suppress trichome formation on cotyledons and siliques, organs that normally do not bear any trichomes. By using Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays, we found that all single-repeat R3 MYBs examined interact with GL3, and that GL1 or WER and GL3 or EGL3 are required and sufficient to activate the transcription of TRY, CPC, ETC1 and ETC3, but not TCL1 and ETC2. Furthermore, only ETC1's transcription was greatly reduced in the gl3 egl3 double mutants. Conclusion Our comprehensive analysis enables us to draw broader conclusions about the role of single-repeat R3 MYB gene family than were possible in the earlier

  9. Expression patterns of prion protein gene in differential genotypes sheep: quantification using molecular beacon real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wu, Run; Li, Fa-Di; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Chun-Lin; Diao, Xiao-Long; Guan, Hong-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Determination of the transcription level of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is essential for understanding its role in organisms and revealing mechanism of susceptibility and resistance to scrapie. However, the expression of prion protein (PrP) mRNA in sheep has not been quantified in great detail in digestive tract which is important during scrapie spread through oral route. Herein, we report on measurement of sheep PrP mRNA using absolute quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Total RNA was isolated from five different regions of the central nervous system (CNS), four regions of lymphoid system, eleven regions of digestive tract, and two reproductive organ tissues of eight sheep of two different genotypes (ARR/ARQ and ARH/ARQ) and PrP mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using molecular beacon. The results showed that highest levels of PrP mRNA were expressed in thalamus and cerebrum (P mRNA expression in sheep for further studies of pathogenesis of prion diseases.

  10. Different temporal patterns in the expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins and noggin during astroglial scar formation after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin A; Kang, Jihee Lee; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Eun-Mi

    2012-05-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists have roles in scar formation and regeneration after central nervous system injuries. However, temporal changes in their expression during astroglial scar formation in the ischemic brain are unknown. Here, we examined protein levels of BMP2, BMP7, and their antagonist noggin in the ischemic brain up to 4 weeks after experimental stroke in mice. BMP2 and BMP7 levels were increased from 1 to 4 weeks in the ischemic brain, and their expression was associated with astrogliosis. BMP7 expression was more intense and co-localized in reactive astrocytes in the ischemic subcortex at 1 week. Noggin expression began to increase after 2 weeks and was further increased at 4 weeks only in the ischemic subcortex, but the intensity was weak compared to the intensity of BMPs. Noggin was co-localized mainly in activated microglia. These findings show that expression of BMPs and noggin differed over time, in intensity and in types of cell, and suggest that BMPs and noggin have different roles in the processes of glial scar formation and neurorestoration in the ischemic brain.

  11. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Dong, Shikui; Peng, Mingchun; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world. The basin has been strongly affected by human activities, particularly by dam construction. This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China, where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed. To identify the vegetation composition and structure, we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010. We found that the forest, shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside. In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity. In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River, the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley. At high altitude, the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found. As a result of dam construction and operation, the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed. Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats. The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  12. Vegetation distribution pattern in the dam areas along middle-low reach of Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng LI; Shikui DONG; Mingchun PENG; Xiaoyan LI; Shiliang LIU

    2012-01-01

    Lancang-Mekong River Basin is one of ecoregions with rich biodiversity and high ecological values in the world.The basin has been strongly affected by human activities,particularly by dam construction.This study was conducted to investigate the vegetation distribution patterns in the dam areas along middle-low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River in Yunnan Province of China,where eight cascade dams have been planned or are being constructed.To identify the vegetation composition and structure,we sampled 126 quadrats along the transects arrayed vertically to both side of river channel from the year of 2004 to 2010.We found that the forest,shrub and grass communities were widely spread along the riverside.In low reach watershed of the Lancang-Mekong River,the dominated vegetations were grasses and shrubs which were severely disturbed by human activity.In middle reach of the Lancang-Mekong River,the dry-hot valley vegetation was found in the low valley.At high altitude,the pine forest and semi-evergreen seasonal forest were found.As a result of dam construction and operation,the structure and compositions of riparian vegetation were strongly changed.Some plants declined or disappeared due to the alteration of their habitats.The protection or restoration interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of vegetation damage associated with dam projects along middle and low reach of the Lancang-Mekong River.

  13. Similarity of fingertip skin blood flow patterns recorded by the model-based thermal clearance and large area laser Doppler probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raamat, R; Kudimov, B; Jagomägi, K

    2001-11-01

    We compared two different techniques for non-invasive registration of fingertip skin blood flow patterns in 15 healthy volunteers during a rest at room temperature 26-28 degrees C. The large area probes of a two-channel laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) and an experimental probe of a thermal clearance (TC) instrument provided approximately the same sample volume of the studied tissue. The laser Doppler probes were attached to the pulp of the index (LDF1) and ring (LDF2) fingers, while the TC probe to the pulp of the middle finger. A computer simulation method, provided by the MATLAB package, was introduced to speed up the frequency response of the TC probe. By calculating the correlation coefficients and applying the least squares criterion, we evaluated the similarity of the 3-min samples having time resolution of 1 s. The group-averaged value of the correlation coefficient (median with a 99% confidence interval) for LDF2 versus LDF1 equalled 0.95 (0.92-0.97). After an introduction of the computer-based frequency correction, the correlation coefficient for TC versus LDF1 increased from 0.81 (0.61-0.85) till 0.92 (0.84-0.95), while the root mean squared error between TC and LDF1 diminished by 33% (p<0.001). PMID:11755811

  14. 基于氨基酸模式的牛奶蛋白掺假分析%Adulteration analysis of milk protein based on amino acid pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖玉婷; 董芷呈; 陈挺强; 王培坚; 李明芬; 柳春红

    2013-01-01

    以市售合格牛奶及奶粉为材料,采用面粉及淀粉对其进行模拟掺假,通过柱前衍生化-高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对样品中的色氨酸(Trp)、苏氨酸(Thr)、缬氨酸(Val)、赖氨酸(Lys)进行检测,建立判别牛奶蛋白掺假的氨基酸简洁模式.结果表明,建立的牛奶氨基酸模式为:色氨酸∶苏氨酸∶缬氨酸∶赖氨酸=1.0∶2.7∶3.5∶5.4,与世界卫生组织(WHO)提出的牛乳标准氨基酸模式吻合;奶粉氨基酸模式为:色氨酸∶苏氨酸∶缬氨酸∶赖氨酸=1.0∶3.0∶4.5∶5.4;掺假牛奶、奶粉的氨基酸模式与上述氨基酸模式相比有明显差异.利用柱前衍生化-高效液相色谱法建立牛奶及奶粉的氨基酸简洁模式可有效判别出牛奶及奶粉的蛋白掺假,能满足常规检测及乳品的安全控制需要.%To establish a method for identifying of milk protein adulteration based on amino acid pattern. With on sale qualified milk and milk powder as material,flour and starch were used to simulate adulteration. Tryptophan (Trp),threonine(Thr),valine(Val) and lysine(Lys) of the samples were determined by pre-column derivation-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to establish amino acid concise patterns for identifying milk protein adulteration. The result indicated that the amino acid pattern of qualified milk was Trp:Thr:Val:Lys = 1.0:2.7:3.5:5.4,which was highly anastomosed with the standard one proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). And the amino acid pattern of qualified milk powder was Trp:Thr:Val:Lys = 1.0:3.0:4.5:5.4. The amino acid patterns of adulterate milk and milk powder were significantly different from these of qualified ones. In conclusion, it was feasible to apply amino acid concise patterns of milk and milk powder to analyze milk protein adulteration,and this method could meet the requirements of routine determination and food safety control of dairy.

  15. Developmental and adult expression patterns of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR88 in the rat: Establishment of a dual nuclear-cytoplasmic localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Renaud; Mignon, Virginie; Stanic, Jennifer; Munoz-Tello, Paola; Becker, Jerôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Darmon, Michèle; Sokoloff, Pierre; Diaz, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    GPR88 is a neuronal cerebral orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. However, no extensive description of its localization has been provided so far. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal expression of the GPR88 in prenatal and postnatal rat tissues by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. GPR88 protein was initially detected at embryonic day 16 (E16) in the striatal primordium. From E16-E20 to adulthood, the highest expression levels of both protein and mRNA were observed in striatum, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and neocortex, whereas in spinal cord, pons, and medulla GPR88 expression remains discrete. We observed an intracellular redistribution of GPR88 during cortical lamination. In the cortical plate of the developing cortex, GPR88 presents a classical GPCR plasma membrane/cytoplasmic localization that shifts, on the day of birth, to nuclei of neurons progressively settling in layers V to II. This intranuclear localization remains throughout adulthood and was also detected in monkey and human cortex as well as in the amygdala and hypothalamus of rats. Apart from the central nervous system, GPR88 was transiently expressed at high levels in peripheral tissues, including adrenal cortex (E16-E21) and cochlear ganglia (E19-P3), and also at moderate levels in retina (E18-E19) and spleen (E21-P7). The description of the GPR88 anatomical expression pattern may provide precious functional insights into this novel receptor. Furthermore, the GRP88 nuclear localization suggests nonclassical GPCR modes of action of the protein that could be relevant for cortical development and psychiatric disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2776-2802, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918661

  16. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is not a single entity but a diverse group of entities. Advances in gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry as its surrogate marker have led to the unmasking of new breast cancer molecular subtypes, resulting in the emergence of more elaborate classification systems that are therapeutically and prognostically more predictive. Molecular class distribution across various ethnic groups may also reveal variations that can lead to different clinical outcomes in different populations. We aimed to analyze the spectrum of molecular subtypes present in the Saudi population. ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6 were used as surrogate markers for gene expression profiling to classify 231 breast cancer specimens. Correlation of each molecular class with Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 mutation status, histologic type and grade of the tumor was also carried out. Out of 231 cases 9 (3.9%) were classified as luminal A (strong ER +ve, PR +ve or -ve), 37 (16%) as luminal B (weak to moderate ER +ve, and/or PR +ve), 40 (17.3%) as HER2+ (strong or moderately positive HER 2 with confirmation by silver enhanced in-situ hybridization) and 23 (10%) as basal (CK5/6 or EGFR +ve). Co-positivity of different markers in varied patterns was seen in 23 (10%) of cases which were grouped into a hybrid category comprising luminal B-HER2, HER2-basal and luminal-basal hybrids. Ninety nine (42.8%) of the tumors were negative for all five immunohistochemical markers and were labelled as unclassified (penta negative). A high Ki-67 proliferation index was seen in basal (p = 0.007) followed by HER2+ class. Overexpression of p53 was predominantly seen in HER2 + (p = 0.001) followed by the basal group of tumors. A strong correlation was noted between invasive lobular carcinoma and hormone receptor expression with 8 out of 9 lobular carcinoma cases (88.9%) classifiable as luminal cancers. Otherwise, there was no association between the molecular class and the histologic type or grade of the

  17. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ammar K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is not a single entity but a diverse group of entities. Advances in gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry as its surrogate marker have led to the unmasking of new breast cancer molecular subtypes, resulting in the emergence of more elaborate classification systems that are therapeutically and prognostically more predictive. Molecular class distribution across various ethnic groups may also reveal variations that can lead to different clinical outcomes in different populations. Methods We aimed to analyze the spectrum of molecular subtypes present in the Saudi population. ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6 were used as surrogate markers for gene expression profiling to classify 231 breast cancer specimens. Correlation of each molecular class with Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 mutation status, histologic type and grade of the tumor was also carried out. Results Out of 231 cases 9 (3.9% were classified as luminal A (strong ER +ve, PR +ve or -ve, 37 (16% as luminal B (weak to moderate ER +ve, and/or PR +ve, 40 (17.3% as HER2+ (strong or moderately positive HER 2 with confirmation by silver enhanced in-situ hybridization and 23 (10% as basal (CK5/6 or EGFR +ve. Co-positivity of different markers in varied patterns was seen in 23 (10% of cases which were grouped into a hybrid category comprising luminal B-HER2, HER2-basal and luminal-basal hybrids. Ninety nine (42.8% of the tumors were negative for all five immunohistochemical markers and were labelled as unclassified (penta negative. A high Ki-67 proliferation index was seen in basal (p = 0.007 followed by HER2+ class. Overexpression of p53 was predominantly seen in HER2 + (p = 0.001 followed by the basal group of tumors. A strong correlation was noted between invasive lobular carcinoma and hormone receptor expression with 8 out of 9 lobular carcinoma cases (88.9% classifiable as luminal cancers. Otherwise, there was no association between the molecular class

  18. Inappropriate Dietary and Occupational Patterns: Major Risk Factors Associated With Brucellosis in the Area Covered by Karaj Health Center No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among humans and livestock. Using contaminated and unpasteurized dairy products, having contact with infected livestock and, in general, inappropriate dietary patterns, as well as lack of hygiene, can be noted as the most common modes of transmission for such a disease. Objectives Since the establishment of Alborz province in Iran and, accordingly, Alborz university of medical sciences, Karaj, Iran, there has been no study on the epidemiological situation of the disease. Therefore, the present study examines the epidemiology of Brucellosis at Karaj Health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran, during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study, on patients with Brucellosis, during 2011 - 2012, in the area covered by Karaj health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran. The data about all suspected cases, collected from polyclinic, laboratories and health centers, and confirmed by Wright, combs Wright and 2ME tests were reviewed. After recording the demographic data and laboratory results, they were entered into STATA 11 software and analyzed. Results The number of patients reported in this study was 67. The incidence of the disease during 2011 - 2012 was, respectively, 3.75 and 4.6 per hundred thousand and the average incidence of the disease was 4.2 per hundred thousand. The highest rate of infection, in terms of occupation, was found among ranchers (40.29%. In 100% of the cases, there was a history of consumption of cottage cheese, fresh cow milk or other unpasteuri